Advertising and Promotional Activities for Consumer Products by wyk39763


More Info
Description                                          Colour -     reddish-orange
Papaya is a common fruit in the global
market. It is considered a fruit for healthy         Taste    -   very sweet
living. It helps to increase digestion and
nourish the endocrine system.                     2. Kamiya
                                                     This is a selection from Waimanalo
Origin:                                              Solo type. Dwarf, high-yielding
Southern Mexico and neighboring Central              plant. Fairly recent release from
America. It is now present in every                  the University of Hawaii.
tropical and subtropical country
                                                     Shape -      Small to medium-
Botanical name: Carica papaya                                     sized fruit. Distinct,
                                                                  blocky shape, very
Family: Caricaceae                                                short neck.

Common name:                                         Size -       0.45 to 1.0 kg
Papaya, Papaw or Paw Paw (Australia),
Mamao (Brazil), Tree Melon.                          Colour -     Deep yellow-orange
                                                                  skin and flesh

   1. Solo
                                                     Taste    -   firm,   juicy,   very
      It is the most promising variety for
      export. Skin is smooth, flesh firm,
                                                  3. Mexican Red
      reddish-orange, very sweet, of
                                                     A rose-fleshed papaya that is
      excellent quality. It does not
                                                     lighter in flavor. Medium to very
      Produces no male plants, only
                                                     large fruit. Generally not as sweet
      bisexual and female in a 2 to 1
                                                     as Hawaiian types
                                                  4. Mexican Yellow
                                                     A very sweet and flavorful, yellow-
                                                     fleshed papaya. Medium to large
                                                     fruit can grow up to 4.5 kg.
                                                     Generally not as sweet as
                                                     Hawaiian types.

                                                     Shape -      Pear shape
                                                     Size -       1.5 to 4.5 kg
       Shape -       Fruit   round    and
                                                     Colour -     yellow-fleshed
                     shallowly furrowed in
                     female plants, pear-
                     shaped in bisexual              Taste    -   Very sweet

       Size -        0.45 to 1.0 kg
5. Sunrise (Sunrise Solo)                                wide, up to 18 inches
   Quality is similar to Solo type.                      long
   Seed cavity not as deeply indented
   as other Solo strains. Plant             Colour -     Skin yellow, flesh
   produce fruits 9 months after                         orange to yellow-
   transplanting, at a height of about                   orange
   3 feet.
                                            Taste    -   sweet
   Shape -      Pear shape fruit with
                a slight neck.           8. Kapoho solo
                                            Exportable variety, pear shaped
   Size -       0.65     to     0.85kg      blocky fruit, but susceptible for
                depending           on      viral disease
                                            Shape -      Pear    shape    fruit
   Colour -     Skin smooth, flesh                       blocky fruit
                firm, reddish-orange
                                            Size -       0.4 - 0.8 kg
   Taste    -   sweet, sugar content
                high                        Colour -     Orange-red skin and
6. Sunset (Sunset Solo)
   Solo type. Small to medium-sized         Taste    -   Very sweet
   fruit. Dwarf, high yielding plant.
   Originated at the University of       9. Waimanalo (Waimanalo Solo, X-
   Hawaii.                                  77)
                                            Flesh is thick, firm, flavor and
   Shape -      Pear shape fruit            quality    high,   keeps      well.
                                            Recommended for fresh market
   Size -       0.4 to 0.5 kg               and processing. Fruits of female
                                            plants rough in appearance.
   Colour -     Orange-red skin and         Average height to the first flower
                flesh                       is 32 inches.

