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									         COA DEVELOPMENT
                                                 MSTP




                              A ININ
                       F TR         G
                     AF                 PR
                   ST




                                         OG
              TF
           MAG




                                           RA
                                             M
             DOCEMUS PRIMAM ACIEM




010531                                            1
            PURPOSE
                                 MSTP



• Understand how the tenets of MCPP
  facilitate COA Development
• Understand how to develop a COA
• Understand how to record and
  articulate a COA




                                  2
                          REFERENCES
                                       MSTP




COORD DRAFT MCDP 1-0

Marine Corps Operations




                                        3
              PURPOSE OF PLANNING
                                                                      MSTP
―Planning is the art of envisioning a desired end state and determining
effective ways of achieving that goal.‖
                                                           MCWP 5-1



  Whether done at strategic, operational, or tactical level the
  key functions of planning are to:

      Direct and coordinate actions
      Develop a shared situational awareness
      Generate common expectations about how
       actions will evolve and how they will effect the
       desired outcome
      Support the exercise of initiative
      Shape the thinking of the planners

The measure of a good plan is not whether it is executed as intended,
but whether it provides the basis for action…Can we act faster and 4
more effectively than the enemy?                          MCDP 5
                 TENETS OF MCPP
                                                   MSTP




         • Top-Down Planning
         • Single-Battle Concept
         • Integrated Planning



Allow for Centralized Planning and Decentralized Execution
                                                     5
                       TOP-DOWN PLANNING
                                                                          MSTP
                               OPERATIONAL DESIGN
  Visualize                    Describe   Battlefield Framework         Direct
                                           Deep, Close, Rear
                     CBAE                     (Single Battle)
                       &                        Main Effort
                    Guidance                      Reserve
      METT-T
  Decisive/Shapin                                 Security
  g
    Sustainment                           Warfighting Functions
                                           Integrated Planning      OPORD




                                      Battle Staff and OPT

Conceptual              Functional                           Detailed
                      The Planning Hierarchy

                                                                            6
                                                                         Execution
                     SINGLE BATTLE
                                                             MSTP
               JFC SINGLE BATTLE


   MAGTF SINGLE BATTLE
                              NAVFOR SINGLE
             Deep                BATTLE
             Close

             Rear




         JFC SINGLE
           BATTLE

The MAGTF Single Battle forms a portion of the JFC Single Battle
• Promotes Unity of Effort
• Centralized Planning aids the commander and the staff to control
  and coordinate the efforts of all available forces
                                                               7
• Decentralized execution generates tempo
                 COA DEVELOPMENT
                                                            MSTP
                      INTEGRATED PLANNING

                      Process:
                      • Develop initial COAs
                      • Commander’s input
                      • COA refinement
                          • Graphic & Narrative
                      • COA criteria
                          • Suitable
Input:                    • Distinguishable Output:
                          • Feasible         • Designated COAs
• Mission Statement
                          • Acceptable         for wargaming
• Refined intent
                          • Complete         • Wargaming guidance
• Planning guidance
                                             • Evaluation criteria




                                                              8
         ORIENT ON THE ENEMY
                                                       MSTP
      “We should see the enemy as he sees himself. ”
                                            MCDP -1




• Capabilities
   – strengths, weaknesses, critical
     vulnerabilities
• Doctrine
• Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures
• Current Intelligence


                                                        9
                 UPDATE INTEL and IPB
                                                                         MSTP

 • Intelligence Update--                               x
                                                           x
     – Refined and Prioritized Threat COAs                     x
         • Enemy Most Likely and Most Dangerous COAs           ML
         • High Value Target List                                   MD




     – Situation Template




                                     21

                                              15
     – Initial Event Template
                                          x



Focus IPB and Intelligence products based on                              10
 HVTs and how you think the enemy will fight           SLOPE & ELEVATION ANALYSIS
     REVIEW APPROVED MISSION STATEMENT
                                                MSTP




On order, I MEF attacks in zone to defeat the 1st
tactical echelon in order to prevent the 1st tactical
echelon from attacking the JTF main effort’s
eastern flank.




                                                 11
 ESSENTIAL TASK & PURPOSE
                                                     MSTP


                            Regardless of COA, the unit must
                            accomplish the higher
                            commander’s intent by
                            understanding its essential task(s)
                COA 2       and purpose and its unique
   COA 1                    contribution to the higher
                TASKS FOR   Commander’s mission success.
TASKS FOR        THIS COA
 THIS COA




        COA 3           Essential Task(s) and Purpose
       TASKS FOR
        THIS COA
                         Is common to all COAs


                                                      12
       REVIEW CBAE AND PLANNING GUIDANCE
                                                                                       MSTP
     ―Operational Design helps the commander translate operational
     requirements into tactical guidance.‖            MCDP 1- 0 (Final Draft)



                                          X

                  SHAPING           102
                                                                         DECISIVE ACTION
                  ACTION                                      II

                                                          1        101
                                                                         X
CBAE and Commander’s                                               3              21
vision of:                                                         X
                                               X
• Decisive Action                                             2              21
                                           1         21
• Shaping Action
• Sustainment
                              SHAPING
                               ACTION
                                                   SUSTAINMENT                         13
         REVIEW CBAE AND PLANNING GUIDANCE
                                                                          MSTP
  Commander’s Vision of Decisive Action, Shaping Action, and Sustainment

INTENT: The purpose of this operation is to prevent the 1st tactical echelon
from attacking the JTF main effort’s eastern flank.

METHOD: To support the higher commander’s plan, we have to keep the
reserve mechanized brigade from committing against our higher commander’s
main effort or being used decisively against my forces. I want to shape the
enemy by having him first commit his reserve armor battalion against my
supporting effort. Simultaneously, by using lethal and non-lethal fires, I want to
control the timeline for the commitment of the enemy’s reserve Armored
brigade and, once committed against my forces, I want to disrupt his
capability to maneuver. These shaping actions will allow me to fix the enemy
reserves while I mass my combat power at the time and place of my choosing. I
want to avoid the enemy’s fixed defenses to defeat the mechanized brigades
and focus my decisive action against the reserve armor brigade. Once
defeated, I want to rapidly focus on the defeat of his remaining mechanized
and reserve units that were fixed by my supporting effort.

                                                                           14
       REVIEW CBAE AND PLANNING GUIDANCE
                                                                      MSTP
Commander’s Vision of Decisive Action, Shaping Action, and Sustainment
ENDSTATE: Defeat the enemy’s first tactical echelon and have the 102d
Armored Bde commit to reinforce first tactical echelon. Once committed I
want them defeated.
COG: I see the enemy’s tactical strength as his mobile reserves. I cannot
let the enemy commit these reserves in a decisive manner. I want to exploit
my center of gravity— my superior tactical mobility— and combined arms.
BATTLESPACE: I see the enemy maximizing the use of obstacles and
terrain to fix our forces, then exploit with fires and mobile counterattack
forces. Maximize the use of our aviation as well as JFACC assets in our
deep operations. I am concerned about enemy units penetrating my
eastern flank as well as reinforcing from the north. Ensure that we
maximize the use of theater collection assets to identify and monitor these
enemy units.
CCIRs: How long will it take the of 102d Armored Brigade to be able
reinforce the 1st Tactical Echelon?
Can the 2nd and 3rd armored battalions of the 101st Armored Brigade
reinforce enemy forces in our AO prior between H-24 to H+24?           15
         REVIEW CBAE AND PLANNING GUIDANCE
                                                                      MSTP
  Commander’s Vision of Decisive Action, Shaping Action, and Sustainment

GUIDANCE: I want a viable security force protecting the flank of my main
effort. My sustainment must be task organized and positioned forward to allow
the force to maintain operational momentum. Consider an attack on the flank
and a turning movement. I want a regimental size force that is capable of
defeating the 102d Armored Bde.




