Evaluation Criteria Weights This evaluation tool uses five groups of evaluation criteria to calculate the value or “utils” of various security measures for your operation The evaluation criteria

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Evaluation Criteria Weights This evaluation tool uses five groups of evaluation criteria to calculate the value or “utils” of various security measures for your operation The evaluation criteria Powered By Docstoc
					Evaluation Criteria Weights
This evaluation tool uses five groups of evaluation criteria to calculate the value (or “utils”) of various security measures
for your operation. The evaluation criteria groups are security objectives, 33 CFR compliance, locations, and threat
type.

Your answers to the questions below will be used to weight the importance of the different evaluation criteria
for your operation.


EVALUATION CRITERIA GROUP 1: SECURITY OBJECTIVES
Four general security objectives are considered: deter, detect, deny, and mitigate. A security measure can be selected
on the basis of how well it contributes to one or more of these security objectives. Each of these objectives is described
below. After each description, enter the number weight from 0 to 5 (see definitions below) that best indicates the
relative importance of this objective to your security needs.
     0 = not important                                3 = moderate importance
     1 = low importance                               4 = moderate to high importance
     2 = low to moderate importance                   5 = high importance

                                                                                                                 Importance
                                              Security Objectives
                                                                                                                 (0 to 5)
       Deter: To cause an adversary to abandon consideration of this site during their planning stage
       due to the introduction of certain security measures. Deterrence is due to one or both of the               5
       following: (a) the target was devalued, (b) the probability of success was decreased.

       Detect: To discover (a) the planning of a threatening event, such as may be indicated by
       extensive observation of operations or equipment, or (b) the presence of a threat agent (e.g.,              4
       weapon or explosive).

       Deny: To deny access to a target by such measures as barrier reinforcement, unexpected
                                                                                                                   3
       relocation of the target, and patterns that differ from those expected.


       Mitigate: To reduce the effects of an event when it occurs by either (a) reducing the magnitude of
       an event (e.g., reduced target size) or (b) preventing the threat agent from being maximally                2
       effective (e.g., because of a sprinkler system or rapid identification of a released toxin).




EVALUATION CRITERIA GROUP 2: NON-SECURITY EFFECTS

Many security measures also have non-security effects that may be either beneficial or detrimental. This group of
evaluation criteria allows you to weight the importance of these non-security effects on your selection of security
measures. After each description, indicate the relative importance of this described non-security effect in your security
measure decision making.
     0 = not important                                3 = moderate importance
     1 = low importance                               4 = moderate to high importance
     2 = low to moderate importance                   5 = high importance
                                                                                                                 Importance
                                             Non-Security Effects
                                                                                                                 (0 to 5)
       Safety: refers to both employee and passenger safety.                                                       2
       Crime: refers to general crime other than fare evasion.                                                     1
       Fare Evasion: refers only to fare evasion.                                                              3
       Service: refers to both possible service delays and service improvements.                               5



EVALUATION CRITERIA GROUP 3: 33 CFR COMPLIANCE
Facilities and vessels that fall under 33 CFR 104 and 105 must implement security measures that fall under the five
general categories listed below. If your operation is in compliance with these regulations, these categories may not be
important for you when evaluating additional security measures. Alternatively, you may have interest in further
measures within some of these categories regardless of compliance. For each 33 CFR category listed below, indicate
the importance of the category for your selection of new security measures.
     0 = not important/already in compliance          3 = moderate importance
     1 = low importance                               4 = moderate to high importance
     2 = low to moderate importance                   5 = high importance/not in compliance

                                                                                                             Importance
                                            33 CFR Compliance
                                                                                                             (0 to 5)
       Access Control (includes screening measures)                                                            5
       Restricted Areas                                                                                        4
       Handling Cargo                                                                                          0
       Stores and Bunkers                                                                                      1
       Monitoring                                                                                              4



EVALUATION CRITERIA GROUP 4: LOCATIONS
Based on an assessment of your operation’s vulnerabilities (i.e., potential consequences and target accessibility),
particular locations in or near your operation may be identified as being more or less vulnerable to attack. After each
location description below, indicate the relative importance of implementing additional security measures in the location
area. Enter “0” for locations listed that are not applicable to your operations.
     0 = not important                              3 = moderate importance
     1 = low importance                             4 = moderate to high importance
     2 = low to moderate importance                 5 = high importance
                                                                                                             Importance
                                                  Locations                                                  (0 to 5)
       Beyond Boundary (Shoreside): Access routes to the ferry system, adjacent assets that can be
       used as means for affecting an event (e.g., stored fuel), tall structures that can be used as           1
       observation and planning sites, etc.
       Facility Perimeter: The shoreside property boundary.                                                    1
       Vehicle Parking: Shoreside areas for vehicle parking, particularly public parking areas near ferry
                                                                                                               0
       operations.
       Vehicle Holding: Shoreside areas for parking and screening vehicles prior to loading them onto a
                                                                                                               5
       ferry.
       Passenger Waiting: Shoreside areas for passengers, including ticketing and passenger
                                                                                                               4
       screening areas.

       Terminal Operation: Shoreside areas for operation control that are not for general passengers.          2
       Adjacent Ferry (Shoreside): Shoreside area within approximately 30 feet of ferry vessels.                1

       Adjacent Ferry (Waterside): Waterside area within approximately 30 feet of ferry vessels.                2

       On-Board (Non-Restricted): Passenger areas on-board the ferry.                                           1

       On-Board (Restricted): Areas on-board the ferry that are not to have passenger access.                   3

       In Transit: Areas surrounding a ferry while it is operating on a route or otherwise in transit.          2



EVALUATION CRITERIA GROUP 5: THREAT TYPE


Three general categories of threats are considered: delivery of explosives or incendiaries; acts of force (e.g., hijacking,
commandeering, and ramming); and delivery of WMDs (i.e., chemical, biological, or radiological agents). Based on
assessments of your operation’s vulnerabilities, some threats may be of more concern than others. For each threat type
below, indicate the relative importance of additional security measures to address the threat.
     0 = not important                                3 = moderate importance
     1 = low importance                               4 = moderate to high importance
     2 = low to moderate importance                   5 = high importance
                                                                                                              Relative
                                                                                                              Importance
                                                  Threat Type                                                 (0 to 5)
       Delivery of Explosive or Incendiary by:
            Person – on a person or within their baggage                                                        3
            Vehicle – within a car, van, or truck                                                               5
            Vessel – within a waterside vessel                                                                  2
            Artillery (e.g., RPG) – from a location in range of the facility or ferry route                     1
            Mine – underwater explosive on piers, vessels, etc.                                                 1
            Overhead – from anything overhead, e.g., aircraft, bridge over the ferry route, etc.                1
       Act of Force
               TO: Facility                                                                                     1
                    Vessel                                                                                      3
               BY: Vehicle                                                                                      1
                    Vessel                                                                                      1
                    Overhead                                                                                    1
       Delivery of WMD:
            Chem – toxic chemical agent                                                                         2
            Bio – harmful biological agent                                                                      2
            Rad – radioactive agent                                                                             1



WEIGHTING EVALUATION CRITERIA GROUPS
The weights entered in the tables above are used to assess the operator’s priorities within a single evaluation criteria
group (i.e., security objectives, non-security effects, 33 CFR compliance, locations, or threat type). The weights
provided below will be used to adjust weights between evaluation criteria groups according to the priorities for your
operation. After each description, enter the number weight from 0 to 5 (see definitions below) which best indicates the
relative importance of the evaluation criteria group.
0 = not important                         3 = moderate importance
1 = low importance                        4 = moderate to high importance
2 = low to moderate importance            5 = high importance

                                                                            Importance
                                 Evaluation Criteria Group
                                                                            (0 to 5)
 Security Objectives                                                         4
 Non-Security Effects                                                        5
 33 CFR Compliance                                                           1
 Locations                                                                   3
 Threat Type                                                                 4
VALUATION ("UTILS") OF GSM BY DIFFERENT EVALUATION CRITERIA
INSTRUCTIONS: For Sorting Only (DO NOT Enter New Data on this Page!)
Sort area A11 to P112 by Columns G through O. In Column P, you can enter the order
of sorted rows for comparison to subsequent sorts. Develop a "Further Evaluation" list                    EXPLANATION OF COLUMNS BELOW
on paper, by recording the GSM #s (Column A) that are of greatest interest to you for                     "Utils" are calculated from the weights given by the user to different evaluation criteria (entered on
further analysis.                                                                                         Sheet 1 "Evaluation Weights"), and from the applicability ranks of GSMs (entered on Sheet 4
To enter new data:                                                                                        "Applicability Ranks").
Use Sheet 1 to change Evaluation Weights.
Use Sheet 3 to change GSM Characterization (Columns C to E).
Use Sheet 4 to change Applicability Ranks.                                                                                GROUPED EVALUATION CRITERIA VALUATION IN UTILS
GSM CHARACTERIZATION                                                                                                                                                 Threat Type
                                                                                                                        Non-       33 CFR                  Threat            Act of                            Your
GSM                                  General Security                                                      Security    Security    Compli-     Security     Type     EID     Force    WMD        TOTAL         GSM
#            Method Category         Measures (GSMs)       Options and Variations of GSMs                  Objective   Effects      ance      Locations     Total    Only    Only     Only    (All Criteria)   List #

  1    Fencing /     Retractable     Ramp/ Wedge,          Manual or automatic raising and lowering;
       Barriers      Vehicle         in-ground mounted     some products rated as high as DOS
                     Deterrents                            K12/ L3.                                          14.6        -1.8         4.5        5.3        8.9       3.7     2.7      2.5         31.6



  2    Fencing /     Retractable     Bollards,             Hydraulic, electro-hydraulic, or manual
       Barriers      Vehicle         retractable           retraction into ground. Some products
                     Deterrents      (steel or concrete)   rated as high as DOS K12/ L3 depending            13.4         0.9         4.5        6.4        8.9       3.7     2.7      2.5         34.2
                                                           on installation.


  3    Fencing /     Retractable     Ramp/ wedge,          Manual or automatic operation. Chain
       Barriers      Vehicle         surface mounted       reinforcements increase anti-ram
                     Deterrents                            capability, but substantially lower anti-ram      13.4         0.9         4.5        5.3        8.9       3.7     2.7      2.5         33
                                                           ratings than in-ground mounted ramps
                                                           (listed separately).
  4    Fencing /     Retractable     Booms and Crash       Manual, automatic, or portable. Range
       Barriers      Vehicle         Beams                 from minimal anti-ram capability to DOS
                     Deterrents      (sliding or swing     K4/L2 or higher.                                  13.4         0.9         4.5        5.3        8.9       3.7     2.7      2.5         33
                                     gates)


  5    Fencing /     Retractable     Traffic controllers   Spring-mounted to allow safe one-way
       Barriers      Vehicle         ("tire teeth")        travel, or retractable (with access control)
                     Deterrents                            to allow two-way travel. Wrong-way                13.4         0.9         4.5        4.0        8.9       3.7     2.7      2.5         32
                                                           penetration distance can be reduced with
                                                           low speed conditions.
  6    Fencing /     Fixed Vehicle   Bollards,             Variable anti-ram capability. Some
       Barriers      Deterrent,      fixed/stationary      products rated as high as DOS K12/ L3
                     Pedestrian      (concrete or steel)   depending on installation.                        13.4         6.2         4.5        8.6        8.9       3.7     2.7      2.5         42
                     Access


  7    Fencing /     Fixed Vehicle   Decorative Crash-     Wide variety of aesthetic options, metal or
       Barriers      Deterrent,      Rated Barrier         concrete. Variable anti-ram capability.
                     Pedestrian      (spheres, benches,    Some products rated as high as DOS                13.4         6.2         4.5        8.6        8.9       3.7     2.7      2.5         42
                     Access          bike racks, trees,    K12/ L3 depending on installation.
                                     etc.)
8    Fencing /   Fixed Vehicle   Jersey Barriers,         Various styles, lengths, shapes, colors,
     Barriers    Deterrent,      portable                 can be arranged end-to-end, or in multiple
                 Pedestrian      (water filled or steel   rows, and anchored to increase anti-ram      13.4   6.2   4.5   8.6   8.9    3.7   2.7   2.5   42
                 Access          reinforced concrete)     capability for equivalence to DOS K12.


9    Fencing /   Fixed Vehicle   Planters                 Standard planters (i.e., not attached to
     Barriers    Deterrent,      (standard)               the ground) vary in size.
                 Pedestrian                                                                            13.4   6.2   4.5   8.6   8.9    3.7   2.7   2.5   42
                 Access


10   Fencing /   Fixed, Both     Walls                    Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,
     Barriers    Vehicle and     (e.g.,concrete or        razor wire, sensors, induced pulse
                 Pedestrian      brick, steel             (electrical), etc. Variable anti-ram         13.4   7.1   4.5   9.4   11.2   6.0   2.7   2.5   46
                 Deterrent       reinforcement)           capability, may be constructed for
                                                          equivalence to DOS K12/ L3 ratings.
11   Fencing /   Fixed, Both     Steel Bar Fence          Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,
     Barriers    Vehicle and     (with anchored           razor wire, sensors, induced pulse
                 Pedestrian      cables)                  (electrical), etc. May have anit-ram         5.6    7.1   4.2   9.4   11.2   6.0   2.7   2.5   37
                 Deterrent                                ratings as high as DOS K12.


12   Fencing /   Fixed, Both     Earthen Barriers         May have a fence on top. Depending on
     Barriers    Vehicle and     (with steel or           design, may have an anti-ram capability
                 Pedestrian      concrete                 equivalent to DOS K12/ L3.                   5.6    7.1   4.2   9.4   11.2   6.0   2.7   2.5   37
                 Deterrent       reinforcement)


13   Fencing /   Fixed, Both     Transparent Fences Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,
     Barriers    Vehicle and                        razor wire, sensors, induced pulse
                 Pedestrian                         (electrical), etc.                                 2.8    7.1   4.2   9.4   9.6    4.7   2.4   2.5   33
                 Deterrent


14   Fencing /   Fixed, Both     Solid Fences             Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,
     Barriers    Vehicle and                              razor wire, sensors, induced pulse
                 Pedestrian                               (electrical), etc.                           2.8    7.1   4.2   9.4   9.6    4.7   2.4   2.5   33
                 Deterrent


15   Access      Credentials     Mechanical key           standard or custom keys
     Control
                                                                                                       11.2   1.8   3.4   8.8   8.0    4.0   1.5   2.5   33



16   Access      Credentials     Combination              mechanical and electronic
     Control
                                                                                                       11.2   1.8   3.4   8.8   8.0    4.0   1.5   2.5   33



17   Access      Credentials     Barcode Card             With or without photo, magnetic stripe,
     Control                                              and/or Wiegand wire, readers have varied
                                                          memory and ability to provide time-date      11.2   1.8   3.9   8.8   8.0    4.0   1.5   2.5   34
                                                          stamps.


18   Access      Credentials     Magnetic Stripe Card With or without photo, barcode, and/or
     Control                                          Wiegand wire, readers have varied
                                                      memory and ability to provide time-date          11.2   1.8   3.9   8.8   8.0    4.0   1.5   2.5   34
                                                      stamps.
19   Access    Credentials   Wiegand Card           With or without photo, may also include
     Control                                        barcode or magnetic stripe.
                                                                                                 11.2   1.8   3.9   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34



20   Access    Credentials   Proximity Card or      With or without photo (dye sublimation or
     Control                 Tag                    laminated), may also include magnetic
                                                    stripe or barcode for ID information.        11.2   1.8   3.9   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34



21   Access    Credentials   Smart Card             Access to areas and/or data, can restrict
     Control                                        data access to read-only. With or without
                                                    a photo that may be electronically           11.2   1.8   4.5   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34
                                                    transferred when created with Dye
                                                    Diffusion Thermal Transfer. May be
                                                    Integrated Circuit Memory Cards,
22   Access    Credentials   Optical Card           May include biometric information (e.g.,
     Control                                        fingerprint) or photo that may be
                                                    electronically transferred when created      11.2   1.8   4.5   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34
                                                    with Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer.
                                                    Varied cryptology levels.
23   Access    Credentials   Finger print           Finger print identification with optical
     Control                                        scanner, capacitative sensor, or
                                                    ultrasonic scanner. Data file may be part    11.2   1.8   4.5   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34
                                                    of an ID card (Smart or optical).


24   Access    Credentials   Iris Scan              Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart
     Control                                        or optical).
                                                                                                 11.2   1.8   4.5   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34



25   Access    Credentials   Retinal Scan           Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart
     Control                                        or optical).
                                                                                                 11.2   1.8   4.5   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34



26   Access    Credentials   Hand Geometry          Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart
     Control                                        or optical).
                                                                                                 11.2   1.8   4.5   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34



27   Access    Credentials   Face Scan              Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart
     Control                                        or optical).
                                                                                                 11.2   1.8   4.5   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34



28   Access    Locks         Mechanical lock        Varied designs and security levels of both
     Control                                        lock and door.
                                                                                                 11.2   1.8   3.9   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34



29   Access    Locks         Electric Strike Lock   Varied designs and security levels of both
     Control                                        lock and door.
                                                                                                 11.2   1.8   3.9   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34
30   Access     Locks           Magnetic Lock           Varied design and security levels of both
     Control                                            lock and door -- some lock versions can
                                                        withstand over 600 lb force.                  11.2   1.8   3.9   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34



31   Access     System Control Stand Alone              Some require a PC for programming.
     Control                   Electronic Access
                               Points                                                                 11.2   1.8   3.9   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   34



32   Access     System Control Network Control of       Multiple readers may be connected using
     Control                   Electronic Access        hardwire or wireless technology.
                               Points                                                                 13.4   1.8   3.9   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   36



33   Access     System Control Integrated Security      Multiple readers and users with hardwire
     Control                   System                   or wireless connections. Integrate with
                                                        personnel identification, intrusion           13.4   3.6   5.6   8.8   8.0   4.0   1.5   2.5   39
                                                        detection, and monitoring.


34   Intruder   Doors &         Mechanical Switch       Commonly used in conjunction with open
     Sensors    Windows                                 area sensors at the exterior of portals, or
                                                        inside the secured area.                      9.5    1.8   5.7   8.0   6.5   1.5   0.0   5.0   32



35   Intruder   Doors &         Magnetic Switch         Commonly used in conjunction with open
     Sensors    Windows                                 area sensors at the exterior of portals, or
                                                        inside the secured area.                      9.5    1.8   5.7   8.0   6.5   1.5   0.0   5.0   32



36   Intruder   Doors &         Balanced Magnetic       Commonly used in conjunction with open
     Sensors    Windows         Switch                  area sensors at the exterior of portals, or
                                                        inside the secured area.                      9.5    1.8   5.7   8.0   6.5   1.5   0.0   5.0   32



37   Intruder                   Acoustic /              Acoustic (passive ultrasonic, high
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence    Shock Wave /            frequency, e.g. 20 to 30 kHz) or shock
                                Audio Discriminator /   wave (electric piezo or non-electric piezo,
                                Passive Ultrasonic /    low frequency, e.g., 5 kHz). Dual             12.3   1.8   5.7   6.4   9.0   4.0   0.0   5.0   35
                                Glass Break             systems combine acoustic and shock
                                                        sensors to reduce nuisance alarms.
38   Intruder                   Vibration --            Built in or applied to a wall, ceiling, or
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence    Electro-mechanical      fence. Sensor types: piezoelectric, and
                                Piezoelectric           electro-mechanical. Variations in
                                                        sensitivity, processor abilities, and         12.3   1.8   5.7   6.4   9.0   4.0   0.0   5.0   35
                                                        sensitivity adjustability. Often used with
                                                        an outer fence and clear zone prior to
                                                        intruder sensors to reduce false alarms.
39   Intruder                   Vibrations -- Fiber     Built in or applied to a wall, ceiling, or
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence    optic                   fence. Variations in processor abilities
                                                        and sensitivity adjustability. Often used
                                                                                                      12.3   1.8   5.7   6.4   9.0   4.0   0.0   5.0   35
                                                        with an outer fence and clear zone prior
                                                        to intruder sensors to reduce false
                                                        alarms.
40   Intruder                  Taut Wire = Strain     Freestanding or fence-mounted.
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence   Sensitive Wire         Variations in signal processor ability to
                                                      detect tension changes and in sensitivity        12.3   1.8   5.7   6.4   9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   35
                                                      adjustability.


41   Intruder                  Capacitive Cable       Variations in signal processor ability to
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence                          detect tension changes and in sensitivity
                                                      adjustability.                                   12.3   1.8   5.7   6.4   9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   35



42   Intruder                  Electric Field = E-    Stand-alone fence, or mounted on
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence   field                  separate posts attached to an existing
                                                      fence. May be used with a weather station
                                                                                                       12.3   1.8   5.7   6.4   9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   35
                                                      that adjusts E-field sensor sensitivity
                                                      based on weather conditions.

43   Intruder   Volume         Microwave Sensors Monostatic (transmitter and received
     Sensors    Sensors --     (Short-range Radar) encased on a single housing) or bistatic
                Motion                             (transmitter and received are separate
                                                                                                       12.3   1.8   5.7   9.1   9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   38
                Detectors                          units). Dual technology units often include
                                                   microwave and PIR.

44   Intruder   Volume         Passive Infrared       One or two sensors (Quad PIR) in one
     Sensors    Sensors --     (PIR)                  housing to reduce nuisance alarms.
                Motion         (Heat/ Motion          Sensitivity depends on circuiting design,
                                                                                                       12.3   1.8   5.7   9.1   9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   38
                Detectors      Detectors)             programs to ignore first movement, etc.
                                                      Often used in dual technology systems.

45   Intruder   Volume         Scanning Laser         Scanning range from a single plane up to
     Sensors    Sensors --     (Infrared)             360 degrees. System sensitivity depends
                Motion                                on signal processing software.                   12.3   1.8   5.7   9.1   10.1   4.5   0.6   5.0   39
                Detectors


46   Intruder   Volume         Active Infra-Red (IR) Indoor or outdoor, variations in coverage
     Sensors    Sensors --     (Beam or Curtain)     distance and the number of laser lines
                Motion                               and their distance apart within the IR            12.3   1.8   5.7   9.1   9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   38
                Detectors                            "curtain".


47   Intruder   Volume         Photo-Electric Eye /   Variations in coverage distance and the
     Sensors    Sensors --     Electric Eye           number of laser lines and their distance
                Motion         (Beam or Curtain)      apart within the photo-electric curtain.         12.3   1.8   5.7   9.1   9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   38
                Detectors


48   Intruder   Volume         Active Ultrasonic      Wall or ceiling mounted. Used in tandem
     Sensors    Sensors --                            with passive IR.
                Motion                                                                                 12.3   1.8   5.7   9.1   9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   38
                Detectors


49   Intruder   Volume         Dual-Technology        Common motion detection technologies
     Sensors    Sensors --                            paired in a single unit include PIR with
                Motion                                either microwave or active ultrasonic            12.3   1.8   5.7   9.1   9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   38
                Detectors                             technologies. Indoor and outdoor
                                                      systems.
50   Intruder   Volume         Video Motion           Color (visible light), Low light level (black-
     Sensors    Sensors --     Detection (VMD)        and-white), or infrared. View changes
                Motion                                may trigger alarm. Variable number of            12.3   1.8   5.7   9.1   9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   38
                Detectors                             channels, may be stand-alone or software
                                                      on a PC.
51   Intruder     Volume         Air Turbulence      Varied signal processing methods.
     Sensors      Sensors --     (Acoustic Sensor or
                  Motion         RF)                                                                  12.3   1.8   5.7   6.4    6.6    0.7   0.9   5.0   33
                  Detectors


52   Intruder     Buried         Balanced Pressure      For monitoring sensitive approach or
     Sensors      (in ground)    Buried Tube/pipe       access areas, and restricted zones.
                                                        Several technologies exist.                   12.3   1.8   5.7   4.3    9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   33



53   Intruder     Buried         Buried Geophone        Sensitivity depends on sensors and
     Sensors      (in ground)                           control algorithm ability to compensate for
                                                        background signals.                           12.3   1.8   5.7   4.3    9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   33



54   Intruder     Buried         Fiber Optic            Sensitivity depends on sensors and
     Sensors      (in ground)                           control algorithm ability to compensate for
                                                        background signals.                           12.3   1.8   5.7   4.3    9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   33



55   Intruder     Buried         Coaxial Cable =        Uses continuous wave or pulsed sensors.
     Sensors      (in ground)    Ported Coax Line =     Sensitivity depends on sensors and
                                 Capacitive Cable       processor ability to compensate for           12.3   1.8   5.7   4.3    9.0    4.0   0.0   5.0   33
                                                        background signals. Cable placement
                                                        and soil density affect zone covered.
56   Monitoring   Lighting       Spot/ Zone Lighting    Incandescent, tungsten halogen, or
     Technology                                         fluorescent systems. Reflectors for spot
                                                        lights and flood lighting. May be triggered   7.3    6.2   3.1   15.8   6.0    2.0   1.5   2.5   38
                                                        by a motion detector.


57   Monitoring   Lighting       Wide-Area Lighting     Metal halide, high pressure sodium, or
     Technology                                         low pressure sodium systems.
                                                                                                      7.3    6.2   3.1   15.8   6.0    2.0   1.5   2.5   38



58   Monitoring   Lighting       Infrared (IR) lights   Used with CCTV in dark areas. IR lights
     Technology                                         and CCTV may be triggered by a motion
                                                        detector.                                     7.3    6.2   3.1   15.8   6.0    2.0   1.5   2.5   38



59   Monitoring   CCTV / Video   Black & white          Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and
     Technology   Camera         (Low Light Levels)     tilt capability. Image intensifiers for low
                                                        light conditions. Reflective mirrors to see   9.5    7.1   5.9   15.8   18.0   6.0   4.5   7.5   56
                                                        around obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/
                                                        washer system, and heater/ cooler.
60   Monitoring   CCTV / Video   Color                  Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and
     Technology   Camera                                tilt capability. Image intensifiers for low
                                                        light conditions. Reflective mirrors to see   9.5    7.1   5.9   15.8   18.0   6.0   4.5   7.5   56
                                                        around obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/
                                                        washer system, and heater/ cooler.
61   Monitoring   CCTV / Video   Convertible            Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and
     Technology   Camera         (B&W and Color)        tilt capability. Image intensifiers for low
                                                        light conditions. Reflective mirrors to see   9.5    7.1   5.9   15.8   18.0   6.0   4.5   7.5   56
                                                        around obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/
                                                        washer system, and heater/ cooler.
62   Monitoring     CCTV / Video   Analog / VHS            Real-time and time-lapse recorders.
     Technology     Recorder                               Variations in VHS tape resolution. May
                                                           have remote control device. May be           9.5    7.1    5.9   15.8   18.0   6.0   4.5   7.5   56
                                                           triggered by a motion detector.


63   Monitoring     CCTV / Video   Digital / DVD           Varied resolution and compression
     Technology     Recorder                               formats. Continous real-time or event
                                                           recorders which may have audio               9.5    7.1    5.9   15.8   18.0   6.0   4.5   7.5   56
                                                           capability.


