6 : Motivation and Job Design 1 6 MOTIVATIONS & JOB DESIGN A. Job satisfaction. 1. Job satisfaction is the degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs. 2. Job satisfaction of other people may be inferred from careful observation of what they say and do while performing their jobs. 3. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) are two popular questionnaires that can be used for assessing job satisfaction. Both address important aspects of job satisfaction. B. Job satisfaction and performance. 1. The importance of job satisfaction can be viewed in the context of two decisions people make about their work: a decision to belong and a decision to perform. 2. The decision to belong concerns an individual’s attendance and longevity at work. Satisfied workers have more regular attendance and are less likely to quit their jobs. 3. The decision to perform is not as clear as the decision to belong. This is due to three possible alternative relationships between job satisfaction and performance. a. Satisfaction causes performance. 2 Motivation and Job Design (i) This alternative suggests that managers should focus on increasing employees’ job satisfaction in order to increase their performance. (ii) Research indicates that no simple and direct link exists between individual job satisfaction at one point in time and work performance at a later point. b. Performance causes satisfaction. (i) This alternative suggests that managers should focus on increasing employees’ job performance and as a result job satisfaction should increase. (ii) Research indicates an empirical relationship between individual performance measured at a certain time period and later job satisfaction. (iii) Rewards that equitably distributed serve to strengthen the linkage between performance and subsequent satisfaction. c. Rewards cause both satisfaction and performance. (i) The proper allocation of rewards can positively influence both performance and satisfaction. (ii) Research indicates that people who receive high rewards report high job satisfaction and that performancecontingent rewards influence a person’s work performance. (iii) The size and value of the reward should vary in proportion to the level of one’s performance accomplishment. d. Managers should consider performance and satisfaction as two separate but interrelated work outcomes that are influenced by the allocation of rewards. C. Integrating the motivation theories. 1. The linkage between satisfaction and performance helps to integrate the various motivation theories a. Note that these theories are much in common with Vroom’s expectancy theory and the Porter-Lawler framework, both process theories of motivation. b. According to the integrated model: (i) Motivation leads to work effort that, when combined with appropriate individual abilities and organizational support, leads to job performance. 6 : Motivation and Job Design 3 (ii) Job performance produces extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, and individuals consider the amount and value of these rewards in determining whether or not equity exists. (iii) Appropriate intrinsic rewards will enhance motivation to work hard in the future. (iv) Equitable extrinsic and intrinsic rewards will increase job satisfaction. (v) Improved job satisfaction should lead to increased motivation to work hard in the future. II. What are job-design approaches? A. Background on job design. 1. Job design is the process of planning and specifying job tasks and the work arrangements through which they are accomplished. 2. Alternative job-design approaches differ in the way required tasks are defined and in the amount of intrinsic motivation provided for the worker. a. Job simplification has a high degree of task specialization and a low level of intrinsic rewards. b. Job enlargement and rotation have moderate levels of both task specialization and intrinsic rewards. intrinsic rewards. c. Job enrichment has high levels of both task specialization and B. Scientific management. 1. Scholarly interest in job design can be traced in part to Frederick Taylor’s work with scientific management in the early 1900s. 2. Scientific management took the approach of studying a job carefully, breaking it into its smallest components, establishing exact time and motion requirements for each task, and training workers to do these tasks in the same way over and over again. 3. Job simplification, which grows out of the scientific management tradition, is the approach of standardizing work procedures and employing people in clearly defined and highly specialized tasks. a. Job simplification has the potential advantages of increasing operating efficiency by reducing the skills required to do a job, 4 Motivation and Job Design being able to hire low-cost labor, and minimizing the need for training. b. Job simplification has the potential disadvantages of loss of efficiency due to lower quality, high rates of absenteeism and turnover, and demand for higher wages to compensate for unappealing jobs. C. Job enlargement and job rotation. 1. Job enlargement increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks that were previously assigned to separate workers. a. Job enlargement is one form of horizontal loading. b. Horizontal loading increases job breadth by having the worker perform more and different tasks, but all at the same level of responsibility and challenge. 2. Job rotation increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving different tasks. a. Job rotation is another form of horizontal loading. b. Training is an important benefit of job rotation. D. Job enrichment. 1. Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation suggests that high levels of motivation should not be expected from jobs designed on the basis of simplification, enlargement, or rotation. To generate high levels of motivation, Herzberg advocates the use of job enrichment. 2. Job enrichment is the practice of enhancing job content by building into it more motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, and personal growth. 3. Job enrichment increases job content by giving workers more responsibility for planning and evaluating duties. 