Advances in Science and Technology - DOC by bbr22470


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									            A Half-Century of Crisis and Achievement
      Great advances in science; technology, the arts and women‟s rights
marked the half-century between 1900-1945. While the achievements in
Science and technology improved health care and the quality of life, they
also made killing easier. The important role of Western women in
World War I paved the way for their achievement of voting equality.

       In this short span of time, the globe was torn by two world wars and the
emergence of totalitarian governments of the right and left.
World War I was instrumental in bringing the rise of communism in
Russia and fascism in countries such as Italy and Germany. The
Actions of World War I were instrumental in causing World War II.
World War II brought about the decline of colonial empires and the
Emergence of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet

Important people and terms:

Albert Einstein     Freud                  Trench Warfare    Nuremberg

League of Nations   Treaty of Versailles   Sun Yat Sen       Atomic Bomb

Fourteen Points     Archduke Ferdinand     Triple Alliance   reparations

Vladimir Lenin      Bolsheviks             Leon Trotsky      Kemel Ataturk

Communism           Joseph Stalin          Five-Year Plan    Nationalism

Totalitarianism     Bloody Sunday          Gulag             Human Rights

NEP                 Salt March             Mohandas Gandhi   Louis Pasteur

Hitler              Mussolini              Appeasement       Blitz

Churchill           Holocaust              Pearl Harbor      Appeasement

Yalta               Nazi                   Neutrality        Bataan Death March

Part One: 1900-1945 Science and Technological Advances

  I.   Science:
       A. Germ Theory and Disease:
               Louis Pasteur- 1870- French scientist who showed the link
                b/w germs and disease .

                 Robert Koch- 1880‟s German physicist discovered that
                  bacteria caused tuberculosis. Work of Koch and Pasteur
                  established “germ theory” 

                 Joseph Lister- English surgeon- insisted on use of
                  antiseptics, substances that destroy or inhibit the growth
                  of germs (                                               )

                 1928- Turning Point in Medicine: Most important medical
                  advance was the discovery of penicillin (Alexander
                  Fleming). (Was not used on a widespread scale until

                 Advances were made in surgery- brain, spinal cord,
                  reconstructive, as well as new techniques for blood


                 Sigmund Freud- Austrian Physician, founder of
                  psychoanalysis ( A new way of thinking about and treating
                  mental illness)- dealt with the “Unconscious” (Drives much
                  of human behavior)- felt the tension b/w the drives of the
                  unconscious mind and the demands of civilized society

II. Technology:
      A. Atomic energy
                 Marie (radioactivity) and Pierre Curie make important
                   discoveries about atoms. They discover two new elements

                     These discoveries (                  ) affected fields of

                     Einstein- one of the greatest scientists ever
                           -Einstein‟s theory of relativity (1905) corrected
                           Newtonian concepts of time and space. Einstein
                           pointed out that space and time are not constant

III. New Technology

      A. Homes and Entertainment

                     More and more households were

                     Appliances made household chores easier


                     Farmers benefited from new technology, freezers for
                      their meat and heated hatcheries provided more chickens


                     Radio informed people of the news and entertained them
                      with newly created radio shows


                     Movies also served as a tool for


                    Politicians start to use the radio to get their message
                     across (F.D.R. fireside chats)

                    Companies start selling airtime for the use of

                    Use of

                    Underground sewage systems (                              )

                    Electricity Dynamo (generator), 1879 Thomas Edison
                     (American) developed

1.What advances in medicine were made?
2. What new technologies made everyday life easier?
3. How did technology change entertainment?

Part Two: Problems leading up to World War I

A. China 1900- Boxer Rebellion
                  Europe had split China into large sections for trading
                  U.S. tries to open China with the

      1. Nationalism in China builds
                   Boxer rebellion led by the Empress CI XI
                           opposed all foreigners and modernization
                   CI XI encouraged anti-foreigner groups that gathered
                     together in secret to plot ways of driving

                    One group called itself the Society or Righteous and
                     Harmonious Fists (                        ).
                    In June of 1900- boxers killed hundreds of foreigners and
                     thousands of Chinese Christians

      2. Reaction to the Boxer Rebellion
                  25,000 troops crush the boxers in less than a month
                  Many Chinese felt it was time for China to
                  The Chinese felt that the only way to achieve this goal
                  In 1905 a revolutionary group called the United League
                  After many attacks and political turbulence, China became
                     a                 - Sun Yat-sen was the first President.

