# Advantage Capital Asset Pricing Model Capm - DOC

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```					                                  CHAPTER 3
RISK AND RETURN: PART II

OVERVIEW

In Chapter 2 we presented the key elements of            continue the discussion of risk and return by
risk and return analysis. There we saw that              adding a risk-free asset to the set of
much of the risk inherent in a stock can be              investment opportunities. This leads all
eliminated by diversification, so rational               investors to hold the same well-diversified
investors should hold portfolios of stocks               portfolio of risky assets, and then to account
rather than just one stock. We also introduced           for differing degrees of risk aversion by
the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM),                  combining the risky portfolio in different
which links risk and required rates of return,           proportions with the risk-free asset.
using a stock’s beta coefficient as the relevant         Additionally, we show how betas are
measure of risk.                                         actually calculated, and we discuss two
In this chapter, we extend the Chapter 2           alternative views of the risk/return
material by presenting an in-depth treatment             relationship, the Arbitrage Pricing Theory
of portfolio concepts and the CAPM. We                   (APT) and the Fama-French 3-Factor Model.

OUTLINE

The riskiness of a portfolio, because it is assumed to be a single asset held in isolation, is
measured by the standard deviation of its return distribution. This equation is exactly the
same as the one for the standard deviation of a single asset, except that here the asset is a
portfolio of assets (for example, a mutual fund).

 k            
n
Portfolio standard deviation   p                     ˆ 2
 k p Pi .
pi
i 1
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3-2

Two key concepts in portfolio analysis are covariance and the correlation coefficient.

      Covariance is a measure of the general movement relationship between two variables. It
combines the variance or volatility of a stock’s returns with the tendency of those returns
to move up or down at the same time other stocks move up or down. The following
equation defines the covariance (Cov) between Stocks A and B:

n
Covariance = Cov (AB) =  (k Ai - k A ) (k Bi - k B )Pi .
ˆ             ˆ
i =1

   If the returns move together, the terms in parentheses will both be positive or both be
negative, hence the product of the two terms will be positive, while if the returns
move counter to one another, the products will tend to be negative.
   Cov(AB) will be large and positive if two assets have large standard deviations and
tend to move together; it will be large and negative for two high  assets which move
counter to one another; and it will be small if the two assets’ returns move randomly,
rather than up or down with one another, or if either of the assets has a small
standard deviation.

      The correlation coefficient also measures the degree of comovement between two
variables, but its values are limited to the range from -1.0 (perfect negative correlation) to
+1.0 (perfect positive correlation). The relationship between covariance and the
correlation coefficient can be expressed as
Cov(AB)
Correlation coefficient(AB) = r AB =                 .
A  B
   The correlation coefficient standardizes the covariance.
   The sign of the correlation coefficient is the same as the sign of the covariance, so a
positive sign means that the variables move together, a negative sign indicates that
they move in opposite directions, and if r is close to zero, they move independently
of one another.

      Under the assumption that the distributions of returns on the individual securities are
normal, the following equation can be used to determine the riskiness of a two-asset
portfolio:

Portfolio SD = p =     w 2 2  (1  w A ) 2 2  2w A (1  w A )rABA B .
A A                  B

   Here wA is the fraction of the portfolio invested in Security A, so (1 – wA) is the
fraction invested in Security B.
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3–3

One important use of portfolio risk concepts is to select efficient portfolios. An efficient
portfolio provides the highest expected return for any degree of risk, or the lowest degree
of risk for any expected return.

      While the riskiness of a multi-asset portfolio usually decreases as the number of stocks
increase, the portfolio’s risk depends on the degree of correlation among the stocks.

      In general, the average correlation between two stocks is +0.5 to +0.7, and hence holding
stocks in portfolios will reduce, but not eliminate, risk.

      The attainable, or feasible, set of portfolios represents all portfolios that can be
constructed from a given set of stocks.

The optimal portfolio is found by determining the efficient set of portfolios and then
choosing from the efficient set the single portfolio that is best for the individual investor.

      The efficient set of portfolios is also called the efficient frontier.
   Portfolios to the left of the efficient set are not possible because they lie outside the
attainable set.
   Portfolios to the right of the boundary line (interior portfolios) are inefficient because
some other portfolio would provide either a higher return with the same degree of
risk or lower risk for the same rate of return.