                                                                       16
         REVIEW CBAE AND PLANNING GUIDANCE
                                                                                                                       MSTP
                                          X

                                102
I see the enemy’s
tactical strength as his                                                             II
mobile reserves. I
                                                                            1                      101 X
cannot let the enemy
commit these reserves                                                                          3                  21
                                                                                               X
in a decisive manner. To                                  X     •CHORWAN
                                                                            •463


support the higher                                                                  2        •TOPKAK         21
commander’s plan, I will                      1                      21               •43
                                                                                                       •47




have to keep the                                •YONGCHON
                                                                                   •UNCHON


reserve armored
brigade from                                  •CHONGKOK

                                                              •37

committing against our
higher commander’s                                                                           •47




main effort or being                     •3



used decisively against       The purpose of this operation is to prevent the
                           •TONGDUCHON
                                                                      •43




my forces                     1st tactical echelon from attacking the JTF
                                                                     •POCHON




                              main effort’s eastern flank.              17
         REVIEW CBAE AND PLANNING GUIDANCE
                                                                                                          MSTP
                                         X

                           102                               I want to shape the
Simultaneously,                                              enemy by having
by using lethal         SHAPING                              him first commit
                                                II
and non-lethal          ACTION                               his reserve
fires, I want to                           1        101 X    armored battalion
control the                                                  against my
                                SHAPING            3          21
timeline for the                                   X         secondary effort.
                                 ACTION
                                    X
commitment of                                                •CHORWAN
                                                                         •463



                                               2
the enemy’s                     1       21
                                                          21
                                                                                   •43
                                                                                          •TOPKAK


                                                                                                    •47

reserve armored
brigade and,                                   •YONGCHON
                                                                                •UNCHON



once committed
against my                                   •CHONGKOK

                                                           •37

forces, I want to
                                                                                          •47

disrupt his
capability to                           •3
                                                                   •43

maneuver.        These shaping actions will allow me to fix the enemy
                          •TONGDUCHON

                                                                  •POCHON


                reserves while I mass my combat power at the time
                and place of my choosing.                        18
  REVIEW CBAE AND PLANNING GUIDANCE
                                                                                                               MSTP
                                    X

                          102
                                                                                               DECISIVE ACTION
                    SHAPING                                                  II
                    ACTION
                                                                    1                      101 X

                                   SHAPING                                             3                  21
                                                                                       X
                                    ACTION
                                        X               •CHORWAN
                                                                    •463



                                                                            2        •TOPKAK         21
                                        1                    21               •43
                                                                                               •47




                                          •YONGCHON
                                                                           •UNCHON




                                        •CHONGKOK

                                                      •37




                                                                                     •47




I want to exploit my tactical center of gravity, my superior tactical
                                   •3


mobility, and combined arms. I want to avoid the enemy’s fixed
                                                              •43
                     •TONGDUCHON

                                                             •POCHON
defenses to defeat the mechanized brigades and focus my
decisive action against the reserve armored brigade.                                                             19
      REVIEW CBAE AND PLANNING GUIDANCE
                                                                                                                  MSTP
                                       X

                             102
                                                                                                  DECISIVE ACTION
I want a viable         SHAPING                                                 II
security force          ACTION
protecting the                                                         1                      101 X
flank of my main                                                                          3
                                      SHAPING                                                                21
effort.                                                                                   X
                                       ACTION
                                           X               •CHORWAN
                                                                       •463                                              II
                                                                               2        •TOPKAK         21
                                           1                    21               •43

My sustainment                                                                                    •47




must be task                                 •YONGCHON
                                                                              •UNCHON


organized and
positioned forward                         •CHONGKOK

                                                         •37

to allow the force to
                                                                                        •47

maintain operational
momentum.‖                            •3
                                                                 •43
                        •TONGDUCHON

                                                                •POCHON



                                                          SUSTAINMENT
                                                                                                                    20
               ENEMY CENTER OF GRAVITY
                                                                                      MSTP
COG analysis, based on expected enemy COA, helps the commander
orient on the enemy. It provides a framework from which to identify
enemy HVTs and subsequent HPTs

CENTER OF GRAVITY                            CRITICAL VULNERABILITIES

Mobile Reserves                               C2 Vulnerable To Attack And Neutralization
102 Armored Bde
                                              Inadequate Air Defense
                                              Logistics
                                              Wireless Communications System
                                              Vulnerable To Electronic Attack And
                                              Physical Destruction


     HIGH-VALUE TARGET (HVT)                                  HIGH-PAYOFF TARGET (HPT)
Assets that the enemy commander                             A target whose loss to the enemy
requires for the successful completion                      will contribute to the success of
of a specific course of action                              the friendly course of action
                                                                                          21
                                         Some become HPTs
     FRIENDLY CENTER OF GRAVITY
                                                         MSTP


CENTER OF GRAVITY         CRITICAL VULNERABILITIES
 Combined Arms and           Rear Area
  Tactical Mobility             • Heavily dependent on fuel
                                • Supply SPODs vulnerable

                             Command and Control




     Use Decisively and Protect Friendly CVs              22
         RELATIVE COMBAT POWER ASSESSMENT
                                                                            MSTP
             Macro Element of Combat Power: Equipment and Organizations

                           MEF      ENEMY                  REMARKS
EQUIPMENT
TANKS                      116        143     + QUAL/READINESS/TGT SYSTEM/QUANTITY
ARTY                       108        72      + ACCURACY/MASS/AMMO/QUANTITY

240MM MORT                  0         24      - QUANTITY

ARMORED INF VEH            504       144      + QUAL/READINESS/TGT SYSTEM

UNITS
TANK BNS                    2         3       + QUAL/READINESS/TGT SYSTEM

INF BNS                    18         9       + QUAL/READINESS/QUANTITY & MOBILITY

AIRCRAFT
F/A-18                     36                        Helps To Determine:
                                       • What type of operation possible
AV-8B                      32
                                       • How and where the enemy may be vulnerable
AH-1W                      36          • What additional resources may be required
                                       • How to allocate existing resources   23
 RELATIVE COMBAT POWER ASSESSMENT
                                                              MSTP

                        ** Senior officers well educated and
LEADERSHIP    GOOD      formally trained in the operational art
                        ** Experienced junior officers and
                        NCOs
                        **Excellent cohesion and esprit
 MORALE        HIGH     ** Well equipped
                        ** Troops have demonstrated
                        discipline in recent engagements
                        ** Usually fights as independent
 TRAINING    MARGINAL   brigades. Not experienced in
                        conducting and controlling multi-
                        brigade combined arms operations



  INTANGIBLE FACTORS -- What does it all mean?                    24
DISPLAY FRIENDLY FORCES
                                                                                                         MSTP
                                  X