1. What was the name of the leader that disliked foreigners?
2. What countries were involved in China? Why were they there?
3. What was the name of the revolutionary group?

B. Russo- Japanese War

                                Japan had been industrializing for many years
                                 and now needed to establish more colonies
                                 (                  ).
                                Japan and Russia started to argue over
                                 interests in Korea

                                Few people believed that Japan could win the
                                 war against Russia

1. Why did most countries think that Japan would lose the war?
2. Why did Japan need to create an overseas empire?

C. Russian Revolution of January 22nd 1905

                    Russia deals with the loss to Japan

                    Workers wanted better wages & hours

                    Minorities in Russia wanted to break away and form their
                     own independent states.

                    People started to protest peacefully at Czars palace (a
                     march occurred in St. Petersburg), until palace guards
                                                  (Bloody Sunday- 1/22/1905)


                   Czar Nicholas II agreed to let his subjects elect a Duma
                    (An elected National Legislature)

                   Radical movements gained support in Russia.


     1. What did Russian workers want?
     2. Why was Russia a weak nation?
     3. What part of the world looks unstable during the early 1900s?

D. Mexican Revolution of 1910

                   Francisco Madero calls for a revolution (1873-1913)
                    President from 1911-1913, then murdered by Gen.
                    Victoriano Huerta (                                  )

                   Unhappy with the conditions in their country,

                   Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata won the hearts of the
                    peasants and fought for better conditions.

                   In 1917 a new constitution was approved, it dealt with

                   Mexicans wanted to

1. Why were the farmers unhappy?
2. Who was getting rich?
3. Was the revolution successful?

Part Three: World War One

  I.      World War I:

A. Why?

                    The physical geography of Europe –

                    The need for natural resources often caused friction
                     between powerful nations that are

                    Germany and France experienced tension from the

                    Great Britain was an island- nation, which was both a
                     strength and a weakness. (

                    Britain had a good natural barrier provided by the

                    Britain was worried about the growing German Navy and
                     the threat of Germany cutting off

                    Italy had few                          and would have to
                     rely on expanding to maintain a balance with developing

                    Russia lacked a                   and that would mean

                    Russia was interested in a passageway that linked the
                     This area was controlled by

                      -   Decline of Ottoman Empire: Became Weak (British
                          relations w/ the empire became strained after Britain
                          signed an agreement w/ Russia.

                              Rivalry b/w Ottomans (controlled Turkey) &
                               Russia (Believed to be supporting the Christian
                               Armenians) arose. Turkey controlled
                               Armenians, but did not trust them

                              1918- Ottoman Empire Collapsed, one of the

                              defeated Central Powers Most of the Arab
                               lands are placed under the control of

1. Why were countries competing for raw materials?
2. Do you think religious and ethnic differences played a part?

Part Four: Causes of the Great War

I. Causes:

A. Nationalism

                       Tension created by imperialism was strongly linked to

                        Russia and Austria-Hungary competed for the Balkan

                1. Pan-Slavism

                       People who belonged to this movement felt that it was
                        Russia‟s right to protect Slavic people living anywhere in

                2. Pan-Germanism


B. Militarism

                            Governments of the larger European countries started
                            Countries believed that a large military gave them
                             prestige and power.

C. Entangling Alliances

                             Tension created by militarism, imperialism, nationalism
                              and led to a system of secret alliances between many
                              European nations.
                                                  - made up of Britain, France and

                                              - made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary
                              and          .

                             If one member was involved in a conflict- the other
                              members were supposed to come to their assistance.

D. Immediate Causes

                             On June 28th 1914 Slavic nationalists
                              Austria‟s Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife

                             Russia comes to the aid of Serbia
                             France and Britain declare war on

Part Five: The War

   I.    Fighting:
                         The Western Front (600 mile stretch from the
                         The bloodiest battles occurred in France.
                         .
                         After two years of fighting each side was exhausted,

         A. The Eastern Front
                      Germany invaded Russia in 1914 and by 1917 the

                         In 1917 a revolution in Russia overthrows

                         Communists took over and decide to end the war

                          (“                                          ”)

                         Germany gained a great deal of land and no longer had
                          to fight                                 .