      An indifference curve (or risk/return trade-off function) reflects an individual investor’s
attitude towards risk. The optimal portfolio for each investor is found at the tangency
point between the efficient set of portfolios and one of the investor’s indifference curves.
This tangency point marks the highest level of satisfaction the investor can attain.

The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) specifies the relationship between risk and
required rates of return on assets when they are held in well-diversified portfolios.

      As in all financial theories, a number of assumptions were made in the development of
the CAPM. These assumptions are:
   All investors focus on a single holding period, and seek to maximize the expected
utility of their terminal wealth.
   All investors can borrow or lend an unlimited amount at a given risk-free rate of
interest.
   Investors have homogeneous expectations.
   All assets are perfectly divisible and perfectly liquid.
   There are no transactions costs.
   There are no taxes.
   All investors are price takers.
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3-4

   The quantities of all assets are given and fixed.

     Theoretical extensions in finance literature have relaxed some of the assumptions, and in
general these extensions have led to conclusions that are reasonably consistent with the
basic theory. However, even the extensions contain assumptions that are both strong and
unrealistic, so the validity of the model can only be established through empirical tests.

The Capital Market Line (CML) specifies a linear relationship between expected return
and risk for efficient portfolios.

     The equation of the CML may be expressed as follows:
 kM  kRF 
ˆ
kp = kRF + 
ˆ                      p .
 M 
            ˆ
Here k p is the expected (and in equilibrium, required) rate of return on an efficient
ˆ
portfolio, kRF is the rate of interest on risk-free securities, k is the return on the market
M

portfolio, M is the standard deviation of the market portfolio, and p is the standard
deviation of the efficient portfolio in question.

     In words, the expected rate of return on any efficient portfolio (that is, any portfolio on
the CML) is equal to the riskless rate plus a risk premium, and the risk premium is equal
to ( k M - k RF ) / M multiplied by the portfolio’s standard deviation, p.
ˆ

     The slope of the CML reflects the aggregate attitude of investors toward risk.

     An efficient portfolio is one that is well diversified, hence all of its unsystematic risk has
been eliminated and its only remaining risk is market risk. Therefore, unlike individual
stocks, the riskiness of an efficient portfolio is measured by its standard deviation, p.

The relevant measure of risk for use in the Security Market Line (SML) equation is the
stock’s beta coefficient, which measures the volatility of a stock relative to that of a
portfolio containing all stocks.
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3–5

   Beta is estimated by plotting historical returns on a particular stock versus returns on a
market index. The slope of the regression line, or characteristic line, is the stock’s beta
coefficient. The statistical equation for beta is:

Cov k j , k M          r jM  j  M            j   
bj                                            r jM 

,

   2
M                    2
M                M    
where,
bj    = the slope, or beta coefficient, for Stock j.
kj    = the historical (realized) rate of return on Stock j.
kM    = the historical (realized) rate of return on the market.
rjM   = the correlation between Stock j and the market.
j    = the standard deviation of Stock j.
M    = the standard deviation of the market.
   A stock’s beta, hence its market risk, depends on its correlation with the stock market
as a whole, rj M, and its own variability, j, relative to the variability of the market, M.
   We assume that the historical relationship between Stock j and the market as a
whole, as given by its characteristic line, will continue into the future.
   Besides general market movements, each firm also faces events that are unique to it
and independent of the general economic climate. This component of total risk is the
stock’s diversifiable, or company-specific, risk, and rational investors will eliminate
its effects by holding diversified portfolios of stocks.
   An individual stock tends to move with the market as economic conditions change.
This component of total risk is the stock’s market, or non-diversifiable, risk. Even
well-diversified portfolios contain some market risk.
   Total risk (variance) equals market risk plus diversifiable risk.
Total = Market + Diversifiable
risk     risk        risk

 j = b j M +             e j .
2     2 2                     2

   If all the points plotted on the characteristic line, then all of the stock’s total risk would
be market risk. On the other hand, if the points are widely scattered about the
regression line, much of the stock’s total risk would be diversifiable.
   If the stock market never fluctuated, then stocks would have no market risk.
   Beta is the measure of relative market risk, but the stock’s actual risk depends on
both its beta (market risk), and on the volatility of the market.
   The diversifiable risk can and should be eliminated by diversification, so the relevant
risk is market risk, not total risk.
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3-6

    A stock’s risk premium, (k M  k RF) b j , depends only on its market risk, not its total
risk.