   Taste    -   Very sweet                  Shape -      Round shape      with
                                                         short neck
7. Vista Solo
   This is Hardy, compact Solo type         Size -       0.45 to 1.2 kg
   producing high quality fruit. Needs
   fairly hot weather to develop            Colour -     Skin smooth, and
   sweetness. Self-fertile. Originated                   glossy, cavity star-
   in Vista, California.                                 shaped. Flesh thick,
                                                         firm, orange-yellow
   Shape -      Pear shape fruit                         in color

   Size -       Medium to large fruit       Taste    -   Sweet
                depending         on
                climate,    5 inches

10. Strawberry S-X                            Colour -       Flesh is thick, red

   This is a new variety, grown in            Taste & -      sweet
   Hawaii, similar to sunrise. This is
   highly productive. Variety is wet

   Shape -        Pear shape

   Size -         0.5 to 0.65 kg

   Colour -       Flesh is reddish

   Taste    -     Very sweet

11. Red maradol                            13. Rathna (Sri Lanka selection)
                                               It is a local variety. This is mainly
   This is a vigorous and productive           growing               Anuradhapura,
   papaya whose epidermis turns                Polonnaruwa, and Ampara Districts
   yellow-orange when it is ripe. It           of Sri Lanka. It has less number of
   has a red flesh, which is very              seeds. The pulp is reddish in
   sweet and soft. Plants are highly           colour while the skin is yellow and
   productive. These plants can                green colour.
   acclimate to a wide variety of soils.
                                              Shape -        Oval
   Shape -        Pear shape
                                              Size -         0.8 – 1.2 kg
   Size -         1.5 to 2.6 kg
                                              Colour -       Flesh    reddish   in
   Colour -       yellow-orange skin                         colour while the skin
                                                             is yellow and green
   Taste    -     very sweet                                 colour.
                                              Taste    -     sweet
12. Red lady
    An early, vigorous and productive
    papaya that is tolerant to papaya
    Ring Spot virus. Plants begin to
    produce fruits when reaching
    between 60 to 80 centimeters
    height and they can produce 30
    fruits    at    every   period    of
    fructification. Flesh is thick, red,
    with 13 % sugar content. Fruit
    ships well.

   Shape -        Oval shape

   Size -         1.5 and 2 kg

Commercial cultivars World wide          Nutritional factors:

Brazil       Amazon red, Sunrise solo    (Value per 100 g of Edible Portion)
Costa Rica   Solo, Costa Rica red
Cuba         Maradol, Maradol Roja             Element             Quantity
India        Co 1, Co 2, Pusa dwarf,      Calories            23.1-25.8 Kj
             Honey dew,                   Moisture            85.9-92.6 g
Jamaica      EI Salvado, Solo type        Protein             0.081-.34 g
Malaysia     Solo                         Fat                 0.05-.96 g
Philippines Solo, Honey Gold,             Carbohydrates       6.17-6.75 g
South Africa Sunrise Solo, Papito         Crude Fiber         0.5-1.3 g
Taiwan       Caniflora, Tainnungs         Ash                 0.31-.66 g
USA          Caniflora, Fla – 775         Calcium             12.9-40.8 mg
Hawaii       Capoho, Sunrise solo, Sun    Phosphorus          5.3-22.0 mg
             set solo,                    Iron                0.25-0.78 mg
Sri Lanka    Rathna, Red lady             Carotene            0.0045-.676 mg
                                          Thiamine            0.021-.036 mg
Potential products
                                          Riboflavin          0.024-058 mg
                                          Niacin              0.227-555 mg
Papaya snacks
                                          Ascorbic Acid       35.5-71.3 mg
Fresh frozen products                     Tryptophan          4-5 mg
                                          Methionine          1 mg
Pickle                                    Lysine              15-16 mg

Papaya juice                             Carotenoid content of papaya (13.8
                                         mg/100 g dry pulp) is low compared to
Ice cream                                mango, carrot and tomato. The major
                                         carotenoid is cryptoxanthin.
Dried papaya
                                         Harvesting, Handling and storage:
Papaya curry
                                         Harvesting is done by cutting the stalk of
Papain                                   the fruit closer to the trunk of the tree.
                                         Immature fruit does not ripe after
                                         harvesting. So 20% - 65% ripe fruits are
                                         harvested for local market or air
                                         shipment. For sea shipment less ripe
                                         fruits with 100 - 120 brix value are
                                         acceptable (when fruit begins to turn
                                         yellow at the bottom end)..