1.Which countries were sided together?
2. Why were countries building up their military?
3. What was the immediate cause of the war?

B. The War at Sea

                   Britain tried to bankrupt Germany by

                   This move proved to be effective, major food
                    shortages were experienced

                   Submarines and U-boats proved to be damaging
                    weapons. (                            )

C.   U.S.A. Enters the War
                   The U.S. tried to remain neutral and trade with both

                   Attacks by the Germans on American ships causes the

                   The U.S. was angered by the German attack on the

                   In January of 1917- Germany asked Mexico to declare
                    war on the U.S. and in return –

                          -This message was called the Zimmerman

                   Americans were furious and on April 6, 1917 the U.S.
                    entered the war
                   The AEF -                                 arrived in
                    France and provided much needed relief.

                   Fresh troops and supplies were key for the defeat of
                    the Germans
                                       World War I ended. (

Part Six: Peace

    I.    Treaty of Versailles:

                     In January 1919, the Allied leaders met in France to

                     The Treaty of Versailles set the conditions for

          A. Terms of the Treaty:

                     There was a war guilt clause- blaming

                     Germany had to pay huge reparations to
                     Germany lost all

                     Germany had to reduce

    II.   Wilson’s 14 Points

                     President Woodrow Wilson presents his 14 points to
                      the world. (                              )
                     Wilson also called for                      and the

                     President Wilson proposes the League of Nations to
                      the Allied leaders, its purpose was

                     The United States decides not to join the league,
                      fearing it might

III. Weapons
               Machine guns, poison gas, gas masks, flamethrower,
                tanks, airplanes (used for observation & combat),
                submarines 

IV. Effects of World War I

               Governments were almost
               Revolution threatened many countries
               10 million
               The role of women expanded,

               Government took control of

               Propaganda and censorship were used
               Collapse of empires:

               The war effort and its tragedies were commemorated
                in works such as- George Cohan‟s popular song ”
                                ” , T.S. Elliot‟s               and
                  Erich Remarque‟s                                .

Part Seven: Rise of Communism

    I. Revolutions:

          A. Revolution of 1917
                With little industry- Russia was not ready to fight a
                  modern war

                     March 1917- Military defeat (in WWI) and shortages of

                     Rioters demand bread- Soldiers sympathize with the
                      people and refuse to fire on them

                     With no control over his soldiers and with the country
                      nearing anarchy- Czar Nicolas II abdicates, March 1917-
                      Provisional government sets up SOVIETS (

                     New dictator (                     ) would not stand for a
                      “new” democratic government

       B. Bolshevik Revolution

                     Bolsheviks- Revolutionary socialist party who

                     Led by Vladimir Lenin- Brilliant leader 

                     Slogan “Land! Peace! Bread!” won support of workers
                     November 1917 Bolshevik‟s seized the Provincial
                      Government buildings

                     Lenin promises peasants they could keep land seized after
                      the March Revolution

       March 18 - Russia signs Treaty of Brest Litovsk,

C. Lenin
      Lenin was an exiled Russian Revolutionary
      Worked with Leon Trotsky (led Red Army) and

       Created a Bolshevik dictatorship-

       Set up Cheka- secret police –

       1918-1921 Communist lead Civil War Reds (              )
        vs. Whites (                                  )
          - Nationalist groups rose up against Red Army and won

         -   Whites              communists and tried to
             assassinate Lenin
         -   Communists                 those opposing revolution

         - U.S., France and Britain sent troops to
       NEP-
       Lenin Dies in

D. Leon Trotsky: Energetic Bolshevik Leader

       Seized grain from peasants and took control or factories
        mines, banks and businesses
       In 1922, Communists win control over
       Reorganized Russia into
       USSR -

E. Joseph Stalin
      Stalin and Trotsky

        Trotsky loses, and is exiled,

        Industrial development under Stalin- Five Year Plan
        Heavy industry stressed over

        Soviet factories and mines were run by forced labor

     Collectivization
         - Food surpluses were needed to

         - Stalin combined millions of small peasant farms into

        - Peasants protested and destroyed crops-

        - Stalin has Red Army

        - 5-10 million

F. Communist Government
      Only communists
      Communist Party operated at every level of society
      Totalitarian State - total control over people, used
       propaganda to get people to support the party,