Since the CAPM depends on some unrealistic assumptions, it must be tested empirically to
determine if it gives accurate estimates of k i.

     Betas are generally calculated for some past period, and the assumption is made that the
relative volatility of a stock will remain constant in the future. However, conditions may
change and alter a stock’s future volatility, which is the item of real concern to investors.

     The CAPM should use expected (future) data, yet only historical data are generally
available.

     Studies indicate that the CAPM is a better concept for structuring investment portfolios
than it is for purposes of estimating the cost of capital for individual securities.

     Studies of the CAPM based on the slope of the SML have generally showed a significant
positive relationship between realized returns and systematic risk and that the relationship
between risk and return appears to be linear.

     According to the CAPM, high-beta stocks should provide higher returns than low-beta
stocks. However, the Fama-French study revealed no relationship between historical
betas and historical returns—low-beta stocks provided about the same returns as high-
beta stocks.

The CAPM is extremely appealing at an intellectual level.

     The CAPM framework is clearly a useful way to think about the riskiness of assets.
Thus, as a conceptual model, the CAPM is of truly fundamental importance.

     Estimates of ki found through the use of the CAPM are subject to potentially large errors,
because we do not know precisely how to measure any of the inputs required to
implement the CAPM.

     Because the CAPM is logical in the sense that it represents the way risk-averse people
ought to behave, the model is a useful conceptual tool.

     It is appropriate to think about many financial problems in a CAPM framework.
However, it is equally important to recognize the limitations of the CAPM when using it
in practice.
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3–7

The CAPM assumes that required rates of return depend on only one risk factor, the
stock’s beta coefficient, but required returns may be a function of several risk factors. An
approach called the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) can include any number of risk
factors.
ˆ         ˆ                 ˆ            
k i  k i  F1  F1 b i1    Fj  Fj b ij  e i ,
where,

k i = the realized rate of return on Stock i.
ˆ
k i = the expected rate of return on Stock i.
Fj = the realized value of economic Factor j.
ˆ
F j = the expected value of Factor j.
b ij = the sensitivity of Stock i to economic Factor j.
e i = the effect of unique events on the realized return of Stock i.

        This equation shows that the realized return on any stock is equal to the stock’s expected
return, increases or decreases which depend on unexpected changes in fundamental
economic factors times the sensitivity of the stock to these changes, and a random term
which reflects changes unique to the firm or industry.

        Theoretically, one could construct a portfolio such that (1) the portfolio was riskless and
(2) the net investment in it was zero. Such a zero investment portfolio must have a zero
expected return, or else arbitrage operations would occur that would cause the prices of
the underlying assets to change until the portfolio’s expected return was zero.

        The end result is APT:

k i  k RF  k 1  k RF  b i1    k j  k RF  b ij ,

where kj is the required rate of return on a portfolio that is sensitive only to the jth
economic factor (bj = 1.0) and has zero sensitivity to all other factors.
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3-8

       The primary theoretical advantage of the APT is that it permits several economic factors
to influence individual stock returns, whereas the CAPM assumes that the impact of all
factors, except those unique to the firm, can be captured in a single measure, the volatility
of the stock with respect to the market portfolio.
    The APT also requires fewer assumptions than the CAPM and hence is a more
general theory.
    The APT does not assume that all investors hold the market portfolio, a CAPM
requirement that clearly is not met in practice.

       However, the APT does not identify the relevant factors, nor does it even tell us how
many factors should appear in the model. The APT is in an early stage of development,
and there are still many unanswered questions.