64   Monitoring     CCTV / Video   guard                   Number of guards on duty, duration of
     Technology     Analysis                               viewing shift, etc.
                                                                                                        9.5    7.1    5.9   15.8   18.0   6.0   4.5   7.5   56



65   Monitoring     CCTV / Video   computer                Variations in the ability to separate
     Technology     Analysis                               background/ normal images from
                                                           unusual images.                              9.5    7.1    5.9   15.8   18.0   6.0   4.5   7.5   56



66   Procedural /   Procedural /   Vary procedures to      Randomly alter procedures such as
     Low Cost       Low Cost       reduce certainty of     passenger processing, cargo handling,
                                   expected patterns       time intervals, sequences, etc.              9.0    -3.6   1.7   9.1    13.9   5.0   3.9   5.0   30



67   Procedural /   Procedural /   Simulate / fake         Exaggerate security measures e.g.,
     Low Cost       Low Cost       security measures       deploy more camera housings than
                                                           cameras, use "untrained" K9 units, park      5.6    1.8    4.1   15.8   13.4   4.5   3.9   5.0   41
                                                           police cars on premises, etc.


68   Procedural /   Procedural /   Vary equipment          Random physical, operational,
     Low Cost       Low Cost       locations to reduce     administrative changes, e.g., move guard
                                   certainty of expected   house, cameras, lights, change routes
                                                                                                        11.2   0.9    3.8   14.7   13.4   4.5   3.9   5.0   44
                                   patterns                and passes (e.g., under bridges, near
                                                           shore, etc.).

69   Procedural /   Procedural /   Public                  Communicate that sensitive areas and
     Low Cost       Low Cost       communication of        targets are well secured and detection
                                   security                systems are in place. Disclosed
                                                                                                        8.4    5.3    1.4   15.2   15.9   7.0   3.9   5.0   46
                                                           measures may be or may not be real. (All
                                                           real measures should not be disclosed.)

70   Procedural /   Procedural /   Separate and dilute     Maximize distance and barriers between
     Low Cost       Low Cost       targets                 targets (vessels, fuel, cargo, passengers,
                                                           etc.), and reduce target size, e.g.,
                                                           increase distance of vehicles from fuel      7.8    1.8    0.3   10.7   23.5   9.7   6.3   7.5   44
                                                           tanks, stagger boarding times to minimize
                                                           shoreside crowding, etc.
71   Waterside      Surface        RADAR                Detection distance is limited by height
     Security                      (Radio Detection And over water. Variations in receiver
                                   Ranging)             sensitivity, options include use with a         5.0    1.8    2.9   3.2    8.2    1.5   4.2   2.5   21
                                                        chart plotter or fishfinder, split-screen
                                                        viewing of short and long-distance
                                                        targets, etc.
72   Waterside      Surface        Buoys                 Lights can be placed on buoys to
     Security                                           illuminate boundaries. Signage can
                                                        posted on or directly engraved into the         2.8    0.0    3.8   2.7    6.5    1.0   3.0   2.5   16
                                                        buoys.
73   Waterside   Surface        Pier and Buoy        Signage of wood, metal construction with
     Security                   Signage              reflectorized materials. Signage can
                                                     posted on or directly engraved into the      2.8    0.0    3.8   2.7    6.5    1.0   3.0   2.5   16
                                                     buoys.


74   Waterside   Surface        Vessel Barriers      Commonly constructed of composites
     Security                                        and metals. May appear as connected
                                                     colored buoy . May or may not have nets.     2.8    0.0    3.8   1.6    8.2    1.5   4.2   2.5   16



75   Waterside   Underwater     Side Scan Sonar      Towed through water or mounted on
     Security                                        vessel hull, ROV, or AUV. Depth and
                                                     area variations. Options: distortion         7.3    0.0    5.5   3.2    8.1    1.7   3.9   2.5   24
                                                     correction and image enhancement
                                                     software, digital recording, and
                                                     positioning equipment.
76   Waterside   Underwater     Forward Looking      Towed through the water or mounted on
     Security                   Sonar                the hull of a vessel, ROV, or AUV.
                                                     Towing usually needs currents of at least    7.3    0.0    5.5   3.2    8.1    1.7   3.9   2.5   24
                                                     8 knots. Different frequency options for
                                                     deep water and shallow water
                                                     applications.
77   Waterside   Underwater     Multibeam Sonar      Towline or mounted on hull of vessel,
     Security                   (3-D images)         ROV, or AUV. Variations in depth rating,
                                                     housing type, number of beams, range,        7.3    0.0    5.5   3.2    8.4    2.0   3.9   2.5   24
                                                     etc.


78   Waterside   Underwater     Remotely Operated    Subsurface, remotely controlled hull
     Security                   Vehicle (ROV)        inspection system. May include side scan
                                                     and forward looking sonar, bathymetry,       7.3    0.0    5.5   2.7    8.6    2.2   3.9   2.5   24
                                                     video, two-way communication system,
                                                     etc.
79   Waterside   Underwater     Autonomous           May include side and forward sonar,
     Security                   Underwater Vehicle   bathymetry, video, etc.
                                (AUV)                                                             7.3    0.0    5.5   2.7    8.6    2.2   3.9   2.5   24



80   Screening   Passengers &   Human inspections    Cargo searches may use of a mirror and
                 Cargo                               flashlight. Pat-down passenger
                 All threats                         inspections with or without hand-held        7.8    -7.1   3.1   13.4   12.5   6.0   1.5   5.0   30
                                                     detectors.


81   Screening   Passengers &   Backscatter x-rays   Portals designed for scans of people or
                 Cargo                               vehicles, mobile units transported in vans
                 Weapons,                            for scanning passing vehicles. Software      12.3   -7.1   2.4   8.6    11.0   6.0   0.0   5.0   27
                 explosives                          graphics overlays to protect privacy/
                                                     modesty.
82   Screening   Passengers     Millimeter Wave      Software graphics overlays to protect
                 Weapons,       (MMW)                privacy/ modesty.
                 explosives                                                                       12.3   -2.7   4.1   7.2    11.0   6.0   0.0   5.0   32



83   Screening   Cargo          Transmission x-ray   Unit size and throughpout rate.
                 Weapons,
                 explosives                                                                       12.3   -7.1   2.4   7.2    8.5    6.0   0.0   2.5   23
84   Screening   Cargo           CAT Scan             Unit size and throughpout rate.
                 Weapons,
                 explosives                                                                         12.3   -7.1   2.4   7.2    8.5   6.0   0.0   2.5   23



85   Screening   Cargo           Metal detectors      Hand-held wands (requires 2 minutes per
                 Weapons                              scan for trained security personel), or
                                                      portal systems .                              12.3   -7.1   2.4   6.4    6.0   6.0   0.0   0.0   20



86   Screening   Cargo           Gamma rays           Portals for scans of vehicles, or mobile
                 Weapons,                             units transported on vans.
                 explosives                                                                         12.3   -7.1   2.4   8.6    8.5   6.0   0.0   2.5   25



87   Screening   Trace Detection K-9 Units            Canines trained for explosives detection,
                 Explosives                           and / or drug detection. Training for
                                                      detection of biological and CWA may be        12.3   -2.7   3.5   10.2   8.0   6.0   0.0   2.0   31
                                                      possible, but is not standard.


88   Screening   Trace Detection IMS (Ion Mobility    Continuous monitors with alarms or hand-
                 Explosives,     Spectrometry)        held units. Sensitivity to specfic chemical
                 CWA                                  varies. Specific chemicals detected           12.3   -8.0   2.4   10.2   9.0   6.0   0.0   3.0   26
                                                      depends on the units software.


89   Screening   Trace Detection SAW (Surface         The hand-held or wall mounted.
                 Explosives,     Acoustic Wave)       Chemicals detected depend on the units
                 CWA                                  design but may include nerve agents,          12.3   -8.0   2.4   10.2   9.0   6.0   0.0   3.0   26
                                                      blister agents and several classes of toxic
                                                      industrial chemicals (TIC’s). Detection of
                                                      explosives is under development.
90   Screening   Trace Detection Enzyme-Based,        Specific assays for specific chemical
                 CWA             Immunoassay          agents. Variations in the extent of assay
                                                      automation.                                   12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   20



91   Screening   Trace Detection Hand-Held Geiger     Pager sized geiger counters and gamma
                 Radioactivity   Counters             detectors can detect radiological agents
                                                      in the immediate vaccinity. They can be       12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   1.5   0.0   0.0   1.5   19
                                                      easily carried by law enforcement agents.


92   Screening   Trace Detection Smear Counters       The time needed for measurements
                 Radioactivity                        depends on the desired level of
                                                      sensitivity.                                  12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   20



93   Screening   Trace Detection Hand and Shoe        Variations in sensitivity.
                 Radioactivity   Monitors
                                                                                                    12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   20



94   Screening   Trace Detection Chemical Detection   M8 paper or M9 tape
                 CWA             Paper
                                                                                                    12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   20
95    Screening     Trace Detection Colorimetric tubes   Specific detector tubes for different CWA
                    CWA, TIC                             and toxic industrial chemicals (TIC).
                                                                                                       12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   20



96    Screening     Trace Detection Electron Capture     Sensitivity to specific chemicals varies.
                    Explosives,     Detectors (ECD)      Specific chemicals detected depends on
                    CWA                                  the units software.                           12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   9.0    6.0   0.0   3.0   26



97    Screening     Trace Detection Immunoassays,        Separate assays (i.e., tickets) for
                    Bio Agents      Hand-Held Assay      detection of different biological agents
                                    (HHA) Kits,          (e.g., anthrax, plague, botulina, etc.). If   12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   20
                                    Antibody             sample is not visible (e.g., powder), a
                                    identification       sampler that concentrates particles is
                                                         needed. Sensitivity of the test is limited
98    Screening     Trace Detection Protein Screening    For testing air samples, an air collector
                    Bio Agents                           that concentartes particles is needed.
                                                         Variations in sensitivity and time required   5.6    0.0    4.1   9.1    3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   22
                                                         for reaction.


99    Screening     Trace Detection Particle             Indoor units operate continously. Alarms
                    Bio Agents      Fluorescence         may silently indicate the need for further
                                    Monitoring           testing. Variations in sensitivity and the    10.1   3.6    1.8   11.5   17.9   7.2   5.7   5.0   45
                                                         ability to collect samples for additional
                                                         analyses.
100   Screening     Trace Detection Aerosol Particle     Hand-held and stationary units.
                    Bio Agents      Sizers (APS)         Variations in the ability to discriminate
                                                         between particle types based on their size    5.6    0.0    4.1   9.1    3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   22
                                                         and general shape.


101   Human         All Areas       Public Watch         Request and instruct passengers and
      Observation                                        neighbors to observe and report
                                                         suspicious and unusual activities             10.1   3.6    1.8   11.5   17.9   7.2   5.7   5.0   45



102   Human         All Areas       Employee Watch --    Establish procedures and train employees
      Observation                   Awareness Training   to recognize and report unusual and
                                                         suspicious activities, vehicles, and          12.9   6.2    3.1   17.1   20.9   7.7   5.7   7.5   60
                                                         luggage.


103   Human         All Areas       Uniform Patrols on   Shore-side or on ferry vessels, set or
      Observation                   ground or on ferry   random route
                                                                                                       15.7   7.1    3.6   15.8   14.1   5.2   3.9   5.0   56



104   Human         Waterside       Patrol Vessels and   Fiberglass or metal hull vessels varying in
      Observation                   Escorts              length and on-board equipment (e.g.,
                                                         sonar, weapons, etc). Escort may be           15.7   2.7    2.9   3.2    8.2    1.5   4.2   2.5   33
                                                         random or scheduled, and for portions of
                                                         a route or the entire route.
105   Human         Waterside       Divers               Certified divers visually inspect
      Observation                                        undersides of vessels, piers and
                                                         supporting infrastructure                     9.5    0.0    2.9   2.1    5.8    2.2   3.6   0.0   20
CHARACTERIZATION OF GSM
INSTRUCTIONS: For data edits only! DO NOT SORT on this page!!
The columns below provide descriptions of each GSM listed in rows 11 to 112. For each GSM # on your paper list of GSMs for further evaluation (developed from the sorts
peformed on Sheet 2 "Valuations"), review the characterization information provided below. You may edit Columns C through F to describe more specific GSMs as needed. Use
GSM # (Column A) to quickly find GSMs at the top of your list.

GSM CHARACTERIZATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                More
GSM                                                                                                                                                                                                             Info.
#             Method Category                 GSM                                                    Notes                                        Options and Variations of GSM                                 (Ref.)

  1   Fencing /      Retractable     Ramp/ Wedge,               May be certified anti-ram vehicle barriers that have been tested to either        Manual or automatic raising and lowering; some                 5, 6, 54
      Barriers       Vehicle         in-ground mounted          Department of State (DOS), U.S. Navy, or U.S. Marshall Service                    products rated as high as DOS K12/ L3.
                     Deterrents                                 specifications, the later two of which are often converted to DOS ratings. K
                                                                ratings indicate kinetic energy (determined from speed and weight), L ratings
  2   Fencing /      Retractable     Bollards,                  indicate the extent of penetration beyond the barrier. K and L ratings of speed   Hydraulic, electro-hydraulic, or manual retraction into     5, 6, 54
      Barriers       Vehicle         retractable                and penetration described below are for a 15,000 lb vehicle with impact           ground. Some products rated as high as DOS K12/ L3
                     Deterrents      (steel or concrete)        perpendicular to the barrier:                                                     depending on installation.
  3   Fencing /      Retractable     Ramp/ wedge,               K4 -- 30 mph          L1 -- 20 to 50 feet                                         Manual or automatic operation. Chain reinforcements         5, 6, 54
      Barriers       Vehicle         surface mounted            K8 -- 40 mph          L2 -- 3 to 20 feet                                          increase anti-ram capability, but substantially lower anti-
                     Deterrents                                 K12 -- 50 mph         L3 -- less than 3 feet                                      ram ratings than in-ground mounted ramps (listed
                                                                                                                                                  separately).
  4   Fencing /      Retractable     Booms and Crash                                                                                              Manual, automatic, or portable. Range from minimal anti-       6, 54
      Barriers       Vehicle         Beams                                                                                                        ram capability to DOS K4/L2 or higher.
                     Deterrents      (sliding or swing gates)

  5   Fencing /      Retractable     Traffic controllers        Traffic controllers are not certified anti-ram barriers. They can be penetrated   Spring-mounted to allow safe one-way travel, or                        5
      Barriers       Vehicle         ("tire teeth")             by vehicles with puncture proof tires. Under some circumstances a vehicle         retractable (with access control) to allow two-way travel.
                     Deterrents                                 with standard tires may penetrate a significant distance after it's tires are     Wrong-way penetration distance can be reduced with
                                                                shred.                                                                            low speed conditions.
  6   Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle   Bollards,                  May be certified anti-ram vehicle barriers have been tested to either             Variable anti-ram capability. Some products rated as           5, 6, 59
      Barriers       Deterrent,      fixed/stationary           Department of State (DOS), U.S. Navy, or U.S. Marshall Service                    high as DOS K12/ L3 depending on installation.
                     Pedestrian      (concrete or steel)        specifications, the later two of which are often converted to DOS ratings. K
                     Access                                     ratings indicate kinetic energy (determined from speed and weight), L ratings
                                                                indicate the extent of penetration beyond the barrier. K and L ratings of speed
                                                                and penetration described below are for a 15,000 lb vehicle with impact
                                                                perpendicular to the barrier:
                                                                K4 -- 30 mph          L1 -- 20 to 50 feet
                                                                K8 -- 40 mph          L2 -- 3 to 20 feet
                                                                K12 -- 50 mph         L3 -- less than 3 feet
  7   Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle   Decorative Crash-          Crash-rated decorative furniture, bike racks, and planters are typically          Wide variety of aesthetic options, metal or concrete.              7, 8
      Barriers       Deterrent,      Rated Barrier              mounted on crash rated bollards or steel posts. Trees are rated based on          Variable anti-ram capability. Some products rated as
                     Pedestrian      (spheres, benches,         trunk diameter. Branches and leaves can reduce observation and video              high as DOS K12/ L3 depending on installation.
                     Access          bike racks, trees, etc.)   monitoring ability.

  8   Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle   Jersey Barriers,           Jersey barriers are often used as temporary barriers, They are grouped here Various styles, lengths, shapes, colors, can be arranged                5, 59
      Barriers       Deterrent,      portable                   as a "fixed vehicle-deterrent" because they typically provide a temporary           end-to-end, or in multiple rows, and anchored to increase
                     Pedestrian      (water filled or steel     "fixed", or stationary barrier that is not "retracted" or moved to allow access for anti-ram capability for equivalence to DOS K12.
                     Access          reinforced concrete)       selected traffic.
9    Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle   Planters                Standard planters are not attached to the ground, and are not crash-rated.        Standard planters (i.e., not attached to the ground) vary    5, 59
     Barriers       Deterrent,      (standard)                                                                                                in size.
                    Pedestrian
                    Access
10   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Walls                    Certified anti-ram vehicle barriers have been tested to either Department of     Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire, razor wire,             5
     Barriers       Vehicle and     (e.g.,concrete or brick, State (DOS), U.S. Navy, or U.S. Marshall Service specifications, the later two   sensors, induced pulse (electrical), etc. Variable anti-
                    Pedestrian      steel reinforcement)     of which are often converted to DOS ratings. K ratings indicate kinetic energy   ram capability, may be constructed for equivalence to
                    Deterrent                                (determined from speed and weight), L ratings indicate the extent of             DOS K12/ L3 ratings.
11   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Steel Bar Fence          penetration beyond the barrier. K and L ratings of speed and penetration         Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire, razor wire,         5, 57
     Barriers       Vehicle and     (with anchored cables) described below are for a 15,000 lb vehicle with impact perpendicular to the       sensors, induced pulse (electrical), etc. May have anit-
                    Pedestrian                               barrier:                                                                         ram ratings as high as DOS K12.
                    Deterrent                                K4 -- 30 mph         L1 -- 20 to 50 feet
12   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Earthen Barriers         K8 -- 40 mph         L2 -- 3 to 20 feet                                          May have a fence on top. Depending on design, may                5
     Barriers       Vehicle and     (with steel or concrete K12 -- 50 mph         L3 -- less than 3 feet                                      have an anti-ram capability equivalent to DOS K12/ L3.
                    Pedestrian      reinforcement)
                    Deterrent
13   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Transparent Fences      Examples include chain link, woven mesh, or bars made of wood, plastic, or        Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire, razor wire,         5, 57
     Barriers       Vehicle and                             metal.                                                                            sensors, induced pulse (electrical), etc.
                    Pedestrian
                    Deterrent
14   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Solid Fences            Examples include brick, concrete, steel, metal, wood, plastic and various         Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire, razor wire,         5, 57
     Barriers       Vehicle and                             combination thereof.                                                              sensors, induced pulse (electrical), etc.
                    Pedestrian
                    Deterrent
15   Access Control Credentials     Mechanical key          Posession of the mechanical key constitutes the sole credential in absence of     standard or custom keys                                          5
                                                            other access control measures.
16   Access Control Credentials     Combination             Knowledge of the combination constitues the sole credential in absence of         mechanical and electronic                                        5
                                                            other access control measures.
17   Access Control Credentials     Barcode Card            Encodes limited data as a one or two dimension printed code, e.g.,                With or without photo, magnetic stripe, and/or Wiegand       5, 51
                                                            identification number. Posession of the card constitutes the sole credential in   wire, readers have varied memory and ability to provide
                                                            absence of other access control measures.                                         time-date stamps.

18   Access Control Credentials     Magnetic Stripe Card    Magnetic material applied to card encodes limited data. Common uses               With or without photo, barcode, and/or Wiegand wire,         5, 51
                                                            include driver's licenses, credit cards, and access control cards. Posession of   readers have varied memory and ability to provide time-
                                                            the card constitutes the sole credential in absence of other access control       date stamps.
                                                            measures.
19   Access Control Credentials     Wiegand Card            Wire in card enables reading in a magnetic field. Posession of the card           With or without photo, may also include barcode or           5, 51
                                                            constitutes the sole credential in absence of other access control measures.      magnetic stripe.
20   Access Control Credentials     Proximity Card or Tag   Radio frequency (RF) antenna embedded in card enables reading with no             With or without photo (dye sublimation or laminated),        5, 51
                                                            contact. Posession of the card constitutes the sole credential in absence of      may also include magnetic stripe or barcode for ID
                                                            other access control measures.                                                    information.
21   Access Control Credentials     Smart Card              Integrated Circuit Card (ICC) is a credit-card sized plastic card with an         Access to areas and/or data, can restrict data access to    5, 32,
                                                            embedded microchip. It has read/write capability, with up to about 4 KB data      read-only. With or without a photo that may be              33, 51
                                                            storage. Contact read cards have a gold connector plate in one corner. Close      electronically transferred when created with Dye
                                                            proximity, or "contactless " read cards respond to RF (radio frequency) fields.   Diffusion Thermal Transfer. May be Integrated Circuit
                                                            Posession of the card constitutes the sole credential in absence of other         Memory Cards, Integrated Circuit Processor Cards, or
                                                            access control measures.                                                          Optical Memory Cards (addressed as GSM #22).
22   Access Control Credentials     Optical Card            Based on CD-technology, looks like a business or credit card made from a          May include biometric information (e.g., fingerprint) or    33, 34,
                                                            CD. High data storage capacity (i.e., 4 to 6.6 MB). Used for high security        photo that may be electronically transferred when               35
                                                            access control. Cryptology levels vary. When biometric are used, mere             created with Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer. Varied
                                                            posession of the card is never a sufficient credential.                           cryptology levels.
23   Access Control Credentials      Finger print            Records the location and direction of ridge endings and bifurcations on finger       Finger print identification with optical scanner,               5, 52
                                                             tips. May be conducted on all ten fingers.                                           capacitative sensor, or ultrasonic scanner. Data file may
                                                                                                                                                  be part of an ID card (Smart or optical).
24   Access Control Credentials      Iris Scan               Records the furrows and striations on the eye's iris.                                Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or optical).         5, 52

25   Access Control Credentials      Retinal Scan            Records the blood vessel patterns of the eye's retina.                               Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or optical).         5, 52

26   Access Control Credentials      Hand Geometry           Records a 3-D image of the hand, including height and width of bones and             Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or optical).      5, 52, 61
                                                             joints of the hand and fingers.
27   Access Control Credentials      Face Scan               Records a facial image including the relative position and shape of the nose         Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or optical).         5, 52
                                                             and cheekbones.
28   Access Control Locks            Mechanical lock         May be standard home or commercial lock.                                             Varied designs and security levels of both lock and door.       5, 58

29   Access Control Locks            Electric Strike Lock    Electromagnetic control of the lock's latch or strike adds electronic control to     Varied designs and security levels of both lock and door.       5, 58
                                                             an exititing lock.
30   Access Control Locks            Magnetic Lock           DC current energizes an electro-magnet allowing locking of glass, sliding,           Varied design and security levels of both lock and door --      5, 58
                                                             and other doors.                                                                     some lock versions can withstand over 600 lb force.

31   Access Control System Control   Stand Alone Electronic Access control readers stands alone -- are not connected with other readers or Some require a PC for programming.                                         5
                                     Access Points          a control center.

32   Access Control System Control   Network Control of      Connection of multiple access control readers to a central control site.             Multiple readers may be connected using hardwire or                 5
                                     Electronic Access                                                                                            wireless technology.
                                     Points
33   Access Control System Control   Integrated Security     Integration of multiple access control readers and other categories of security Multiple readers and users with hardwire or wireless                     5
                                     System                  measures at a central control site.                                             connections. Integrate with personnel identification,
                                                                                                                                             intrusion detection, and monitoring.
34   Intruder       Doors & Windows Mechanical Switch        Mechanical switches are contact switches that are spring-loaded or plunger      Commonly used in conjunction with open area sensors                  5, 36
     Sensors                                                 devices that are in the non-alarm position when the window or door is closed. at the exterior of portals, or inside the secured area.
                                                             An alarm is triggered when there is a loss of direct physical contact (i.e.,
                                                             opening of the window, door, cabinet, or drawer).

35   Intruder       Doors & Windows Magnetic Switch          Magnetic switches are contact switches in which a magnet pulls the switch to         Commonly used in conjunction with open area sensors          5, 36, 55
     Sensors                                                 the non-alarm position when the window or door is closed. An alarm is                at the exterior of portals, or inside the secured area.
                                                             triggered when there is a loss of direct physical contact (i.e., opening of the
                                                             window or door).
36   Intruder       Doors & Windows Balanced Magnetic        Balanced magnetic switches consist of an internal magnet (typically on the           Commonly used in conjunction with open area sensors             5, 36
     Sensors                        Switch                   door or window frame) and an external , or balancing magnet (typically on the        at the exterior of portals, or inside the secured area.
                                                             moveable door or window). When the portal is closed, the magnetic field
                                                             created by the two magnets opens a switch, creating a non-alarm condition.
                                                             Opening the portal alters the magnetic field, closes the switch, and triggers
                                                             the alarm.
37   Intruder                        Acoustic /               The various types of acoustic sensors use a microphone to listen for sounds         Acoustic (passive ultrasonic, high frequency, e.g. 20 to        5, 36
     Sensors        Walls/ Fence     Shock Wave /            associated with intrusions, and are mounted on walls or ceilings (i.e., typically    30 kHz) or shock wave (electric piezo or non-electric
                                     Audio Discriminator /   indoor). Audio detectors provide alarm for higher than normal loudness (i.e.,        piezo, low frequency, e.g., 5 kHz). Dual systems
                                     Passive Ultrasonic /    decibels). Other systems use filters to restrict alarms to particular frequencies,   combine acoustic and shock sensors to reduce nuisance
                                     Glass Break             such as ultrasonic (e.g., breaking glass), or low frequency waves. To reduce         alarms.
                                                             false alarms, some detectors require frequencies from both very high and very
                                                             low ends of the sound spectrum to trigger alarm.
38   Intruder                     Vibration --               Wall Vibration Sensors mounted on walls, ceilings, or floors detect                Built in or applied to a wall, ceiling, or fence. Sensor       5, 36, 56
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence      Electro-mechanical         mechanical vibrations caused by chopping, sawing, drilling, or ramming the         types: piezoelectric, and electro-mechanical. Variations
                                  Piezoelectric              structure on which the sensor is mounted.                                          in sensitivity, processor abilities, and sensitivity
                                                             Fence-Disturbance Sensors are typically used on chain link or other fence          adjustability. Often used with an outer fence and clear
                                                             types that are a moveable fence fabric hung between posts. Signals                 zone prior to intruder sensors to reduce false alarms.
                                                             characteristic of intrusion attempts trigger an alarm.

39   Intruder                     Vibrations -- Fiber optic Fiber optic vibration sensors are composed of an open mesh or line of fiber         Built in or applied to a wall, ceiling, or fence. Variations   5, 36, 56
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence                                optic cable. An electro optical unit transmits light though the cable, which is     in processor abilities and sensitivity adjustability. Often
                                                            received by a detector. Disturbing the cable, such as with vibrations caused by     used with an outer fence and clear zone prior to intruder
                                                            chopping, sawing, drilling, or ramming the wall/fence, alters the transmission of   sensors to reduce false alarms.
                                                            light, causing the signal processor to generate an alarm.
40   Intruder                     Taut Wire = Strain         Taut wire combines barbed wire fencing with a series of microswitches            Freestanding or fence-mounted. Variations in signal              5, 36, 56
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence      Sensitive Wire             connected to lines of tensioned barbed wires that typically run along the top of processor ability to detect tension changes and in
                                                             an existing fence. Movement of the tension wire causes the center rod            sensitivity adjustability.
                                                             suspended inside a cylindrical conductor to touch the edge of the cylinder,
                                                             closing a circuit and generating an alarm.
41   Intruder                     Capacitive Cable           Capacitance sensors involve the transmission of a low voltage signal through Variations in signal processor ability to detect tension             5, 36, 56
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence                                 several wires (creating an electrical field) mounted on top of a fence, wall, or changes and in sensitivity adjustability.
                                                             roof which provides the electrical ground. The capacitance difference between
                                                             the wires and ground is monitored, and changes due to physical touch typically
                                                             trigger an alarm or video monitoring.

