Advantages and Disadvantages of Rfid Technology in Animals - PDF by bbr22470

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									Practical use of RFID
Mark Farragher
FirstFocus BV
Topics

•   Who is FirstFocus BV?
•   What is RFID?
•   The Shop of the Future
•   Problems
•   Our solutions
•   Tips
FirstFocus BV

•   Business Software
•   Development Tools
•   Ergonomics and Design
•   R&D lab


    The R&D lab does RFID research
Technology
Technology
Mission: we want to be able to service all
 technical platforms
• Microsoft .NET Framework or Mono
• Microsoft SQL Server or Oracle
• HTML & Macromedia Flash
What is RFID?
RFID is a technology that uses electromagnetic
 waves to identify objects, animals or people in
 an unique manner. RFID is an emerging
 technology that will supplement or replace the
 barcode.
RFID Frequencies
This one is preferred

                                            868 - 955 MHz
                                                3-6 m
          125kHz – 134,2kHz
               5-10 cm          13.56 MHz            2.45 GHz
                                  30 cm                10 m
                                                            5.8 GHz
                                                             > 10 m




     10 kHz   100 kHz   1 MHz    10 MHz     100 MHz 1 GHz       10 GHz
 RFID Frequencies

Frequency                      Range              Price
125 kHz – 134 kHz              1 cm – 1 meter     €1 – €80
   Identification of people and animals
13.56 MHz                      10 cm – 1 meter    €0.20 – €1.00
   Libraries, consumer products, pilot projects
915 MHz                        3 – 6 meters       €0.30 – €0.50
   Supply chain, airport luggage
Active tags, 2.45 GHz          10 meters – 1 km   €20 – €70
   Toll gates, fleet management
Advantages of RFID
The advantages of RFID over traditional
 barcodes are:
  – Contactless identification over a range of
    1 cm – 1 km
  – Reads multiple products at the same time
  – Reads through packaging materials
  – Unique identification of individual products
RFID implementations
Supply chain
   – Quality control
   – Tracking pallets
Retail
   – Narrowcasting
   – Anti-theft
   – Selfscan cash registers
Healthcare
   – Tracking equipment
   – Matching patients to medicine
The EPC standard




 This part is new
Disadvantages of RFID
The disadvantages of RFID are:
  – Passive tags cannot be read near metal or liquids
  – Passive tags are not always scanned correctly
  – The American firm Intermec wants a license fee for
    each EPC implementation
  – Chicken and egg problem: the big value-add will
    come when everbody is using it
  – There is no generic standaard yet
  – The consumer is worried about privacy issues
Boycott?
Privacy
Privacy is guaranteed, because:
  – The RFID tag only contains a serial number
  – Typical retail tags can only be read within
    a 1 meter range
  – Retail tags can be disabled after checking
    out by using a kill switch
Our advice
Only use RFID when:
  – Barcodes are not a viable alternative
  – Individual products must be uniquely identified
  – Products need to be read simultaneously
  – Products need to be read through packaging
    materials
  – Contactless or continuous reading of products
    is required
A couple of examples
• Selfscan cash registers. Barcode systems have
  a maximum reliability of only 80%!
• Archives: identify dossiers stored in boxes
• Linking corporate laptops to resource
  management software
• Tracking pallets in a warehouse
• Detecting when products are picked up from a
  shelf in a supermarket
The consequences of RFID
What can we expect?
  – The data warehouse will grow in size
    by a hundredfold
  – Datamining will be very important
  – Narrowcasting replaces “shotgun” advertising
  – New business models: dynamic pricing, renting
    shelves to suppliers, …


… in about 7 – 10 years!
The shop of the future
 Demo shop at MediaPlaza:
  “The Shop of the Future”
Smart Shelves
… with a real-time inventory
Selfscan cash register

• Hybrid cash
  register: works with
  barcode and RFID
• Extra verification by
  using scales
Quickscan cash register
Summing up
Smart Shelves
• Narrowcasting
• Real-time inventory
Selfscan cash register
• Barcode and RFID scanning
• Extra verification by using scales
Quickscan cash register
• Bulk scanning
But check it out for yourselves…