The Fama-French 3-Factor Model is a multi-factor model, like the APT, except it specifies
three specific factors: (1) a market factor, like CAPM; (2) a size factor, based on the
difference in returns between a portfolio with Small sized firms and a portfolio with Big
sized firms (SMB); and (3) a factor based on the difference in returns between a portfolio
with High ratios of Book value/Market value of equity (B/M ratios) and a portfolio with
Low B/M ratios. The model is shown below:

_      _                 _      _           _               _        
 k i  k RF   a i  b i  k M  k RF   c i  k SMB     d i  k HML     ei ,
                                                                     
                                                                     
where
_
ki            = historical (realized) rate of return on Stock i.
_
k RF          = historical (realized) rate of return on the risk free rate.
_
kM            = historical (realized) rate of return on the market.
_
k SMB         = historical (realized) rate of return on the small size portfolio
minus the big size portfolio.
_
k HML        = historical (realized) rate of return on the high B/M portfolio minus
the low B/M portfolio.
ai            = vertical axis intercept term for Stock i.
bi, ci and di = slope coefficients for Stock i.
ei            = random error, reflecting the difference between the actual return
on Stock i in a given period and the return as predicted by the
regression line.
       Using the Fama-French 3-factor model, the expected return is:
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3–9

       _                                    
k i  k RF  a i  b i  k M  k RF

  c i  k SMB
       
  d i  k HML  ,
              
                                            
where kSMB and kHML are the expected returns on the Small Minus Big and High Minus
Low portfolios.

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS

Definitional

1.    __________ is a measure of the general movement relationship between two variables,
while the __________ __________ also measures the degree of comovement between
two stocks but its values are limited from -1.0 to +1.0.

2.    A(n) ____________ ____________ is that portfolio which provides the highest expected
return for any given degree of risk, or the lowest degree of risk for any expected return.

3.    The ___________, or ____________, set of portfolios represents all portfolios that can be
constructed from a given set of stocks.

4.    The ___________ ___________ is found by determining the efficient set of portfolios
and then choosing from the efficient set the single portfolio that is best for the individual
investor.

5.    The efficient set of portfolios is also called the ________ __________.

6.    A(n) ______________ ____________ (or risk/return trade-off function) reflects an
individual investor’s attitude towards risk.

7.    The __________ ________ __________ ________ specifies the relationship between
risk and required rates of return on assets when they are held in well-diversified
portfolios.

8.    The _________ _______ _____ specifies a linear relationship between expected return
and risk for efficient portfolios.

9.     The relevant measure of risk for use in the Security Market Line (SML) equation is the
stock’s ______ ______________, which measures the volatility of a stock relative to that
of a portfolio containing all stocks.
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3 - 10

10.   Beta is estimated by plotting historical returns on a particular stock versus returns on a
market index. The slope of the regression line, or _________________ _______, is the
stock’s beta coefficient.

11.   Besides general market movements, each firm also faces events that are unique to it and
independent of the general economic climate. This component of total risk is the stock’s
________________, or __________-___________, risk, and rational investors will
eliminate its effects by holding diversified portfolios of stocks.

12.   The relevant risk is _________ risk, not total risk.

13.   Studies indicate that the CAPM is a better concept for structuring _____________
_____________ than it is for purposes of estimating the cost of capital for individual
_____________.

14.   The __________ __________ __________ uses several risk factors for determining the
required return on a stock.

15.   The most commonly used continuous distribution is the _________ _______________,
which is symmetric about the expected value and its tails extend out to plus and minus
infinity.

16.   The _____________ _____________ standardizes the covariance.

17.   The sign of the correlation coefficient is the ______ as the sign of the covariance. A(n)
__________ sign means that the variables move together, a(n) __________ sign indicates
that they move in opposite directions, and if r is close to zero, they move
_______________ of one another.

18.   Portfolios to the ______ of the efficient set are not possible because they lie outside the
attainable set, while portfolios to the _______ of the boundary line are inefficient because
some other portfolio would provide either a higher return with the same degree of risk or
lower risk for the same rate of return.

19.   The _______ of the CML reflects the aggregate attitude of investors toward risk.

20.   An individual stock tends to move with the market as economic conditions change. This
component of total risk is the stock’s ________, or _____-_______________ risk.

