Actions with Fractions Worksheet - PDF

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Actions with Fractions Worksheet - PDF Powered By Docstoc
					A PART OR A WHOLE?
Subject Matter: Fractions
Grade Level: 6
Time Allotment: One 45-minute class session
Master Teacher: Shella DelCurto

Overview
This lesson provides students with practice in using fractions, including equivalent fractions,
reducing fractions and paying attention to detail. Students will use M&M’s to learn how to use
objects to tell when fractions are equal. They will learn that different fraction names can still
refer to the same thing, i.e., 1/2, alias 3/6. The same can be said for a person’s name like
“Andrew Smith, alias Andy Smith.” It is still the same person to whom you are referring.

Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:

   •   Define numerator and denominator.
   •   Define equivalent fractions.
   •   Convert fractions to equivalent fractions.
   •   Reduce fractions.

Oregon Standards Available at:
http://www.ode.state.or.us/cifs


Math – Calculations & Estimations

Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers and number
systems.

   Numbers
   • Order, model and compare rational numbers (fractions, decimals and percentages).
   • Determine equivalent forms of fractions, mixed numbers and improper fractions.
2004 NTTI LESSON PLAN          A PART OR A WHOLE?            MASTER TEACHER: SHELLA DELCURTO



Media Components
Video

Check the link at http://www.opb.org/edmedia/trs/ to find access to the video(s) from
unitedstreamingTM referenced in this lesson plan.

   •    “The Zany World of Basic Math, Module 7: Fraction Basics” (06:49)
        o Clip: “Parts of a Fraction: Numerator and Denominator” (01:17)
        o Clip: “Reducing Fractions” (02:40)

   •    “Mathematical Eye: Fractions and Percentages” (20:07)
        o Clip: “Finding Fractions of a Whole” (04:57)

Web

   •    Mighty Math Number Heroes
        This is an interactive equivalent fraction game. A fraction is given and students must
        figure out the correct equivalent fraction in order to set off the fireworks. This game
        requires the free Shockwave plug-in to play. It will automatically download for you.
        http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/mmath/mmath_frac.html


   •    Melvin’s Make a Match
        This is a PBS CYBERCHASE interactive game where students match equivalent
        fractions to advance to more difficult levels. This game requires the free Flash plug-in.
        http://pbskids.org/cyberchase/games/equivalentfractions/equivalentfractions.html

   •    Fraction Frenzy
        This is an interactive game where you have to select equivalent fractions and beat the
        clock.
        http://www.learningplanet.com/sam/ff/index.asp

Materials
Per Student:

   •    Fractions Basics Module 7 Viewing Guide (Check the link at
        http://www.opb.org/edmedia/trs/ to find access to the blackline master(s) from
        unitedstreamingTM referenced in this lesson plan.)
   •    Fraction Basics Module 7 Worksheet (Check the link at http://www.opb.org/edmedia/trs/
        to find access to the blackline master(s) from unitedstreamingTM referenced in this lesson
        plan.)

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2004 NTTI LESSON PLAN         A PART OR A WHOLE?             MASTER TEACHER: SHELLA DELCURTO

   •   Fractions Basics Module 7 Check Your Knowledge Worksheet (Check the link at
       http://www.opb.org/edmedia/trs/ to find access to the blackline master(s) from
       unitedstreamingTM referenced in this lesson plan.)
   •   Fraction Basics Module 7 Activity Worksheet (Check the link at
       http://www.opb.org/edmedia/trs/ to find access to the blackline master(s) from
       unitedstreamingTM referenced in this lesson plan.)
   •   Additional Math Web Sites Handout (located at end of lesson plan)

Per Group:

   •   At least 12 M&M’s


Prep for Teachers
Divide the class into equal groups ahead of time and buy enough M&M’s so each group has at
least 12 M&M’s. To be safe, purchase an extra bag of candy as students may need more later on.

Prior to the lesson, download the video clips you will use for the class. Make sure you have the
latest version of Windows Media Player installed.

Download and run copies of all worksheets for each student. The worksheets are in the Teacher’s
Guide for the video, “The Zany World of Basic Math, Module 7: Fraction Basics.” (Check the
link at http://www.opb.org/edmedia/trs/ to find access to the blackline master(s) from
unitedstreamingTM referenced in this lesson plan.)

Reserve the computer lab for your class. Check all Web sites to make sure the links are working
and add them to favorites. Make sure the free Shockwave and Flash plug-ins are installed on all
computers.

When using media, provide students with a Focus for Media Interaction, a specific task to
complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video, Web sites or other
multimedia elements.

Make sure that students have a working knowledge of fraction reduction before attempting this
lesson.

Introductory Activity
Step 1: Begin class by telling students that a fraction is a part of a whole. Ask students if they
know what a numerator and denominator are. Explain that they are parts of the fraction. Give
students this memory technique. Tell them one number is UP above the line and one is DOWN
below the line. Numerator has a “U” in it, so it goes “Up,” and Denominator has a “D” so it is
“Down.”

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2004 NTTI LESSON PLAN          A PART OR A WHOLE?             MASTER TEACHER: SHELLA DELCURTO

Step 2: Give each group 12 M&M’s.

Step 3: Have each group split M&M’s in half. Talk about numerator over denominator: 6/12 =
1/2.

Step 4: Have each group split M&M’s into thirds. Talk about numerator and denominator: 4/12
= 1/3.

Step 5: Have each group split M&M’s into fourths. Talk about numerator and denominator: 3/12
= 1/4.