• Harry van der Hoff of MediaPlaza
  demonstrates the Selfscan cash register:
  Video Presentation
• Harry van der Hoff demonstrates the
  Quickscan cash register:
  Video Presentation
Problems
1. There isn’t one RFID standard!
  –   Different tags: Philips ICode1, Texas Instruments
      TagIt, ISO15693
  –   Each tag has a specific memory geometry
  –   Each tag has a specific command set
  –   Not all tags support EPC, kill switch, encryption,
      onboard memory
Problems
2. RFID uses a binary protocol!
  –   Little or no abstraction between software and
      hardware



                    100010011101…
Problems
3. Not all events are registered
  – The command GetInventory detects new
    tags in the antenna field
  – Tags that leave the antenna field are not
    detected!
Problems
4. Not all products can be scanned!
  – Passive tags cannot be read near products
    containing metal or liquids
Problems
5. Two antennas interfere with each other!
  – The minimum gap between two antennas is
    60 centimeters (passive tags, 13.65 MHz)



                60 centimeters
Problems
6. Remember the attack surface !
  – Tags are the weakest link in your security.
    Never store prices on the tags!!


  Strong security                 Weak security
Our solutions
No generic standard
Solution: hide the differences between tags
   in code

                    Tag      ITag




      ISOTag      TagItTag     ICodeTag
No generic standard
… ITag then looks like this:
  – Generic interface for all tags
  – Contains common functionality for ISO,
    TagIT and ICode1 tags
  – Flat memory model hides differences in
    memory geometry
Binary protocol
 Solution: create objects that translate high
    level functions to the binary protocol

                     Protocol       IProtocol




      ISOProtocol   TagItProtocol    ICodeProtocol
Binary protocol
 … making the code very easy to read:
  RFIDReader reader = RFIDReader.Current;
  reader.ResetAntenna();
  ITag[] tags = reader.GetInventory();
  foreach (ITag tag in tags) {
         Console.Writeln(tag.SerialNumber);
         tag.Quiet();
  }

 Note: RFID is usually not very time critical, so use
     Java or Microsoft.NET !
Tags leaving the antenna field
 Solution: reset tags after each scan
   – So: do a GetInventory
   – Look for differences, but watch out for
     hysteresis!
   – Do a ResetAntenna


   This takes about 200 milliseconds
Metal and liquids
 For now there is no easy fix 
   –   Our solution: also use the barcode, like with our
       Selfscan cash register
   –   Active tags are not affected by metal.
   –   The Japanese firms AICA Kogyo and Toppan
       Forms are developing tags that are not affected by
       metal
   –   125 kHz tags are not affected by liquids
Interfering antennas
 Solution: smart stacking
   – Alternatingly stack
     antennas left and right
   – Use metal foil




   Alternative: antenna multiplexer,
       or antenne tuning
Security
 Solution: only use the serialnumber or the
    EPC code
   – All sensitive information is stored in a
     database server

 Chicken soup, €3.49                  9865003214
Tips
Keep time domains strictly separate
 Backoffice                 Database            RFID scanner

                     ODBC                ODBC




          SOAP / Remoting                  SOAP / Remoting
                             Singleton
                               object
Tips
Use a robust architecture
 Backoffice                                 RFID scanner

                Enqueue
                           Job
                          queue

                             Dequeue



       Thread   Unpool    Worker       Scan once, then stop

        pool              thread
Tips
Don’t use an embedded platform,
  use Java or Microsoft .NET
  –    Flexible and rapid prototyping
  –    Garbage collection
  –    Database support
  –    Good and stable multithreading
  –    Support for RPCs
  –    Performance is fine
Reality check


                You are here!
Thank you!
Questions?

Mark Farragher
 FirstFocus BV
 http://www.firstfocus.nl
 mark@firstfocus.nl

								
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