                                         When plants are getting old it grows
                                         taller. In some countries spray chemicals
                                         (Cycocel) to keep control of height of the
                                         plant to easy harvesting.

                                         The harvested fruits should be packed
Figure: canned papaya                    into crates without pressing or bruising.

Even slight damages to the skin cause          individually wrapped / inserted into
skin discolouring affecting the quality.       polymer nets and placed into cardboard
                                               boxes with the blossom end pointing
Packaging:                                     upwards.       When do so, the colour
                                               indicating the degree of ripeness remain
       Washing                                 clearly visible.

                                               Packaging should be in a 3 to 4.5 kg per
       Sorting                                 box with counts of 6 to 12 fruits. Some
                                               retailers demands larger fruit with counts
                                               of 6 and 7 fruits/box. Papaya is
       Sizing                                  individually wrapped, for protection, but
                                               this increases handling time at the
                                               receiving end. Therefore carefully packed,
       Grading and treatment                   visible fruit are preferred.

                                               Standard size of carton 40 cm length X 30
       Packing                                 cm in width and height varies according
                                               to the fruit size, 12 to 14 cm. ventilation
The function of packaging is to protect        holes are required as papaya gives off
the    sensitive    papaya     fruit   from    Ethylene gas as it continue to ripen. It is
mechanically and atmospherically caused        recommended to have 8% - 10%
damages during the long transportation         openings of the surfaces of walls of each
from producer to the market. In addition,      box to proper ventilation.
packaging supports the sale promotion
presentation of the fruit and identification   The shelf life of papaya depends on % of
of content and its origin.                     ripeness of fruit and condition of storage.
                                               The 75% ripe stage in ambient
Before packaging heat treatment are            temperature (21 – 27 0C) stays for about
done using hot water / vapor to control        3 – 6 days. To extend shelf life the fruit
fruit fly and fungal diseases. To control      must be stored at 7 0C – 13 0C and 85 %
fungal diseases hot water dip for 20           – 90% relative humidity, keeps for 1 – 3
minutes at 50 0C or 30 minutes at 42 0C        weeks. Below 7 0C the fruit is susceptible
water or using hot air. This treatment         for chilling injuries.
also helps to control fruit fly attacks. In
areas of cultivation where stem end rot is     For sea shipment the temperature is 10 –
common the fruit is immersed for 30            12 0C (less ripe). Sea transportation to
seconds at 60 0C. Too high temperature         long distance markets by reefer
and false ripening (Yellow colouring is        containers is restricted.
incomplete      and    fruit   does     not
subsequently ripen in the proper manner)       Progress in the pre-harvest and post-
may      cause    heat    damages.     The     harvest treatment of papaya sea
effectiveness of heat treatment in killing     transport is possible for a maximum of 14
fungal spores is improved by adding            days. But controlled atmosphere (high
fungicides (Eg - Thiabendazole).               CO2, low N2 and O2) containers transport
                                               has proved successfully up to 21 days.
Corrugated cartons are common for
export packaging. Fruits are hand packed

Parameters for the transport of papaya in
controlled atmosphere                           Weight –     fresh consumption 0.7 to
                                                             1.0 kg
Temperature           -   100 – 120 C
CO2 content           -   3% - 5%               Shape –      round/oval,  12-20       cm
O2 content            -   3%                                 length, depend on        the
Relative Humidity     -   90% - 95%                          variety

Conservation of quality in the market is        Colour –     yellow skin when ripe
important. Therefore Ethylene free cold                      Yellow / red / orange flesh
room at 12 0C is used in most countries.
Ethylene rate of 0.2 ppm is undesirable         Consumer     preference   in   developed
for papaya. Therefore the air in store          markets
room is reviewed for about 5 times a day.
The retailer will allows the fruit to warm      Pear shaped, 12 – 20 cm length fruits,
at normal temperature and when ripen            when ripe yellow to deep orange skin and
the fruit is stored in refrigerated             orange yellow to orange reddish flesh.
showcase until it reaches the consumer.         Weight is 250 – 450 gms / fruit. Good
Ripe fruit can be stored at 7 0C for few        grading, packaging and presentation
days.                                           highly important.