Step 6: If I had 24 M&M’s, how many would I need to equal 1/2? (1/2 = ?/24)

Step 7: If I had 24 M&M’s, how many would I need to equal 1/3? (1/3 = ?/24)

Step 8: If I had 4/24 M&M’s, what fraction would that reduce to?

Step 9: Show how to reduce fractions.

4 divided by 4 = 1

24 divided by 4 = 6

Learning Activities
Step 1: Give the students the Fractions Basics Module 7 Viewing Guide and the Fraction Basics
Module 7 Worksheet. Provide the students with a Focus for Media Interaction, telling them to
use the information from the video to attempt to write definitions for numerator and
denominator. Play the video clip, “Parts of a Fraction: Numerator and Denominator” (01:17),
from the video, “The Zany World of Basic Math, Module 7: Fraction Basics” (06:49).

Step 2: Ask students to share their definitions for numerator and then denominator. Write the
correct definitions on a whiteboard for all to see and explain why some definitions might be
incorrect and work together to correct them.

Step 3: Review the Fractions Basics Module 7 Viewing Guide, making sure students
comprehend the concepts. Then have them complete the Fraction Basics Module 7 Worksheet to
check their understanding.

Step 4: Play the next video clip, “Finding Fractions of a Whole” (04:57), from the video,
“Mathematical Eye: Fractions and Percentages” (20:07). As a Focus for Media Interaction, ask
students to pay particular attention to the strategies the students on the video use to divide wholes
into different fractions. They will be using those strategies later. Pause the video at 02:07. To


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2004 NTTI LESSON PLAN         A PART OR A WHOLE?             MASTER TEACHER: SHELLA DELCURTO

check for understanding, ask students to share a couple of strategies covered in the video clip.
You may want to write these on a place for all students to see.

Step 5: As a Focus for Media Interaction, ask students to consider the following two questions:
“Why didn’t the fractions add up without the extra camel?” and “Why did Cleo make all the
difference to the Arab’s will?” Play the rest of the video clip continuing from 02:07.

Step 6: As a class, discuss the answers to the two questions posed. Answers: Nineteen camels do
not easily divide into fractions of 1/2, 1/4 or 1/5 because nineteen only has factors of 1 and 19.
By adding another camel to the bunch, the total became 20, a numeral which has factors of 2, 4
and 5, so those fractions could be computed without having to work with less than whole camels.
Continue this discussion until you’re satisfied that your students understand these fraction
concepts.

Step 7: Have students use their M&M’s to explore different ways of dividing them up within the
group. Have students begin by dividing the M&M’s equally among the group members. Have
them tell you what fraction each member got. Let them explore and report other ways they could
divide the M&M’s.

Step 8: Provide students with a Focus for Media Interaction and play the final video clip,
“Reducing Fractions” (02:40), from the video, “The Zany World of Basic Math, Module 7:
Fraction Basics” (07:49). Have students pay close attention to how to reduce fractions. Tell
students that fractions can be different numbers but have the same value. Have them give a
definition of a factor at the end of the clip. To check for comprehension, ask a few students to
come to the front of the class and demonstrate what they’ve learned.

Step 9: If need be, repeat the section on factoring, making sure students understand the concept.
Then have students complete the Fraction Basics Module 7 Activity Worksheet.

Step 10: Now students are ready to test their knowledge with the Fraction Basics Check Your
Knowledge worksheet. Have students use their M&M’s to help them find their answers.

Culminating Activity
Step 1: Take students to the computer lab and have them go to one of the three Web sites listed
in the “Web” section above and try out the fun games. As a Focus for Media Interaction, ask
students to write down three things that they either learned or better understood through playing
these interactive Web games.

Step 2: When they have mastered one game, have them try the others.

Step 3: Save the last 10 minutes of class for students to share their lists. You may want to write
this on butcher paper for future reference.

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2004 NTTI LESSON PLAN         A PART OR A WHOLE?             MASTER TEACHER: SHELLA DELCURTO

Step 4: Give students copies of the Additional Math Web Sites handout and ask students who
have computer /Internet access at home to demonstrate their favorite Web site for their parents.

Cross-Curricular Extensions
English

   •   Ask students to write a story about another situation similar to Arab’s Will when
       understanding fractions might help to solve a disagreement. Share stories with other class
       members.

Art

   •   Brainstorm everyday ways you can show fractions without using pizza as an example.
       Ask students to create posters to be displayed around the school showing fractions in real
       life.

Community Connections
   •   Take a field trip to the local grocery store and ask students to collect information about
       item prices versus the per unit price. Some stores already have that on their product
       labels. Once you get back from the field trip, discuss the value of having such
       information computed for them by the store or knowing how to do it for themselves.

   •   Bring in someone who cooks to talk to the students about the importance of
       measurements in relation to fractions. Have the person give the students a demonstration
       using fractions in cooking -- for instance preparing the recipe for half the number of
       servings.




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2004 NTTI LESSON PLAN         A PART OR A WHOLE?            MASTER TEACHER: SHELLA DELCURTO



Additional Math Web Sites

Below is a list of some fun interactive math games to try at home:

http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/mmath/mmath_frac.html

http://pbskids.org/cyberchase/games/equivalentfractions/equivalentfractions.html

http://www.learningplanet.com/sam/ff/index.asp

http://www.illuminations.nctm.org/
You will need to go to “Interactive Math Tools” and then look for fraction games like “Fraction
Pie” or the “Fraction Game.”




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