4. Job enrichment involves vertical loading to increase job depth. 5. Job depth can be increased by doing the following: a. Allow workers to plan. 6 : Motivation and Job Design 5 b. Allow workers to control. c. Maximize job freedom. d. Increase task difficulty. e. Help workers become task experts. f. Provide performance feedback. g. Increase performance accountability. h. Provide complete units of work. 6. Concerns about job enrichment include the following: a. Job enrichment can be very costly, especially when it requires major changes in workflows, facilities, or technology. increased when jobs are enriched. b. There is controversy concerning whether pay must be (i) Herzberg argues that if employees are being paid a truly competitive wage or salary, the intrinsic motivation associated with enriched jobs will be enough and pay will not need to be increased. III. What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? A. Job characteristics model. 1. The job characteristics model developed by Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham. According to this model, five different core job characteristics create three critical psychological states, which in turn produce four different work outcomes. In addition, the relationships between the core job characteristics and the critical psychological states and between the critical psychological states and individual work outcomes are influenced by three moderator variables. 2. Core job characteristics. a. Skill variety the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities and involves the use of a number of different skills and talents of the individual. completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work; one that b. Task identity the degree to which the job requires the 6 Motivation and Job Design involves doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. c. Task significance the degree to which the job is important and involves a meaningful contribution to the organization or society in general. substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures used in carrying it out. activities provides direct and clear information to the employee regarding how well the job has been done. d. Autonomy the degree to which the job gives the employee e. Job feedback the degree to which carrying out the work 3. The Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) is used to measure the extent to which each core characteristic exists in a job. The higher a job scores on each characteristic, the more enriched it is considered to be. 4. JDS measures are used to develop a motivating potential score, which is shown below: a. MPS = Skill variety + task identity + task significance x Autonomy x Feedback 3 b. The MPS indicates the degree to which the job is capable of motivating people. c. A job’s MPS can be raised by: (i) Combining tasks to create larger jobs. (ii) Opening feedback channels to enable workers to know how well they are doing. (iii) Establishing client relationships to experience feedback directly from customers. (iv) Employing vertical loading to create more planning and controlling responsibilities. 5. Critical psychological states –– the core job characteristics directly impact the following critical psychological states: a. Experienced meaningfulness of work. 6 : Motivation and Job Design 7 b. Experienced responsibility for the outcomes of the work. c. Knowledge of actual results of work activities. 6. Individual work outcomes –– the critical psychological states, in turn, influence the following job outcomes: a. High intrinsic work motivation. b. High-quality work performance. c. High job satisfaction with work. d. Low absenteeism and turnover. 7. The core job characteristics will not affect everyone in the same way. Employee growth-need strength, knowledge and skills, and context satisfaction will influence the extent to which people respond favorably to enriched jobs. a. Growth-need strength is especially important in affecting whether or not people respond favorably to job enrichment. desires the opportunity for self-direction, learning, and personal accomplishment at work. jobs. b. Growth-need strength (GNS) is the degree to which a person c. People with “high GNS” will respond most positively to enriched 8. Considerable research has been done on the job characteristics approach and the general conclusion is that the model and diagnostic approach are useful, but not yet perfect, guides to job design. B. Social information processing. 1. Social information processing theory argues that individual needs, task perceptions, and reactions are a result of socially constructed realities. 2. Social information in organizations influences the way people perceive their jobs and respond to them. 3. Research on social information processing indicates that both social information and core characteristics are important. C. Managerial and global implications. 8 Motivation and Job Design 1. Should everyone’s job be enriched? The answer is clearly “No.” The logic of individual differences suggests that not everyone will want an enriched job. 2. Can job enrichment apply to groups? The answer is “Yes.” The application of job-design strategies at the group level is growing in many types of settings. 3. What is the impact of culture on job enrichment? The answer is: “Substantial.” Research conducted in Belgium, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, the United States, and Germany found unique aspects of what constitutes work in each country. IV. Study Question 4: How are technology and job design related? A. Background on technology and job design. 1. Sociotechnical systems is an organizational behavior concept that reflects the importance of integrating people and technology to create high-performance work systems. 2. As computers and information technologies continue to dominate the modern workplace, the sociotechnical systems concept is essential for job design. B. Automation and robotics. 1. Automation allows machines to do work previously accomplished by human beings. 2. Automation increasingly involves the use of robots. C. Flexible manufacturing systems. 