        Great Purge--

Part Eight: Postwar World

I. The West
                     Warren Harding (President) promises “return to normalcy”
                     Women want more freedoms (                     )

              A . Technology
                    New forms of technology altered people‟s lifestyles and


              B . Arts
                    Introduction to
                    Picasso experiments
                    Artists abandoned long-accepted

              C. Economic Boom of the 1920s
                    U.S. is producing              of the world‟s

                     Low unemployment
                     People start investing money in the stock market
                     1929 stock market crashes and it is the start

                     Salaries fall
                     New Deal will lead the U.S. into

              D . Economics Worldwide
                    Great Britain loses the role of being
                    Great Britain borrowed heavily.
                    Britain became a
                    Miners strike in England
                    Britain loses some

                      Britain continues to
                      France was in a severe economic depression after
                      Political instability

                      ***After the crash- there was a

II. Rise of Fascism

     A. Italy

                      After the war- soldiers returned to no jobs
                      Its best customers were Germany and Austria--who were
                      Conditions were
                      Mussolini forms the Fascist party- which advocates the

                      Like communism, Fascism is a
                      Mussolini pledged to restore Italy to its former greatness
                      Mussolini sets up a dictatorship
     B. Germany

                      German economy was
                      Starvation
                      Rise of the Nazi party
                      Hitler writes his book Mein Kampf
                      Hitler blames the Jews for the
                      Hitler gains power and uses whatever force necessary to
                       gain total control
                      Nazi Government regulated

                    Has dreams of the Third Reich (1st Reich- The Holy Roman
                     Empire, 2nd Reich- German Empire 1871 to 1918)

III. Nationalism in Middle East and Africa
     A. Turkey

                    Countries that were colonies to European countries wanted
                     their independence
                    In Turkey Mustafa Kemal leads a group of “Young Turks”
                    Sultan gave up his throne and Kemal is

                    Kemal westernizes his country by adopting the western
                     calendar, metric system and he
     B. Egypt
                    Great Britain wanted to keep control of the Suez Canal
                    Granted Egypt their independence

     C. India

                    India was the most important colony
                    Indians wanted their
                    Some were willing to remain in the British Empire but
                    Indian National Congress- Group of Indians trying to
                     break from
                    Muslim League- Muslims want own state

                    Massacre at Amritsar shocked the country (1919)- Riots
                     and attacks on British citizens in the city of Amritsar- In
                     response the British banned public meetings 

                    400 people were killed and 1200 wounded

      1. Gandhi
            Gandhi started to work with the Indian National Congress
            Used
            Rejected Western civilization
            Lead the Salt March
            Government of India Act-

D. China and Modernization
            China was
            Sun Yat-sen returned in 1917 to restore the central
              government it did not work

              With help from the Soviet Union Chiang Kai-shek starts

              Chiang turns on the communists
              Communists flee and form the Red Army led by Mao

E. Militarism in Japan

              Japan starts to industrialize
              Militarism -
              1931 Japan takes over
              Japan continues to expand throughout the 1930s-

Part Nine: World War II

    I. Causes

    A. Militarism –

          1. Military strength seen as a source of nationalistic pride

    B. Nationalism and Racism

          1. Axis nations (Germany, Italy & Japan) saw themselves as

          superior to others


                    b. Italy -

          2. Axis nations felt the right to extend their cultures and their borders,

          because they were so superior

                    Hitler invades the Rhineland-

                    Germany invades Poland and two days later

                    Austria and Czechoslovakia

    C. Imperialism –

          1. Japan moved into China (1931, 1939)

          2. Italy conquered

          3. Germany annexed

    D. World wide depression - many economic problems

      E. Appeasement - to give in to a potential aggressor, hoping that the aggressor

      will be content and not commit any further harmful acts (Chamberlin of England



      1. Fascism gov‟t -

      2. Italy conquered Ethiopia (Africa) - 1935

      3. Aided General Franco in Spanish Civil War (1936-39)

B. GERMANY -> Third Reich, Hitler‟s Nazi gov‟t modeled

             * Hitler‟s actions were the most destructive to the so called house of

             peace (created after WWI) against treaties of peace

      1. Hitler‟s Violations ->


             b. 1936 - stated his right to control all German territory

                           * Rhineland

             c. 1938 - made a union (Anschluss) with Austria

      2. The Rise of Hitler & the Nazi party

             a. In 1929 - Germany was on the road to democracy -

             b. Nazi Party Platform - 1930‟s appealed to the Germans

             because the Nazis:

                    1. Promise to restore law & order to an unsettled Germany

                    after WWI


            of Versailles. (Unemployment would be reduced by

            increasing the size of the army & opening war materials


            3. Blamed Germany‟s defeat in WWI on “traitors”,


            4. Promoted German Nationalism

            * Hitler‟s book Mein Kampf (My Struggle)

            * outlined the theory of the “Master Race”

            * Hitler felt that the Germans were a pure Aryan

                     Race, superior to others

            5. Hitler used his

C. Third Reich (1933-1945) “Furher” or leader is Hitler

      1. Nazi Party was only political party allowed to exist.

      2. Gestapo -

       3. Indoctrination - being told or taught the same thing over and over until

      you believe it‟s the only truth.

      4. Children - taught only Nazi ideas

   5. Censorship - the gov‟t used this to control what people saw and heard and


D. Campaign against the Jews

      1. Nuremberg Laws of 1935 - deprived Jews of their German

      citizenship and made discrimination against them legal.


      3. Could not enter public places –

      4. Jews were placed in Ghettos - Nazi imposed - Jews placed in these ghettos to

      be sealed off from the rest of society. -

            --Ghettos were in: Lodz & Krakow (Poland), Vilna

      (Lithuania), Bialystok (Russia), Warsaw, the largest


            --Surrounded by Nazi Guards.


                   b-rationed food


                   d-had many roundups and arrests for no reason


      5. Ended when Hitler died. 1945.

E. Holocaust - intentional persecution and murder of European

      Jews by the Germans from 1933-45.

            ** 1. 6 million exterminated mostly in camps (Auschwitz, Dachau &


            1. Genocide - the planned extermination of a group of people

            because of their religion, race or ethnicity

            2. These horrible tactics of the Nazis were a horrible extension of

            3. Other tactics of the Holocaust

                     a. Homosexuals, Jehovah‟s Witnesses, Gypsies, Slavs, and mentally

                     retarded individuals)


              a. Gas chambers disguised as showers for mass exterminations


              c. Human experimentation (                               )

*** The Holocaust was all part of Hitler‟s Final Solution - the plan to kill all Jews in



F. Czechoslovakia - surrounded by Germany on 3 sides

      1. May „38, 3 million Germans live in western

      Czech (Sudetenland)


      3. Caused Germans to riot against Czech gov‟t

      4. Hitler acquires Sudetenland with no interference, as long as he promises

           that this is all takes

           * Munich Agreement- agreement made with Nevill Chamberlain of


      6. Western powers again too fearful & weak to show any force against Hitler

G. August 1939 -

                           “Nazi - Soviet Non-aggression Pact”

      1. Signed it to avoid Soviet Union fighting Germany

           for Poland ->

      2. According to Pact - Germany & Soviet Union

      promised not to attack each other & to remain

      3. Much of Eastern Europe would be carved up into

      4. Britain & France signed a mutual assistance

      pact with Poland

      ** 1st western move to help

III. Beginning of the War

A. September 1, 1939 ->                                      (war begins)

      (Germany not happy with result of Treaty of Versailles - 1919)

      1. (Germans - under Hitler pretended to be Poles & attacked

            a German radio station. Hitler then attacked the Poles –

B. September 3, 1939 -> Britain & France demanded German with-

      drawl - Hitler refused ->

      ** World War II begins **

IV. Conduct of WWII:

A. Blitzkrieg - lightening war - swift, simultaneous attacks by

         air & land. Used by Germany

B. France surrenders to Germany 1940 - Britain only allied


C. Hitler tried to make peace w/ Britain - so they would drop

            out of the war. England (under Prime Minister * Winston

            Churchill * said “                  ”)

D. Germany bombed England throughout 1940 -> England‟s

         greatest defense against Germany was the

         * England wins the Battle of Britain

E. Hitler occupied Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary &

          Yugoslavia. *

F. Hitler moves in on Russia -> Germany‟s armies overpowered

         Russian armies 1941 -> Russians follow “

         ** Scorched Earth Policy - Russians destroyed farm &

            industrial equipment, blew up roads & burned crops

            in Russia


A. December 7, 1941 -> Japan‟s attack on the American Naval

         base at “Pearl Harbor”

            * 12/11/41- Germany & Italy honoring agreement w/Japan

VI. 1942 - 1945

A. Stalingrad (7/1942) City in Russia -> Germans battled the Russians for the

          city for 6 months.