42   Intruder                     Electric Field = E-field   Electric field sensors detect a change in the electrical field (i.e., capacitive   Stand-alone fence, or mounted on separate posts                5, 36, 56
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence                                 coupling) among a set of wires attached to, but electrically isolated from a       attached to an existing fence. May be used with a
                                                             fence. The sensors detect changes in the surrounding electrical field cause by     weather station that adjusts E-field sensor sensitivity
                                                             anyone touching or merely approaching within a few feet of the fence.              based on weather conditions.

43   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Microwave Sensors          Microwave detector systems emit microwaves that are high frequency radio           Monostatic (transmitter and received encased on a              5, 36, 55
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Short-range Radar)         waves in either the X-band or K-band of the spectrum -- these are higher           single housing) or bistatic (transmitter and received are
                                                             frequencies than used by microwave ovens. A receiver detects the reflected         separate units). Dual technology units often include
                                                             wave pattern and generates an alarm when changes are detected in the               microwave and PIR.
                                                             pattern such as from a moving or new object in the zone. Microwaves can
                                                             penetrate walls and windows.
44   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Passive Infrared (PIR)      PIR systems detect changes in radiated IRE energy (i.e., heat) along a series     One or two sensors (Quad PIR) in one housing to reduce           5, 36,
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Heat/ Motion               of fingerlike areas determined by the lens configuration. Typically, filters       nuisance alarms. Sensitivity depends on circuiting               37, 55
                                  Detectors)                 restrict input for receipt of only wavelengths associated with human body          design, programs to ignore first movement, etc. Often
                                                             temperatures (i.e., 7 to 14 am). To minimize alarms from normal                    used in dual technology systems.
                                                             environmental temperature changes, processors only trigger alarm when
                                                             changes are rapid.
                                                             PIR is the most common single technology used for indoor security system
                                                             motion detection. Outdoor alarm systems that use PIR typically use multiple
                                                             PIR units or other technologies in tandem to minimize false alarms.
45   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Scanning Laser             A laser scans an area and a receiver monitors changes in the reflected signal      Scanning range from a single plane up to 360 degrees.                 5
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Infrared)                  to detect movement and the presence of new objects. Depending on the               System sensitivity depends on signal processing
                                                             application, the scanning area may be up to 360 degrees. The use of two            software.
                                                             scanning lasers and processing software allows 3-D images of the scanned
                                                             area. Infrared lasers are most common for intrusion detection. This
                                                             technology may also use x-rays or sonar. Other applications include traffic
                                                             monitoring, vehicle manufacture/assembly inspections, people counting, etc.
46   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Active Infra-Red (IR)   Active IR systems include a transmitter that generates a laser curtain (lines) of Indoor or outdoor, variations in coverage distance and          5, 36, 55
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Beam or Curtain)        IR energy, and a receiver. Active IR is not affected by environmental             the number of laser lines and their distance apart within
                                                          temperature changes. Indoor units project the IR curtain onto special tape that the IR "curtain".
                                                          reflects IR back to the receiver (housed with the transmitter). Outdoor units do
                                                          not use reflective tape, and have a separate housing for the receiver (allowing
                                                          greater coverage distance, up to 1,000 ft).

47   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Photo-Electric Eye /    A beam (or a row of beams) of visible light is transmitted across an open area Variations in coverage distance and the number of laser               5, 36
     Sensors    Motion Detectors Electric Eye             to a photo electric cell that triggers alarm when it senses disruption of the  lines and their distance apart within the photo-electric
                                  (Beam or Curtain)       beam, such as by a passing intruder. This technology is being replaced by      curtain.
                                                          active IR, which uses an IR beam that cannot be observed (i.e., easily
                                                          avoided) by the intruder.

48   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Active Ultrasonic       Active ultrasonic units transmit ultrasonic energy (i.e., 25 to 40 kHz) that is  Wall or ceiling mounted. Used in tandem with passive             5, 36, 37
     Sensors    Motion Detectors                          reflected back by walls and obstructions. Changes in the characteristic          IR.
                                                          reflected pitch/wave (i.e., Doppler Effect) trigger an alarm. This technology is
                                                          commonly used for car alarms because it is not affected by temperature, but
                                                          high false alarm rates have reduced its applications in other security systems
                                                          except when used in tandem with other technologies.

49   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Dual-Technology         Dual technology motion detectors typically use passive infrared (PIR) in        Common motion detection technologies paired in a                    5, 36,
     Sensors    Motion Detectors                          tandem with emission and detection of microwave, and less commonly, active single unit include PIR with either microwave or active                  36, 55
                                                          ultrasonic waves patterns. Both technologies must register a significant signal ultrasonic technologies. Indoor and outdoor systems.
                                                          within a pre-determined time period to trigger the alarm.
50   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Video Motion Detection VMD sensors use CCTV systems. Sensors detect changes in the monitored               Color (visible light), Low light level (black-and-white), or      5, 36
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (VMD)                   area by comparing the current and pre-recorded scene.                               infrared. View changes may trigger alarm. Variable
                                                                                                                                             number of channels, may be stand-alone or software on
                                                                                                                                             a PC.
51   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Air Turbulence          Air turbulence sensors detect low frequencies created by helicopters that are      Varied signal processing methods.                                 5, 36
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Acoustic Sensor or      in landing phase or at close range ( 1 to 2 miles). Sensor may respond to
                                  RF)                     radio frequency (RF) patterns of acoustic patterns. Signals that pass the band
                                                          filters (i.e., 20 to 40 Hz for acoustic sensors) generate an alarm signal.

52   Intruder   Buried            Balanced Pressure       Closed-end, pliable tubing filled with fluid installed underground. A sensor   For monitoring sensitive approach or access areas, and             5, 36, 53
     Sensors    (in ground)       Buried Tube/pipe        detects fluid movement or pressure changes as a result of vibrations or        restricted zones. Several technologies exist.
                                                          seismic energy and generates a signal if it deviates from the determined norm.
                                                          When installed under concrete, detects vehicles, but not a person on foot.
                                                          This technology is being replaced by other types of buried intruder sensors.

53   Intruder   Buried            Buried Geophone         Geophones are acoustic sensors that listen for seismic vibrations                  Sensitivity depends on sensors and control algorithm           5, 36, 53
     Sensors    (in ground)                               characteristic of a person traversing the ground above. A string of sensors are    ability to compensate for background signals.
                                                          buried in layers of sand to provide a stable and relatively compact surrounding
                                                          that is very conductive of seismic vibrations. Shallower burial is used when
                                                          placed under asphalt. Should be away from trees or poles that may generate
                                                          vibrations under windy conditions.
54   Intruder   Buried            Fiber Optic             In-ground fiber optic systems include an electro optic unit that transmits light   Sensitivity depends on sensors and control algorithm           5, 36, 53
     Sensors    (in ground)                               through the cable. A detector at the opposite end is sensitive to slight changes   ability to compensate for background signals.
                                                          in the transmission caused by vibrations or strain such as when a person
                                                          walks runs, or crawls over the above ground. Not effective under concrete or
                                                          asphalt. Should be away from trees or poles, in an area with good drainage.
55   Intruder       Buried            Coaxial Cable =            Ported coax buried line sensors are coaxial cables that have small, closely           Uses continuous wave or pulsed sensors. Sensitivity    5, 36, 53
     Sensors        (in ground)       Ported Coax Line =        spaced holes in their outer shield, and are installed in pairs. The holes in the       depends on sensors and processor ability to compensate
                                      Capacitive Cable          cables allow radio frequency (RF) energy generated by a processor to radiate           for background signals. Cable placement and soil
                                                                from one cable, and be received by the second cable.         Changes in the            density affect zone covered.
                                                                received signal are detected when an intruder moves across the ground
                                                                surface. Zone size depends on soil density and cable placement, but
                                                                commonly extends 3 to 4 feet above the ground, in an area 9 to 12 feet wide.

56   Monitoring     Lighting          Spot/ Zone Lighting       Spot/ zone lighting for work space and general lighting                                Incandescent, tungsten halogen, or fluorescent systems.        5
     Technology                                                                                                                                        Reflectors for spot lights and flood lighting. May be
                                                                                                                                                       triggered by a motion detector.
57   Monitoring     Lighting          Wide-Area Lighting        Wide area lighting for street lights, gyms, and security lighting.                     Metal halide, high pressure sodium, or low pressure            5
     Technology                                                                                                                                        sodium systems.

58   Monitoring     Lighting          Infrared (IR) lights      Solid state infrared (IR) lighting for surveillance camera fields with "no light" or   Used with CCTV in dark areas. IR lights and CCTV may           5
     Technology                                                 "blackout" conditions (i.e., these lights cannot be seen by the unaided human          be triggered by a motion detector.
                                                                eye).
59   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Black & white             Monochrome (black and white) image collection device converts photons to               Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and tilt capability.   5
     Technology     Camera            (Low Light Levels)        electronics.                                                                           Image intensifiers for low light conditions. Reflective
                                                                                                                                                       mirrors to see around obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/
                                                                                                                                                       washer system, and heater/ cooler.

60   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Color                     Color image collection device converts photons to electrons in three color             Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and tilt capability.   5
     Technology     Camera                                      bands (red, green, and blue.)                                                          Image intensifiers for low light conditions. Reflective
                                                                                                                                                       mirrors to see around obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/
                                                                                                                                                       washer system, and heater/ cooler.

61   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Convertible               Color image is collected at higher light levels, and black and white image is          Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and tilt capability.   5
     Technology     Camera            (B&W and Color)           collected at lower light levels (e.g., <1 lux).                                        Image intensifiers for low light conditions. Reflective
                                                                                                                                                       mirrors to see around obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/
                                                                                                                                                       washer system, and heater/ cooler.

62   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Analog / VHS              Video signal recorded on magnetic tape, typically VHS cassettes. Standard              Real-time and time-lapse recorders. Variations in VHS          5
     Technology     Recorder                                    VHS offer 240 lines of horizontal resolution. Super VHS offers 400 lines of            tape resolution. May have remote control device. May be
                                                                resolution.                                                                            triggered by a motion detector.
63   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Digital / DVD             Records video signal on a computer hard drive, DAT, or DSS tape. Resolution            Varied resolution and compression formats. Continous           5
     Technology     Recorder                                    is at least 400 lines lorizointal. Data compression minimizes transmission and         real-time or event recorders which may have audio
                                                                storage requirements. Option of digital compression include JPEG, MPEG,                capability.
                                                                H263, and Wavelet.
64   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      guard                     CCTV recording should be analyzed in real-time for optimal security. Analysis          Number of guards on duty, duration of viewing shift, etc.
     Technology     Analysis                                    may be by a human guard alone or in cunjunction with an alarm that signals
                                                                changes in otherwise static scenes.
65   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      computer                  CCTV recording should be analyzed in real-time for optimal security.                   Variations in the ability to separate background/ normal       38
     Technology     Analysis                                    Computer programs have been developed to evaluate video images and                     images from unusual images.
                                                                provide an alarm when scene image changes exceed exceptable levels.

66   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Vary procedures to                                                                                                Randomly alter procedures such as passenger
     Low Cost       Cost             reduce certainty of                                                                                               processing, cargo handling, time intervals, sequences,
                                     expected patterns                                                                                                 etc.
67   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Simulate / fake security                                                                                          Exaggerate security measures e.g., deploy more camera
     Low Cost       Cost             measures                                                                                                          housings than cameras, use "untrained" K9 units, park
                                                                                                                                                       police cars on premises, etc.
68   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Vary equipment                                                                                            Random physical, operational, administrative changes,
     Low Cost       Cost             locations to reduce                                                                                       e.g., move guard house, cameras, lights, change routes
                                     certainty of expected                                                                                     and passes (e.g., under bridges, near shore, etc.).
                                     patterns
69   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Public communication                                                                                    Communicate that sensitive areas and targets are well              2
     Low Cost       Cost             of security                                                                                             secured and detection systems are in place. Disclosed
                                                                                                                                             measures may be or may not be real. (All real measures
                                                                                                                                             should not be disclosed.)
70   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Separate and dilute                                                                                     Maximize distance and barriers between targets
     Low Cost       Cost             targets                                                                                                 (vessels, fuel, cargo, passengers, etc.), and reduce
                                                                                                                                             target size, e.g., increase distance of vehicles from fuel
                                                                                                                                             tanks, stagger boarding times to minimize shoreside
                                                                                                                                             crowding, etc.
71   Waterside      Surface          RADAR                   RADAR transmits a microwave signal that is reflected off solid objects. The     Detection distance is limited by height over water.
     Security                        (Radio Detection And    received signal shows the shoreline and movement of other boats in the area. Variations in receiver sensitivity, options include use with
                                     Ranging)                Traditional applications are for navigation and safety to prevent collisions,   a chart plotter or fishfinder, split-screen viewing of short
                                                             particularly under poor visibility conditions. Radar requirements are addressed and long-distance targets, etc.
                                                             in MTSA Reg 33 CFR 105-275.
72   Waterside      Surface          Buoys                   Buoys and markers provide safety information and denote special areas           Lights can be placed on buoys to illuminate boundaries.           39
     Security                                                including "Keep Out", and "control" (special rules) . More information on buoy Signage can posted on or directly engraved into the
                                                             types can be found at: http://www.auxetrain.org/Buoys.html                     buoys.

73   Waterside      Surface          Pier and Buoy Signage Signage warns boaters of restricted areas and prohibited activities. Buoys and Signage of wood, metal construction with reflectorized
     Security                                              markers provide safety information and denote special areas including "Keep materials. Signage can posted on or directly engraved
                                                           Out", and "control" (special rules) .                                          into the buoys.

74   Waterside      Surface          Vessel Barriers         Some of the referenced vessel barriers can withstand up to 1,500,000 foot         Commonly constructed of composites and metals. May           40, 41
     Security                                                pounds of energy over a 1.5 second period. Such floating structures are           appear as connected colored buoy . May or may not
                                                             sufficient to stop a 30-foot vessel traveling 40 mph (35 knots).                  have nets.

75   Waterside      Underwater       Side Scan Sonar         Side scan sonar emits a sound pulse from each side of the vessel through the      Towed through water or mounted on vessel hull, ROV, or       42, 43
     Security                                                water as a 2D fan. The sound pulse is reflected by a target and the strength of   AUV. Depth and area variations. Options: distortion
                                                             the returned wave is used to create a 2D image that depicts range and             correction and image enhancement software, digital
                                                             bearing, but not depth. Used for detection of sunken objects, AUVs,               recording, and positioning equipment.
                                                             divers/swimmers to the side of the sonar unit.

76   Waterside      Underwater       Forward Looking Sonar Forward looking sonar emits a 2D fan of a sound pulse in front of the vessel.       Towed through the water or mounted on the hull of a             44
     Security                                              The sound is reflected by a target and the strength of the returned wave is         vessel, ROV, or AUV. Towing usually needs currents of
                                                           used to create a 2D image of the terrain ahead with range and bearing, but not      at least 8 knots. Different frequency options for deep
                                                           depth. Units with a vertical beam orientation provide range and depth, but not      water and shallow water applications.
                                                           bearing. Used to detect subsurface threats such as sunken objects, AUVs,
                                                           divers/ swimmers ahead of the sonar unit.

77   Waterside      Underwater       Multibeam Sonar         Multiplebeam sonar emits multiple 2D fans of a sound pulse through the water. Towline or mounted on hull of vessel, ROV, or AUV.               42, 45
     Security                        (3-D images)            Sound pulses are reflected by a target and the strength and timing of the     Variations in depth rating, housing type, number of
                                                             returned waves are used to create a 3D image that depicts range, bearing, and beams, range, etc.
                                                             depth. Used to detect subsurface threats such as sunken objects, AUVs,
                                                             divers/ swimmers ahead of the sonar unit.
78   Waterside      Underwater       Remotely Operated       An unmanned submersible unit with sensors that is piloted by a remote             Subsurface, remotely controlled hull inspection system.         47
     Security                        Vehicle (ROV)           operator -- a transmission cable attaches the ROV to a vessel or platform.        May include side scan and forward looking sonar,
                                                             Associated monitors can allow remote inspection of the hull of a vessel.          bathymetry, video, two-way communication system, etc.
79   Waterside   Underwater     Autonomous           An unmanned submersible unit with sensors that is untethered, and                  May include side and forward sonar, bathymetry, video,        46
     Security                   Underwater Vehicle   preprogrammed for a specific route. Associated monitors can allow remote           etc.
                                (AUV)                inspection of the hull of a vessel.
80   Screening   Passengers &   Human inspections    Use of trained patrols to screen and identify potential security threats. Training Cargo searches may use of a mirror and flashlight. Pat-
                 Cargo                               is very location-specific and depends on the intensity and preparation of the      down passenger inspections with or without hand-held
                 All threats                         patrol agents involved. Personnel inspections may be pat down or aided with detectors.
                                                     a hand-held detector. Identification of suspicious agents may require a strip
                                                     search.

81   Screening   Passengers &   Backscatter x-rays   Used to scan people, vehicles, and cargo with high energy x-rays that tend to      Portals designed for scans of people or vehicles, mobile       9
                 Cargo                               scatter when striking organic material (e.g., skin, plastic weapons, explosives,   units transported in vans for scanning passing vehicles.
                 Weapons,                            and drugs) rather than being absorbed as a radiation dose. A surface image is      Software graphics overlays to protect privacy/ modesty.
                 explosives                          produced with voids indicating dense material (i.e., metals) that absorb the x-
                                                     rays. Human radiation dose is equivalent to a 2-hour flight. Concerns
                                                     regarding cummulative effects of daily doses and privacy (i.e., reveals shape
                                                     of the nude body in addition to objects concealed by clothing). Note: "z-
                                                     backscatter" is a trademark used by AS&E for their patented backscatter
                                                     products.
82   Screening   Passengers     Millimeter Wave      Passive millimeter wave detectors sense reflected millimeter waves that are        Software graphics overlays to protect privacy/ modesty.    48, 49
                 Weapons,       (MMW)                between typical radio and infrared wavelengths (i.e., K and Ka band).
                 explosives                          Reflected images reveal surfaces at a substantially greater level of detail than
                                                     with passive IR, and allow distinction of objects that are denser than the
                                                     background body (e.g., metal, ceramic, plastic). Combined with computer
                                                     analyses, shapes that may represent weapons can be identified. This
                                                     technology can simultaneoulsy scan a large number of people.

83   Screening   Cargo          Transmission x-ray   Uses low-energy x-rays that tend to penetrate objects based on the object's        Unit size and throughpout rate.
                 Weapons,                            density (as in medical x-rays). Detects dense materials such as metals in
                 explosives                          guns or casings for nuclear material. Not used to scan people due to
                                                     cummulative radiation dose concerns.

84   Screening   Cargo          CAT Scan             Computerize Axial Tomography, is derived from medical technology and           Unit size and throughpout rate.
                 Weapons,                            referred to as CT or CAT scanning. It is a series of transmission x-ray images
                 explosives                          that are combined to create a 3-D image of dense contents in baggage (e.g.,
                                                     metal weapons, explosive devices). X-rays produced by an electro-magnetic
                                                     generator. Radiation doses are considered too high for daily scanning of
                                                     passsengers. Used for airport baggage screening and listed by TSA as an
                                                     Explosive Detection System (EDS).

85   Screening   Cargo          Metal detectors      Metal detectors operate by generating a low-intensity magnetic field that           Hand-held wands (requires 2 minutes per scan for             24
                 Weapons                             passes from one side of the detector to the other. If metal objects pass through trained security personel), or portal systems .
                                                     that field, the magnetic field will induce a second field in the metal object.
                                                     Since that second field is a disruption of the first field, the detector senses the
                                                     change and sets off an alarm. Magnetic fields are a form of radiation, but they
                                                     are called "nonionizing" radiation. This means that magnetic fields do not
                                                     generate additional, damaging radiation the way that ionizing radiation (such
                                                     as x rays) does.
86   Screening   Cargo             Gamma rays             Uses a cesium-137 or cobalt-60 radioisotope to generate gamma rays which Portals for scans of vehicles, or mobile units transported                50
                 Weapons,                                 penetrate the inspected cargo. Detection ability is similar to transmission x-ray on vans.
                 explosives                               systems, but does not have the high electrical requirements needed for x-ray
                                                          generation. Gamma rays are continually emit from a small radioisotope pellet,
                                                          which is equipped with a shutter to briefly open the source enclosure when
                                                          inspection is required. The gamma source offers greater reliability and a lower
                                                          cost of ownership because it does not require a complicated, high-voltage
                                                          electrical system to create the radiation. The VACIS inspection system is an
                                                          example of gamma ray technology.
87   Screening   Trace Detection   K-9 Units              Use of trained canines and handlers to inspect passengers and luggage for         Canines trained for explosives detection, and / or drug           4
                 Explosives                               explosives and incindaries. (Note that training for explosives is distinct from   detection. Training for detection of biological and CWA
                                                          training for drug detection, some animals are trained for both.)                  may be possible, but is not standard.

88   Screening   Trace Detection IMS (Ion Mobility        Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is one of the leading technologies for field      Continuous monitors with alarms or hand-held units.               1
                 Explosives, CWA Spectrometry)            portable trace detection used to detect drugs, explosives, chemical warfare       Sensitivity to specfic chemical varies. Specific chemicals
                                                          agents (CWAs), and toxic industrial chemicals/materials (TICS/TIMS). It is        detected depends on the units software.
                                                          based on a chemical's speed of travel through an electric field after ionization.
                                                          Many models use a radiological source for ionization of intake air samples.
                                                          Gases and vapors may be continuously measured.

89   Screening   Trace Detection SAW (Surface Acoustic SAW sensors detect changes in ultrasonic waves emitted from a piezoelectric          The hand-held or wall mounted. Chemicals detected             1, 11
                 Explosives, CWA Wave)                 crystal (e.g., quartz) coated with specific polymers that absorb the chemicals       depend on the units design but may include nerve
                                                       detected (e.g., explosives, CWA). Chemical absorption shifts the detected            agents, blister agents and several classes of toxic
                                                       ultrasonic emissions, and a pattern recognition algorithm identifies the             industrial chemicals (TIC’s). Detection of explosives is
                                                       absorbed chemical. Commercial instruments available for CWAs and toxic               under development.
                                                       industrial chemicals (TICs). Polymers are being developed for explosives
                                                       detection.
90   Screening   Trace Detection   Enzyme-Based,          Enzyme or immunoassays depend on the chemical agent ability to bind to        Specific assays for specific chemical agents. Variations         16, 23
                 CWA               Immunoassay            biological compounds, e.g., organophosphate nerve agents binding to the       in the extent of assay automation.
                                                          enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The reaction between the chemical agent and
                                                          enzyme (or other biological compound) causes a change that can be
                                                          measured chemically (e.g., pH) or optically (i.e., color). The military issue
                                                          M256A1 kit uses enzymes and colored substrates to detect nerve agents. Kits
                                                          for CWA are expected to be commercially available soon -- immunoassay kits
                                                          are already commercially available for biological agents.
91   Screening   Trace Detection   Hand-Held Geiger       Radioactive particles that pass through the halogen filled Geiger-Muller          Pager sized geiger counters and gamma detectors can           1, 60
                 Radioactivity     Counters               detector produce electronic pulses that are converted to numeric values.          detect radiological agents in the immediate vaccinity.
                                                                                                                                            They can be easily carried by law enforcement agents.
92   Screening   Trace Detection   Smear Counters         Smear counters are more sensitive to alpha and low energy beta radiation,        The time needed for measurements depends on the                   60
                 Radioactivity                            which does not travel very far in air, and can be shielded or blocked by many desired level of sensitivity.
                                                          types of materials. The smear sample is taken by wiping a small cloth filter
                                                          over a surface. The smear filter is then placed in the smear sample counter
93   Screening   Trace Detection   Hand and Shoe          and is monitors a specific alpha, beta, and/or gamma minutes, depending on
                                                          These read over can detect period of time (typically 1-30radiation on a person's Variations in sensitivity.                                        60
                 Radioactivity     Monitors               hands or feet. Personnel to be scanned are required to stand on a platform
                                                          and simultaneously place their hands in another part of the detector. This type
                                                          of detector may give highly accurate readings.
94   Screening   Trace Detection   Chemical Detection     Detector kits carried by some HazMat units include detector papers (i.e., M8    M8 paper or M9 tape                                            13, 20,
                 CWA               Paper                  and M9) developed for military identification of high levels of CWA. This paper                                                                    23
                                                          or tape changes color when exposed to high levels of CWA. It can be used to
                                                          test baggage by swiping paper on bag.
95    Screening     Trace Detection   Colorimetric tubes        This colorimetric (chemical color change) method uses a hand pump to pull air Specific detector tubes for different CWA and toxic                   18, 20,
                    CWA, TIC                                    or vapor samples through single use detector tubes filled with chemicals that industrial chemicals (TIC).                                               23
                                                                change color to indicate the a specific chemical presence and roughly estimate
                                                                concentration. More sophisticated units include colorimeters for color
                                                                measurement, simpler units rely on the user's visual comparison to a key.

96    Screening     Trace Detection Electron Capture            Portable device similar to IMS but using a different type of sensor. Like the       Sensitivity to specific chemicals varies. Specific
                    Explosives, CWA Detectors (ECD)             IMS, the sample is first ionized using a small isotopic source such as Ni 63.       chemicals detected depends on the units software.
                                                                However, rather than measuring the mobility of the ion, the system measures
                                                                the affinity of the material to adsorb electrons. Another difference can be found
                                                                in the carrier gas. The portable IMS systems typically use dry air as the carrier
                                                                gas. However, the carrier gas in an ECD is an inert gas such as Helium or
                                                                Argon.
97    Screening     Trace Detection   Immunoassays,             Rapid, portable antigen-antibody test for the detection of biological warfare       Separate assays (i.e., tickets) for detection of different      15, 23,
                    Bio Agents        Hand-Held Assay           agents. Disposable hand-held assay (HHA) test kits include "tickets" that are       biological agents (e.g., anthrax, plague, botulina, etc.). If       75
                                      (HHA) Kits,               enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). HHA tickets recognize the              sample is not visible (e.g., powder), a sampler that
                                      Antibody identification   antigen (harmful agent) in a sample that would cause the production of a            concentrates particles is needed. Sensitivity of the test
                                                                specific antibody (immune response) in humans. The technique is pathogen-           is limited by the strip reader, which may be visual (low
                                                                specific, with one agent tested per ticket. The presence or absence of the          cost, low sensitivity), or purchased strip readers that vary
                                                                target agent in currently available kits is determined by color change.             in sensitivity and time for measurement.