21.   _______ risk equals market risk plus diversifiable risk.
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3 – 11

22.   A stock’s risk premium depends only on its ________ risk, not its total risk.

Conceptual

23.   The standard deviation of a portfolio is not the weighted average of the standard
deviations of the individual stocks in the portfolio.

a. True             b. False

24.   If the correlation coefficient between two stocks is +1.0, risk can be completely
diversified away.

a. True             b. False

25.   Total risk is relevant only for assets held in isolation.

a. True             b. False

26.   The Arbitrage Pricing Theory identifies the relevant factors for determining the required
return beforehand.

a. True             b. False

27.   Which of the following statements is most correct?

a. It is difficult to interpret the magnitude of the correlation coefficient, so a related
statistic, the covariance, is often used to measure the degree of comovement between
two variables.
b. The sign of the correlation coefficient is the same as the sign of the covariance, so a
positive sign means that the variables move together, a negative sign indicates that
they move in opposite directions, and if the correlation coefficient is close to zero,
they move independently of one another.
c. Attainable portfolios are defined as those portfolios which provide the highest
expected return for any degree of risk, or the lowest degree of risk for any expected
return.
d. The efficient set of portfolios is also called the efficient frontier.
e. Statements b and d are both correct.
28.   Which of the following statements is most correct?

a. The Capital Market Line (CML) specifies a curvilinear relationship between expected
return and risk, whereas the Security Market Line (SML) specifies a linear
relationship between expected return and risk.
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3 - 12

b. An efficient portfolio is one that is well diversified, so like individual stocks, all the
riskiness of an efficient portfolio is measured by its standard deviation, p.
c. A stock’s beta coefficient is the y-intercept of its characteristic line.
d. Empirical tests of the stability of beta coefficients have indicated that the betas of
individual stocks are stable, hence that past betas for individual securities are good
estimators of their future risk, while betas of portfolios of ten or more randomly
selected stocks are not stable, hence that past portfolio betas are not good estimators
of future portfolio volatility.
e. All of the above statements are false.

SELF-TEST PROBLEMS

1.   You are evaluating two potential investment opportunities: Stocks A and B. The expected
rate of return on Stock A is 15.8% and its standard deviation is 2.8%. Stock B’s expected
rate of return is 20.5% with a standard deviation of 3.5%. What is the coefficient of
variation (CV) for Stocks A and B, respectively?

a. 0.12; 0.12      b. 0.18; 0.12      c. 0.18; 0.17       d. 0.25; 0.17      e. 0.25; 0.25

2.   Refer to Self-Test Problem 1. Assume that Stocks A and B have a correlation coefficient
of 0.65. What is the covariance between Stocks A and B?

a. 3.89            b. 4.35            c. 5.12             d. 6.37            e. 7.19

3.   Refer to Self-Test Problem 1. Assume that Stocks A and B have a covariance of -5.4.
What is the correlation coefficient between Stocks A and B?

a. -0.55           b. -0.70           c. -0.85            d. -0.92           e. -1.00
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3 – 13

4.    Given the information below, calculate the betas for Stocks A and B.
Year              Stock A              Stock B           Market
1                 -5%                  10%              -10%
2                 10                   20                10
3                 25                   30                30
(Hint: Think rise over run.)

a. 1.0; 0.5       b. 0.75; 0.5         c. 0.75; 1.0      d. 0.5; 0.5        e. 0.75; 0.25

(The following data apply to the next two Self-Test Problems.)
You are given the following information:
Year               Stock N                 Market
1                   -5%                     10%
2                   -8                      15
3                    7                     -10
The risk-free rate is equal to 7 percent, and the market required return is equal to 10
percent.

5.   What is Stock N’s beta coefficient?

a. 1.00           b. -0.50             c. 0.60           d. -0.75           e. -0.60

6.   What is Stock N’s required rate of return?

a. 6.40%          b. 5.20%             c. 8.80%          d. 5.90%           e. 7.00%

7.   Stock Y and the Market had the following rates of return during the last 4 years. What is
Stock Y’s beta? (Hint: You will need a financial calculator to calculate the beta
coefficient.)
Y                    Market
1995                    10.0%                  10.0%
1996                    16.0                   13.5
1997                    -7.5                   -4.0
1998                     0.0                    5.5

a. 1.25           b. 0.75              c. 1.00           d. 1.34            e. 1.57
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3 - 14

8.   Stock Y, Stock Z, and the Market had the following rates of return during the last 4 years:
Y                     Z                     Market
1995            10.0%                 10.0%                   10.0%
1996            16.0                  11.5                    13.5
1997            -7.5                   1.0                    -4.0
1998             0.0                   6.0                     5.5
The expected future return on the market is 15 percent, the real risk-free rate is 3.75
percent, and the expected inflation rate is a constant 5 percent. If the market risk
premium rises by 3 percentage points, what will be the change in the required rate of
return of the riskier stock?