Labeling                                        Markets demand

Handling   information                          EU countries (Netherlands, UK, Germany,
      -     this side up symbol                 and France) are the leading importers of
      -     fragile symbol                      papaya in the world (> 9000 tones /
      -     temperature       symbol     with   year) followed by Japan (5600 tones /
            indication of temperature range     year) and Canada (3000 tones / year),
Produce   information                           USA, etc.
      -     bar cording
      -     country of origin                   Production
      -     produce
      -     net weight                          World production – Mt
      -     count – no of fruits in package     World total Extent – Ha
      -     packed – date of packing            Export volume – Mt
      -     tare – tare weight in kg
      -     packer or dispatcher name and       Local production 19,754 Mt
            address or authorized code          Extent of cultivation - 4941 Ha
      -     grower – name and address or        Major producing areas are Anuradapura,
            code                                Kurunegala, Rathnapura (Embilipitiya)
                                                and Hambantota.
Quality standards
                                                Brazil (50%), Mexico, South Africa, USA,
Appearance- Whole, firm, fresh without          Thailand, Costa Rica, Hawaii are the
            any spoilage, deterioration,        leading producers. The total production is
            insect damages, abnormal            5.7 Mn Mt.
            shapes, matured and ripe
            suitable for consumption.

Major exporters are Mexico, Brazil, and             Certificates – HACCP, EurepGap,
Hawaii                                               ISO 22,000
                                                    Documentation certification
Sri Lanka exports only limited quantities           Product labeling in foreign
due to poor quality, inconsistence supply,           languages
and prices etc.                                     Prior approval (bio terrorism)
                                                    Foreign Exchange: controls and
During the past the market has                       multiplicity
expanded. But majority of the consumers             Over elaborate or inadequate
in the world still unaware about the                 infrastructure
nutritional value of or diverse uses of             Unfair customs procedures
papaya. It is noted activities are still at         State subsidies, procurement,
low key, for promotion of papaya.                    trading, ownership
Forceful    promotional    campaign      is         'Buy national' policy
necessary.                                          Intellectual property laws (patents
                                                     and copyrights)
Market Regulation                                   Bribery and corruption

          1. Tariff barriers                  Guidelines for growers
          2. Non tariff barriers
                                              Land preparation and planting
Tariff barriers
                                              Land preparation for papaya orchard is
      Import duty                            similar to other upland crops. First clear
      Custom duty                            the fields; then plough and harrow
      Countervailing duty                    alternately about 2 to 3 times to kill
      Anti dumping duty                      weeds and provide good internal
                                              drainage. The distance of planting papaya
   (Information on above can be               ranges from 2 to 3 meters depending on
   obtained     from Department of            the variety.
   commerce or Trade Information
   Division – EDB)                            Papaya plants are usually planted by
                                              direct seedling in the field. Place 5 or
Non tariff barriers                           more seeds in each hole; then cover with
                                              ¼ inch of soil. When fresh seeds are
      Importing country regulation           used, seeds will germinate in 10 to 14
      Restrictive licences                   days after planting. Seed germination is
      Advertising restrictions               better and faster if the gelatinous
      import bans                            envelope (sarcotestae) surrounding the
      seasonal import regimes                seed is removed by means of the fingers.
      close market distribution              In some cases, seedlings are started in
      Product classification                 the nursery by sowing seeds in seed plots
      Quota                                  or individual containers such as in cans or
      Quality / standards – buyers           plastic bags. Sow 3 to 4 seeds per
       requirements                           container. Use sterilized soil to avoid
      National regulations on health,        nematode infestation and damping-off.
       safety, employment and technical       Seedlings in the nursery should be grown
       standards (SLSI).                      under full sunlight to produce vigorous

and hardy seedlings. Care should be              complete fertilizer (14-14-14) with the
taken not to disturb the root system.            soil at the bottom of the hole before
Constant watering is essential until plants      planting. As papaya seedlings grow
are well-established. Seedlings are              rapidly with high fertilizer rate.
transplanted when there are 3 to 4
leaves.                                          Guide for papaya fertilization:

Thinning                                            1. Apply 60 grams of ammonium
                                                       sulfate as soon as plants are well-
Thin papaya seedlings in the field 4 to 6              established and show new growth.
weeks after emergence. Leave only 3 of              2. Apply the same amount at
the strongest seedlings in each hole.                  intervals of six weeks until plants
Save plants that are spaced far enough                 are one year old.
from one another to allow minimum                   3. Thereafter, apply 225 grams of
competition for sunlight and nutrients.                ammonium sulfate per plant every
                                                       three months.
The second and final thinning in the field          4. Apply 450 grams super phosphate
should be done as soon as flowers                      per plant at the start of rainy
appear. This is usually 4 to 6 months                  season every year.
after seed germination. At this stage,              5. In     potassium-deficient      soils,
leave one tree seedling per planting hole.             complete fertilizer with ratios 2:1:2
In plantation where female trees are                   or 2:1:3 is recommended.
grown, some pollinating trees of either
male or hermaphrodite forms should be            For location wise recommendations
preserved during the thinning process.           contact department of agriculture Sri
Allow one male plant to grow for every           Lanka.
15 to 20 female trees for pollination
purposes.                                        Weed Control

Care of Papaya Plantation                        Weeds can be controlled by mechanical
                                                 and chemical means. Hand-weed when
Establishment of Windbreaks                      papaya plants are less than 2- ½ meter
                                                 high. Always keep one meter area around
Windbreaks are necessary in areas where          the trunk free from weeds.
strong winds prevail. Local materials used
as windbreaks are Gliricidia. The distance       In large commercial papaya plantation,
between windbreaks varies with location.         weed control is done by using herbicides.
In general, a good windbreak should be           Spray pre-emergence herbicide to hinder
permeable, allowing some air to pass             weed control for six months without
through.                                         much damage to plants. Spray post-
                                                 emergence herbicides such as Paraquat
Fertilization                                    of Gramoxone plus a surfactant, at
                                                 intervals between sprays 5-6 weeks.
Factors such as soil types, rainfall,            Since papaya seedlings are very sensitive
locations, cultural practices, and age of        to chemical sprays, remove weeds close
plant influence fertilization practices. Start   to the seedlings manually.
fertilizing when seeds are planted or
when seedlings are transplanted in the
field. Mix a handful (5-10gms.) of

                                               5. Sri Lanka Fruit and Vegetable
Papaya can be grown as intercrop with             Producers     Processors   &
coconuts, coffee, pineapple or assorted           Exporters Association
vegetables. Intercropping with papaya
increases total farm income and reduces             Tele: - 011 – 4306139
weeding expenses. It is important to                        011 - 2821013
provide fertilizer requirement of the                       011 - 2856476
intercrop.                                          Email: - -
                                                    Web site: -

Key institutions                               6. Production and suppliers

   1. Department of Agriculture
                                          For more information
      Web site –
      Horticultural crop Research and
      Development Institute (HORDI)
      Tel: 081-2388011-3

      Fruit Crop Research Development
      Centre (FCRDC) Horana                      Export Agriculture Division
      034 - 2261323                       Sri Lanka Export Development Board
                                          No 42, DHPL Building, Nawam Mawatha,
   2. Sri Lanka Standard Institution                    Colombo 02.
      (SLSI)                                        Tele: 011 – 2300732
                                                     Fax: 011 – 2304879
      Tel : 011 – 2671567                     Email –
      Email –              Web site –
      Web site –

   3. Industrial             Technology
                                          Prepared by:-
      Institutes (ITI)                    M.Z.M. Farhad
                                          G.N. Arunathilake
                                          Export Agriculture Division
      Tele: 011 – 2693807-9               2007 / 02 / 02
             011 – 2698621-3
      Email –
      Web site –

   4. Industrial Development Board

      Tele: 011 – 2605326 – 7
             011 – 2605323
             011 - 2605394
      Email –
      Web site –


To top