98    Screening     Trace Detection   Protein Screening         Protein screening test kits can determine whether or not particles are             For testing air samples, an air collector that concentartes          15
                    Bio Agents                                  biological (i.e., bacterial, bio-toxin, viral, etc.). These tests do not determine particles is needed. Variations in sensitivity and time
                                                                whether or not an identified biological agent is hazardous. A positive result      required for reaction.
                                                                indicates the need for further testing with another biological method.
                                                                Commercially available protein screening kits typically need samples that are
                                                                large enough to be seen. The reaction of protein with chemicals in the test kit
                                                                causes a visual color change.


99    Screening     Trace Detection   Particle Fluorescence     Continous air samplers analyze particle fluorescence for signals that indicate      Indoor units operate continously. Alarms may silently               14
                    Bio Agents        Monitoring                biological agents. When high concentrations of biological agents are detected,      indicate the need for further testing. Variations in
                                                                samples are collected for additional testing to identify the agent and determine    sensitivity and the ability to collect samples for additional
                                                                whether or not it is a hazardous agent. This method does not confirm a              analyses.
                                                                dangerous sample, it just determines the need for further testing. Outdoor use
                                                                may trigger more false alarms for futher testing.



100   Screening     Trace Detection   Aerosol Particle Sizers In APS systems, particles are drawn through an orifice into a steady high-       Hand-held and stationary units. Variations in the ability            23, 29
                    Bio Agents        (APS)                   speed air flow. The velocity of the carrier air remains constant throughout. The to discriminate between particle types based on their size
                                                              introduced particles accelerate at rates proportional to their size. Particles   and general shape.
                                                              impact a collector or pass through a laser light beam to characterize the size.
                                                              While most particle sizers are fairly large and heavy systems, hand-held
                                                              analyzers are commercially available. Note that these detectors can identify
                                                              changes in air particles and can suggest whether or not increases in particles
                                                              may be biological, but they cannot identify the type of biological agent.

101   Human         All Areas         Public Watch              Public watch programs include awareness education for the general public            Request and instruct passengers and neighbors to
      Observation                                               through media including posters and announcements.                                  observe and report suspicious and unusual activities
102   Human         All Areas   Employee Watch --    Employee awareness training on identification of suspicious activities and        Establish procedures and train employees to recognize        2
      Observation               Awareness Training   objects, and reporting procedures.                                                and report unusual and suspicious activities, vehicles,
                                                                                                                                       and luggage.

103   Human         All Areas   Uniform Patrols on   Uniformed patrols with awareness training in addition to training on responses Shore-side or on ferry vessels, set or random route
      Observation               ground or on ferry   to suspisious circumstances.


104   Human         Waterside   Patrol Vessels and   Patrol routes may or may not follow ferry routes. Escorts for large ferries, in   Fiberglass or metal hull vessels varying in length and on-   30
      Observation               Escorts              particular, may be required under higher MARSEC levels. Assistance with           board equipment (e.g., sonar, weapons, etc). Escort
                                                     escorts may be available from the local police or USCG . The USCG conducts        may be random or scheduled, and for portions of a route
                                                     random escorts of ferry vessels depending on the COTP, manning, or port-          or the entire route.
                                                     specific MARSEC levels.
105   Human         Waterside   Divers               Divers are often employed to visually inspect underwater areas such as            Certified divers visually inspect undersides of vessels,     31
      Observation                                    piers/pilings, or the undersides of vessels for explosive devices.                piers and supporting infrastructure
APPLICABILITY RANKS OF GSMS                                                            Service Effect Ranks
                                                                  (Column N only)                                                                                                                              Applicability Ranks                                                           (Columns F through AU)
INSTRUCTIONS            DO NOT SORT on this sheet!!                                                     0 = Not Applicable       2 = Moderate Applicability
                                                                    0 = No impact
GSMs are ranked below in Columns F through AV by                   -1 = Some negative effect            1 = Low Applicability   3 = High Applicability
their applicability to the evaluation criteria shown as            -2 = Moderately negative effect
column headers on this page and described on Sheet 1.
Find the GSM on your "Further Evaluation" list by GSM
                                                        EVALUATION CRITERIA (Column Headers) & APPLICABILITY RANKS OF GSMS (Rows 11 to 112)
# (Column A) and edit the applicability ranks in Cells
F11 through AV112 as needed. Applicability ranks                                                                        Security Locations                       Applicability by Threat Type
should be considered within evaluation criteria groups    Security       Non-Security           33 CFR
(not between groups).                                    Objectives      Effect (+ or -)     Compliance               Shoreside           Waterside         Delivery of         Act of Force




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Beyond Boundary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             On-                                              Explosive or                                                                                        WMD




                                                                                                                                                                                                Stores & Bunkers




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Facility Perimeter
GSM CHARACTERIZATION




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Vehicle Parking
                                                                                                                                                                               Handling Cargo




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Vehicle Holding
                                                                                                                                                             Restricted Area
                                                                                                                                            Access Control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            board                                              Incendiary                                      To                            By                  Delivery




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Adjacent Ferry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Adjacent Ferry
                                                                                                                   Fare Evasion




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Non-restrict
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Passenger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Monitoring




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Operation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Restricted




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Overhead




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Overhead
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In Transit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Terminal
                                                                                                                                  Service
                                                                                       Mitigate




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Artillery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Vehicle




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Vehicle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Waiting




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Person




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Facility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vessel




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Vessel


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Vessel
                                                                                                  Safety




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Chem.
                                                                                                           Crime
                                                                       Detect
                                                               Deter


                                                                                Deny




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Mine




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Rad.
GSM




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Bio
 #           Method Category                 GSM
EVALUATION WEIGHTS (Copied from Sheet 1)                       5        4       3       2          2       1         3             5          5                4                 0                 1                4             1                  1                   0               5    4   2   1      2              1              3             2            3        5         2         1         1       1          1          3        1         1        1         2       2     1
  1   Fencing /     Retractable     Ramp/ Wedge,
      Barriers      Vehicle         in-ground mounted
                    Deterrents                                 2        2       2       1          0       0         1            -1          3                3                 1                 1                1             0                  3                   3               3    0   1   0      0              0              0             0            0        3         0         0         0       0          3          1        3         0        0         1       1     1



  2   Fencing /     Retractable     Bollards,
      Barriers      Vehicle         retractable
                    Deterrents      (steel or concrete)        2        2       2       0          0       0         2            -1          3                3                 1                 1                1             0                  3                   3               3    0   2   2      0              0              0             0            0        3         0         0         0       0          3          1        3         0        0         1       1     1



  3   Fencing /     Retractable     Ramp/ wedge,
      Barriers      Vehicle         surface mounted
                    Deterrents                                 2        2       2       0          0       0         2            -1          3                3                 1                 1                1             0                  3                   3               3    0   1   0      0              0              0             0            0        3         0         0         0       0          3          1        3         0        0         1       1     1



  4   Fencing /     Retractable     Booms and Crash
      Barriers      Vehicle         Beams
                    Deterrents      (sliding or swing gates)   2        2       2       0          0       0         2            -1          3                3                 1                 1                1             0                  3                   3               3    0   1   0      0              0              0             0            0        3         0         0         0       0          3          1        3         0        0         1       1     1



  5   Fencing /     Retractable     Traffic controllers
      Barriers      Vehicle         ("tire teeth")
                    Deterrents                                 2        2       2       0          0       0         2            -1          3                3                 1                 1                1             0                  3                   2               2    0   1   0      0              0              0             0            0        3         0         0         0       0          3          1        3         0        0         1       1     1



  6   Fencing /     Fixed Vehicle   Bollards,
      Barriers      Deterrent,      fixed/stationary
                    Pedestrian      (concrete or steel)        2        2       2       0          0       1         2             0          3                3                 1                 1                1             0                  3                   3               3    2   2   2      0              0              0             0            0        3         0         0         0       0          3          1        3         0        0         1       1     1
                    Access


  7   Fencing /     Fixed Vehicle   Decorative Crash-
      Barriers      Deterrent,      Rated Barrier
                    Pedestrian      (spheres, benches,         2        2       2       0          0       1         2             0          3                3                 1                 1                1             0                  3                   3               3    2   2   2      0              0              0             0            0        3         0         0         0       0          3          1        3         0        0         1       1     1
                    Access          bike racks, trees, etc.)
8    Fencing /   Fixed Vehicle   Jersey Barriers,
     Barriers    Deterrent,      portable
                 Pedestrian      (water filled or steel     2   2   2   0   0   1   2   0   3   3   1   1   1   0   3   3   3   2   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   3   1   3   0   0   1   1   1
                 Access          reinforced concrete)


9    Fencing /   Fixed Vehicle   Planters
     Barriers    Deterrent,      (standard)
                 Pedestrian                                 2   2   2   0   0   1   2   0   3   3   1   1   1   0   3   3   3   2   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   3   1   3   0   0   1   1   1
                 Access


10   Fencing /   Fixed, Both     Walls
     Barriers    Vehicle and     (e.g.,concrete or brick,
                 Pedestrian      steel reinforcement)       2   2   2   0   0   2   2   0   3   3   1   1   1   0   3   3   3   3   2   1   0   0   0   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   3   1   3   0   0   1   1   1
                 Deterrent


11   Fencing /   Fixed, Both     Steel Bar Fence
     Barriers    Vehicle and     (with anchored cables)
                 Pedestrian                                 2   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   3   3   3   3   0   0   3   3   3   3   2   1   0   0   0   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   3   1   3   0   0   1   1   1
                 Deterrent


12   Fencing /   Fixed, Both     Earthen Barriers
     Barriers    Vehicle and     (with steel or concrete
                 Pedestrian      reinforcement)             2   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   3   3   3   3   0   0   3   3   3   3   2   1   0   0   0   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   3   1   3   0   0   1   1   1
                 Deterrent


13   Fencing /   Fixed, Both     Transparent Fences
     Barriers    Vehicle and
                 Pedestrian                                 1   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   3   3   3   3   0   0   3   3   3   3   2   1   0   0   0   0   3   2   0   0   0   0   3   1   2   0   0   1   1   1
                 Deterrent


14   Fencing /   Fixed, Both     Solid Fences
     Barriers    Vehicle and
                 Pedestrian                                 1   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   3   3   3   3   0   0   3   3   3   3   2   1   0   0   0   0   3   2   0   0   0   0   3   1   2   0   0   1   1   1
                 Deterrent


15   Access      Credentials     Mechanical key
     Control
                                                            2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   0   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



16   Access      Credentials     Combination
     Control
                                                            2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   0   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



17   Access      Credentials     Barcode Card
     Control
                                                            2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   1   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



18   Access      Credentials     Magnetic Stripe Card
     Control
                                                            2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   1   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1
19   Access    Credentials   Wiegand Card
     Control
                                                     2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   1   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



20   Access    Credentials   Proximity Card or Tag
     Control
                                                     2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   1   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



21   Access    Credentials   Smart Card
     Control
                                                     2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   2   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



22   Access    Credentials   Optical Card
     Control
                                                     2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   2   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



23   Access    Credentials   Finger print
     Control
                                                     2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   2   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



24   Access    Credentials   Iris Scan
     Control
                                                     2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   2   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



25   Access    Credentials   Retinal Scan
     Control
                                                     2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   2   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



26   Access    Credentials   Hand Geometry
     Control
                                                     2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   2   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



27   Access    Credentials   Face Scan
     Control
                                                     2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   2   1   1   2   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



28   Access    Locks         Mechanical lock
     Control
                                                     2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   1   1   0   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



29   Access    Locks         Electric Strike Lock
     Control
                                                     2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   1   1   0   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1
30   Access     Locks            Magnetic Lock
     Control
                                                             2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   1   1   0   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



31   Access     System Control   Stand Alone Electronic
     Control                     Access Points
                                                             2   1   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   1   1   0   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



32   Access     System Control   Network Control of
     Control                     Electronic Access
                                 Points                      2   2   2   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   1   1   0   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



33   Access     System Control   Integrated Security
     Control                     System
                                                             2   2   2   0   1   2   0   0   3   3   1   1   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



34   Intruder   Doors &          Mechanical Switch
     Sensors    Windows
                                                             1   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   1   1   1   2   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



35   Intruder   Doors &          Magnetic Switch
     Sensors    Windows
                                                             1   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   1   1   1   2   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



36   Intruder   Doors &          Balanced Magnetic
     Sensors    Windows          Switch
                                                             1   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   1   1   1   2   3   1   0   0   3   0   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



37   Intruder                    Acoustic /
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence     Shock Wave /
                                 Audio Discriminator /       2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2
                                 Passive Ultrasonic /
                                 Glass Break
38   Intruder                    Vibration --
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence     Electro-mechanical
                                 Piezoelectric               2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



39   Intruder                    Vibrations -- Fiber optic
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence
                                                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



40   Intruder                    Taut Wire = Strain
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence     Sensitive Wire
                                                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2
41   Intruder                     Capacitive Cable
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence
                                                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



42   Intruder                     Electric Field = E-field
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence
                                                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



43   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Microwave Sensors
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Short-range Radar)
                                                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   2   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



44   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Passive Infrared (PIR)
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Heat/ Motion
                                  Detectors)                 2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   2   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



45   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Scanning Laser
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Infrared)
                                                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   2   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   2   0   0   0   0   2   2   2   2



46   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Active Infra-Red (IR)
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Beam or Curtain)
                                                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   2   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



47   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Photo-Electric Eye /
     Sensors    Motion Detectors Electric Eye
                                  (Beam or Curtain)          2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   2   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



48   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Active Ultrasonic
     Sensors    Motion Detectors
                                                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   2   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



49   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Dual-Technology
     Sensors    Motion Detectors
                                                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   2   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



50   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Video Motion Detection
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (VMD)
                                                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   2   0   0   3   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



51   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Air Turbulence
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Acoustic Sensor or
                                  RF)                        2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   2   2   1   3   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   3   2   2   2
52   Intruder     Buried         Balanced Pressure
     Sensors      (in ground)    Buried Tube/pipe
                                                        2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   1   1   0   3   2   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



53   Intruder     Buried         Buried Geophone
     Sensors      (in ground)
                                                        2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   1   1   0   3   2   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



54   Intruder     Buried         Fiber Optic
     Sensors      (in ground)
                                                        2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   1   1   0   3   2   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



55   Intruder     Buried         Coaxial Cable =
     Sensors      (in ground)    Ported Coax Line =
                                 Capacitive Cable       2   3   0   0   0   2   0   0   3   3   2   2   3   0   3   1   1   0   3   2   0   0   0   0   2   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



56   Monitoring   Lighting       Spot/ Zone Lighting
     Technology
                                                        1   2   0   0   1   2   1   0   1   1   1   1   3   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   1   1   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



57   Monitoring   Lighting       Wide-Area Lighting
     Technology
                                                        1   2   0   0   1   2   1   0   1   1   1   1   3   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   1   1   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



58   Monitoring   Lighting       Infrared (IR) lights
     Technology
                                                        1   2   0   0   1   2   1   0   1   1   1   1   3   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   1   1   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1



59   Monitoring   CCTV / Video   Black & white
     Technology   Camera         (Low Light Levels)
                                                        1   3   0   0   1   3   1   0   3   3   3   3   3   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   3   3   3   0   0   3   3   3



60   Monitoring   CCTV / Video   Color
     Technology   Camera
                                                        1   3   0   0   1   3   1   0   3   3   3   3   3   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   3   3   3   0   0   3   3   3



61   Monitoring   CCTV / Video   Convertible
     Technology   Camera         (B&W and Color)
                                                        1   3   0   0   1   3   1   0   3   3   3   3   3   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   3   3   3   0   0   3   3   3



62   Monitoring   CCTV / Video   Analog / VHS
     Technology   Recorder
                                                        1   3   0   0   1   3   1   0   3   3   3   3   3   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   3   3   3   0   0   3   3   3
63   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Digital / DVD
     Technology     Recorder
                                                                1   3   0   0   1   3   1   0    3   3   3   3   3   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   3   3   3   0   0   3   3   3



64   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      guard
     Technology     Analysis
                                                                1   3   0   0   1   3   1   0    3   3   3   3   3   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   3   3   3   0   0   3   3   3



65   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      computer
     Technology     Analysis
                                                                1   3   0   0   1   3   1   0    3   3   3   3   3   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   3   3   3   0   0   3   3   3



66   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Vary procedures to
     Low Cost       Cost             reduce certainty of
                                     expected patterns          2   0   2   0   0   1   0   -1   1   1   3   3   0   1   1   2   2   2   2   1   1   2   1   1   2   2   2   0   0   0   2   2   2   2   1   2   2   2



67   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Simulate / fake security
     Low Cost       Cost             measures
                                                                2   0   0   0   0   2   0   0    2   2   3   3   2   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   2   2   1   0   0   0   2   2   2   2   1   2   2   2



68   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Vary equipment
     Low Cost       Cost             locations to reduce
                                     certainty of expected      2   1   2   0   0   1   0   0    1   2   2   2   3   0   2   2   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   2   2   2   1   0   0   0   2   2   2   2   1   2   2   2
                                     patterns


69   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Public communication
     Low Cost       Cost             of security
                                                                3   0   0   0   0   3   1   0    1   1   1   1   0   1   2   3   3   3   2   3   3   3   3   1   3   3   2   0   0   0   2   2   3   2   0   2   2   2



70   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Separate and dilute
     Low Cost       Cost             targets
                                                                2   0   0   2   1   0   0   0    0   0   2   2   0   0   0   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3



71   Waterside      Surface           RADAR
     Security                         (Radio Detection And
                                      Ranging)                  1   1   0   0   1   0   0   0    1   1   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   3   0   0   3   0   0   0   2   3   0   3   0   1   1   1



72   Waterside      Surface           Buoys
     Security
                                                                1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0    3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   2   0   0   2   0   0   0   2   2   0   2   0   1   1   1



73   Waterside      Surface           Pier and Buoy Signage
     Security
                                                                1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0    3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   2   0   0   2   0   0   0   2   2   0   2   0   1   1   1
74   Waterside   Surface        Vessel Barriers
     Security
                                                        1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0    3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   0   2   3   0   3   0   1   1   1



75   Waterside   Underwater     Side Scan Sonar
     Security
                                                        1   2   0   0   0   0   0   0    3   3   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   3   0   0   3   0   1   0   1   3   0   3   0   1   1   1



76   Waterside   Underwater     Forward Looking Sonar
     Security
                                                        1   2   0   0   0   0   0   0    3   3   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   3   0   0   3   0   1   0   1   3   0   3   0   1   1   1



77   Waterside   Underwater     Multibeam Sonar
     Security                   (3-D images)
                                                        1   2   0   0   0   0   0   0    3   3   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   3   0   0   3   0   2   0   1   3   0   3   0   1   1   1



78   Waterside   Underwater     Remotely Operated
     Security                   Vehicle (ROV)
                                                        1   2   0   0   0   0   0   0    3   3   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   2   0   0   3   0   3   0   1   3   0   3   0   1   1   1



79   Waterside   Underwater     Autonomous
     Security                   Underwater Vehicle
                                (AUV)                   1   2   0   0   0   0   0   0    3   3   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   2   0   0   3   0   3   0   1   3   0   3   0   1   1   1



80   Screening   Passengers &   Human inspections
                 Cargo
                 All threats                            2   1   0   0   0   2   0   -2   3   0   3   3   1   0   3   3   3   3   2   2   2   2   2   1   3   3   0   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   0   2   2   2



81   Screening   Passengers &   Backscatter x-rays
                 Cargo
                 Weapons,                               2   3   0   0   0   2   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   3   3   3   3   1   0   0   0   0   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2
                 explosives


82   Screening   Passengers     Millimeter Wave
                 Weapons,       (MMW)
                 explosives                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   -1   3   0   3   2   3   0   3   0   0   3   2   2   0   3   1   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   2   2   2



83   Screening   Cargo          Transmission x-ray
                 Weapons,
                 explosives                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   0   3   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   1   1



84   Screening   Cargo          CAT Scan
                 Weapons,
                 explosives                             2   3   0   0   0   2   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   0   3   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   1   1
85   Screening   Cargo             Metal detectors
                 Weapons
                                                         2   3   0   0   0   2   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   0   1   1   3   1   1   0   1   1   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0



86   Screening   Cargo             Gamma rays
                 Weapons,
                 explosives                              2   3   0   0   0   2   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   3   3   3   3   1   0   0   0   0   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   1   1



87   Screening   Trace Detection   K-9 Units
                 Explosives
                                                         2   3   0   0   0   2   0   -1   3   0   3   2   2   0   1   3   3   3   2   2   0   1   1   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   1   0



88   Screening   Trace Detection IMS (Ion Mobility
                 Explosives, CWA Spectrometry)
                                                         2   3   0   0   0   1   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   1   3   3   3   2   2   0   1   1   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0



89   Screening   Trace Detection SAW (Surface Acoustic
                 Explosives, CWA Wave)
                                                         2   3   0   0   0   1   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   1   3   3   3   2   2   0   1   1   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0



90   Screening   Trace Detection   Enzyme-Based,
                 CWA               Immunoassay
                                                         2   3   0   0   0   0   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   1   3   3   3   2   2   2   1   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0



91   Screening   Trace Detection   Hand-Held Geiger
                 Radioactivity     Counters
                                                         2   3   0   0   0   0   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   1   3   3   3   2   2   2   1   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3



92   Screening   Trace Detection   Smear Counters
                 Radioactivity
                                                         2   3   0   0   0   0   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   1   3   3   3   2   2   2   1   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3



93   Screening   Trace Detection   Hand and Shoe
                 Radioactivity     Monitors
                                                         2   3   0   0   0   0   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   1   2   1   3   1   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3



94   Screening   Trace Detection   Chemical Detection
                 CWA               Paper
                                                         2   3   0   0   0   0   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   1   3   3   3   2   2   2   1   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0



95   Screening   Trace Detection   Colorimetric tubes
                 CWA, TIC
                                                         2   3   0   0   0   0   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   1   3   3   3   2   2   2   1   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0
96    Screening     Trace Detection Electron Capture
                    Explosives, CWA Detectors (ECD)
                                                                2   3   0   0   0   0   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   1   3   3   3   2   2   2   1   1   0   3   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0



97    Screening     Trace Detection   Immunoassays,
                    Bio Agents        Hand-Held Assay
                                      (HHA) Kits,               2   3   0   0   0   0   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   1   3   3   3   2   2   2   1   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0
                                      Antibody identification


98    Screening     Trace Detection   Protein Screening
                    Bio Agents
                                                                2   3   0   0   0   0   0   -2   3   0   3   2   0   0   1   3   3   3   2   2   2   1   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0



99    Screening     Trace Detection   Particle Fluorescence
                    Bio Agents        Monitoring
                                                                2   3   0   0   0   0   0   -2   3   0   3   2   3   0   1   1   1   3   2   1   1   3   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0



100   Screening     Trace Detection   Aerosol Particle Sizers
                    Bio Agents        (APS)
                                                                2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0    3   0   2   2   3   0   1   1   1   3   2   1   1   3   2   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0



101   Human         All Areas         Public Watch
      Observation
                                                                2   2   0   0   1   2   0   0    1   1   0   0   1   3   2   2   2   3   1   2   2   3   1   1   3   3   2   0   0   1   3   3   3   3   1   2   2   2



102   Human         All Areas         Employee Watch --
      Observation                     Awareness Training
                                                                2   2   1   1   1   2   1   0    1   2   1   1   2   1   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   0   1   3   3   3   3   1   3   3   3



103   Human         All Areas         Uniform Patrols on
      Observation                     ground or on ferry
                                                                3   2   1   1   1   3   1   0    1   2   1   1   3   2   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3   0   2   2   2   0   0   1   2   2   2   2   1   2   2   2



104   Human         Waterside         Patrol Vessels and
      Observation                     Escorts
                                                                3   2   1   1   1   1   0   0    1   1   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   3   0   0   3   0   0   0   2   3   0   3   0   1   1   1



105   Human         Waterside         Divers
      Observation
                                                                1   3   0   0   0   0   0   0    1   1   0   0   3   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   3   0   0   1   0   0   3   0   3   0   0   3   0   3   0   0   0   0
COSTS AND REQUISITES OF SECURITY MEASURES
INSTRUCTIONS: DO NOT SORT on this page!!
Enter cost data for the top GSMs identified on Sheet 2 (Valuations). Use GSM # (Column A) to quickly locate your top GSMs on this sheet. Cost information provided is very rough and
is often not for full implementation. The cost reference in Column O may provide a beginning for collecting better cost data. Examine the requisite needs in Column Q and R to
determine if these should be included in the cost information to be entered.
If more specific information is needed in Columns C through E, make these changes on Sheet 3 (Applicablity Ranks).


CHARACTERIZATION OF SECURITY MEASURES                                                                                                         Cost of a SAMPLE Security Measure
                                                                                                                                                                               Simple
                                                                                                            Low Initial   High Initial     Unit of                           Annualized               Annualized
GSM                                                                                                          Cost (IC)     Cost (IC)     Measure for O&M % Operating             Cost        Units   System Cost    Cost
#             Method Category                 GSM               Options and Variations of GSM                  ($)            ($)            IC      of IC/yr Life (years)    ($/yr/unit)   Needed    ($/yr/syst)   Ref

  1    Fencing /     Retractable     Ramp/ Wedge,               Manual or automatic raising and
       Barriers      Vehicle         in-ground mounted          lowering; some products rated as high
                     Deterrents                                 as DOS K12/ L3.                               25,000        50,000        10-ft unit    7%         20          $4,500         2        $9,000       5, 54



  2    Fencing /     Retractable     Bollards,                  Hydraulic, electro-hydraulic, or manual
       Barriers      Vehicle         retractable                retraction into ground. Some products
                     Deterrents      (steel or concrete)        rated as high as DOS K12/ L3                   200            600         single unit   7%         20            $48          15        $720        5, 54
                                                                depending on installation.


  3    Fencing /     Retractable     Ramp/ wedge,               Manual or automatic operation. Chain
       Barriers      Vehicle         surface mounted            reinforcements increase anti-ram
                     Deterrents                                 capability, but substantially lower anti-     10,000        25,000        10-ft unit    7%         15          $2,392         2        $4,783       5, 54
                                                                ram ratings than in-ground mounted
                                                                ramps (listed separately).
  4    Fencing /     Retractable     Booms and Crash          Manual, automatic, or portable. Range
       Barriers      Vehicle         Beams                    from minimal anti-ram capability to
                     Deterrents      (sliding or swing gates) DOS K4/L2 or higher.                            3,000         40,000        14-ft unit    7%         15          $2,938         2        $5,877       5, 54



  5    Fencing /     Retractable     Traffic controllers        Spring-mounted to allow safe one-way
       Barriers      Vehicle         ("tire teeth")             travel, or retractable (with access
                     Deterrents                                 control) to allow two-way travel. Wrong-      2,000         15,000        10-ft unit    5%         10          $1,275         2        $2,550        5
                                                                way penetration distance can be
                                                                reduced with low speed conditions.
  6    Fencing /     Fixed Vehicle   Bollards,                  Variable anti-ram capability. Some
       Barriers      Deterrent,      fixed/stationary           products rated as high as DOS K12/ L3
                     Pedestrian      (concrete or steel)        depending on installation.                     100            500         single unit   5%         20            $30          15        $450        5, 59
                     Access


  7    Fencing /     Fixed Vehicle   Decorative Crash-          Wide variety of aesthetic options, metal
       Barriers      Deterrent,      Rated Barrier              or concrete. Variable anti-ram
                     Pedestrian      (spheres, benches,         capability. Some products rated as high        200           1,000        single unit   5%         15            $70          5         $350        7, 8
                     Access          bike racks, trees, etc.)   as DOS K12/ L3 depending on
                                                                installation.
8    Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle   Jersey Barriers,         Various styles, lengths, shapes, colors,
     Barriers       Deterrent,      portable                 can be arranged end-to-end, or in
                    Pedestrian      (water filled or steel   multiple rows, and anchored to             100     500       10-ft unit    3%    20   $24    10    $240   5, 59
                    Access          reinforced concrete)     increase anti-ram capability for
                                                             equivalence to DOS K12.
9    Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle   Planters                 Standard planters (i.e., not attached to
     Barriers       Deterrent,      (standard)               the ground) vary in size.
                    Pedestrian                                                                          500     1,000    single unit    7%    20   $90    10    $900   5, 59
                    Access


10   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Walls                    Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed
     Barriers       Vehicle and     (e.g.,concrete or brick, wire, razor wire, sensors, induced pulse
                    Pedestrian      steel reinforcement)     (electrical), etc. Variable anti-ram        5       15     square foot     3%    30   $1     100   $63     5
                    Deterrent                                capability, may be constructed for
                                                             equivalence to DOS K12/ L3 ratings.
11   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Steel Bar Fence        Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed
     Barriers       Vehicle and     (with anchored cables) wire, razor wire, sensors, induced pulse
                    Pedestrian                             (electrical), etc. May have anit-ram         100     200      linear foot    3%    15   $15    8     $116   5, 57
                    Deterrent                              ratings as high as DOS K12.