                     102

                                                                          II

                                                                1                    101 X

                                                                                     3              21
                                                                                     X
                                             X
                                        •CHORWAN
                                                         •463



                                                                      2        •TOPKAK         21
                                  1                       21        •43
                                                                                         •47




                      •YONGCHON
                                                                •UNCHON




                    •CHONGKOK

                                      •37

              xx
                           xx                                                  •47




               •3
                                  xxx              •43
•TONGDUCHON

                                               •POCHON

                                             III
   xx
                                            FSS                                                          25
      USE THE BATTLEFIELD FRAMEWORK
                                                           MSTP

  ―Describes how the commander will organize his
  battlespace and his forces to achieve a decision.‖

Consists of--
  • Deep, Close, and Rear Operations
  • Organization of the Force into
         – Main Effort
         – Reserve
         – Security
                                       MCDP 1- 0 (Final Draft)




                                                            26
BATTLEFIELD FRAMEWORK
                                                                           MSTP
                   X
                                                                            DEEP
          102

                                        II
                                                                            CLOSE
                                    1        101 X

                                             3            21
                                             X
                       X                                                        II
                                        2            21
                   1          21




                                                                xx


           xx(-)                                                                REAR
                       xxx
                              III                                III (+)
     xx                      FSS
                                                                           27
                                                               Reserve
APPLYING BATTLEFIELD FRAMEWORK
                                                                                                        MSTP
                                    X                                                                    DEEP
                       102

                                                                         II
                                                                                                         CLOSE
                                                               1                    101 X

                                                                                    3              21
                                                                                    X
                                              X
                                          •CHORWAN
                                                        •463



                                                                     2        •TOPKAK         21
                                    1                    21        •43
                                                                                        •47




                        •YONGCHON
                                                               •UNCHON




                      •CHONGKOK

                                        •37




                                                                              •47


                                                                                                             REAR
                 •3
                                                  •43
   •TONGDUCHON

                                               •POCHON




                                                                                                        28
                                             UPDATE IPB
                                                                                                                                             MSTP
                                                                   X
 RESTRICTED                                                                               X
  TERRAIN
                                                     102                                                                    Actual vs. Templated
                                                                        102
AVENUE OF APPROACH
                                                                                                        II
 2    5   NAMED AREAS OF INTEREST
               [POINT, AREA]                                                                                               X
                                                                                               1                  101
                                                                                                                       3                21
                                                                                                                       X
     COA                                                                        X
                                                                         •CHORWAN
                                                                                              •463



 Development                                                                                                 2   •TOPKAK         21
                                                                   1                           21       •43

begins with the                                                                                                            •47




Event Template                                        •YONGCHON
                                                                                                     •UNCHON




                                                            AA 5
                                                                                                                                               AA 1
                                                          xx
                                                    •CHONGKOK
                                                                                                                                                III
                                                                       •37




                                                                                                                 •47



                                                                                                                                 AA 2
                                                                                                                                  III
                                       III   •3       III
                                                                             AA 3
                                                                                    •43
                                                                              III
                         •TONGDUCHON
                                             AA 4
                                                                                    •POCHON
                                              XX


     ―Maneuvers that are possible and dispositions that are essential are        29
      indelibly written on the ground.‖                             Infantry in Battle
                                    MAIN EFFORT
                                                                                                                          MSTP
                                                      X
                                                                                                                           DEEP
            JFC                          102


   Array Forces to                                                                         II
Achieve Decisive Action
                                                                                                                           CLOSE
                                                                                 1                    101 X
FORMS OF MANEUVER
• Frontal Attack                                                                                      3              21
                                                                                                      X
• Penetration                                                   X
                                                            •CHORWAN
                                                                          •463



                                                                                       2        •TOPKAK         21
• Infiltration                                        1                    21        •43
                                                                                                          •47


• Flanking Attack
                                          •YONGCHON
• Envelopment                                                                    •UNCHON


                                                                                                                          xx
      – Single
                                        •CHONGKOK


      – Double                                            •37




• Turning Movement                                                                              •47

                                            xx(-)                                                                               REAR
Look two levels down to            •3
                                                                    •43
allow you to properly•TONGDUCHON


task organize and                                                •POCHON


resource. Then task one            xx
level down                                                                                                                 30
                                           MAIN EFFORT
                                                                                                                                        MSTP
                                                             X
                                                                                                                                             DEEP
                                                                                                                              Relative Combat Power
                                                                                                                                      USMC Enemy
          JFC                                   102                                                                         Inf Bns     9      6
                                                                                                                            Tk Bns      1    2 Co
                                                                                                  II                        Tanks       58    20
 Relative Combat Power              Relative Combat Power
                                                                                                                            Arty        54 CLOSE
                                                                                                                                              36
       Assessment                              USMC Enemy
                                                                                                                            APC        252   242
                          Inf Bns                     1                                 1                    101 X
• Allows the commander    Tk Bns                      2
                                                                                                                            Sorties
  to compare his forces   Tanks                      62                                                                      F/W        30
                                                                                                             3              21
  to the enemy force.     Arty                       18                                                      X               R/W        40
                          APC                        36                X         •463

• Allows the commander to
                                                                   •CHORWAN

                          Sorties                                                             2        •TOPKAK         21
  resource and size the    F/W                  40           1                    21        •43

  force according to       JFACC               TBD
                                                                                                                 •47



 assigned tasks
                                                 •YONGCHON
                                                                                        •UNCHON

• Identifies risk and
  potential for asymmetric                                                       Relative Combat Power
                                                                                                                                        xx
  use of the force                             •CHONGKOK
                                                                                            USMC Enemy
                                                                 •37
                                                                            Inf Bns           6     3
                                                                            Tk Bns           Co   1(+) •47

                                                   xx(-)                    Tanks            14    61                                             REAR
                                          •3
                                                                            Arty             54    18
                      •TONGDUCHON
                                                                            APC
                                                                           •43
                                                                                             44   121
                                                                            Sorties
                                                                        •POCHON



                                          xx                                 F/W              20
                                                                             R/W              20                                             31
                                              RESERVE
                                                                                                                           MSTP
                                                       X
                                                                                                                            DEEP
A reserve must
have mobility                             102
equal to or greater
than the most                                                                               II
dangerous enemy                                                                                                             CLOSE
ground threat and                                                                 1                    101 X
it must be able to
                                                                                                       3              21
fight the most                                                                                         X
dangerous enemy                                                  X
                                                             •CHORWAN
                                                                           •463



ground threat                                                                           2        •TOPKAK         21
                                                       1                    21        •43
                                                                                                           •47



MCDP 1- 0 (Final Draft)                    •YONGCHON
                                                                                  •UNCHON


                                                                                                                           xx
Look two levels down to
                                         •CHONGKOK
allow you to properly
                                                           •37
task organize and
resource. Then task one                                                                          •47

level down                                   xx(-)                                                                               REAR
                                    •3
                                                                     •43
                      •TONGDUCHON