a. 4.01%           b. 3.67%            c. 4.88%                 d. 3.23%            e. 4.66%

1.   Covariance; correlation coefficient                13.       investment portfolios; securities
2.   efficient portfolio                                14.       Arbitrage Pricing Theory
3.   attainable; feasible                               15.       normal distribution
4.   optimal portfolio                                  16.       correlation coefficient
5.   efficient frontier                                 17.       same; positive; negative;
6.   indifference curve                                           independently
7.   Capital Asset Pricing Model                        18.       left; right
8.   Capital Market Line                                19.       slope
9.   beta coefficient                                   20.       market; non-diversifiable
10.   characteristic line                                21.       Total
11.   diversifiable; company-specific                    22.       market
12.   market

23.   a. The standard deviation of a portfolio depends on the correlations among the stocks as
well as their individual standard deviations. The calculation for the portfolio standard
deviation is:

 k               
n
p                  ˆ 2
 k p Pi .
pi
i 1

24.   b. A correlation coefficient of -1.0 is required to combine two stocks into a riskless
portfolio.
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3 – 15

25.   a. When assets are combined into portfolios, then the relevant risk is an asset’s market
risk, which is the contribution of the asset to the riskiness of the portfolio.

26.   b. The APT does not identify the relevant factors beforehand, nor does it even tell how
many factors should appear in the model.

27.   e. Statement a is false. It is difficult to interpret the magnitude of the covariance, so the
correlation coefficient is used to measure comovement between two variables.
Statement c is false; this statement is true only for efficient portfolios. Both
statements b and d are true, so statement e is the correct choice.

28.   e. Statement a is false. The CML specifies the relationship between risk and return for
efficient portfolios, while the SML specifies the relationship between risk and return
for individual securities. Statement b is false. The standard deviation of an
individual stock should not be used to measure the stock’s riskiness because some of
its risk as reflected in the standard deviation can be eliminated by diversification.
Statement c is false; beta is the slope of the characteristic line. Statement d is false;
just the reverse is true. Betas of portfolios of 10 or more randomly selected stocks
have been shown to be stable, while the betas of individual securities have been
shown to be unstable. Consequently, statement e is the correct choice.

SOLUTIONS TO SELF-TEST PROBLEMS

1.   c. Stock A: CV = 2.8%/15.8% = 0.18. Stock B: CV = 3.5%/20.5% = 0.17. Since the
CV for Project A is higher, it has more risk per unit of expected return.

2.   d. Cov(AB) = 0.65 (2.8) (3.5) = 6.37.

3.   a. rAB = -5.4/[(2.8)(3.5)] = -0.55.

4.   b. Stock A: bA = Rise/Run = [10 – (-5)]/[10 – (-10)] = 15/20 = 0.75.
Stock B: bB = Rise/Run = [20 – 10]/[10 – (-10)] = 10/20 = 0.50.

This problem can also be worked using most financial calculators having statistical
functions.

5.   e. bN = Rise/Run = [-8 ) – (-5)]/(15 – 10) = -3/5 = -0.60.

Again, this problem can also be worked using most financial calculators having
statistical functions.
RISK AND RETURN: PART II
3 - 16

6.   b. kN = 7% + (10% – 7%)(-0.60) = 7% + (-1.80%) = 5.20%.

7.   d. Use the regression feature of the calculator. Enter data for the market and Stock Y,
and then find BetaY = 1.3374 rounded to 1.34.

8.   a. We know kM = 15%; k* = 3.75%; IP = 5%.
Original RPM = kM – kRF = 15% – (3.75% + 5%) = 6.25%.
RPM increases by 3% to 9.25%.
Find the change in k = k for the riskier stock.
First, find the betas for the two stocks. Enter data in the regression register, then find
bY = 1.3374 and bZ = 0.6161.

Y is the riskier stock. Originally, its required return was k Y = 8.75% +
6.25%(1.3374) = 17.11%. When RPM increases by 3 percent, k Y = 8.75% + (6.25%
+ 3%)(1.3374) = 21.12%. Difference = 21.12% – 17.11% = 4.01%.

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