12   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Earthen Barriers        May have a fence on top. Depending
     Barriers       Vehicle and     (with steel or concrete on design, may have an anti-ram
                    Pedestrian      reinforcement)          capability equivalent to DOS K12/ L3.        40     100      cubic yard     3%    30   $4     50    $222    5
                    Deterrent


13   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Transparent Fences       Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed
     Barriers       Vehicle and                              wire, razor wire, sensors, induced pulse                   100 ft chain
                    Pedestrian                               (electrical), etc.                         2,000   5,000    link fence,    3%    25   $140   1     $140   5, 57
                    Deterrent                                                                                              Installed

14   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Solid Fences             Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed
     Barriers       Vehicle and                              wire, razor wire, sensors, induced pulse                     100 ft of
                    Pedestrian                               (electrical), etc.                                           concrete
                                                                                                        3,000   6,000                   3%    30   $190   1     $190   5, 57
                    Deterrent                                                                                              fence,
                                                                                                                          installed

15   Access Control Credentials     Mechanical key           standard or custom keys

                                                                                                         1       10     cost per key    20%   20   $0     1     $0      5



16   Access Control Credentials     Combination              mechanical and electronic

                                                                                                                        cost per key
                                                                                                        100     1,000                   10%   10   $20    1     $20     5
                                                                                                                            pad


17   Access Control Credentials     Barcode Card             With or without photo, magnetic stripe,
                                                             and/or Wiegand wire, readers have                            combined
                                                             varied memory and ability to provide                       rough cost of
                                                                                                        100     500                     5%    7    $19    1     $19     5
                                                             time-date stamps.                                           reader and
                                                                                                                            cards
18   Access Control Credentials   Magnetic Stripe Card   With or without photo, barcode, and/or
                                                         Wiegand wire, readers have varied                            combined
                                                         memory and ability to provide time-date                    rough cost of
                                                                                                    100     500                       10%   6    $27    1   $27     5
                                                         stamps.                                                     reader and
                                                                                                                        cards

19   Access Control Credentials   Wiegand Card           With or without photo, may also include
                                                         barcode or magnetic stripe.                                  combined
                                                                                                                    rough cost of
                                                                                                    200     400                       5%    7    $39    1   $39     5
                                                                                                                     reader and
                                                                                                                        cards

20   Access Control Credentials   Proximity Card or Tag With or without photo (dye sublimation
                                                        or laminated), may also include                               combined
                                                        magnetic stripe or barcode for ID                           rough cost of
                                                                                                    150     1,000                     4%    10   $21    1   $21     5
                                                        information.                                                 reader and
                                                                                                                        cards

21   Access Control Credentials   Smart Card             Access to areas and/or data, can
                                                         restrict data access to read-only. With                      combined
                                                         or without a photo that may be                             rough cost of
                                                                                                    500     500                       5%    6    $108   1   $108   5, 33
                                                         electronically transferred when created                     reader and
                                                         with Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer.                           cards
                                                         May be Integrated Circuit Memory
22   Access Control Credentials   Optical Card           May include biometric information (e.g.,
                                                         fingerprint) or photo that may be                            combined
                                                         electronically transferred when created                    rough cost of
                                                                                                    3,500   4,000                     5%    10   $525   1   $525    33
                                                         with Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer.                        reader and
                                                         Varied cryptology levels.                                      cards

23   Access Control Credentials   Finger print           Finger print identification with optical
                                                         scanner, capacitative sensor, or                           installation of
                                                         ultrasonic scanner. Data file may be       150     3,000     scanner/        10%   6    $40    1   $40     5
                                                         part of an ID card (Smart or optical).                        sensor

24   Access Control Credentials   Iris Scan              Data file may be part of an ID card
                                                         (Smart or optical).
                                                                                                                    installation of
                                                                                                    200     2,000                     15%   6    $63    1   $63     5
                                                                                                                       scanner


25   Access Control Credentials   Retinal Scan           Data file may be part of an ID card
                                                         (Smart or optical).
                                                                                                                    installation of
                                                                                                    3,000   5,000                     5%    6    $650   1   $650    5
                                                                                                                       scanner


26   Access Control Credentials   Hand Geometry          Data file may be part of an ID card
                                                         (Smart or optical).
                                                                                                                    installation of
                                                                                                    1,000   5,000                     5%    6    $217   1   $217   5, 61
                                                                                                                       scanner


27   Access Control Credentials   Face Scan              Data file may be part of an ID card
                                                         (Smart or optical).
                                                                                                                    installation of
                                                                                                    2,000   5,000                     15%   6    $633   1   $633    5
                                                                                                                       scanner
28   Access Control Locks            Mechanical lock         Varied designs and security levels of
                                                             both lock and door.
                                                                                                                             installation of
                                                                                                         50        150                         25%   20    $15     1     $15     5
                                                                                                                                 a lock


29   Access Control Locks            Electric Strike Lock    Varied designs and security levels of
                                                             both lock and door.
                                                                                                                             installation of
                                                                                                         150       500                         20%   10    $45     1     $45     5
                                                                                                                                 a lock


30   Access Control Locks            Magnetic Lock           Varied design and security levels of
                                                             both lock and door -- some lock
                                                             versions can withstand over 600 lb                              installation of
                                                                                                         350       700                         3%    10    $46     1     $46     5
                                                             force.                                                              a lock


31   Access Control System Control   Stand Alone Electronic Some require a PC for programming.                                 Periodic
                                     Access Points                                                                            updating of
                                                                                                        2,000     5,000      configuration     20%   6    $733     1    $733     5
                                                                                                                             and changing
                                                                                                                                users.
32   Access Control System Control   Network Control of      Multiple readers may be connected
                                     Electronic Access       using hardwire or wireless technology.                          Connection of
                                     Points                                                             5,000    500,000       multiple        20%   10   $1,500   1    $1,500   5
                                                                                                                               readers.

33   Access Control System Control   Integrated Security     Multiple readers and users with                                  Integration
                                     System                  hardwire or wireless connections.                                with a large
                                                             Integrate with personnel identification,   25,000   4,000,000     computer        20%   7    $8,571   1    $8,571   5
                                                             intrusion detection, and monitoring.                               system,
                                                                                                                                multiple
                                                                                                                                readers,
34   Intruder       Doors & Windows Mechanical Switch        Commonly used in conjunction with
     Sensors                                                 open area sensors at the exterior of
                                                             portals, or inside the secured area.         5         21         1 switch        20%   10    $2      10    $15     5



35   Intruder       Doors & Windows Magnetic Switch          Commonly used in conjunction with
     Sensors                                                 open area sensors at the exterior of
                                                             portals, or inside the secured area.        $5        $20         1 switch        3%    20    $0      10    $4      5



36   Intruder       Doors & Windows Balanced Magnetic        Commonly used in conjunction with
     Sensors                        Switch                   open area sensors at the exterior of
                                                             portals, or inside the secured area.        $50       $250        1 switch        3%    20    $4      10    $40     5



37   Intruder                        Acoustic /              Acoustic (passive ultrasonic, high
     Sensors        Walls/ Fence     Shock Wave /            frequency, e.g. 20 to 30 kHz) or shock                          1 sensor with
                                     Audio Discriminator /   wave (electric piezo or non-electric        $40       $150      alarm contact     3%    10    $5      10    $52     5
                                     Passive Ultrasonic /    piezo, low frequency, e.g., 5 kHz).                                 output
                                     Glass Break             Dual systems combine acoustic and
                                                             shock sensors to reduce nuisance
38   Intruder                      Vibration --            Built in or applied to a wall, ceiling, or
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence       Electro-mechanical      fence. Sensor types: piezoelectric, and                           implement-
                                   Piezoelectric           electro-mechanical. Variations in                                  ation of a
                                                                                                        $20,000   $40,000                      15%   10    $5,000    1      $5,000    5, 56
                                                           sensitivity, processor abilities, and                             medium size
                                                           sensitivity adjustability. Often used with                          system
                                                           an outer fence and clear zone prior to
39   Intruder                      Vibrations -- Fiber     Built in or applied to a wall, ceiling, or
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence       optic                   fence. Variations in processor abilities
                                                           and sensitivity adjustability. Often used                            per foot,
                                                                                                         $60       $120                        3%    10      $8      500    $3,900    5, 56
                                                           with an outer fence and clear zone prior                             installed
                                                           to intruder sensors to reduce false
                                                           alarms.
40   Intruder                      Taut Wire = Strain      Freestanding or fence-mounted.
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence       Sensitive Wire          Variations in signal processor ability to                             100 ft,
                                                           detect tension changes and in                                     installed, with
                                                                                                        $5,000    $40,000                      25%   8     $1,875    1      $1,875    5, 56
                                                           sensitivity adjustability.                                        processor and
                                                                                                                               controller

41   Intruder                      Capacitive Cable        Variations in signal processor ability to
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence                               detect tension changes and in                                         100 ft,
                                                           sensitivity adjustability.                                        installed, with
                                                                                                        $20,000   $60,000                      10%   10    $4,000    1      $4,000    5, 56
                                                                                                                             processor and
                                                                                                                               controller

42   Intruder                     Electric Field = E-field Stand-alone fence, or mounted on
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence                               separate posts attached to an existing                                100 ft,
                                                           fence. May be used with a weather                                 installed, with
                                                                                                        $20,000   $60,000                      10%   10    $4,000    1      $4,000    5, 56
                                                           station that adjusts E-field sensor                               processor and
                                                           sensitivity based on weather                                        controller
                                                           conditions.
43   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Microwave Sensors        Monostatic (transmitter and received
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Short-range Radar)       encased on a single housing) or bistatic
                                                           (transmitter and received are separate                             implemen-
                                                                                                        $3,000     $5,000                      3%    10     $390     1      $390       5
                                                           units). Dual technology units often                                tation cost
                                                           include microwave and PIR.
44   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Passive Infrared (PIR) One or two sensors (Quad PIR) in one
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Heat/ Motion           housing to reduce nuisance alarms.
                                  Detectors)             Sensitivity depends on circuiting                                    implemen-
                                                                                                         $50       $500                        3%    8       $8      10      $78       5
                                                         design, programs to ignore first                                     tation cost
                                                         movement, etc. Often used in dual
                                                         technology systems.
45   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Scanning Laser         Scanning range from a single plane up
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Infrared)              to 360 degrees. System sensitivity                                    IR laser
                                                         depends on signal processing software.                               scanning
                                                                                                        $75,000   $110,000                     5%    7.5   $13,750   8     $110,000    5
                                                                                                                              system to
                                                                                                                             cover 1 acre

46   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Active Infra-Red (IR)    Indoor or outdoor, variations in
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Beam or Curtain)         coverage distance and the number of
                                                           laser lines and their distance apart                               implemen-
                                                                                                         $200      $1,000                      3%    8      $31      5      $155       5
                                                           within the IR "curtain".                                           tation cost


47   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Photo-Electric Eye /     Variations in coverage distance and the
     Sensors    Motion Detectors Electric Eye              number of laser lines and their distance
                                  (Beam or Curtain)        apart within the photo-electric curtain.                           implemen-
                                                                                                         $200      $1,000                      3%    8      $31      5      $155       5
                                                                                                                              tation cost
48   Intruder     Volume Sensors -- Active Ultrasonic     Wall or ceiling mounted. Used in                               Used in dual
     Sensors      Motion Detectors                        tandem with passive IR.                                         systems for
                                                                                                      NA        NA      facility security   NA    NA    NA      NA    NA      NA
                                                                                                                          (used alone
                                                                                                                           for vehicle
                                                                                                                            alarms).
49   Intruder     Volume Sensors -- Dual-Technology       Common motion detection
     Sensors      Motion Detectors                        technologies paired in a single unit
                                                          include PIR with either microwave or                            implemen-
                                                                                                     $100     $1,000                        3%    8     $16     3     $47      5
                                                          active ultrasonic technologies. Indoor                          tation cost
                                                          and outdoor systems.
50   Intruder     Volume Sensors -- Video Motion          Color (visible light), Low light level
     Sensors      Motion Detectors Detection (VMD)        (black-and-white), or infrared. View
                                                          changes may trigger alarm. Variable                           video motion
                                                                                                    $2,000    $3,000                        3%    10   $260     3    $780      5
                                                          number of channels, may be stand-                                sensor
                                                          alone or software on a PC.
51   Intruder     Volume Sensors -- Air Turbulence        Varied signal processing methods.
     Sensors      Motion Detectors (Acoustic Sensor or                                                                  1 acoustic air
                                    RF)                                                             $1,000    $5,000     turbulence         10%   10   $200     4    $800      5
                                                                                                                           sensor

52   Intruder     Buried            Balanced Pressure     For monitoring sensitive approach or
     Sensors      (in ground)       Buried Tube/pipe      access areas, and restricted zones.                              System
                                                          Several technologies exist.               $20,000   $30,000    installation,      15%   10   $5,000   1    $5,000   5, 53
                                                                                                                           1000 ft

53   Intruder     Buried            Buried Geophone       Sensitivity depends on sensors and
     Sensors      (in ground)                             control algorithm ability to compensate                          System
                                                          for background signals.                   $20,000   $30,000    installation,      20%   10   $6,000   1    $6,000   5, 53
                                                                                                                           1000 ft

54   Intruder     Buried            Fiber Optic           Sensitivity depends on sensors and
     Sensors      (in ground)                             control algorithm ability to compensate                          System
                                                          for background signals.                   $30,000   $40,000    installation,      10%   10   $6,000   1    $6,000   5, 53
                                                                                                                           1000 ft

55   Intruder     Buried            Coaxial Cable =       Uses continuous wave or pulsed
     Sensors      (in ground)       Ported Coax Line =    sensors. Sensitivity depends on                                  System
                                    Capacitive Cable      sensors and processor ability to          $20,000   $30,000    installation,      10%   10   $4,000   1    $4,000   5, 53
                                                          compensate for background signals.                               1000 ft
                                                          Cable placement and soil density affect
                                                          zone covered.
56   Monitoring   Lighting          Spot/ Zone Lighting   Incandescent, tungsten halogen, or
     Technology                                           fluorescent systems. Reflectors for                             per fixture
                                                          spot lights and flood lighting. May be     $100     $1,000       (without         35%   20    $40     50   $2,000    5
                                                          triggered by a motion detector.                                installation)

57   Monitoring   Lighting          Wide-Area Lighting    Metal halide, high pressure sodium, or
     Technology                                           low pressure sodium systems.                                    per fixture
                                                                                                    $1,000    $5,000       (without         20%   20   $250     20   $5,000    5
                                                                                                                         installation)
58   Monitoring     Lighting          Infrared (IR) lights   Used with CCTV in dark areas. IR
     Technology                                              lights and CCTV may be triggered by a                            single system
                                                             motion detector.                              $300      $500        (without         25%   20   $90    10   $900     5
                                                                                                                               installation)

59   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Black & white          Variations in field of view, zoom, pan,
     Technology     Camera            (Low Light Levels)     and tilt capability. Image intensifiers for
                                                             low light conditions. Reflective mirrors                          camera and
                                                                                                           $100     $1,000                        5%    6    $22    5    $108     5
                                                             to see around obstacles. For outdoor                               installation
                                                             use: wiper/ washer system, and heater/
                                                             cooler.
60   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Color                  Variations in field of view, zoom, pan,
     Technology     Camera                                   and tilt capability. Image intensifiers for
                                                             low light conditions. Reflective mirrors                          camera and
                                                                                                           $500     $3,000                        5%    6    $108   5    $542     5
                                                             to see around obstacles. For outdoor                               installation
                                                             use: wiper/ washer system, and heater/
                                                             cooler.
61   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Convertible            Variations in field of view, zoom, pan,
     Technology     Camera            (B&W and Color)        and tilt capability. Image intensifiers for
                                                             low light conditions. Reflective mirrors                          camera and
                                                                                                           $600     $3,100                        5%    6    $130   5    $650     5
                                                             to see around obstacles. For outdoor                               installation
                                                             use: wiper/ washer system, and heater/
                                                             cooler.
62   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Analog / VHS           Real-time and time-lapse recorders.
     Technology     Recorder                                 Variations in VHS tape resolution. May
                                                             have remote control device. May be                               one video tape
                                                                                                           $250     $1,000                        20%   5    $100   8    $800     5
                                                             triggered by a motion detector.                                     recorder


63   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Digital / DVD          Varied resolution and compression
     Technology     Recorder                                 formats. Continous real-time or event
                                                             recorders which may have audio                                   one video tape
                                                                                                           $2,000   $10,000                       10%   7    $486   8    $3,886   5
                                                             capability.                                                         recorder


64   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      guard                  Number of guards on duty, duration of
     Technology     Analysis                                 viewing shift, etc.
                                                                                                                              patrol-person
                                                                                                           $150      $400                         5%    1    $158   12   $1,890   63
                                                                                                                                 per day


65   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      computer               Variations in the ability to separate
     Technology     Analysis                                 background/ normal images from                                       video
                                                             unusual images.                               $400      $800       sureillance       20%   5    $160   8    $1,280   62
                                                                                                                                 software

66   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Vary procedures to      Randomly alter procedures such as
     Low Cost       Cost             reduce certainty of     passenger processing, cargo handling,                             Randomly
                                     expected patterns       time intervals, sequences, etc.                                     change
                                                                                                            $1        $1                          1%    1    $1     12    $12     63
                                                                                                                               inspection
                                                                                                                               procedures

67   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Simulate / fake         Exaggerate security measures e.g.,                                     False
     Low Cost       Cost             security measures       deploy more camera housings than                                    cameras,
                                                             cameras, use "untrained" K9 units,            $200      $500         parking         10%   10   $40    3    $120     63
                                                             park police cars on premises, etc.                                facilities for a
                                                                                                                              police car, etc.
68   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Vary equipment          Random physical, operational,
     Low Cost       Cost             locations to reduce     administrative changes, e.g., move                               Vary camera
                                     certainty of expected   guard house, cameras, lights, change                              placement,
                                                                                                         $10       $200                        5%    1     $11      100   $1,050     63
                                     patterns                routes and passes (e.g., under bridges,                         transit routes,
                                                             near shore, etc.).                                                    etc.

69   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Public communication Communicate that sensitive areas and
     Low Cost       Cost             of security          targets are well secured and detection                              Post signs,
                                                          systems are in place. Disclosed                                      intercom
                                                                                                        $200       $500                        5%    10    $30      20     $600      63
                                                          measures may be or may not be real.                                announcemen
                                                          (All real measures should not be                                      ts, etc.
                                                          disclosed.)
70   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Separate and dilute  Maximize distance and barriers                                       Maximize
     Low Cost       Cost             targets              between targets (vessels, fuel, cargo,                               docking
                                                          passengers, etc.), and reduce target           $1        $500        distance        4%    1      $1      365    $380      63
                                                          size, e.g., increase distance of vehicles                            between
                                                          from fuel tanks, stagger boarding times                               vessels
                                                          to minimize shoreside crowding, etc.
71   Waterside      Surface          RADAR                Detection distance is limited by height
     Security                        (Radio Detection And over water. Variations in receiver
                                     Ranging)             sensitivity, options include use with a      $100,000   $300,000   Nautical Mile     0.5   10   $60,000   1     $60,000    64
                                                          chart plotter or fishfinder, split-screen
                                                          viewing of short and long-distance
                                                          targets, etc.
72   Waterside      Surface          Buoys                 Lights can be placed on buoys to                                      Buoy,
     Security                                             illuminate boundaries. Signage can                                 markings, and
                                                          posted on or directly engraved into the       $250       $500      solar powered     1     10    $275     5     $1,375     65
                                                          buoys.                                                                lighting
                                                                                                                              equipment
73   Waterside      Surface           Pier and Buoy Signage Signage of wood, metal construction
     Security                                               with reflectorized materials. Signage
                                                            can posted on or directly engraved into                          per set(3)/ per
                                                                                                         $28       $100                        3     8     $88      5      $438      66
                                                            the buoys.                                                            sign


74   Waterside      Surface           Vessel Barriers        Commonly constructed of composites
     Security                                                and metals. May appear as connected
                                                             colored buoy . May or may not have         $170       $600       Linear foot      3     10    $527     20    $10,540   40, 41
                                                             nets.


75   Waterside      Underwater        Side Scan Sonar        Towed through water or mounted on
     Security                                                vessel hull, ROV, or AUV. Depth and                              Sonar unit,
                                                             area variations. Options: distortion      $23,000    $42,000     installation,    0.5   10   $13,800   1     $13,800    67
                                                             correction and image enhancement                                 and training
                                                             software, digital recording, and
                                                             positioning equipment.
76   Waterside      Underwater        Forward Looking        Towed through the water or mounted                                 Forward
     Security                         Sonar                  on the hull of a vessel, ROV, or AUV.                           looking sonar
                                                             Towing usually needs currents of at       $70,000    $85,000       system         0.5   10   $42,000   1     $42,000    45
                                                             least 8 knots. Different frequency                                equipment
                                                             options for deep water and shallow                               and training
                                                             water applications.
77   Waterside      Underwater        Multibeam Sonar        Towline or mounted on hull of vessel,
     Security                         (3-D images)           ROV, or AUV. Variations in depth
                                                             rating, housing type, number of beams,                           multimean
                                                                                                       $100,000   $300,000                     0.5   10   $60,000   1     $60,000    68
                                                             range, etc.                                                     sonar system
78   Waterside   Underwater        Remotely Operated    Subsurface, remotely controlled hull
     Security                      Vehicle (ROV)        inspection system. May include side
                                                        scan and forward looking sonar,             $20,000     $3,000,000      1 vehicle         3    10   $62,000    1    $62,000    69
                                                        bathymetry, video, two-way
                                                        communication system, etc.
79   Waterside   Underwater        Autonomous           May include side and forward sonar,
     Security                      Underwater Vehicle   bathymetry, video, etc.
                                   (AUV)                                                           $750,000     $2,000,000      1 vehicle        0.3   10   $300,000   1    $300,000   46



80   Screening   Passengers &      Human inspections    Cargo searches may use of a mirror
                 Cargo                                  and flashlight. Pat-down passenger
                 All threats                            inspections with or without hand-held                                patrol-person
                                                                                                     $150         $400                           5%    1     $158      12    $1,890    63
                                                        detectors.                                                              per day


81   Screening   Passengers &      Backscatter x-rays   Portals designed for scans of people or
                 Cargo                                  vehicles, mobile units transported in
                 Weapons,                               vans for scanning passing vehicles.        $100,000     $750,000         per unit        5%    15   $11,667    1    $11,667
                 explosives                             Software graphics overlays to protect
                                                        privacy/ modesty.
82   Screening   Passengers        Millimeter Wave      Software graphics overlays to protect
                 Weapons,          (MMW)                privacy/ modesty.
                 explosives                                                                        $270,000     $3,500,000   Single station      5%    15   $31,500    1    $31,500    49



83   Screening   Cargo             Transmission x-ray   Unit size and throughpout rate.
                 Weapons,
                 explosives                                                                        $100,000     $750,000         per unit        5%    15   $11,667    1    $11,667



84   Screening   Cargo             CAT Scan             Unit size and throughpout rate.
                 Weapons,
                 explosives                                                                        $1,000,000   $1,500,000       per unit        5%    15   $116,667   1    $116,667   27



85   Screening   Cargo             Metal detectors      Hand-held wands (requires 2 minutes
                 Weapons                                per scan for trained security personel),
                                                        or portal systems .                          $200        $4,000       per scanner        5%    15     $23      1      $23      70



86   Screening   Cargo             Gamma rays           Portals for scans of vehicles, or mobile                                 Per unit.
                 Weapons,                               units transported on vans.                                             Lower initial
                 explosives                                                                        $100,000     $1,500,000    cost estimate      3%    15    $9,667    1     $9,667    71
                                                                                                                             is future cost if
                                                                                                                                ordered in
                                                                                                                                   bulk.
87   Screening   Trace Detection   K-9 Units            Canines trained for explosives
                 Explosives                             detection, and / or drug detection.
                                                        Training for detection of biological and    $10,000      $12,000       per animal        20%   8     $3,250    1     $3,250
                                                        CWA may be possible, but is not
                                                        standard.
88   Screening   Trace Detection IMS (Ion Mobility           Continuous monitors with alarms or
                 Explosives, CWA Spectrometry)               hand-held units. Sensitivity to specfic
                                                             chemical varies. Specific chemicals           $7,000    $34,000     one unit       5%    10   $1,050   1   $1,050   1, 23
                                                             detected depends on the units
                                                             software.
89   Screening   Trace Detection SAW (Surface                The hand-held or wall mounted.
                 Explosives, CWA Acoustic Wave)              Chemicals detected depend on the
                                                             units design but may include nerve            $6,000    $9,000      one unit       5%    10   $900     1   $900     18, 20
                                                             agents, blister agents and several
                                                             classes of toxic industrial chemicals
                                                             (TIC’s). Detection of explosives is
90   Screening   Trace Detection   Enzyme-Based,             Specific assays for specific chemical                             Includes test
                 CWA               Immunoassay               agents. Variations in the extent of                                strip reader
                                                             assay automation.                             $5,500    $10,500     ($5,000 to     10%   10   $1,100   1   $1,100   15, 75
                                                                                                                               $10,000) and
                                                                                                                               20 strips ($25
                                                                                                                                   each).
91   Screening   Trace Detection   Hand-Held Geiger          Pager sized geiger counters and
                 Radioactivity     Counters                  gamma detectors can detect
                                                             radiological agents in the immediate                                                                                72, 73,
                                                                                                            $300      $400         1 unit       20%   10    $90     1    $90
                                                             vaccinity. They can be easily carried by                                                                              74
                                                             law enforcement agents.
92   Screening   Trace Detection   Smear Counters            The time needed for measurements
                 Radioactivity                               depends on the desired level of
                                                             sensitivity.                                   $800     $5,000        1 unit       20%   10   $240     1   $240       60



93   Screening   Trace Detection   Hand and Shoe             Variations in sensitivity.
                 Radioactivity     Monitors
                                                                                                           $9,000    $25,000       1 unit       20%   10   $2,700   1   $2,700     60



94   Screening   Trace Detection   Chemical Detection        M8 paper or M9 tape
                 CWA               Paper
                                                                                                            $200      $300          kit         10%   1    $220     1   $220     20, 23



95   Screening   Trace Detection   Colorimetric tubes        Specific detector tubes for different
                 CWA, TIC                                    CWA and toxic industrial chemicals
                                                             (TIC).                                         $300      $500     one field unit   50%   10   $180     1   $180       10



96   Screening   Trace Detection Electron Capture            Sensitivity to specific chemicals varies.                             ECD with
                 Explosives, CWA Detectors (ECD)             Specific chemicals detected depends                                   chemical
                                                             on the units software.                        $10,000   $30,000      separator     10%   15   $1,667   1   $1,667
                                                                                                                                   (e.g., gas
                                                                                                                               chromotograp
                                                                                                                                      hy)
97   Screening   Trace Detection   Immunoassays,             Separate assays (i.e., tickets) for                                Includes test
                 Bio Agents        Hand-Held Assay           detection of different biological agents                            strip reader
                                   (HHA) Kits,               (e.g., anthrax, plague, botulina, etc.). If   $5,500    $10,500      ($5,000 to    10%   10   $1,100   1   $1,100   15, 75
                                   Antibody identification   sample is not visible (e.g., powder), a                           $10,000) and
                                                             sampler that concentrates particles is                            20 strips ($25
                                                             needed. Sensitivity of the test is limited                              each).
98    Screening     Trace Detection   Protein Screening        For testing air samples, an air collector
                    Bio Agents                                 that concentartes particles is needed.
                                                               Variations in sensitivity and time           $300      $500       For 20 tests     0%    1     $300      1     $300      15
                                                               required for reaction.