                                                                  •POCHON                                                       III (+)
                                    xx
                                                                                                                            32
                                                                                                                            Reserve
                                                RESERVE
                                                                                                                               MSTP
                                                         X                                                                      DEEP
A reserve must                                                             X
have mobility                               102
equal to or greater                                           102
than the most                                                                                   II
dangerous enemy                                                                                                                 CLOSE
                               Relative Combat Power Power
                                      Relative Combat
ground threat and                                                                     1                    101 X
                                   USMC Enemy
                                   USMC Enemy Shaping
it must be able to         Inf Bns
                           Inf Bns    3   11    2 Co
                                                                                                           3              21
fight the most             Tk Bns
                           Tk Bns     1   22      1                                                        X
                           Tanks         62
dangerous enemy            Tanks
                           Arty
                                     44
                                         18
                                           62  X 31            •CHORWAN
                                                                               •463



ground threat              Arty      18    18    12                                         2                        21
                           APC           36                                                          •TOPKAK

                           APC      184    361   24 21                                    •43
                           Sorties                                                                             •47
                           Sorties
                             F/W    40
MCDP 1- 0 (Final Draft)     F/W
                            JFACC TBD40      •YONGCHON
                                                                                      •UNCHON
                             R/W           40
                                                                                                                               xx
                                           •CHONGKOK

                                                             •37




                                                                                                     •47

                                                xx(-)                                                                                REAR
                                      •3
                                                                     •43
                      •TONGDUCHON

                                                                    •POCHON                                                         III (+)
                                      xx
                                                                                                                                33
                                                                                                                                Reserve
                                                       SECURITY
                                                                                                                                     MSTP
                                                                 X
                                                                                                                                      DEEP
Security Operations
                                                    102
protect the Force
from surprise and                                                                                     II
reduce unknowns                                                                                                                       CLOSE
in any situation                                                                            1                    101 X
    MCDP 1- 0 (Final Draft)
                                                                                                                 3              21
                                                                                                                 X
------------------------------------                                       X
                                                                       •CHORWAN
                                                                                     •463                                                  II
                                                                                                  2        •TOPKAK         21
                                                                 1                    21        •43

SCREEN – Observes and
                                                                                                                     •47



reports                                              •YONGCHON
                                                                                            •UNCHON


GUARD – Protects the                                                                                                                 xx
main force by fighting to                          •CHONGKOK


gain time                                                            •37




COVER – Operates apart
                                                                                                           •47

                                                       xx(-)                                                                               REAR
from the main force to
                                              •3
engage, delay, and                                                             •43
                                •TONGDUCHON
deceive the enemy                                                                     III                                                 III (+)
                                                                            •POCHON



                                              xx                                     FSS
                                                                                                                                      34
                                                                                                                                      Reserve
                                                                           SUSTAINMENT
         TIMING & SYNCHRONIZATION CONSIDERATIONS
                                               MSTP
                                                   X
                                                                                                                        DEEP
• Under what conditions               102
  do you commit the main
  effort and exploit                                                                    II
  success with the                                                                                                      CLOSE
  reserves ?                                                                  1                    101 X
• Do you need to phase
  the operation?                                                                                   3              21
                                                                                                   X
                                                             X
                                                         •CHORWAN
                                                                       •463



                                                                                    2        •TOPKAK         21
                                                   1                    21        •43
                                                                                                       •47




                                       •YONGCHON
                                                                              •UNCHON


                                                                                                                       xx
                                     •CHONGKOK

                                                       •37




                                                                                             •47

                                         xx(-)                                                                               REAR
                                •3
                                                                 •43
                  •TONGDUCHON

                                                              •POCHON                                                       III (+)
                                xx
                                                                                                                        35
                                                                                                                        Reserve
          TIMING & SYNCHRONIZATION CONSIDERATIONS
                                                MSTP
                                                    X                                                                        DEEP
                                                                         X
                                       102
                                                         102
                                                                                             II
                                                                                                                             CLOSE
                                                    H Hr to H+36
                                                               II 1                                     101 X

                                                               1                      101               3              21
                                                                                                        X
                                                               X
                                                          •CHORWAN
                                                                             •463



                                                                                         2        •TOPKAK         21
                                                    1                         21       •43
                                                                                                            •47




                                        •YONGCHON
                                                                                    •UNCHON
                                                                                                                                  H+22
                                                                                                                            xx
                                      •CHONGKOK

                                                        •37
                                                                             H+6
                                                                                                  •47

                                         xx(-)                                                                                    REAR
                                 •3

• How long will the                                                •43
                   •TONGDUCHON                           xx
  engagements take?                                            •POCHON                                                           III (+)
• What is the Enemy’s            xx                                                                                          36
  Decision Cycle?                                                                                                            Reserve
                           NESTED CONCEPTS
                                                                                       MSTP
                                                          T: Defeat the 1st tactical echelon
                                              XXX         P: Prevent the 1st tactical echelon
                                                          from attacking the JTF ME eastern
                                                          flank

             XX                                XX                                III      (rein)


T: ME, conduct flanking atk to        T: Disrupt 102d Arm Bde
                                                                               RES
defeat 2 mech bdes                                                         T: Defeat flank catk
                                      P: Prevent 102d reinforcing
P: Expose enemy’s eastern                                                  by either mech bde
                                      1st echelon and allow ME to
flank and cause commitment                                                 P: Sustain atk of main
of reserve Arm Bde                    maneuver to flank
                                                                           effort
T: Screen E. Flank               XX    (-)                                 T: O/O, ME, defeat 102
P: Prevent En mvmt into AO                                                 Armored Bde
                                                                    III    P: Complete the defeat
                                                                           of 1st echelon forces and
                   T: Fix Forward Mech Bde                   FSS           protect flank of JTF
                   P: Cause commitment of Enemy
                   Reserve armor bn               T: Conduct CSS in support of MEF
                                                  P: Support defeat of 1st Tactical      37
                                                  Echelon
             COMMAND AND CONTROL
                                                                MSTP
COA TASK ORGANIZATION
                                 XXX


       XX         XX             XX           III         III    (rein)
                           (-)
                                           FSS
       III         III                                  RES
                                                         II

       III          III


       III          II


        II           III     ―Looking two levels down facilitates
                             command and control…It allows you to task
                             organize and resource subordinates for
       III                   mission success.‖
                                                                38
                                                      Gen. W.E. Boomer
               CONTROL MEASURES
                                                                 MSTP
         Control Measures facilitate Command and Control
                                                        XXX


                                                     MEF Deep
• Delineate Responsibilities                   XX                XX

• Impose Restrictions                       Div Deep          Div Deep

• Provide Coordination                   Div Close
                                                        XX
                                                                 Div Close
                                                     MEF Close
• Decentralize Execution
                                            Div Rear          Div Rear
• Facilitate Operations and Tempo
                                               XX                XX



                                                     MEF Rear

                                                        XXX

 Developed with a COA and tested in the War Game
                                                                   39
                              CONTROL MEASURES
                                                                                                                                MSTP
                                                              X
                                                                                                                                 DEEP
• Boundaries                                     102
• Time of Attack
                                      xx                                                                        xx
• Axis of Advance                                                                            II                                  CLOSE
• Direction of Attack                                                                                           X
                                                                                    1                  101
• Limit of Advance
                                                                                                            3              21
• Fire Support Coordination                                                                                 X
  Measures                                                               X
                                                                    •CHORWAN
                                                                                   •463                                               II
                                                                                   X              2   •TOPKAK         21
                                                              1                    X21
                                                                                             •43
                                                                                                                •47




