Day 1 Introduction to World War I

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					 World War I
Hi World Studies! Hope you had a great
spring break!
Please start writing a response to the
Warm-Up Question Below!



          Warm-Up: Please answer
          the following question-
            Why is World War I
           known as the “Great
                   War”?
I. Long Term Causes
of the War
A.   Modernization
     in Europe
B.   Imperialism
C.   Militarism
D.   Nationalism
E.   Complex
     Systems of
     Alliances
II.        The Belligerents
A.   Triple Alliance      B.   Triple Entente
        Germany                   France
        Austria-Hungary           Russia
        Italy                     Great Britain
III. The immediate causes
of World War I
   Contributing Causes of World War I:
    Contributing Causes of World War I:
   ••Assassination of Austro-Hungary Archduke Franz Ferdinand
      Assassination of Austro-Hungary Archduke Franz Ferdinand
   ••National desires for empire, wealth and territory
      National desires for empire, wealth and territory
   ••Treaties that if one country went to war, more would follow
      Treaties that if one country went to war, more would follow
   ••Social turmoil brought about by the Industrial Revolution
      Social turmoil brought about by the Industrial Revolution
   ••Miscalculation by rulers and generals in power
      Miscalculation by rulers and generals in power




“The Great War was without precedent…never had so many nations
  “The Great War was without precedent…never had so many nations
taken up arms at a single time. Never had the battlefield been so
  taken up arms at a single time. Never had the battlefield been so
vast…never had the fighting been so gruesome.”
  vast…never had the fighting been so gruesome.”
    Jay Winter and Blaine Baggett
     Jay Winter and Blaine Baggett
                                           Century
  The Great War and the Shaping of the 20 th    th
   The Great War and the Shaping of the 20 Century
IV. World War in 5 Days
 July 28, 1914 – Austria-Hungary declares war on
 Serbia, confident with German backing.
 July 29 - Russian government orders mobilization of
 forces.
 August 1 – France honors treaty with Russia and
 begins to mobilize forces and minutes later
 Germany does as well.
 August 3 – German troops enter Belgium expecting
 France to surrender before the British get involved.
 August 4 – Britain demands German withdrawal
 from Belgium, Germany refuses and Britain declares
 war on Germany.
V.      The Western Front
A. Intention
     Germany tried to take
     France quickly in the
     Western Front and then
     turn to fight Russia
B. Reality
     battle lines formed in
     northeastern France
     Little change (Stalemate)
C. Battles on the Western Front       The Schlieffen Plan

     Verdun -680,000
                                   Battle of Verdun, 1916
                                  Battle of the Somme, 1916
     causalities
     Somme – Over one million
     casualties
          The Western Front




Key Military Technologies:
Machine Guns – Good for defense, useless for offensive moves
Trenches – Dug for defense and also communication trenches
Poison Gas – Used by both sides
Tanks – Introduced in Battle of the Somme by British
VI.       The Eastern Front
 A.   Russian lack of
      modern
      technology
       caused Russia
       enormous defeats
 B.   Treaty signed with
      revolutionary
      government in
      Russia
       lost one-fourth of
       country
VII.            The Balkan Front
A. Ottoman Empire joins
   Central Powers
       Old rival of Russia
       The allies abandoned
       attempts to land in
       Balkans after losing
B. Allied Victories
       Limited
       Only real victories in the
       Middle East
VIII. The Italian Front
 A. Italians
   joined Triple
   Entente in
   1915
 B. Fought
   Austria-
   Hungary
 IX. New Weapons Used
 in the War

                                               “Deadly Pigeon”
                                        German plane used to bomb Paris




                                        “World War IImarked the first use of chemical
                                         “World War marked the first use of chemical
                                        weapons, the first mass bombardment of civilians
                                         weapons, the first mass bombardment of civilians
                                        from the sky and the century’s first genocide.”
                                         from the sky and the century’s first genocide.”
        Picture posed in France            Jay Winter and Blaine Baggett
                                            Jay Winter and Blaine Baggett
to illustrate effects of phosgene gas      The Great War and the Shaping of the 20ththCentury
                                            The Great War and the Shaping of the 20 Century



                                Turkish ethnic cleansing practices
                                 killed over a million Armenians
X. Results of Modern War
A.   Massive Human Casualty
        Tactics of sending masses of men toward enemy didn’t
        work against modern weapons
        Britain suffered 57,470 casualties on the first day of the
        Battle of the Somme
B.   Trench Warfare
        475 miles of trenches were dug across northern France
        British troops used over 10 million shovels during the war
        Life in the trenches
        Charging over the top crossing no man’s land to reach
        enemy trenches
        Boring terrifying and caused shell shock
        Horrible living conditions
XI. Effects of the
war on the Home Front
A. Mobilizing for the total
   war
B. Home front sacrifices
C. Governments

   controlled industries,
   supplies through
   rations
D. Lives of Women
   Impacted
     XII.        The War Ends

A.   Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire were first
     Central Powers to be defeated
B.   Revolts inside Austria-Hungary and Germany
     helped end the war quickly
       German republic proclaimed and new
       German leaders signed the Armistice
       ending the Great War on November 11, at
       11 A.M.
C.   The Return Home
XIII. The Paris Peace
Conference
A. Peace of Justice
  Leaders of allied
  and central powers
  met at the Palace
  of Versailles
  President Wilson’s 14
  points supported
  self-determination
  for all nations and a
  just peace
XIII. The Paris
Peace Conference
B. Peace of Vengeance
 Italy and Britain wanted territory
 France wanted to punish
 German
 Italy and the US left leaving
 peace settlement to France
 and Britain
XIV. Treaty of
Versailles
A. Provisions
  France and Britain created a severe treaty that
  punished Germany
  Germany had to
     -Return Alsace-Lorrain region to France
     -Keep area near France, called the Rhineland,
     demilitarized
     - Pay war reparations of 32 billion dollars
     -Agree to war guilt clause
   XIV.Treaty of Versailles
B. A New Europe
  Treaties similar to
  Germany’s signed w/
  other Central Powers
  Many countries
  experienced a
  change in their
  borders
  Bulgaria, Austria-
  Hungry, Germany &
  Russia lost territory
  Many new countries
  were created