99    Screening     Trace Detection   Particle Fluorescence Indoor units operate continously.
                    Bio Agents        Monitoring            Alarms may silently indicate the need
                                                            for further testing. Variations in                                    1 continous
                                                                                                           $8,500    $10,000                      5%    10    $1,275    1     $1,275    14
                                                            sensitivity and the ability to collect                              indoor monitor
                                                            samples for additional analyses.
100   Screening     Trace Detection   Aerosol Particle Sizers Hand-held and stationary units.
                    Bio Agents        (APS)                   Variations in the ability to discriminate
                                                              between particle types based on their                               1 continous
                                                                                                           $5,000    $20,000                      5%    10    $750      1     $750
                                                              size and general shape.                                           indoor monitor


101   Human         All Areas         Public Watch             Request and instruct passengers and                               Instructional
      Observation                                              neighbors to observe and report                                    material to
                                                               suspicious and unusual activities           $1,000                 inform 100      10%   5     $300      8     $2,400    63
                                                                                                                                passengers or
                                                                                                                                   neighbors
102   Human         All Areas         Employee Watch --        Establish procedures and train                                   Instructional
      Observation                     Awareness Training       employees to recognize and report                                 material to
                                                               unusual and suspicious activities,           $250      $500         instruct       5%    1     $263      2     $525      63
                                                               vehicles, and luggage.                                           1passengers
                                                                                                                                or neighbors
103   Human         All Areas         Uniform Patrols on       Shore-side or on ferry vessels, set or
      Observation                     ground or on ferry       random route
                                                                                                                                patrol-person
                                                                                                            $150      $400                        5%    1     $158      12    $1,890    63
                                                                                                                                   per day


104   Human         Waterside         Patrol Vessels and       Fiberglass or metal hull vessels varying                          1 vessel fully
      Observation                     Escorts                  in length and on-board equipment (e.g.,                             equipped
                                                               sonar, weapons, etc). Escort may be         $85,000   $150,000   (sonar, floods     5    20   $429,250   1    $429,250   30
                                                               random or scheduled, and for portions                            lights, sirens,
                                                               of a route or the entire route.                                     P/A, etc.)
105   Human         Waterside         Divers                   Certified divers visually inspect
      Observation                                              undersides of vessels, piers and
                                                               supporting infrastructure                    $35        $75        per hour         5    1     $210      1     $210      76
                                Requisites

 Tech-                                                              Your
nology                                                             GSM List
Maturity         Pre-requisite               Co-requisite             #


                                      Access control for
           AC or DC power for         operation. High security
   1
           raising.                   requires barriers on each
                                      side of the drive.


                                       Access control for
           Requires construction
                                       operation. High security
   1       contractor. May require
                                       requires barriers on each
           electric power for raising.
                                       side of the drive.


                                       Access control for
           Level concrete slab for
                                       operation. High security
   1       attachment. May require
                                       requires barriers on each
           electric power for raising.
                                       side of the drive.


                                      Access control for
           AC or DC power for         operation. High security
   1
           opening and closing.       requires barriers on each
                                      side of the drive.

                                      Access control for
           Flat surface for           operation of retractable
   1       installation, good         units. High security
           drainage.                  requires barriers on each
                                      side of the drive.


           Requires construction
   1                                  None
           contractor.




   1       Sufficient space.          None
    Moving equipment.
    Physical attachment to
1                              None
    mounting surface for
    maximum protection.


    Equipment for
1   placement, soil and        Upkeep of plants
    plants.



    Sufficient space.
1   Requires construction      None
    contractor



    Requires equipment for
1   placement. Anchorage to None
    bollards or underground.



    Space for earthen
1   barriers and a             None
    construction contractor.




1   None                       None




1   None                       None




1   Mechanical lock            none




    Lock (mechanical or
1                              none
    electronic)




1   Reader, electric power     none
1   Reader, electric power      none




1   Reader, electric power      Lock




1   Reader, electric power      Lock




3   Reader, electric power      None




    Reader / writer, electric
3                               None
    power




    Scanner, PC for optical
1                               Electric power
    and capacitive readers




    PC for image processing
3                           Electric power
    and control




    Network connection for
2                               Electric power
    processing




    Network connection for
2                               Electric power
    processing




    PC for image processing
3                           Electric power
    and control
    door or gate for lock
1                             None
    attachment




    door or gate for lock
1                             Electric power
    attachment




    door or gate for lock
1                             Electric power
    attachment




    PC for programming
1                             Electric power
    some systems



    Data transmission (wire,
                             Electric power and back-
1   fiber optic, RF),
                             up power
    computer system



    Data transmission (wire,
                             Electric power and back-
1   fiber optic, RF),
                             up power
    computer system



                              Power, human response
    Door, window, or gate,
1                             for quick intercept/denial,
    and an alarm
                              alarms for deterrence,



                              Power, human response
    Door, window, or gate,
1                             for quick intercept/denial,
    and an alarm
                              alarms for deterrence,



                              Power, human response
    Door, window, or gate,
1                             for quick intercept/denial,
    and an alarm
                              alarms for deterrence,



    Window, signal            Power, human response
1   processing, glass break   for quick intercept/denial,
    simulator to test         alarms for deterrence,
                                 Software, processor,
1   Wall or fence
                                 power supply




                                 signal processor
1   Wall or fence
                                 ($3,000 to $4,000)


                                 Controller and software
                                 ($2,500 to $5,000),
1   Wall or fence                processor unit ($10,000
                                 to $25,000), power
                                 supply


                                 signal processor, power
1   Wall or fence
                                 supply




                                 Software, processor,
1
                                 power supply


                                 Power, software,
                                 training, calibration,
1   Mounting fixture             human response for
                                 quick intercept/denial,
                                 alarms for deterrence,
                                 Power, software,
    power supply, mounting       training, calibration,
1   fixture, unobstructed        human response for
    view                         quick intercept/denial,
                                 alarms for deterrence,
                                 Power, software,
                                 training, calibration,
1                                human response for
                                 quick intercept/denial,
                                 alarms for deterrence,


    power supply, fairly level
1
    ground




    power supply, fairly level
1
    ground
                      Power, processor,
                      software, training,
NA   power supply     human response for
                      quick intercept/denial,
                      alarms for deterrence,
                      Power, processor,
                      software, training,
1    power supply     human response for
                      quick intercept/denial,
                      alarms for deterrence,
                      Power, processor,
                      software, training,
1                     human response for
                      quick intercept/denial,
                      alarms for deterrence,
                      Power, processor,
                      software, training,
1                     human response for
                      quick intercept/denial,
                      alarms for deterrence,
                      Power, processor,
                      software, training,
1                     calibration, human
                      response for quick
                      intercept/denial, alarms
                      for deterrence,
                      Power, processor,
                      software, training,
1    good drainage    calibration, human
                      response for quick
                      intercept/denial, alarms
                      for deterrence,
                      Power, processor,
                      software, training,
1    good drainage    calibration, human
                      response for quick
                      intercept/denial, alarms
                      for deterrence,
                      Power, processor,
                      software, training,
1    good drainage    calibration, human
                      response for quick
                      intercept/denial, alarms
                      for deterrence,


1    Electric power   Mounting structure




1    Electric power   Mounting structure
1    Electric power           Mounting structure




                              Image transmission,
     Electric power
1                             recorder, and viewing
     Mounting structure
                              device



                              Image transmission,
     Electric power
1                             recorder, and viewing
     Mounting structure
                              device



                              Image transmission,
     Electric power
1                             recorder, and viewing
     Mounting structure
                              device


                              Camera, image
                              transmission, viewing
1    Electric power
                              device, protevtive
                              housing if outdoors

                              Camera, image
                              transmission,
3    Electric power           computer/viewing
                              device, protective
                              housing if outdoors.



1    viewing station




3    computer



     Effective and clear     Trained staff, available
     alternative security    resources.
NA   measures (e.g.: can use
     MARSEC II & III
     measures).
     Visible space for        Some procedures for
     parking. Special         entry and exit.
NA   arrangement.
     Approved navigable           None
     routes
NA



     Have very good security Should be employed with
     measures                some covert (concealing,
NA                           destabilizing, disorienting
                             or outright deceiving)
                             security measures.
     Multiple, available, and
     interchangeable docks
NA



     Mounting locations for       Requires human
     CCTV towers and              interface to operate the
3    associated operating         controlling system.
     equipment, leasing
     requirements of the
     property, if not owned by
     An area has to be            Appropriate anchorage
     established in order to      or mounting devices are
1    place the buoy's. The        required to eliminate
     individual procuring the     buoy drift/movement.
     buoys must be
     knowledgeable of
     Areas, buoys and/or        Signage must have
     piers must be identified   easily understood
1    and prepared to place      terminology (maybe in
     the appropriate signage.   multiple languages) to
                                minimize
                                misunderstanding/misint
     Boundaries must be         Appropriate anchorage
     established and            or mounting devices are
3    delineated to position the required to eliminate
     barrier system.            buoy drift/movement.


     Must have a vessel to        Requires human
     two the system,              interface with equipment
3    splashproof computer to      for successful and
     monitor the results of the   effective operation. A
     scan, and a dedicated        diver is needed to
     power supply.                positively identify objects
     Must have a vessel and       Requires human
     a dedicated power            interface with equipment
3    supply.                      for successful and
                                  effective operation.


     Must have a vessel and       Requires human
     a dedicated power            interface with equipment
3    supply.                      for successful and
                                  effective operation.
    Vehicle operators/crews   Requires human
    should require a          operators to interface
1   minimum number of         with the equipment for
    hours to become           successful and effective
    proficient in AUV         operations.
    operations.
    Vehicle operators/crews   Requires ROV crew (up
    should require a          to three persons) to
1   minimum number of         interface with equipment
    hours to become           for successful and
    proficient in ROV         effective operation.
    operations.


1   training




    Electricity, protection
3                             human operator
    from weather



                              Used in tandem with
    Electricity, protection
4                             video imaging, requires
    from weather
                              human operator



    Electricity, protection
1                             human operator
    from weather



    Electricity, protection
    from weather, may need
1                           human operator
    additional support for
    floor load



    Electricity, protection
1                             human operator
    from weather




    Electricity, protection
4                             human operator
    from weather




1   kennel area               trained human handler
3




4




4




1




1




1




2




2




4




                             Air sample collector for
4   Sufficient sample size
                             aerosol samples.
                                Air sample collector for
4   Sufficient sample size
                                aerosol samples.



                                Air sample collector for
4                               further analysis of
                                suspect measurements.



                                Air sample collector for
4                               further analysis of
                                suspect measurements.


                                Willing passengers,
    Potential legal or policy   effective training
1
    approval                    material, periodic
                                refresher information.


                                Willing, alert employees;
    Policy and union            effective training
1
    approval,                   material; periodic
                                refresher information.



1



    Trained crew required to Vessel requires various
    operate the patrol vessel equipment to include fire
1   and on-board equipment. extinguisher, life
                              preserver's, marking
                              lights, public address
                              system, radios, trained
    Divers must be certified Divers require
    and licensed and should specialized equipment
1   have training in          such as mask, fins,
    recognition of explosive snorkel, buoyancy
    devices, mines, vessel    compensating device,
    and pier structures.      weight belt, air tanks,
COST PER "UTIL" AND GSM STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
INSTUCTIONS
Sort Cells A11 to M112 on this sheet in descending order in Column H.
Add more information for comparing GSMs in Columns J, K, and L.
Use Sheet 3 to change characterization information (Columns A through E).
Use Sheet 5 to change cost information (Column G).

CHARACTERIZATION OF SECURITY MEASURES                                                                            Annualized Costs                  Other Information


                                                                                                                  Annulized     Cost Per
GSM                                                                                                              System Cost     "Util"
#              Method Category                 GSM               Options and Variations of GSM                    ($/yr/syst)                           Strengths                               Weaknesses

  1    Fencing /      Retractable     Ramp/ Wedge,               Manual or automatic raising and lowering;                                                                        Ground surface modification for
                                                                                                                                           Effective retractable vehicle barrier,
       Barriers       Vehicle         in-ground mounted          some products rated as high as DOS K12/                                                                          installation. Not very aesthetic. May
                                                                                                                                           some raise in 2 seconds, often
                      Deterrents                                 L3.                                               $9,000        $285                                             cause injury to occupant or vehicle fire.
                                                                                                                                           remains operational after vehicle
                                                                                                                                                                                  Maintenance procedures (i.e., cleaning,
                                                                                                                                           impact.
                                                                                                                                                                                  lubrication).
  2    Fencing /      Retractable     Bollards,                  Hydraulic, electro-hydraulic, or manual                                                                          Outer aesthetic covering can be
                                                                                                                                           Effective retractable vehicle barrier.
       Barriers       Vehicle         retractable                retraction into ground. Some products rated                                                                      damaged and need to be replaced.
                                                                                                                                           Inexpensive to install and maintain.
                      Deterrents      (steel or concrete)        as high as DOS K12/ L3 depending on                $720          $21                                             May need engineering analysis to
                                                                                                                                           Can be aesthetically tailored in wide
                                                                 installation.                                                                                                    ensure robust design to meet specific
                                                                                                                                           variety of sizes.
                                                                                                                                                                                  needs.
  3    Fencing /      Retractable     Ramp/ wedge,               Manual or automatic operation. Chain
       Barriers       Vehicle         surface mounted            reinforcements increase anti-ram capability,
                                                                                                                                           Easy installation, may be temporary Lower anti-ram ability than in-ground
                      Deterrents                                 but substantially lower anti-ram ratings than     $4,783        $144
                                                                                                                                           or permanent.                       mounted ramps/ wedges.
                                                                 in-ground mounted ramps (listed separately).

  4    Fencing /      Retractable     Booms and Crash          Manual, automatic, or portable. Range from
       Barriers       Vehicle         Beams                    minimal anti-ram capability to DOS K4/L2 or                                                                        May damage vehicles with poorly timed
                                                                                                                                           Best for frequent vehicle access
                      Deterrents      (sliding or swing gates) higher.                                             $5,877        $177                                             closure. Has less anti-ram capability
                                                                                                                                           needs.
                                                                                                                                                                                  than ramps or bollards

  5    Fencing /      Retractable     Traffic controllers        Spring-mounted to allow safe one-way travel,
       Barriers       Vehicle         ("tire teeth")             or retractable (with access control) to allow                             Common in parking lot applications, Inadvertent tire damage from vehicles
                      Deterrents                                 two-way travel. Wrong-way penetration             $2,550         $80      easily installed by construction    backing up or traveling in the wrong
                                                                 distance can be reduced with low speed                                    companies.                          direction.
                                                                 conditions.
  6    Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle   Bollards,                  Variable anti-ram capability. Some products                                                                     Outer aesthetic covering can be
       Barriers       Deterrent,      fixed/stationary           rated as high as DOS K12/ L3 depending on                                 Inexpensive to install and maintain. damaged and need to be replaced.
                      Pedestrian      (concrete or steel)        installation.                                      $450          $11      Can be aesthetically tailored in wide May need engineering analysis to
                      Access                                                                                                               variety of sizes.                     ensure robust design to meet specific
                                                                                                                                                                                 needs.
  7    Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle   Decorative Crash-          Wide variety of aesthetic options, metal or
       Barriers       Deterrent,      Rated Barrier              concrete. Variable anti-ram capability. Some                              Aesthetically tailored, anti-ram rated, May promote undesirable loitering.
                      Pedestrian      (spheres, benches,         products rated as high as DOS K12/ L3              $350           $8      without creating a "security"           Options such as trees obscure broad
                      Access          bike racks, trees, etc.)   depending on installation.                                                atmosphere.                             view.

  8    Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle   Jersey Barriers,           Various styles, lengths, shapes, colors, can                                                                     Plastic versions require water-filling
                                                                                                                                           Highly configurable, low cost and
       Barriers       Deterrent,      portable                   be arranged end-to-end, or in multiple rows,                                                                     source and drainage area, and can
                                                                                                                                           maintenance, empty water-filled
                      Pedestrian      (water filled or steel     and anchored to increase anti-ram capability       $240           $6                                             have freezing problems. Concrete
                                                                                                                                           units weigh less than 200 lbs and
                      Access          reinforced concrete)       for equivalence to DOS K12.                                                                                      versions require a substantial forklift or
                                                                                                                                           are easy to transport.
                                                                                                                                                                                  crane for placement.
9    Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle   Planters                 Standard planters (i.e., not attached to the
                                                                                                                             Aesthetically tailored vehicle
     Barriers       Deterrent,      (standard)               ground) vary in size.                                                                                  May become a projectile when rammed
                                                                                                                $900   $22   deterrent, planter contents may be
                    Pedestrian                                                                                                                                      by a vehicle.
                                                                                                                             changed for seasonal aesthetics.
                    Access
10   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Walls                    Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,
     Barriers       Vehicle and     (e.g.,concrete or brick, razor wire, sensors, induced pulse                              Wall material, thickness, and height Cannot be easily relocated. May need
                    Pedestrian      steel reinforcement)     (electrical), etc. Variable anti-ram capability,   $63    $1    can be selected to meet facility     engineering analysis to ensure robust
                    Deterrent                                may be constructed for equivalence to DOS                       requirements/ security level.        design to meet specific needs.
                                                             K12/ L3 ratings.
11   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Steel Bar Fence          Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,
                                                                                                                             Easily installed. Multiple units can
     Barriers       Vehicle and     (with anchored cables) razor wire, sensors, induced pulse                                                                       May need reinstallation or replacement
                                                                                                                $116   $3    be connected for extended barrier
                    Pedestrian                               (electrical), etc. May have anit-ram ratings as                                                        after vehicle impact.
                                                                                                                             length. May be anti-ram rated.
                    Deterrent                                high as DOS K12.
12   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Earthen Barriers         May have a fence on top. Depending on
     Barriers       Vehicle and     (with steel or concrete design, may have an anti-ram capability                          Depending on design, may provide       Continuous maintenance if earthen
                                                                                                                $222   $6
                    Pedestrian      reinforcement)           equivalent to DOS K12/ L3.                                      maximum anti-ram protection.           section is landscaped.
                    Deterrent
13   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Transparent Fences       Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,
     Barriers       Vehicle and                              razor wire, sensors, induced pulse                              Can observe & detect activities from Easily cut or rammed, can observe
                                                                                                                $140   $4
                    Pedestrian                               (electrical), etc.                                              inside out.                          activities from outside in.
                    Deterrent
14   Fencing /      Fixed, Both     Solid Fences             Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,
     Barriers       Vehicle and                              razor wire, sensors, induced pulse                                                                     Easily cut to rammed. Impedes view
                                                                                                                $190   $6    Impedes view from outside in.
                    Pedestrian                               (electrical), etc.                                                                                     from inside out.
                    Deterrent
15   Access Control Credentials     Mechanical key           standard or custom keys                                                                                Very difficult to maintain inventory and
                                                                                                                             Inexpensive, no electrical power
                                                                                                                                                                    control of keys -- easily lost and used
                                                                                                                 $0    <$1   needed, easy to duplicate and
                                                                                                                                                                    by others. No indication of who opened
                                                                                                                             distribute.
                                                                                                                                                                    the lock.
16   Access Control Credentials     Combination              mechanical and electronic                                       No key to loose, combinations can
                                                                                                                             be easily changed, mechanical          No indication of who opened the lock,
                                                                                                                $20    $1
                                                                                                                             combinations don't need electric       combination code hard to secure.
                                                                                                                             power.
17   Access Control Credentials     Barcode Card             With or without photo, magnetic stripe, and/or
                                                             Wiegand wire, readers have varied memory                                                               Easy to counterfeit, subject to wear,
                                                                                                                $19    $1    Low cost, disposable ID cards.
                                                             and ability to provide time-date stamps.                                                               limited data capacity and read range.

18   Access Control Credentials     Magnetic Stripe Card     With or without photo, barcode, and/or
                                                             Wiegand wire, readers have varied memory                                                               Limited data capacity, subject to
                                                                                                                $27    $1    Low cost, disposable ID cards.
                                                             and ability to provide time-date stamps.                                                               erasing and mechanical damage.

19   Access Control Credentials     Wiegand Card             With or without photo, may also include
                                                                                                                                                                    Long lead time for additional cards
                                                             barcode or magnetic stripe.                        $39    $1    Hard to duplicate, non-erasable
                                                                                                                                                                    (approximately $5 each)
20   Access Control Credentials     Proximity Card or Tag With or without photo (dye sublimation or
                                                                                                                             Non-contact, or "contactless" read,    Limited data capacity, initial costs can
                                                          laminated), may also include magnetic stripe          $21    $1
                                                                                                                             no regular maintenance                 be more than contact-type cards.
                                                          or barcode for ID information.
21   Access Control Credentials     Smart Card            Access to areas and/or data, can restrict data
                                                          access to read-only. With or without a photo
                                                          that may be electronically transferred when
                                                          created with Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer.                       Relatively large data capacity,        Mechanical wear, , expensive cars (i.e.,
                                                          May be Integrated Circuit Memory Cards,               $108   $3    read/write capability, used in high    >$8 per card), susceptible to electrical
                                                          Integrated Circuit Processor Cards, or Optical                     security applications.                 and magnetic fields.
                                                          Memory Cards (addressed as GSM #22).
22   Access Control Credentials      Optical Card           May include biometric information (e.g.,                         Highest data capacity, data cannot
                                                            fingerprint) or photo that may be                                be erased or altered. Not
                                                                                                                                                                    Not yet mature technology, particularly
                                                            electronically transferred when created with     $525     $15    susceptible to electrical and
                                                                                                                                                                    with respect to cryptology.
                                                            Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer. Varied                           magnetic fields. Permanent audit
                                                            cryptology levels.                                               trail of card use.
23   Access Control Credentials      Finger print           Finger print identification with optical
                                                                                                                             Optical and capacitive readers
                                                            scanner, capacitative sensor, or ultrasonic
                                                                                                                             relatively low cost. Ultrasonic        Optical and capacitive readers are
                                                            scanner. Data file may be part of an ID card
                                                                                                              $40     $1     readers work with dirty fingers,       subject to counterfeit attack. Ultrasonic
                                                            (Smart or optical).
                                                                                                                             harder to counterfeit. False rejection readers are more expensive.
                                                                                                                             and false acceptance typically <1%.
24   Access Control Credentials      Iris Scan              Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or
                                                                                                                             Easy to measure, high accuracy,
                                                            optical).                                         $63     $2                                            Moderately easy to fool.
                                                                                                                             moderate file size (i.e., 512 bytes)
25   Access Control Credentials      Retinal Scan           Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or
                                                                                                                             High accuracy, very low false         Few product vendors, expensive
                                                            optical).                                        $650     $19
                                                                                                                             acceptance and false rejection rates. system, large readers, slow response
26   Access Control Credentials      Hand Geometry          Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or
                                                            optical).                                        $217     $6     Mature technology, small file size.    Large readers, limited vendors