                                                  •YONGCHON
                                                                                          •UNCHON


                                                                                                                                xx
                                                •CHONGKOK

                                                                  •37



                                       xx                                                             •47             xx
                                                    xx(-)                                                                             REAR
Assign subordinates                        •3
                                                                             •43

Battlespace so they can •TONGDUCHON
                                                                        xxx
                                                                          •POCHON   III                                              III (+)
accomplish the mission and
protect the force                          xx                                      FSS
                                                                                                                                 40
                                                                                                                                 Reserve
      MCDP 1-0 (Final Draft)
      CONTROL MEASURES
                                                                                                        MSTP
                                      X
                                                                                                         DEEP
                         102

              xx                                                                        xx
                                                                     II                                  CLOSE
                                                                                        X
                                                            1                  101
                                                                                    3              21
                                                                                    X
                                                 X
                                            •CHORWAN
                                                           •463                                               II
                                                                          2   •TOPKAK         21
                                      1                     21       •43
                                                                                        •47




                          •YONGCHON
                                                                  •UNCHON


                                                                                                        xx
                        •CHONGKOK

                                          •37



               xx                                                             •47             xx
                            xx(-)                                                                             REAR
                   •3
                                                     •43
•TONGDUCHON
                                                xxx                                                          III (+)
                                                  •POCHON   III
                   xx                                      FSS
                                                                                                         41
                                                                                                         Reserve
                 CONTROL MEASURES
                                                                                                                       MSTP
                                                 X                                                                      DEEP
                                                                      X
O/O BOUNDARY                        102
                                                      102
                         xx                                                                            xx
                                                                                    II                                  CLOSE
                                                                                                       X
                                                                           1                  101
                                                                      II
                                                                                                   3              21
                                                                                                   X
                                                            1
                                                            X
                                                       •CHORWAN
                                                                          •463   101                                         II
                                                                                         2   •TOPKAK         21
                                                 1                         21       •43
                                                                                                       •47




                                     •YONGCHON
                                                                                 •UNCHON


                                                                                                                       xx
                                   •CHONGKOK

                                                     •37



                          xx                                                                 •47             xx
                                       xx(-)                                                                                 REAR
                              •3
                                                                •43
           •TONGDUCHON
                                                           xxx                                                              III (+)
                                                             •POCHON       III
                              xx                                          FSS
                                                                                                                        42
                                                                                                                        Reserve
                COA CRITERIA
                                                     MSTP

• Suitability
   • Accomplishes the Mission
   • Complies with Commander’s Guidance

• Feasibility
   • Time, Space, Resource Constraints

• Acceptability
   • Creates Advantage with Reasonable Cost in Resources
• Distinguishability
   • Forms of Maneuver
   • Main Effort
   • Sequential vs Simultaneous
• Completeness
   • Accomplishes all Tasks
   • Accomplishes the Purpose                          43
   DEVELOP SUPPORTING CONCEPTS
                                                        MSTP

Scheme of Maneuver is not enough for a complete COA!


          Concept of Operations
           – Concept of Fires
           – Concept of Intelligence
           – Concept of Logistics



      Do not develop supporting concepts in a vacuum.
            Integrate other functions (IO) as well.     44
               SYNCHRONIZE THE FORCE
                                                                         MSTP

      Warfighting Functions Synchronize the Force


JFC     MANEUVER   FIRES   INTEL   FORCE PROTECTION   COMMAND & CONTROL LOGISTICS


JFLCC   MANEUVER   FIRES   INTEL   FORCE PROTECTION   COMMAND & CONTROL LOGISTICS


MEF     MANEUVER   FIRES   INTEL   FORCE PROTECTION   COMMAND & CONTROL LOGISTICS


MSCs    MANEUVER   FIRES   INTEL   FORCE PROTECTION   COMMAND & CONTROL LOGISTICS




Synchronization begins in the development of the concept of
                                                     45
      operations and its nested supporting concepts
CONCEPT OF INTELLIGENCE
                          MSTP



   • COLLECTION PLAN
   • CCIRs / PIRs
   • R&S PLAN
   • COUNTER-RECON PLAN




                          46
                             CONCEPT OF INTELLIGENCE
                                                                                                                                                    MSTP
                                                 INITIAL EVENT TEMPLATE
     HVTs to HPTs                                X
                     X

           102
                                          102
                                                                     21
           II                II
                                                                                         II
1                 102 2            102
                                                                               1                     101 X

       II                    II                                             20
                                                                          •CHORWAN
                                                                                              •463

                                                                                                     3                   21
                                                                                                     X             •TOPKAK         How He Fights = HVTs
3                102     2         301                       X                                           •43
                                                                                                                                 •47


                                                                                         2                         21
                                                                                                                                       How does the enemy
                                                     1   •YONGCHON
                                                                          21                         •UNCHON                                 fight?
                                                                                                                                        Fix – Kill – Finish
                                                                                                               1
                                                                            Range
                                                     •CHONGKOK
                                                                             Fan
                                                                                                                                 • Maximize Terrain
                                                                      •37                                                    1




    RESTRICTED
                                                                                                                   •47
                                                                                                                                   Obstacles / Engineers
     TERRAIN
                                                •3
                                                                                   •43
                                                                                                                                 • Mass Indirect Fires
                                  •TONGDUCHON
AVENUE OF APPROACH
                                                                                   •POCHON
                                                                                                                                   Units / Assets
       5        NAMED AREAS OF INTEREST
                     [POINT, AREA]                                                                                               • Mobile CATK 47
                                                                                                                                   Counterattack Forces
                    CONCEPT OF FIRES
                                                                                 MSTP
• Review Targeting Priorities
   - JFC
   - MAGTF Commander

• Convert HVTs to HPTs based on the targeting priorities
  - Can collection assets acquire the HVT?
  - Can the HVT be attacked with either lethal or non-lethal assets?
  - Is the attack of the HVT necessary to the success of the friendly COA?

                                                                         X
• ID HPTs within those formations / facilities
                                                              102
• Develop conditions/MOE (success)
                                                              II                 II
• Allocate / request assets and plan to detect
• Integrate FS events or actions with maneuver           1          10 2                   10
                                                                    2                       2
  planning and Intel
                                                             II                  II

                                                        3           10       2             30
                                                                    2                       1


   Specific Units or elements / capabilities within units                             48
            EFFECTS OF FIRES
                                                          MSTP

What fires can conceptually do for you.
• Disrupt - Break apart, disturb or interrupt an
  enemy function.
• Delay - Slow the arrival of a unit (formation) on
  the battlefield.
• Limit - Restrict where the enemy can pursue a
  COA.
• Divert - Tie up critical enemy resources.