B. 1/13/43 - “Germany surrenders” in Russia (


C. Russia seized

D. By early 1944, German forces pushed out of Russia


      1. US and Allies became active (1941)

a. Atlantic Charter - signed by President Roosevelt (FDR)

                   and Prime Minister Churchill

                      * idealistic document (similar to 14 points) Pledged to:


                        2. Respect the right of people ->

                        3. Freedom of the seas


                        5. Work for an end to aggression by all nations

                      -26 nations (Allies) met in Washington DC & agreed

             2. Big Three Meeting - 12/43, Iran

                      1. Roosevelt -       Discussed plans for how to deal

                      2. Churchill -       with Germany (Divide Germany &

                      3. Stalin -           invade occupied France -> b/c

                                                  Germany had control)

             3. US, British & Canadian forces - 1943 landed in Italy


                     - By 1944 - Allies victorious in Italy -

            4. Operation Overlord (D- Day) -

                     a). Operated by US General Dwight D. Eisenhower

                     “Full victory. Nothing less.”

                     b). Occurred June 6, 1944 - a full scale invasion on the beaches of

                     Normandy, France

                     c). August 25, „44 - Paris liberated from Nazi‟s

            5. Battle of the Bulge -

            6. Yalta Conference (Feb. „45 - In the USSR) 3 main Allied leaders

            Roosevelt, Stalin, & Churchill) meet to make post war plans

E. Leaders agree upon 6 points

            1. Germany should be demilitarized and divided into zones of

            occupation after the war


            3. Arrangements for new “

            4. Poland would have new boundaries (shifted west)


                     b. Russia given some Polish land, moving Russia‟s border

            5. USSR to permit free elections in Eastern Europe,

            (                                                    )

            6. USSR would enter the war against Japan once Germany



            7. Leadership Ends - Axis Powers

F. 4/1945 German army in Italy gives up.

            1. Mussolini was captured and killed by Italian guerrilla

                   a. Corpse taken ->


G. 4/30/45 - Hitler commits suicide.


H. V-E Day - May 8, 1945 Day of victory in Europe


            2. As soldiers march through Germany & Europe they are

            horrified to find the torture and death inflicted on innocent

            civilians by Nazis in Concentration Camps


I. Potsdam Conference - July, 1945

    With Italy and Germany out of the war and Japan‟s defeat a virtual certainty, the

Allies issued a declaration concerning the future of Germany,

          1. US warns Japan if they do not surrender there will be terrible


          2. August 6, 1945 -

          3. August 8, 1945 -

          Emperor Hirohito - leader of Japan

          4. August 9, 1945 - US drops second atomic bomb on Nagasaki.

                a. Japan finally surrenders. Emperor Hirohito surrendered.

          5. September 2, 1945 - WWII ends

                a. This day is remembered as V-J Day -- Day of victory

                      over Japan.

                b. Douglas MacArthur .



    B. Nuremberg Trials : Nazi war criminals were brought to justice

          1. Nazi leaders tried for acts of aggression and “                       ”

    C. Establishment of the United Nations (UN)


          2. With the destruction of WWII & Atomic weapons - countries must work

          together to avert future wars

          3. Led by Big Five:

          4. UN provides a forum for discussion an mean of settling


      D. Colonial Nationalism


            2. Many new nations emerge between 1945-65

      E. Shift in Global Power

            1. European world domination ended as a result of WWII

            2. US & USSR (Soviet Union)

            replacing the Western European nations as world leaders

            3. Superpower competition resulted in a

* Warfare - tanks, planes aircraft carriers, battleships, “blitzkrieg”, sonar, radar,

helped in defending against sub & air attacks

onar, radar,

helped in defending against sub & air attacks


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