27   Access Control Credentials      Face Scan              Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or                                                           Facial changes and altered view angles
                                                            optical).                                                        Fits into the common photo ID          degrade performance, false rejection
                                                                                                             $633     $18    system, can use inexpensive            and false acceptance rates as high as
                                                                                                                             camera                                 10% in 2003, relatively large file size
                                                                                                                                                                    (i.e., 1.3 KB).
28   Access Control Locks            Mechanical lock        Varied designs and security levels of both                       Inexpensive, mechanical locks need
                                                            lock and door.                                                   no electric power, easy to duplicate Metal keys can be lost and copied,
                                                                                                              $15     <$1
                                                                                                                             keys or pass on numeric              combination locks are difficult to secure
                                                                                                                             combinations
29   Access Control Locks            Electric Strike Lock   Varied designs and security levels of both
                                                                                                                             Can be interfaced with fire system,    Requires power and maintenance, can
                                                            lock and door.                                    $45     $1
                                                                                                                             overridden by a key.                   stick.
30   Access Control Locks            Magnetic Lock          Varied design and security levels of both lock
                                                                                                                             Can be interfaced with fire system,
                                                            and door -- some lock versions can                                                                      Requires power, cannot be overridden
                                                                                                              $46     $1     cannot be overridden by a key,
                                                            withstand over 600 lb force.                                                                            by a key.
                                                                                                                             essentially no maintenance.
31   Access Control System Control   Stand Alone Electronic Some require a PC for programming.
                                                                                                                             Inexpensive, mature technology with Not integrated into larger system, not
                                     Access Points                                                           $733     $22
                                                                                                                             many vendors                        easily upgraded, no back-up.
32   Access Control System Control   Network Control of     Multiple readers may be connected using                          Creates a system of readers and
                                                                                                                                                                    Requires network wiring, back-up
                                     Electronic Access      hardwire or wireless technology.                 $1,500   $42    access control equipment, mature
                                                                                                                                                                    power.
                                     Points                                                                                  technology and many vendors
33   Access Control System Control   Integrated Security    Multiple readers and users with hardwire or
                                                                                                                                                                    Complex, expensive, requires back-up
                                     System                 wireless connections. Integrate with                             Provides fully integrated security
                                                                                                             $8,571   $217                                          power and integration of systems
                                                            personnel identification, intrusion detection,                   system
                                                                                                                                                                    supplied by multiple vendors.
                                                            and monitoring.
34   Intruder       Doors & Windows Mechanical Switch       Commonly used in conjunction with open                                                                  Maintenance and contact problems
     Sensors                                                area sensors at the exterior of portals, or                      Easy, inexpensive installation,        have reduced the use of these
                                                            inside the secured area.                                         modular, known technology, best        switches. Doors and windows can be
                                                                                                              $15     <$1
                                                                                                                             when used as part of integrated and    penetrated without moving the switch
                                                                                                                             layered security system                (i.e., moving the edge of the door or
                                                                                                                                                                    window.)
35   Intruder   Doors & Windows Magnetic Switch             Commonly used in conjunction with open
                                                                                                                                                                    Nuisance alarms due to poor fitting
     Sensors                                                area sensors at the exterior of portals, or
                                                                                                                                                                    (caused by age, poor installation, or
                                                            inside the secured area.                                            Easy, inexpensive installation,
                                                                                                                                                                    extreme weather). Doors and windows
                                                                                                                                modular, known technology, best
                                                                                                                 $4      <$1                                        can be penetrated without moving the
                                                                                                                                when used as part of integrated and
                                                                                                                                                                    switch (i.e., moving the edge of the
                                                                                                                                layered security system
                                                                                                                                                                    door or window.) External magnet can
                                                                                                                                                                    provide a by-pass.
36   Intruder   Doors & Windows Balanced Magnetic           Commonly used in conjunction with open                                                                      Nuisance alarms due to poor fitting
                                                                                                                                Higher level of security than
     Sensors                    Switch                      area sensors at the exterior of portals, or                                                                 (caused by age, poor installation, or
                                                                                                                                mechanical or magnetic switches.
                                                            inside the secured area.                                                                                    extreme weather). Doors and windows
                                                                                                                 $40     $1     Cannot be defeated by an external
                                                                                                                                                                        can be penetrated without moving the
                                                                                                                                magnet (as in the case of straight
                                                                                                                                                                        switch (i.e., moving the edge of the
                                                                                                                                magnetic switches).
                                                                                                                                                                        door or window.)
37   Intruder                      Acoustic /               Acoustic (passive ultrasonic, high frequency,                       Easy to install, one device can         Nuisance alarms from RF
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence       Shock Wave /             e.g. 20 to 30 kHz) or shock wave (electric                          monitor multiple windows. Easy to       interferences, sharp impact noises, air
                                   Audio Discriminator /    piezo or non-electric piezo, low frequency,                         contains input to one room (i.e.,       gusts. Dead zones from furniture,
                                                                                                                 $52     $1
                                   Passive Ultrasonic /     e.g., 5 kHz). Dual systems combine acoustic                         doesn't ass through walls). Not         boxes, etc. Defeated by slow moving
                                   Glass Break              and shock sensors to reduce nuisance                                affected by common temperature          intruder and glass cutting or muffling
                                                            alarms.                                                             changes.                                the sound of breaking glass.
38   Intruder                      Vibration --             Built in or applied to a wall, ceiling, or fence.
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence       Electro-mechanical       Sensor types: piezoelectric, and electro-
                                                                                                                                                                        Subject to nuisance alarms from wind
                                   Piezoelectric            mechanical. Variations in sensitivity,
                                                                                                                                                                        or vibrations associated with large
                                                            processor abilities, and sensitivity                $5,000   $142   Can retrofit an existing wall.
                                                                                                                                                                        machinery. Variable interferences
                                                            adjustability. Often used with an outer fence
                                                                                                                                                                        depending on technology.
                                                            and clear zone prior to intruder sensors to
                                                            reduce false alarms.
39   Intruder                      Vibrations -- Fiber      Built in or applied to a wall, ceiling, or fence.
                                                                                                                                No electromagnetic or radio             Particularly in fence installations, high
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence       optic                    Variations in processor abilities and
                                                                                                                                frequency interferences. Low            winds may cause false alarms. Difficult
                                                            sensitivity adjustability. Often used with an       $3,900   $111
                                                                                                                                nuisance alarms with proper             to service and replace, subject to
                                                            outer fence and clear zone prior to intruder
                                                                                                                                installation. Low maintenance           rodent and erosion damage.
                                                            sensors to reduce false alarms.
40   Intruder                      Taut Wire = Strain       Freestanding or fence-mounted. Variations                           Low false alarm rate (i.e., typically
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence       Sensitive Wire           in signal processor ability to detect tension                       requires greater applied force to       Time-consuming installation and
                                                            changes and in sensitivity adjustability.           $1,875   $53    trigger alarm than fence vibration      periodic maintenance (adjustments of
                                                                                                                                sensors). High probability of           wire tension).
                                                                                                                                detection.
41   Intruder                      Capacitive Cable        Variations in signal processor ability to detect                                                             May affected by electromagnetic or
                                                                                                                                Detects touching or crawling over
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence                               tension changes and in sensitivity                   $4,000   $113                                           radio frequencies such as near power
                                                                                                                                the fence or wall.
                                                           adjustability.                                                                                               stations and radio stations.
42   Intruder                     Electric Field = E-field Stand-alone fence, or mounted on separate
                                                                                                                                                                        High nuisance alarm rate, can be
     Sensors    Walls/ Fence                               posts attached to an existing fence. May be
                                                                                                                                Can detect intruder before they         affected by electrical storms. Subject to
                                                           used with a weather station that adjusts E-          $4,000   $113
                                                                                                                                reach the fence line.                   electromagnetic and radio frequency
                                                           field sensor sensitivity based on weather
                                                                                                                                                                        disturbances.
                                                           conditions.
43   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Microwave Sensors        Monostatic (transmitter and received                                 Easy to conceal (place behind a
                                                                                                                                                                        Penetrates wall and windows.
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Short-range Radar)       encased on a single housing) or bistatic                             solid object), not affected by
                                                                                                                                                                        Nuisance alarms from radio
                                                           (transmitter and received are separate units).                       temperature (as is PIR), air gusts or
                                                                                                                $390     $10                                            transmissions, passing cars,
                                                           Dual technology units often include                                  loud noise (as is ultrasonic). Has a
                                                                                                                                                                        fluorescent lights. Terrain variations
                                                           microwave and PIR.                                                   continuous zone of detection (not
                                                                                                                                                                        can create dead zones.
                                                                                                                                fingers as in PIR)
44   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Passive Infrared (PIR) One or two sensors (Quad PIR) in one                                                                           Less sensitive when ambient
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Heat/ Motion           housing to reduce nuisance alarms.                                     Single, self-contained unit, low        temperature approaches body
                                  Detectors)             Sensitivity depends on circuiting design,                              maintenance. Easy to contain            temperature (i.e., 80 to 100 F).
                                                         programs to ignore first movement, etc.                 $78     $2     sensory input to one room (i.e.,        Nuisance alarms from small animals
                                                         Often used in dual technology systems.                                 doesn't pass through walls or           (e.g., rodents), sunlight on furniture,
                                                                                                                                windows).                               etc. Dead zones. Defeated by an
                                                                                                                                                                        insulated/shielded intruder.
45   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Scanning Laser          Scanning range from a single plane up to 360                                                                    Expensive, tower mounted systems are
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Infrared)               degrees. System sensitivity depends on                                                                          visible and subject to vandalism.
                                                                                                               $110,000   $2,818   Very effective intrusion detection.
                                                          signal processing software.                                                                                     Terrain contours may allow dead
                                                                                                                                                                          zones.
46   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Active Infra-Red (IR)   Indoor or outdoor, variations in coverage                                                                       Reduced sensitivity due to heavy dust,
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Beam or Curtain)        distance and the number of laser lines and                                                                      fog, rain, etc. Nuisance alarms from
                                                                                                                                   Not affected by temperature (as is
                                                          their distance apart within the IR "curtain".                                                                   small animals, growing plants, etc.
                                                                                                                $155       $4      PIR) or intruder speed (as is active
                                                                                                                                                                          Inside system reflective tape may be
                                                                                                                                   ultrasonic).
                                                                                                                                                                          affected by direct sunlight or
                                                                                                                                                                          incandescent lights (100+ Watts).
47   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Photo-Electric Eye /    Variations in coverage distance and the                                  Not affected by temperature (as is     Able to be seen (and avoided) y
     Sensors    Motion Detectors Electric Eye             number of laser lines and their distance apart        $155       $4      PIR) or intruder speed (as is active   intruders. Reduced sensitivity due to
                                  (Beam or Curtain)       within the photo-electric curtain.                                       ultrasonic).                           heavy dust, fog, etc.
48   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Active Ultrasonic       Wall or ceiling mounted. Used in tandem with
                                                                                                                                   Easy to contain sensory input to one   Nuisance alarms (e.g., phone ringing,
     Sensors    Motion Detectors                          passive IR.
                                                                                                                                   room (i.e., doesn't pass through       HVAC system air movement, window
                                                                                                                                   walls). Not affected by common         drafts, etc.). Defeated with slow
                                                                                                                 NA        NA
                                                                                                                                   temperature changes. Typically         movement across coverage area.
                                                                                                                                   greater coverage and slightly higher   Intruders can use "test lights" to detect
                                                                                                                                   sensitivity than Passive IR.           coverage area.
49   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Dual-Technology         Common motion detection technologies
     Sensors    Motion Detectors                          paired in a single unit include PIR with either                          Reduced number of nuisance
                                                                                                                                                                           More training and maintenance than
                                                          microwave or active ultrasonic technologies.           $47       $1      alarms. More difficult for intruders to
                                                                                                                                                                           either single technology.
                                                          Indoor and outdoor systems.                                              defeat.

50   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Video Motion            Color (visible light), Low light level (black-and-                                                         Nuisance alarms from sunlight
     Sensors    Motion Detectors Detection (VMD)          white), or infrared. View changes may trigger                            Allows immediate, safe assessment changes, outside vehicle or parking
                                                          alarm. Variable number of channels, may be            $780       $21     of alarms from the control room.  lights, insects flying close to the
                                                          stand-alone or software on a PC.                                         Documents events.                 camera lens. Can be defeated by
                                                                                                                                                                     staying in blind spots.
51   Intruder   Volume Sensors -- Air Turbulence          Varied signal processing methods.
                                                                                                                                                                         Need multiple sensors with overlapping
     Sensors    Motion Detectors (Acoustic Sensor or
                                                                                                                                                                         coverage for detection of all helicopter
                                  RF)                                                                                              Can detect even the quietest
                                                                                                                                                                         approaches. Cannot detect parachutes,
                                                                                                                                   helicopters. Protected area typically
                                                                                                                $800       $24                                           hang gliders, or ground intrusions.
                                                                                                                                   set for about 300 feet, but can
                                                                                                                                                                         Nuisance alarms from wind and distant
                                                                                                                                   extend for miles.
                                                                                                                                                                         turbulence conveyed by pressure wave
                                                                                                                                                                         propagation.
52   Intruder   Buried            Balanced Pressure       For monitoring sensitive approach or access                              Established technology, simple
                                                                                                                                                                          Immobile/fixed, false alarms, can be
     Sensors    (in ground)       Buried Tube/pipe        areas, and restricted zones. Several                  $5,000    $151     installation, area sensor, not easy to
                                                                                                                                                                          detected with proper equipment
                                                          technologies exist.                                                      disable
53   Intruder   Buried            Buried Geophone         Sensitivity depends on sensors and control                                                                      Nuisance alarms due to placement in
                                                                                                                                   Relatively simple installation and
     Sensors    (in ground)                               algorithm ability to compensate for                   $6,000    $181                                            loose soil, nearby trees and posts,
                                                                                                                                   repair.
                                                          background signals.                                                                                             large animals, etc.
54   Intruder   Buried            Fiber Optic             Sensitivity depends on sensors and control
                                                                                                                                                                          Nuisance alarms from wind movement
     Sensors    (in ground)                               algorithm ability to compensate for
                                                                                                                                   No sensory interference by RF or       of trees and poles, large animals above
                                                          background signals.                                   $6,000    $181
                                                                                                                                   electromagnetic sources.               ground, and burrowing animals. More
                                                                                                                                                                          difficult repair than with coaxial cable.
55   Intruder   Buried            Coaxial Cable =         Uses continuous wave or pulsed sensors.
                                                                                                                                                                          Nuisance alarms from movement of
     Sensors    (in ground)       Ported Coax Line =      Sensitivity depends on sensors and
                                                                                                                                                                          nearby fences and trees, large animals,
                                  Capacitive Cable        processor ability to compensate for
                                                                                                                                                                          burrowing animals, etc. Unreliable
                                                          background signals. Cable placement and                                  Relatively simple installation and
                                                                                                                $4,000    $121                                            detection with heavy snowfall; metal in-
                                                          soil density affect zone covered.                                        repair.
                                                                                                                                                                          ground drain duct; and surface water
                                                                                                                                                                          movement, nearby large electrical
                                                                                                                                                                          equipment or nearby radio stations, etc.
56   Monitoring     Lighting          Spot/ Zone Lighting    Incandescent, tungsten halogen, or
                                                                                                                                                                      Can be used by adversary to identify
     Technology                                              fluorescent systems. Reflectors for spot                           Easily configured, can be
                                                                                                                $2,000   $52                                          high value areas. Delayed start-up for
                                                             lights and flood lighting. May be triggered by                     maintained by a standard electrician.
                                                                                                                                                                      fluorescence.
                                                             a motion detector.
57   Monitoring     Lighting          Wide-Area Lighting     Metal halide, high pressure sodium, or low                                                               Can be used by adversary to identify
     Technology                                              pressure sodium systems.                                           Easily configured, can be             high value areas. Slow start-up. Low
                                                                                                                $5,000   $130
                                                                                                                                maintained by a standard electrician. pressure sodium provides poor lighting
                                                                                                                                                                      for color CCTV.
58   Monitoring     Lighting          Infrared (IR) lights   Used with CCTV in dark areas. IR lights and                        Invisible to naked eye, runs cool,    Expensive, large matrix of light emitting
     Technology                                              CCTV may be triggered by a motion detector.        $900     $23    instant on, good for covert           diodes (LED) required for flood lighting,
                                                                                                                                observation.                          low deterrence value.
59   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Black & white          Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and tilt
                                                                                                                                High resolution images under both
     Technology     Camera            (Low Light Levels)     capability. Image intensifiers for low light
                                                                                                                                normal daylight conditions and low
                                                             conditions. Reflective mirrors to see around       $108     $2                                             No color to aid in identification.
                                                                                                                                light conditions down to 0.1 lux or
                                                             obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/ washer
                                                                                                                                less for some systems.
                                                             system, and heater/ cooler.
60   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Color                  Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and tilt
                                                                                                                                High resolution images. Newer
     Technology     Camera                                   capability. Image intensifiers for low light                                                          Unable to provide images in as low
                                                                                                                                technologies have improved imaging
                                                             conditions. Reflective mirrors to see around       $542     $10                                       light conditions as black and white
                                                                                                                                capability under lower light
                                                             obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/ washer                                                             cameras.
                                                                                                                                conditions.
                                                             system, and heater/ cooler.
61   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Convertible            Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and tilt
                                                                                                                                Provides the best of both color and
     Technology     Camera            (B&W and Color)        capability. Image intensifiers for low light
                                                                                                                                black and white cameras. Color          Lower resolution at low light levels than
                                                             conditions. Reflective mirrors to see around       $650     $12
                                                                                                                                images under high light, black and      black and white.
                                                             obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/ washer
                                                                                                                                white images under low light.
                                                             system, and heater/ cooler.
62   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Analog / VHS           Real-time and time-lapse recorders.                                                                        Medium to low video quality, difficult to
     Technology     Recorder                                 Variations in VHS tape resolution. May have                                                                archive/save tapes, diffiult to find
                                                                                                                $800     $14    Inexpensive, easy to operate.
                                                             remote control device. May be triggered by a                                                               specific information, storage of video
                                                             motion detector.                                                                                           tapes.
63   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      Digital / DVD          Varied resolution and compression formats.
                                                                                                                                Higher image quailty available,
     Technology     Recorder                                 Continous real-time or event recorders which
                                                                                                                                quicker access of specific scenes,
                                                             may have audio capability.                                                                                 Expensive, need large digital storage
                                                                                                                $3,886   $69    downloadable to CD or computer
                                                                                                                                                                        space, needs video compression.
                                                                                                                                hard drive. Can download images
                                                                                                                                from a remote site.
64   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      guard                  Number of guards on duty, duration of
     Technology     Analysis                                 viewing shift, etc.                                $1,890   $34    Able to provide integrated analysis.    Fatigue, inconsistent analysis.

65   Monitoring     CCTV / Video      computer               Variations in the ability to separate
                                                                                                                                Does not fatigue, provides              Many packages are only applicable to
     Technology     Analysis                                 background/ normal images from unusual             $1,280   $23
                                                                                                                                consistent analysis.                    low traffic areas.
                                                             images.
66   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Vary procedures to      Randomly alter procedures such as                                  Changes security profile,               May not improve security effectiveness,
     Low Cost       Cost             reduce certainty of     passenger processing, cargo handling, time          $12     <$1    complicates target surveillance,        may confuse staff.
                                     expected patterns       intervals, sequences, etc.
67   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Simulate / fake         Exaggerate security measures e.g., deploy                          Indicates higher level of security,     Provides false sense of security,
     Low Cost       Cost             security measures       more camera housings than cameras, use                             creates a random (unclear) event        absence of vehicle may indicate
                                                                                                                $120     $3
                                                             "untrained" K9 units, park police cars on                                                                  lowered level of security and invite an
                                                             premises, etc.                                                                                             event.
68   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Vary equipment          Random physical, operational, administrative                       Makes vessel an unpredictable           Some attack measures can be readily
     Low Cost       Cost             locations to reduce     changes, e.g., move guard house, cameras,                          target for bridge-based attack          adjusted for the detour.
                                     certainty of expected   lights, change routes and passes (e.g., under      $1,050   $24    (explosives, incendiary, chem., bio.,
                                     patterns                bridges, near shore, etc.).                                        rad.,).
69   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Public communication Communicate that sensitive areas and                                   A well secured site can be a strong   Disclosing all or most security
     Low Cost       Cost             of security          targets are well secured and detection                                 threat and event deterrent.           measures can make it easier to assess
                                                          systems are in place. Disclosed measures             $600      $13                                           and defeat them.
                                                          may be or may not be real. (All real
                                                          measures should not be disclosed.)
70   Procedural /   Procedural / Low Separate and dilute  Maximize distance and barriers between                                 Reduces the consequences of an        Some passenger inconvenience when
     Low Cost       Cost             targets              targets (vessels, fuel, cargo, passengers,                             act,                                  transferring between ferries
                                                          etc.), and reduce target size, e.g., increase
                                                                                                               $380      $9
                                                          distance of vehicles from fuel tanks, stagger
                                                          boarding times to minimize shoreside
                                                          crowding, etc.
71   Waterside      Surface          RADAR                Detection distance is limited by height over                           Automatic detection and tracking of   CCTV and sensor lifespan is
     Security                        (Radio Detection And water. Variations in receiver sensitivity,                             surface targets                       dependant on the operating
                                     Ranging)             options include use with a chart plotter or                                                                  environment and port climatic
                                                          fishfinder, split-screen viewing of short and                                                                conditions. Fragile RADAR sensors
                                                                                                              $60,000   $2,835
                                                          long-distance targets, etc.                                                                                  must be protected from wildlife and
                                                                                                                                                                       criminal acts, heavy fog, and high
                                                                                                                                                                       winds and rain will adversely affect
                                                                                                                                                                       system effectiveness/operations.
72   Waterside      Surface           Buoys                   Lights can be placed on buoys to illuminate                        Very visible object in the water that Only a visible deterrent since it cannot
     Security                                                boundaries. Signage can posted on or                                can be used to establish boundary stop an individual or craft from
                                                             directly engraved into the buoys.                                   lines with signage and lights.        approaching an area. Additionally,
                                                                                                              $1,375     $87
                                                                                                                                                                       misunderstanding of buoys may lead to
                                                                                                                                                                       possible intrusion into controlled or
                                                                                                                                                                       restricted areas.
73   Waterside      Surface           Pier and Buoy Signage Signage of wood, metal construction with                             Signage notifies individuals of       Signs are only a visible deterrent, that
     Security                                               reflectorized materials. Signage can posted                          restricted/unauthorized areas         notify/inform individuals of unauthorized
                                                            on or directly engraved into the buoys.                              prohibitions, etc.                    areas/activities. Signs do not
                                                                                                               $438      $28
                                                                                                                                                                       physically stop individuals from
                                                                                                                                                                       entering unauthorized areas or doing
                                                                                                                                                                       prohibited activities.
74   Waterside      Surface           Vessel Barriers        Commonly constructed of composites and                              Barriers deter, delay and potentially Depending on the size, shape and
     Security                                                metals. May appear as connected colored                             prevent unauthorized personnel        configuration of individual barrier
                                                             buoy . May or may not have nets.                 $10,540   $643     access, large and small vessel        system components, some vessels
                                                                                                                                 penetrations into                     may be able to penetrate the barriers.
                                                                                                                                 restricted/unauthorized areas.
75   Waterside      Underwater        Side Scan Sonar        Towed through water or mounted on vessel                            Can detect underwater divers, diver Towed unit require water current to be
     Security                                                hull, ROV, or AUV. Depth and area                                   delivery vehicles, mini-submarines, effective. Can't see ahead. Unable to
                                                             variations. Options: distortion correction and                      submarines, etc. to the side of the   provide precise locations. After
                                                                                                              $13,800   $573
                                                             image enhancement software, digital                                 vessel.                               identification of a variance, a diver or
                                                             recording, and positioning equipment.                                                                     ROV must be dispatched to
                                                                                                                                                                       investigate.
76   Waterside      Underwater        Forward Looking        Towed through the water or mounted on the                           Can detect underwater divers, diver Unable to provide precise location.
     Security                         Sonar                  hull of a vessel, ROV, or AUV. Towing                               delivery vehicles, mini-submarines, After identification of a variance, a diver
                                                             usually needs currents of at least 8 knots.      $42,000   $1,743   submarines, etc. in front of the      or ROV must be dispatched to
                                                             Different frequency options for deep water                          vessel.                               investigate.
                                                             and shallow water applications.
77   Waterside      Underwater        Multibeam Sonar        Towline or mounted on hull of vessel, ROV,                          Can detect underwater divers, diver After identification of a variance, a diver
     Security                         (3-D images)           or AUV. Variations in depth rating, housing                         delivery vehicles, mini-submarines, or ROV must be dispatched to
                                                             type, number of beams, range, etc.               $60,000   $2,464   submarines, etc. including their    investigate.
                                                                                                                                 distance and depth.
78   Waterside   Underwater     Remotely Operated    Subsurface, remotely controlled hull                                  Can traverse areas where humans         The system must be deployed to be an
     Security                   Vehicle (ROV)        inspection system. May include side scan                              are unable, i.e. sea floors at depths   effective countermeasure. The vehicle
                                                     and forward looking sonar, bathymetry, video,                         to dangerous for human                  is manually operated, therefore
                                                     two-way communication system, etc.                                    deployment. Designed for                mistakes may occur during operation
                                                                                                                           photography and recovery                adding to the possibility of vehicle loss.
                                                                                                                           operations. Unmanned vehicle,           Poor water visibility greatly impairs
                                                                                                      $62,000    $2,577
                                                                                                                           therefore no lives are at risk during   effectiveness. Limited tactical
                                                                                                                           operations. The AUV can be              feedback during operations.
                                                                                                                           submerged underwater for extended
                                                                                                                           periods of time in a variety of
                                                                                                                           climatic conditions and water
                                                                                                                           temperatures.
79   Waterside   Underwater     Autonomous           May include side and forward sonar,                                   Can traverse areas where humans         The system must be deployed to be an
     Security                   Underwater Vehicle   bathymetry, video, etc.                                               are unable, i.e. sea floors at depths   effective countermeasure. The vehicle
                                (AUV)                                                                                      to dangerous for human                  is manually operated, therefore
                                                                                                                           deployment. Designed for                mistakes may occur during operation
                                                                                                                           photography and recovery                adding to the probability of vehicle loss.
                                                                                                                           operations. Unmanned vehicle,           Additionally, during periods of limited
                                                                                                      $300,000   $12,468
                                                                                                                           therefore no lives are at risk during   water visibility the equipment is
                                                                                                                           operations. The ROV can be              ineffective. Limited tactical feedback
                                                                                                                           submerged underwater for extended       during operations
                                                                                                                           periods of time in a variety of
                                                                                                                           climatic conditions and water
                                                                                                                           temperatures.
80   Screening   Passengers &   Human inspections    Cargo searches may use of a mirror and
                 Cargo                               flashlight. Pat-down passenger inspections                            Can easily adjust screening level to Fatigue, relatively high false negative
                                                                                                       $1,890     $64
                 All threats                         with or without hand-held detectors.                                  the threat level.                    rate.

81   Screening   Passengers &   Backscatter x-rays   Portals designed for scans of people or
                 Cargo                               vehicles, mobile units transported in vans for
                                                                                                                           Detects plastic explosives as well as
                 Weapons,                            scanning passing vehicles. Software              $11,667     $430                                           Personal privacy, cost
                                                                                                                           conventional explosives
                 explosives                          graphics overlays to protect privacy/ modesty.