• Destroy       The intensity of fires required to achieve the
                desired effect specified by Disrupt, Delay,
• Neutralize    Limit, or Divert are determined during
• Suppress      wargaming
                                                           49
             FIRES WORKSHEET TTP
                                                                                    MSTP

                BRANCH                    GO TO # ______

                        #
          FS EVENT                    TAI 12

          PURPOSE     FR FORM          EFFECT
DECIDE                                                                      COA DEVELOPMENT
                                        Enable the engagement
                    Res Regt (rein)     of the Operational Reserve at the
                                        time / location of our choosing

            TASK        EFFECT           FORM/FUNC
                                        102d Armor Bde
                         Delay            Movement
          METHOD            PRIMARY      ALTERNATE
                            JSTARS             Force
           COLL. ASSET
DETECT                        UAV              Recon

           TRIGGER                    NAI 21
DELIVER                     UNIT(S)       TGTS/ MUNITIONS                   COA WAR GAME
           WEAPON/
           MUNITIONS          MAW
           EFFECTS       102d Armor Bde unable to reinforce
ASSESS                   1st echelon by H+36
           REMARKS
                                                                                     50
         CONCEPT OF SUPPORT
                                       MSTP



• Capabilities / Capacities vs. Requirements
• Phasing and shifting of priorities
• Priority of Effort / Priority of Work
• Tasks, Responsibilities, and Support
  Relationships
• Organization on the ground
• Potential displacements
• Planned operational pauses

                                       51
             OTHER CONCEPTS
                                                MSTP
             INFORMATION OPERATIONS


Deception

TARGET: 1st Tactical Echelon Commander

OBJECTIVE: Enemy commander perceives the
 supporting attack to be the Main Effort and
 commits the Reserve Armored Battalion against the
 supporting attack

STORY: Main attack will occur in the West and the
  ME division is a follow and support force

                                                    52
PUTTING IT ALL                                                                 DETECT
                                              X
TOGETHER DECIDE                                                H+24
                                   102                                           H+36                            DEEP
                                                          21              5

                                                                                               ASSESS
                      xx                                                  II                   xx
                                                                                                                 CLOSE
                                                                1                    101        X
                                                               20
                                                                                           3               21
                                                                                           X
                                                     X
                                                  •CHORWAN       4
                                                                •463                                                  II
              DELIVER                                                            2   •TOPKAK          21
                                              1                     21         •43
                                                                                                •47




                                  •YONGCHON            H+12              •UNCHON


                                                                                                                xx
                                •CHONGKOK

                                              •37



                       xx                                                            •47            xx
                                    xx(-)                                                                            REAR
                           •3
                                                         •43
        •TONGDUCHON
                                                    xxx                                                              III (+)
                                                       •POCHON   III
                           xx                                   FSS
                                                                                                                 Reserve
          RECORDING and ARTICULATING a COA
                                                                                                               MSTP
 A Complete COA includes:                   Complete COA Graphic and Narrative
                                                                                                                  L
• Who: Task Organization                                  X                                                    FSC
                                                                    H+24
• What: Tasks for each unit                       102                                   H+36
• Where: Delineation of Battlespace                                 21              5

• When: Time for designated activities to                                TAI 12
                                                                                II              xx
         occur
                                                                         1                101    X
• How: Method                                                        20
• Why: Purpose                                                                              3
                                                                                            X
                                                                                                          21
                                                               X         4                                                  II
                                                                                    X 2
• Single Battle -- Deep, Close, and                       1                  21 X
                                                                                                     21

  Rear Ops
                                                                H+12
• Main Effort
                                                                                                                      xx
     – Supporting Effort / Attack
• Reserves
• Security                                   xx                                                  xx
                                                  xx(-)
• Sustainment
• Control Measures                                            xxx
                                                                         III                                               III (+)
• Ground/Air Axis of Advance                 xx                      FSS

• HQ Locations                                                                                                         Reserve


• Assembly Areas                            Not only a GCE CONOPS,
• ACE Bed-down sites and CSSAs
• Reconnaissance and Security                 but a complete MEF 54
  Operations                                    Course of Action
COMPLETE COA GRAPHIC
                        X
                                  H+24
                102                                  H+36
                                  21            5


                                                II             xx

                                       1                 101    X
                                   20
                                                           3             21
                                                           X
                             X         4                                            II
                                                     2              21
                        1                  21

                              H+12
                                                                              xx


          xx                                                        xx
                xx(-)

                            xxx                                                    III (+)
                                        III
           xx                          FSS
                                                                               Reserve
               COMPLETE COA NARRATIVE
                                                                      MSTP

On order the MEF attacks in zone to defeat the first echelon. Close
Operations—In the west, a division (-) conducts a supporting attack to fix the
forward mechanized brigade and cause the commitment of the enemy reserve
armor battalion. To support this attack our deception effort will focus on
portraying this supporting attack as our main effort. Upon the commitment of
the enemy reserve, our main effort, consisting of a division, conducts a
flanking attack through the gap between the two defending mechanized
infantry regiments and defeats the enemy armor battalion. Fires will disrupt
any movement of the two mechanized enemy brigades and the enemy
divisions command and control. The reserve is a mechanized regiment (rein)
that follows the main effort and is prepared to defeat a flank counterattack
from either enemy mechanized infantry brigade. If not committed against the
two mechanized brigades, O/O it will defeat the enemy reserve armored
brigade. Deep Operations—The Wing disrupts the reserve armored brigade
from reinforcing the first echelon. Rear Operations—FSSG conducts CSS to
support the main effort and conducts refuel on the move to maintain
operational momentum. Security— Division screens the eastern flank.

                                                                        56
On order the MEF attacks in zone to         COA 1 GRAPHIC and NARRATIVE
defeat the first echelon. Close
Operations—In the west, a division (-)            FLANKING ATTACK
conducts a supporting attack to fix the
forward mechanized brigade and cause
the commitment of the enemy reserve                                                                            CL
armor battalion. To support this attack
                                                        X                                                    FS
our deception effort will focus on                                H+24
portraying this supporting attack as our        102                                   H+36
main effort. Upon the commitment of                               21              5
the enemy reserve, our main effort,
consisting of a division, conducts a                                   TAI 12
flanking attack through the gap between                                       II              xx
the two defending mechanized infantry
regiments and defeats the enemy armor                                  1                101    X
battalion. Fires will disrupt any
                                                                   20
movement of the two mechanized                                                            3             21
enemy brigades and the enemy                                                              X
divisions command and control. The                           X         4                                                  II
reserve is a mechanized regiment (rein)                                           X 2              21
that follows the main effort and is                     1                  21 X
prepared to defeat a flank counterattack
from either enemy mechanized infantry                         H+12
brigade. If not committed against the                                                                               xx
two mechanized brigades, O/O it will
defeat the enemy reserve armored
brigade. Deep Operations—The Wing
disrupts the reserve armored brigade       xx                                                  xx
from reinforcing the first echelon. Rear        xx(-)
Operations—FSSG conducts CSS to
support the main effort and conducts                        xxx
refuel on the move to maintain                                          III                                              III (+)
operational momentum. Security—            xx                          FSS
Division screens the eastern flank.                                                                                  Reserve
On order the MEF attacks in zone to
                                               COA 2 GRAPHIC and NARRATIVE
defeat the first echelon. Close                       ENVELOPMENT
Operations—In the east a division
conducts a supporting attack to fix the
forward mechanized regiments and
                                                                                                                S CL
cause the commitment of the enemy                                   X                                          F
reserve armor battalion. To support this
attack our deception effort will focus on                     102
portraying this supporting attack as our                                                     H+36
                                                                                                H+24
main effort. Upon the commitment of
the enemy reserve, our main effort,                                            TAI 12            6
consisting of a division (-), conducts an                                               II                 xx
envelopment in the west and defeats                                                             22
the enemy armored brigade. Fires will                                               1        101 X
disrupt any movement of the two                                                20
mechanized enemy brigades and the                                                            3            21
enemy divisions command and control.                                                         X
                                                                         X      4
The reserve is a mechanized regiment