1. In flexible manufacturing systems, adaptive computer-based technologies and integrated job designs are used to shift work easily and quickly among alternative products. 2. Workers in flexible manufacturing systems deal with changeover from one product configuration to another rather the performing routine assembly-line tasks. 3. Workers in flexible manufacturing systems develop expertise across a wide range of functions, thereby enriching the core job characteristics. D. Electronic offices. 6 : Motivation and Job Design 9 1. Continuing developments in electronic offices offer job enrichment possibilities for those workers equipped to handle the technology. 2. Jobs in electronic offices can be stressful and difficult for those people who do not have the necessary education or skills. 3. People who work continuously with computers may experience physical ailments associated with repetitive movements. 4. Technology must be carefully integrated with the human factor. E. Workflow and process reengineering. 1. Process reengineering is the analysis, streamlining, and reconfiguration of actions and tasks required to reach a work goal. 2. The process design approach systematically breaks processes down into their specific components and subtasks, analyzes each for relevance and simplicity, and then does everything possible to reconfigure the process to eliminate wasted time, effort, and resources. 3. One simple question drives the process reengineering approach: “What is necessary and what else can be eliminated?” V. What alternative work arrangements are used today A. Background on alternative work arrangements. 1. Alternative ways of scheduling work are becoming increasing important because of demands for work-life balance and more family-friendly work environments. 2. Ethical and socially responsible management pays attention to the human factor in organizations one way of accomplishing this is with alternative work arrangements. B. Compressed workweeks. 1. A compressed workweek is any scheduling of work that allows a full-time job to be completed in fewer than the standard five days. 2. The most common form of compressed workweek is the “4/40” or 40 hours of work accomplished in four 10-hour days. 3. The potential advantages of the compressed workweek include the following: a. Additional time off for workers. 10 Motivation and Job Design b. Lower employee absenteeism and improved recruiting of new employees for the organization. 4. The potential disadvantages of the compressed workweek include the following: a. Individuals can experience increased fatigue from the extended workday and can have family adjustment problems. b. The organization can encounter work scheduling problems and customer complaints because of breaks in work coverage. c. Union opposition may occur in unionized companies. C. Flexible working hours 1. Flexible working hours, or flextime, gives individuals a daily choice in the timing of their work commitments. 2. Flextime increases individual autonomy in work scheduling and offers many opportunities and benefits such as shorter commuting time, more leisure time, more job satisfaction, and greater sense of responsibility. 3. For the organization, flextime decreases absenteeism, tardiness, and turnover, and increases employee commitment and performance. D. Job Sharing. 1. Job sharing occurs when one full-time job is assigned to two or more persons who then divide the work according to agreed-upon hours. 2. Organizations benefit from job sharing when they can attract talented people who would otherwise be unable to work. 3. Some job sharers report less burnout and claim that they feel recharged each time they report to work. 4. Job sharing should not be confused with a more controversial arrangement called work sharing, in which workers agree to cut back on the number of hours they work in order to protect against layoffs. E. Work at home and the virtual office. 6 : Motivation and Job Design 11 1. Telecommuting refers to work at home or in a remote location via use of computers and advanced telecommunication linkages with a central office or other employment locations. 2. Flexiplace is an arrangement wherein individuals work mostly from a home office and come into the corporate office only for special meetings. 3. Hoteling involves workers using temporary office space that is reserved for them when they visit the main office. 4. In the virtual office, the worker remains linked electronically with the home office while he/she works literally “from the road” and while traveling from place-to-place or customer-to-customer by car of airplane. 5. The potential advantages of telecommuting include the following: a. For individuals, telecommuting offers flexibility, the comforts of home, and choice of location consistent with one’s lifestyle. efficiency, and employee satisfaction. b. For organizations, telecommuting provides cost savings, 6. The potential disadvantages of telecommuting include the following: a. Telecommuters sometimes complain of isolation from co- workers, decreased identification with the work team, and technical difficulties with computer linkages essential to their work. F. Part-time work. 1. Temporary part-time work occurs when an employee is classified as “temporary” and works less than the standard 40-hour work week. 2. Permanent part-time work occurs when an employee is considered to be a “permanent” member of the workforce and works less than the standard 40-hour work week. 3. The potential advantages of part-time work include the following: a. Organizations use part-time work to control labor costs, help smooth out peaks and valleys in the business cycle, and retain highly skilled workers who only want to work part-time. than a full workweek for a variety of personal reasons. b. Part-time work can help individuals who want something less 12 Motivation and Job Design 4. The potential disadvantages of part-time work include the following: a. Increased stress for individuals who also hold a full-time job or one or more other part-time jobs. b. Part-timers often fail to qualify for fringe benefits and they may be paid less than their full-time counterparts.