                                                              XX
(rein) that follows the main effort and is               II                             2            21
                                                                    1           21
prepared to defeat a flank counterattack
                                             xx (-)
from either enemy mechanized infantry
brigade or the armor battalion. Deep                                          H+12
Operations—The Wing disrupts the
forward mechanized infantry brigades
from reinforcing to the West. Rear
Operations—FSSG conducts CSS to                          xx                                          xx
support the main effort and conducts           III (+)                   XX
refuel on the move to maintain
operational momentum. Security—              Reserve                    xxx
Division screens the eastern flank of the                                       III                  xx
main effort.                                                                   FSS
      COA TASK ORGANIZATION
                                                        MSTP
                         XXX


XX        XX              XX          III         III    (rein)
                 (-)
                                    FSS
III       III                                   RES
                                                 II

III       III


III        II


 II        III


III
                                                        60
                       Brief the Task Organization for each COA
     COA DEVELOPMENT BRIEF
                                     MSTP

• Updated Intel Estimate
• Enemy Most Likely and Most
  Dangerous COAs
• Mission Statement
• HHQ Commander’s Intent
• Own Commander’s Intent
• Commander’s Planning Guidance
• Relative Combat Power Assessment
• COA Task Organization
• COA(s) Graphic and Narrative
• Rationale for COA(s)
• Updated Facts and Assumptions      61
               SYNCHRONIZATION MATRIX
                                                                                                                          MSTP
                             Capture Critical Events for Wargaming
 TIME/EVENT                       Pre H-Hr                           H to H + 18                                 H + 18 to H + 36

Enemy Action                    En in Position Def      Fix & defeat Sptng Atk -Rein with 101 Armor Bn    H+22 IDs ME / 102 Armd Bde Rein


DECISION PT.                    Confirm EN COA           DP #4 – 101 Armor Bn Res Commits                 DP # 5 102 Armd Bde commits

               DEEP                                     ACE delays 102 Arm Bde                           ACE SE delays 102 Arm Bde
               CLOSE          Counter Recon Sec Area SE Div (-) fixes 1st Bde -- ME moves H+10           ME Div attacks 2 & 3 Bde
               RESERVE                                                                                   Follows ME O/O defeat 102d Bde
MANEUVER
               REAR
               MOBILITY                                MSR’S for Support to Main Effort
               C-MOBILITY
                                                        Recon in Zone TAI 12;NAI 21
INTELLIGENCE
               NAI/TAI         DP #4 & 5 Active        NAI #20 – 101 Armor Bn moving                     NAI #21 – 102d Bde moving
               LETHAL                                  ACE:delay 102D / Disrupt 301/302 Arty Bn          Delay 102 Arm Bde & Arty
FIRES
               NON-LETHAL                              EW 101 Arm Bn to commit against SE

               SUSTAINMENT Est supply stockages        MCSSD’S with RCTs; estb FARP
                                                       per order
LOGISTICS
               TRANSPORT      Cndt Route Recon

                               Prep to shift ME
COMMAND                                                 Prepare to Shift Main Effort
& CONTROL      IO              Deception Execution      Disrupt 2d & 3d Mech Bdes C2 Nodes                Disrupt C2 Bn Level and above

                                                        C-Recon in Zone
FORCE                         HVA Protected             C-Terrorism                                       Screen E. Flank
                                                                                                                             62
PROTECTION                    MOPP – 0
               NBC/AIR DEF
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WARGAMING
                                                        MSTP

• Wargaming Guidance:
   – List of Friendly COAs to be wargamed against specific
     threat COAs
   – List of Critical Events (e.g. shifting the M.E.)
   – Level of Detail (e.g. two levels down)

• Evaluation Criteria:
    – Defeat of Threat COAs
    – Casualties
    – Speed
    – Success despite terrain or weather restrictions
    – Does the COA accomplish all identified tasks
    – Other

                                                        63
             TTP FOR COA DEVELOPMENT
                                                                MSTP
     •   COA Development
          – Review Enemy Lay-Down / Use IPB Products / Use Red Cell
          – Review Commander’s Operational Design / CBAE / Guidance
          – Display Friendly Forces
          – Assess Relative Combat Power
          – Review COGs/CVs
          – Review Essential Tasks
          – Develop Initial COAs in Concert With Cmdr’s Intent and
            Planning Guidance:
             • Forms of Maneuver
          – Develop COAs
             • Array your Forces
             • Delineate Battlespace
             • Synchronize Actions
          – Brief the CG / Battlestaff on initial COAs
          – Develop Supporting Concepts – Intel, Fires, & Log
          – Plan for Assessment
     •   Develop a Complete COA Narrative/Sketch
                                                                 64
FIGHT AS A MAGTF -- Not as a separate GCE, ACE, and CSSE
           SUMMARY
                                MSTP

Course of Action must --

• Orient on the Enemy
• Satisfy the Mission
• Comply with Commander’s
  Guidance
• Synchronize the Warfighting
  Functions




                                65
                    MSTP




MSTP OBSERVATIONS

   HIDE SLIDES


                    66
       DECISIVE ACTIONS & SHAPING
                                              MSTP

• No common understanding within the MEF of the
  anticipated decisive action for the operation

• No linkage of decisive actions and shaping to the
  main and supporting efforts

• Shaping plan not developed beyond the
  conceptual level to include objectives, tasks and
  MOEs

• Friendly COG viewed as a resource to be
  protected vice as the principal source of strength
  to be applied decisively against the enemy 67
      LACK OF A SINGLE BATTLE
                                           MSTP

• MEF often subdivides battlespace into
  close, deep, and rear and fails to focus the
  efforts of these three into a unified effort
• No MEF level scheme of maneuver with
  multiple GCEs
• Maneuver, fires and intelligence not
  mutually supporting or functioning in stove
  pipe fashion
• MSC CONOPS do not add up to MEF
  mission
                                            68
    MAIN & SUPPORTING EFFORTS
                                             MSTP


• No linkage/connection between friendly COG,
  enemy CVs, decisive actions and the
  designation of main effort

• Preplanned shifting of main effort with no
  articulation of anticipated conditions, or
  opportunity that is to be capitalized on for
  decisive effect



                                             69
        USE OF THE RESERVE
                                        MSTP


• Designation of the reserve often
  unintentionally omitted.
• Reserve not capable of performing
  assigned missions.
• Reserve overtaxed with multiple
  missions, or already committed with O/O
  missions.




                                            70
 RELATIVE COMBAT POWER ASSESSMENT
                                      MSTP



• Relative Combat Power Assessment
  – Not conducted
  – Not understood
  – Not utilized as a planning tool




                                      71
           COA DEVELOPMENT
                                                 MSTP


• Complete COAs rarely developed
  – Lack details to form the basis for a concept of
    ops
  – Incomplete narratives
  – Fail to cover all elements of the Single Battle
  – Supporting Concepts not developed
  – Lack control measures to delineate battlefield
    responsibilities and facilitate tempo
• Terminology and Graphics do not provide
  common understanding
• Wargame becomes COA Dev
                                                  72
               INTELLIGENCE
                                               MSTP


• Intelligence analysis often is not timely,
  accurate, or relevant to commanders
• The collection management process often
  fails to support concept of the operation




                                               73
                  INTELLIGENCE
                                                            MSTP


• Intelligence analysis often is not
  timely, accurate, or relevant to
  commanders
  – Analysis rarely considers enemy intentions or decision
    points
  – Staffs frequently overlook how terrain and weather impact
    operations
  – G2 participation in war games often is not meaningful
  – INTSUMs and INTREPs rarely are relevant or timely



                                                             74
                   INTELLIGENCE
                                                            MSTP

• Intelligence analysis often is not
  timely, accurate, or relevant to
  commanders
  – G2 seldom answer commander’s BDA requirements

  – G2 briefing officers rarely provide commanders terse,
    relevant information

  – Staffs are not sustaining their IPB efforts



                                                            75
                  INTELLIGENCE
                                                            MSTP


• The collection process often fails to
  support concept of the operation
  – Commanders often fixate on a single sensor--UAV or
    JSTARS

  – G2s are not using intelligence handover lines to delineate
    responsibility for collection, analysis, and reporting

  – Intelligence and reconnaissance are not integrated or
    complementary

  – G2s rarely treat collection planning as a continuous process

  – G2s do not change collection tasks after updating PIR and
    intelligence requirements
                                                             76
                   MANEUVER
                                                    MSTP


• Commanders and staffs do not synchronize
  reconnaissance to support the close fight

• G3s and planners do not visualize the operation
  through the desired end state to ensure success
  of the main effort

• Commanders and staffs do not maintain
  momentum or aggressively seize the initiative
  during the fight



                                                    77
                   MANEUVER
                                                  MSTP


• Commanders and staffs fight the plan, not the
  enemy

• G3s do not anticipate and plan transitions

• Commanders conduct deep operations without
  appropriate planning




                                                  78
                     MANEUVER
                                                             MSTP

• Commanders and staffs do not synchronize
  reconnaissance in support of the close fight
  – CDRs do not state reconnaissance objectives to support PIR
  – CDRs do not employ all divisional assets to gain and
    maintain contact with the enemy
  – Units frequently lose and do not regain contact with the
    enemy
  – Units do not report the loss of contact with the enemy
  – Cdrs and staffs do not routinely respond to reconnaissance
    reporting



                                                               79
                       MANEUVER
                                                                 MSTP


• G3s and planners do not visualize the
  operation through end state to ensure
  success of the main effort
  – Cdrs do not identify the decisive action
  – G3s and planners do not identify doctrinal offensive forms of
    maneuver or types of defense
  – G3s and planners do not develop COAs that create enemy
    weakness, mass combat effects, then exploit
     › G3s and planners must develop COAs that begin at the decisive
       action. Take the enemy off plan by shaping the battlefield: find,
       fix, and disrupt the enemy
     › Planners are unwilling to take risks by planning the use of an
       economy of force that enables the main effort’s success
                                                                   80
                     MANEUVER
                                                          MSTP

• Commanders and staffs do not
  maintain momentum or aggressively
  seize the initiative during the fight
  – Cdrs do not articulate how they will gain and maintain the
    initiative
  – The defeat mechanism is not clearly stated
  – Cdrs do not press the attack to maintain the advantage
    over the enemy
  – In the defense, Cdrs do not disrupt the enemy in depth to
    regain the initiative

                                                             81
                 MANEUVER
                                               MSTP


• Commanders and staffs do not maintain
  momentum or aggressively seize the
  initiative during the fight
  – Cdrs and staffs do not always recognize success
    and plan to exploit it
  – Some Cdrs do not mass fires and maneuver into
    the close fight to sustain momentum or exploit
    enemy weakness



                                                82
                  MANEUVER
                                                   MSTP


• Commanders and staffs fight the plan, not
 the enemy
  – Cdrs and G3s do not anticipate enemy actions
    and reactions
  – Cdrs and planning staffs, during the fight, do not
    continually build COAs based on the situation
    that provide the most options at the latest
    possible time


                                                    83
                MANEUVER
                                              MSTP


• G3s do not anticipate or plan transitions
  – G3s do not anticipate culmination,
    branches, or sequels
  – Cdrs and staffs do not anticipate
    establishing the security zone when
    transitioning to the defense



                                              84
                   MANEUVER
                                                       MSTP

• G3s do not anticipate or plan transitions
  – G3s and staffs do not build flexibility into the
    concept to support seamless transitions
  – G3s and planners do not maintain situational
    awareness of enemy or friendly dispositions that
    affect the next fight




                                                       85
                  MANEUVER
                                                 MSTP


• Commanders conduct deep operations
  without appropriate planning
  – Cdrs and staffs do not execute deep operations
    as a combined arms effort
  – MEF and ACE deep operations are not always
    synchronized
  – Successful deep operations are not always
   exploited with other combat effects

                                                 86
                  MANEUVER
                                                  MSTP


• Commanders conduct deep operations
  without appropriate planning
  – Deep Operations planning is limited to targeting
  – Deep operations are not conducted continuously,
   allowing the enemy to recover during the day
  – Units do not plan appropriate C2 measures for
    close or deep operations



                                                    87
             FIRE SUPPORT
                                         MSTP


• Commanders and staffs do not synchronize
  the counterfire effort

• Commanders and staffs do not thoroughly
  plan positioning / movement of artillery
  assets

• Commanders and staffs do not adequately
  track HPTs


                                             88
               FIRE SUPPORT
                                                    MSTP


• Commanders and staffs do not
  synchronize the counterfire effort
  – Commanders and staffs do not understand the
    enemy’s counterfire capability
  – Commanders and staffs do not incorporate all
    intelligence collection assets
  – Commanders and staffs do not integrate all lethal
   and nonlethal assets to facilitate counterfire

                                                    89
               FIRE SUPPORT
                                                    MSTP


• Commanders and staffs do not
  synchronize the counterfire effort
  – Commanders and staffs do not leverage the
    capabilities of the target acquisition radars
  – Commander and FSCOORD must set priorities for
    targets in the fire mission cue and establish a
    responsive means to shift priorities during
    execution

                                                    90
                 FIRE SUPPORT
                                                         MSTP


• Commanders and staffs do not
  thoroughly plan positioning/movement
  of artillery assets
  – Commanders and staffs do not position units to maintain
    greatest capability to mass fire
  – Commanders and staffs do not plan movement of artillery
    assets to support scheme of maneuver




                                                          91
                 FIRE SUPPORT
                                                         MSTP


• Commanders and staffs do not
  thoroughly plan positioning/movement
  of artillery assets
  – Commanders and staffs do not synchronize movement of
    radars and cueing schedule to ensure continuous coverage
  – Commanders and staffs do not maintain situational
    awareness of fire support assets, terrain management, and
    maneuver units during execution



                                                          92
                   FIRE SUPPORT
                                                                    MSTP

• Commanders and staffs do not adequately
 track HPTs which is inherent to the
 targeting process and a requirement for
 effective fire support

  – The collection plan to detect and track HPTs is not routinely
    briefed by staffs at targeting meetings

  – Commanders and staffs do not plan for a mix of redundant
    systems that allows cross-cueing of sensors

  – Once a HPT is detected, commanders and staffs do not track until
    it is attacked and desired results are achieved

                                                                    93

								
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