82   Screening   Passengers     Millimeter Wave      Software graphics overlays to protect privacy/
                                                                                                                           Can scan crowds without the need
                 Weapons,       (MMW)                modesty.
                                                                                                                           for single file lines. Produces an Expensive, still developing technology.
                 explosives                                                                           $31,500     $987
                                                                                                                           instant moving image. Software can Privacy concerns.
                                                                                                                           identify potential weapons.
83   Screening   Cargo          Transmission x-ray   Unit size and throughpout rate.                                                                            Cannot detect ceramic or plastic
                 Weapons,                                                                                                  Established technology. Provide a 2- weapons. Provides relatively poor view
                 explosives                                                                           $11,667     $501     D image of dense objects such as     of metal objects depending on angle of
                                                                                                                           dense metalic weapons.               view, therby requiring physical search
                                                                                                                                                                for confirmation.
84   Screening   Cargo          CAT Scan             Unit size and throughpout rate.
                                                                                                                                                                   Expensive, requires trained personnel.
                 Weapons,
                                                                                                                                                                   Electro-magnetic generator has
                 explosives                                                                                                Accurate imaging of cantrband
                                                                                                      $116,667   $5,010                                            substantial electricity requirements and
                                                                                                                           devices.
                                                                                                                                                                   may require structural upgrades for
                                                                                                                                                                   additional floor load.
85   Screening   Cargo             Metal detectors   Hand-held wands (requires 2 minutes per                                                                Only detects metal objects. In order to
                 Weapons                             scan for trained security personel), or portal                                                         effectively screen passengers must
                                                     systems .                                                                                              remove all metal objects from their
                                                                                                                      Magnetic fields such as those used persons and place them on a separate
                                                                                                                      in airports are harmless and are      scanning device. Because of the high
                                                                                                                      sensitive in detecting metalic        passenger throughput of a passenger
                                                                                                       $23     $1
                                                                                                                      weapons. They are a proven            ferry, this would involve long delays or
                                                                                                                      technology and aere readily           require a prohibitive ly large number of
                                                                                                                      available.                            scanning units. Hand-help wands
                                                                                                                                                            require security personnel to conduct
                                                                                                                                                            the scan. Takes about 2 minutes per
                                                                                                                                                            scan.
86   Screening   Cargo             Gamma rays        Portals for scans of vehicles, or mobile units                                                         limited to inspecting cargo in vehicles
                                                                                                                      Available as a portal or as a mobile
                 Weapons,                            transported on vans.                                                                                   or containers. Not certain of
                                                                                                                      unit. Penetrates to detect radiologic
                 explosives                                                                           $9,667   $393                                         applicability to luggage. Expensive at
                                                                                                                      weapons. Can be equiped with an
                                                                                                                                                            present. Limited commercial
                                                                                                                      alarm.
                                                                                                                                                            availability.
87   Screening   Trace Detection   K-9 Units         Canines trained for explosives detection, and                    Sensitivity is greater than for most  Fatigue of dog and handler increases
                 Explosives                          / or drug detection. Training for detection of                   field detectors. Can spatial locate   required number of k-9 units. Not
                                                     biological and CWA may be possible, but is       $3,250   $104   the material in a large area. False effective for screening large numbers of
                                                     not standard.                                                    positive lower than for many          people in transit (I.e. embarking on
                                                                                                                      technologies.                         ferry).
88   Screening   Trace Detection IMS (Ion Mobility   Continuous monitors with alarms or hand-
                                                                                                                      Moderate to high sensitivity to wide
                 Explosives, CWA Spectrometry)       held units. Sensitivity to specfic chemical
                                                                                                                      range of CWAs.Portable hand-held
                                                     varies. Specific chemicals detected depends
                                                                                                                      point detection instrument for
                                                     on the units software.
                                                                                                                      monitoring nerve or vesicant agent
                                                                                                                      vapors. It provides a graduated
                                                                                                                      readout (low, medium, high).
                                                                                                                      Response time is dependent on             Requires handheld scans of each
                                                                                                                      concentration but generally takes         potential threat by trained personel. I it
                                                                                                                      from 10 to 60 seconds. The                is not capable of quantifying the
                                                                                                                      attractive feature of IMS is that the     amount of explosive material. It is
                                                                                                                      measurement is carried out at             difficult to determine how much
                                                                                                      $1,050   $41
                                                                                                                      atmospheric pressure, rather than         explosive material is present in a
                                                                                                                      under vacuum conditions. This             sample. One disadvantage is that it is
                                                                                                                      makes it easier to build field portable   possible for innocuous material to
                                                                                                                      equipment and provides significant        display very similar drift times, and this
                                                                                                                      cost savings. With very good              can lead to a false alarm problem.
                                                                                                                      sensitivity, ion mobility is capable of
                                                                                                                      detecting and identifying explosives.
                                                                                                                      Portable, battery operated alarm
                                                                                                                      equiped units available. Minimal
                                                                                                                      training of operating personnel
                                                                                                                      neded.
89   Screening   Trace Detection SAW (Surface           The hand-held or wall mounted. Chemicals
                                                                                                                       Sensitive to wide range of toxic
                 Explosives, CWA Acoustic Wave)         detected depend on the units design but may
                                                                                                                       agents. The SAW MiniCAD is a
                                                        include nerve agents, blister agents and
                                                                                                                       commercially available pocket-sized
                                                        several classes of toxic industrial chemicals
                                                                                                                       instrument that can automatically
                                                        (TIC’s). Detection of explosives is under
                                                                                                                       monitor for trace levels of toxic
                                                        development.
                                                                                                                       vapors of both sulfur mustard and
                                                                                                                                                                Limited to areas of thermal stability.
                                                                                                                       the G nerve agents with a high
                                                                                                                                                                Optimal use of the SAW MiniCAD
                                                                                                                       degree of specificity. The instrument
                                                                                                                                                                requires that a suitable compromise be
                                                                                                                       is equipped with a vapor-sampling
                                                                                                                                                                made among the conflicting demands
                                                                                                                       pump and a thermal concentrator to
                                                                                                                                                                of response time, sensitivity, and power
                                                                                                                       provide enriched vapor sample
                                                                                                                                                                consumption. Maximum protection
                                                                                                                       concentration to a pair of high-
                                                                                                                                                                requires high sensitivity and a rapid
                                                                                                                       sensitivity coated SAW
                                                                                                        $900     $35                                            response. The SAW MiniCAD is able to
                                                                                                                       microsensors. All subsystems are
                                                                                                                                                                achieve a high sensitivity with an
                                                                                                                       designed to consume minimal
                                                                                                                                                                increased vapor sampling time.
                                                                                                                       amounts of power from onboard
                                                                                                                                                                However, a faster response can be
                                                                                                                       batteries. Testing of the SAW
                                                                                                                                                                achieved at a lower sensitivity setting.
                                                                                                                       MiniCAD has been performed with
                                                                                                                                                                Emerging technology with respect to
                                                                                                                       chemical warfare agents GD, GA,
                                                                                                                                                                EDD, not commercial availability in this
                                                                                                                       and HD. These tests were
                                                                                                                                                                application.
                                                                                                                       performed at a variety of
                                                                                                                       concentrations and humidity levels.
                                                                                                                       There were no significant effects
                                                                                                                       noted due to the changes in the
                                                                                                                       humidity levels for any of the
                                                                                                                       chemical agents tested.
90   Screening   Trace Detection   Enzyme-Based,        Specific assays for specific chemical agents.                                                          Each ticket tests for only one specific
                 CWA               Immunoassay          Variations in the extent of assay automation.                  Rapid, portable, sensitive test for the agent. Need many ticket types to test
                                                                                                        $1,100   $55
                                                                                                                       detection of chemical threat agents. unknown substances. Currently very
                                                                                                                                                               limited availability.
91   Screening   Trace Detection   Hand-Held Geiger     Pager sized geiger counters and gamma
                 Radioactivity     Counters             detectors can detect radiological agents in
                                                                                                         $90     $5    Easy to use, highly portable.            Requires annual calibration.
                                                        the immediate vaccinity. They can be easily
                                                        carried by law enforcement agents.
92   Screening   Trace Detection   Smear Counters       The time needed for measurements depends
                                                                                                                                                                Requires wiping of baggage. Greater
                 Radioactivity                          on the desired level of sensitivity.                           May detect low levels of radiation
                                                                                                                                                                sensitivity requires longer wait periods
                                                                                                                       thaht are not detected with other
                                                                                                                                                                for sample measurements (up to 30
                                                                                                                       methods.
                                                                                                                                                                minutes for greatest sensitivity).
93   Screening   Trace Detection   Hand and Shoe        Variations in sensitivity.                                                                              May be too time-consuming for use
                                                                                                                       High sensitivity level.
                 Radioactivity     Monitors                                                                                                                     with all passengers.
94   Screening   Trace Detection   Chemical Detection   M8 paper or M9 tape                                                                                     Low sensitivity. Only useful when
                                                                                                                       Detects traces of nerve, blister and
                 CWA               Paper                                                                $220     $11                                            baggage is swabbed or for identifying
                                                                                                                       blood agents on baggage.
                                                                                                                                                                released liquid or vapor droplets.
95   Screening   Trace Detection   Colorimetric tubes   Specific detector tubes for different CWA and
                                                                                                                       Many of these kits are complex and
                 CWA, TIC                               toxic industrial chemicals (TIC).
                                                                                                                       include multiple tests for specific      If sampling method is a pump, the
                                                                                                                       agents or families of agents. Color      detector would need to be automated
                                                                                                        $180     $9
                                                                                                                       change detectors can detect nerve,       and equiped with an alarm which would
                                                                                                                       blister, and blood agents. Good          increase cost and complexity.
                                                                                                                       sensitivity and selectivity, low cost.
96   Screening   Trace Detection Electron Capture       Sensitivity to specific chemicals varies.
                                                                                                                                                                The sensitivity is not as good as IMS,
                 Explosives, CWA Detectors (ECD)        Specific chemicals detected depends on the
                                                                                                                                                                and the false alarm rate is reported to
                                                        units software.                                 $1,667   $64
                                                                                                                                                                be higher.the technique is incapable of
                                                                                                                                                                identifying individual explosives.
97    Screening     Trace Detection   Immunoassays,             Separate assays (i.e., tickets) for detection of
                    Bio Agents        Hand-Held Assay           different biological agents (e.g., anthrax,
                                      (HHA) Kits,               plague, botulina, etc.). If sample is not visible
                                      Antibody identification   (e.g., powder), a sampler that concentrates
                                                                                                                                                                                 Each ticket tests for only one specific
                                                                particles is needed. Sensitivity of the test is                          Rapid, portable, sensitive test for the
                                                                                                                     $1,100     $55                                              agent. Need many ticket types to test
                                                                limited by the strip reader, which may be                                detection of biothreat agents.
                                                                                                                                                                                 unknown substances.
                                                                visual (low cost, low sensitivity), or purchased
                                                                strip readers that vary in sensitivity and time
                                                                for measurement.

100   Screening     Trace Detection   Aerosol Particle Sizers Hand-held and stationary units. Variations in                                                                      Requires substantial sampling of
                    Bio Agents        (APS)                   the ability to discriminate between particle                                                                       background conditions to recognize the
                                                              types based on their size and general shape.                               Allow real-time notification of a       diference between normal particle
                                                                                                                     $750       $34      possible attack with biological         variations and a biological attack. If
                                                                                                                                         agents.                                 biological attack is suspected, another
                                                                                                                                                                                 method would be neded to identify the
                                                                                                                                                                                 specific agent.
101   Human         All Areas         Public Watch              Request and instruct passengers and
                                                                                                                                                                              Many false alarms, potential for
      Observation                                               neighbors to observe and report suspicious                               Many observations, applies to entire
                                                                                                                     $2,400     $53                                           generating fear and alarm, may be
                                                                and unusual activities                                                   system,
                                                                                                                                                                              based on profiling.
102   Human         All Areas         Employee Watch --         Establish procedures and train employees to
                                                                                                                                         Employees are familiar with setting,    Employees are already on the alert,
      Observation                     Awareness Training        recognize and report unusual and suspicious
                                                                                                                                         can readily detect unusual situation;   training provides only incremental
                                                                activities, vehicles, and luggage.                   $525        $9
                                                                                                                                         have access to communication and        benefits, may distract from normal
                                                                                                                                         decision makers                         duties,
103   Human         All Areas         Uniform Patrols on        Shore-side or on ferry vessels, set or random
      Observation                     ground or on ferry        route
                                                                                                                     $1,890     $34


104   Human         Waterside         Patrol Vessels and        Fiberglass or metal hull vessels varying in                              Deter, delay, or interdict adversarial Patrols may not be in the critical area at
      Observation                     Escorts                   length and on-board equipment (e.g., sonar,                              vessels and underwater threats. May the time of attack. Generally requires
                                                                weapons, etc). Escort may be random or              $429,250   $13,126   provide assistance in emergencies. at least two armed officers per patrol
                                                                scheduled, and for portions of a route or the                                                                   craft with one acting as the driver.
                                                                entire route.
105   Human         Waterside         Divers                    Certified divers visually inspect undersides of                          Divers can inspect hulls and piers    Divers are limited by the time they can
      Observation                                               vessels, piers and supporting infrastructure                             for abnormalities, explosive devices. spend underwater based upon water
                                                                                                                                                                               temperature and depth. Divers should
                                                                                                                                                                               be deployed in pairs/buddy teams for
                                                                                                                                                                               safety. Depending on water depths,
                                                                                                                     $210       $10
                                                                                                                                                                               divers may not be able to dive again
                                                                                                                                                                               without depressurization or waiting a
                                                                                                                                                                               predetermined length of time (again for
                                                                                                                                                                               health and safety reasons).
Additional Information
Developed by the User
(e.g., sensitivity)
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References

  1 Haupt, S.G., Rowshan, S., and Sauntry, W.C., 2004. Applicability of portable explosive detection devices in transit
    environments. TCRP 86, vol 6.
    http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=3797
  2 Whent, P. Control of public space.
    http://www.apta.com/research/info/briefings/documents/whent.pdf
  3 Maier, P., and Malone, J, 2001. Electronic surveillance technology on transit vehicles. TCRP
    Synthesis 38.
    http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2423
  4 Balog, J.N., Bromlet, P.N., Strongin, J.B., Boyd, A., Caton, J., Mitchell, D.C., 2002. K9 units in public
    transportation: A guide for decision makers. TCRP Report 86, vol 2.
    http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=900
  5 Rowshan, S, and Simonetta, R.J., 2003. Intrusion detection for public transportation facilities
    handbook. TCRP Report 86, vol 4.
    http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=1964
  6 GovSupply (a division of Intellimar, Inc.), Sykesville, MD
    http://www.govsupply.com/Products/VehicleBarriers/Certification.cfm
  7 American Park and Recreation Company, Tampa, FL
    http://www.apark.com
  8 Dawn Concrete and Stone Products, Coventry, CT
    http://trashcans.com/products_benches_park.asp
  9 Electronic Privacy Information Center
    http://www.epic.org/privacy/airtravel/backscatter/
 10 Multi-IMS Draeger Safety Inc.
    http://www.afcintl.com/ims.htm
 11 Microsensor Systems Inc. (MSI), SAW-based detectors for CWA.
    http://www.microsensorsystems.com/products_chemical.html
 12 Haupt, S.G., Rowshan, S., Sauntry, W.C., 2004. Applicability of Portable Explisive Detection Devices in Transit
    Environments. TCRP Report 86, Vol 6.
    http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=3797
 13 Online Field Manual: NBC-Med
    www.nbc-med.org/SiteContent/MedRef/OnlineRef/FieldManuals/fm8_285/PART_I/chapter1.htm
 14 MesoSystems Technology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM. AirSentinel® Bioaerosol Sensor for monitoring particle
    fluorescence.
    http://www.mesosystems.com/AirSentinel.html
 15 Alexeter Technologies, LLC. Immonoassay test strips, test strip readers, and protein screening kits.
    http://www.alexeter.com/products.asp
 16 Use of Biotechnology to Detect and Counteract Chemical Weapons, National Academy of Engineering, The Bridge,
    Vol. 33, Winter 2003.
    http://www.nae.edu/nae/bridgecom.nsf/weblinks/MKUF-5UZJEW?OpenDocument
 17 AFC International, Inc.
    http://www.afcintl.com/d1217.htm
 18 National Academy Press, 1999. Chap 4: Detection and Measurement of Chemical Agents. In: Chemical and
    Biological Terrorism: Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response.
    http://books.nap.edu/html/terrorism/ch4.html
 19 National Academy Press, 1999. Chap 6: Detection and Measurement of Biological Agents. In: Chemical and
    Biological Terrorism: Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response.
    http://books.nap.edu/html/terrorism/ch4.html
 20 International Safety Equipment Organization: Chemical Guide
    http://www.safetyequipment.org/Chem_Guide_9.pdf
 21 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Chemical and Biological Defense Program
    http://www.pnl.gov/chembio/index.htm
 22 Nathan Michael Williams, Lidar Detection of Chemical and Biological Weapons
    http://lumen.georgetown.edu/projects/postertool/index.cfm?fuseaction=poster.display&posterID=867
 23 Center for Non Proliferation Studies. "The Basics of Chemical and Biological Weapons Detectors". Margaret E. Kosal,
    PhD, November 24, 2003.
    http://www.cns.miis.edu/pubs/week/031124.htm
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 24 Science and Technology Review, September 2003, "When Everything Counts, Pathogen Identification in Less than a
    Minute."
    http://www.llnl.gov/str/September03/Gard.html
 25 National Academies Press, 2004: Opportunities to Improve Airport Passenger Screening with Mass Spectrometry
    (2004), National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB).
    http://www.nap.edu/openbook/030909240X/html/7.html
 26 Global Security.Org a security information disemination organization
    http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/systems/passenger_screen.htm
 27 GAO, Aviation Security: Commercially Available Advanced Explosives Detection Devices, April 24, 1997
    http://www.securitymanagement.com/library/000391.html
 28 Armed Forces International: Real-time biological agent detection using particle size, shape and fluorescence
    characterization.
    http://www.armedforces-int.com/article.asp?pubID=15&catID=1151&artID=2445
 29 Biological Monitoring for Buildings, M. Schell, et al., MesoSystems Technology, Inc.
    http://www.automatedbuildings.com/news/may05/articles/meso/meso.htm
 30 McKee Craft, Fairmont, NC
    http://www.mckeecraft.com/index.htm
 31 US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administation (OSHA), Commercial Diving Operations
    http://www.osha.gov/Reduction_Act/Divesup2.html
 32 Smart Card Tutorial, Smart Card Group, West Sussex, UK
    http://www.smartcard.co.uk/tutorials/sct-itsc.pdf
 33 Smart Card Overview, Sun Developer Network, Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    http://java.sun.com/products/javacard/smartcards.html
 34 Optical Cards, AIM Global, Warendale, PA
    http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/card/optical_cards.asp
 35 Cryptographically Secure Transactions with Optical Cards, J. Harper, BSI2000, Inc.
    http://www.frobenius.com/cryptofinal030515.pdf
 36 Perimeter Security Sensor Technology Handbook, 1997. Prepared by NISE East for the Defense Advanced
    Research Projects Agency (DARPA), available from the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology
    Center JUSTNET website:
    http://www.justnet.org/perimetr/start.htm
 37 Light Guide: Occupant Sensors. Light, Inc., 2000.
    http://www.lightsearch.com/resources/lightguides/sensors.html
 38 Introduction to video surveillance and computer vision, in Intel Technology Journal, May 19, 2005, Vol. 2.
    http://www.intel.com/technology/itj/2005/volume09issue02/art02_computer_vision/p04_intro_vid_surv.htm
 39 Bouy's and Markers, Director of Auxiliary Training, 7th Coast Guard District, Florida, available at:
    http://www.auxetrain.org/Buoys.html
 40 Good Innovation LLC, Sacramento, CA, view vessel barrier products at:
    http://armorfloat.com/
 41 Wave Dispersion Technologies, Inc., Summit, NJ, view vessel barrier products at:
    http://www.whisprwave.com/port.htm#barriers
 42 Side Scan Sonar and Multibeam Sonar, NOAA, Office of Coast Survey website:

    http://chartmaker.ncd.noaa.gov/HSD/wrecks.html
 43 Side Scan Sonar for Inspection of Coastal Strutures, Technical Note CO-SE1.4, Repair, Evaluation, Maintenace, and
    Rehabilitation Program (REMR), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
    http://www.wes.army.mil/REMR/pdf/co/se-1-4.pdf
 44 Sonar Sysatems, Ocean Systems Laboratory, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.
    http://www.ece.eps.hw.ac.uk/Research/oceans/projects/sonar/genson/
 45 Why 3D Sonar: A Basic Sonar Primer from Echo Sounder to Water Depth. FarSounder, Inc., Providence, RI.
    http://www.farsounder.com/technology/3D_sonar_explained.php
 46 AUV Design Information Page. International Submarine Engineering, Ltd., Port Coquitlam, B.C.
    http://www.ise.bc.ca/WADEwhatisanAUV.html#start
 47 Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), NOAA, Ocean Explorer Technology.
    http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/subs/rov/rov.html
 48 Brijot Imaging Systems, Inc., Florida
    http://www.brijot.com/
 49 Body Scan Machines to be Used on Tube Passengers. July 8, 2005, Times Inline, London.
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    http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,20409-1686151_1,00.html
 50 Railroad VACIS Inspection System, SAIC, San Diego, CA.
    http://www.saic.com/products/security/rr-vacis/railroad-faq.html
 51 Card Identification/Access/Tracking Systems. Water and Wastewater Security Product Guide, EPA.
    http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/guide/productguide.cfm?page=cardidentificationaccesssystems
 52 Biometric Security Systems. Water and Wastewater Security Product Guide, EPA.
    http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/guide/productguide.cfm?page=biometricsecuritysystems
 53 Exterior Intrusion - Buried Sensors. Water and Wastewater Security Product Guide, EPA.
    http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/guide/productguide.cfm?page=exteriorburiedintrusionsensors
 54 Active Security Barriers. Water and Wastewater Security Product Guide, EPA.
    http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/guide/productguide.cfm?page=activesecuritybarriers
 55 Alarms. Water and Wastewater Security Product Guide, EPA.
    http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/guide/productguide.cfm?page=alarms
 56 Fence-Associaed Extrerior Intrusion Sensors. Water and Wastewater Security Product Guide, EPA.
    http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/guide/productguide.cfm?page=fenceassociatedexteriorintrusionsensors
 57 Fences. Water and Wastewater Security Product Guide, EPA.
    http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/guide/productguide.cfm?page=fences
 58 Locks. Water and Wastewater Security Product Guide, EPA.
    http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/guide/productguide.cfm?page=locks
 59 Passive Security Barriers. Water and Wastewater Security Product Guide, EPA.
    http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/guide/productguide.cfm?page=securitybarriers
 60 Radiation Detection Equipment for Monitoring Personnel and Packages. Water and Wastewater Security Product
    Guide, EPA.
    http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/guide/productguide.cfm?page=radiationdetectionequipment
 61 Biometric Hand and Finger Geometry Recognition. Water and Wastewater Security Product Guide, EPA.
    http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/guide/productguide.cfm?page=biometrichandrecognition
 62 Prescient Systems, Menlo Park, CA. "Gotcha" video surveillance with motion detection algorithm.
    http://www.gotchanow.com/
 63 SAIC in-house cost estimate.
 64 SSR Engineering, Inc., Anaheim, CA and Franklin, VA. Radar Systems.
    http://www.ssreng.com/
 65 J.A. McDermott, Corp., Ridgewood, N.Y.
    https://www.mcdermottlight.com/
 66 Maritime Security Signs, Moxie Media, Inc., New Orleans, LA.
    http://www.moxietraining.com/signs/index.htm#signs
 67 Marine Sonic Technologies, Ltd., White Marsh, VA
    http://www.marinesonic.com/
 68 Reson Underwater Acoustic Solutions, Slangerup, Denmark
    http://www.reson.com/sw153.asp
 69 ROV.net in association with ROV Network, Ltd, and Workocean, Ltd.
    http://www.rov.net
 70 American Innovations, Inc., Spring Valley, NY, "Spy Site"
    http://www.spysite.com/home.php?cat=442
 71 Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, ON
    http://www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/newsroom/factsheets/2005/0125pvacis-e.html
 72 Gamma-Scout, Baltimore, MD
    http://www.gammascout.com/geiger-counter.html
 73 Images SI Inc., Staten Island, NY
    http://www.imagesco.com/catalog/geiger/digital_counter.html
 74 United Nuclear, Sandia Park, NM
    http://www.unitednuclear.com/professional.htm
 75 KI4U Inc., Gonzales, TX
    http://www.ki4u.com/Chemical_Biological_Attack_Detection_Response.htm#11
 76 Career Prospects in Virginia, Commercial Divers
    http://www3.ccps.virginia.edu/career_prospects/briefs/A-D/Divers.shtml
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  A          B               C                     D                                     E                           F       G          H           I          J         K        L       M        N          O       P     Q               R            System Control                  T               V       W        X        Y      Z    AA        AB       AC       AD AE AF              AG         AH          AI         AJ AK AL              AM          AN      AO    AP    AQ    AR    AS    AT    AU      AV          AX        AY       AZ        BA         BB     BC           BD         BE        BF       BG       BH          BI    BJ      BK    BL

VALUATION ("UTILS") OF GSM BY DIFFERENT EVALUATION CRITERIA                                                                                                                                                               THESE COLUMNS ARE USED FOR CALCULATIONS -- THEY DO NOT NEED TO BE VIEWED BY THE USER.
                                                                                                                         EXPLANATION OF COLUMNS BELOW                                                                     UN-GROUPED EVALUATION CRITERIA VALUATIONS IN UTILS
INSTRUCTIONS      DO NOT change data or sort on this sheet!
                                                                                                                         "Utils" are calculated from the weights given by the user to different evaluation criteria
The information in Columns A through O on this page is copied onto Sheet 2                                                                                                                                                Multiplication of Evaluation Weights from Sheet 1 (adjusted by evaluation criteria group
(Valuations). Columns further to the right (i.e., V to BK) are used to calculate the                                     (entered on Sheet 1 "Evaluation Weights"), and on the relative applicability ranks
summary utils shown in Columns G to O. The order of the rows on this sheet                                               (entered on Sheet 4 "Applicability Ranks"). Columns G to O below show the total utils              weights on Sheet 1), and GSM Applicability Ranks on Sheet 4.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Threat Type                                               Maximum Utils =                 24
                                                                                                                         of each GSM (Rows 11 to 112) for each evaluation group (Columns G to O).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Delivery of                                                                                                 WMD
should not be changed because it is referenced by Sheet 6 for the calculation of
cost/utils.                                                                                                                                                                                                               NO DATA ENTRY IN THESE CELLS !!                                              Security Objective                     Non-security Effects                         33 CFR Compliance                                                                 Security Locations                                       Eploxoves/Incendiaries                                   Act of Force Utils =                       6            Delivery
                                                                                                                                        GROUPED EVALUATION CRITERIA VALUATION IN UTILS                                     (data are copied from other sections)                                        24     = Maximum Utils                 29      = Maximum Utils                 6      = Maximum Utils                                 18       = Maximum Utils                                                                 Utils =         10                                        To                  By                             Utils =       7
GSM CHARACTERIZATION                                                                                                                                                                                                      GSM CHARACTERIZATION (Copied from Columns A - D)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Passenge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Perimeter




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Operation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Overhead




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Overhead
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       In Transit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Boundary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Restricte




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Monitorin




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Restricte
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             r Waiting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Handling

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Stores &




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Terminal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Adjacent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Adjacent
                                                                                                                                                                                Threat Type




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Service




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Bunkers




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Artillery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mitigate




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Evasion




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Vehicle




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vehicle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Facility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Person
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Beyond




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Parking

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Holding




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Vessel




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Vessel




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Vessel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Access




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Chem.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Control




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Vehicle

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Vehicle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Safety




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Facility




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             restrict
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Detect




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              d Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cargo
                                                                                                                                                                                                          TOTAL




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Deter




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mine




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rad.
                                                                                                                                                                      Threat            Act of




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Deny




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ferry

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ferry
                                                                                                                                      Non-      33 CFR




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Fare




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Bio
GSM                                                                                                                       Security   Security   Compli-    Security    Type     EID     Force    W MD      (All            GSM




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                g




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             d
#            Method Category                   GSM               Options and Variations of GSM                           Objective   Effects     ance     Locations    Total    Only     Only    Only    Criteria)          #              Method Category                            GSM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        EVALUATION WEIGHTS (Copied from Sheet 1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5       4        3       2             2         1        3         5         5          4           0          1          4          1           1          0       5     4     2     1     2     1     3       2           3         5        2         1          1       1            1         3         1        1         1         2      2       1
  1   Fencing /      Retractable      Ramp/ Wedge,               Manual or automatic raising and lowering;                                                                                                                  1    Fencing / Barriers      Retractable      Ramp/ Wedge,
      Barriers       Vehicle          in-ground mounted          some products rated as high as DOS K12/                                                                                                                                                 Vehicle          in-ground mounted
                     Deterrents                                  L3.                                                        14.6       -1.8       4.5         5.3        8.9     3.7      2.7     2.5        32                                          Deterrents                                     5.6     4.5      3.4     1.1           0.0       0.0      2.7     -4.5        2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   0.0   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         0.0       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



  2   Fencing /      Retractable      Bollards,                  Hydraulic, electro-hydraulic, or manual                                                                                                                    2    Fencing / Barriers      Retractable      Bollards,
      Barriers       Vehicle          retractable                retraction into ground. Some products rated                                                                                                                                             Vehicle          retractable
                     Deterrents       (steel or concrete)        as high as DOS K12/ L3 depending on                        13.4       0.9        4.5         6.4        8.9     3.7      2.7     2.5        34                                          Deterrents       (steel or concrete)           5.6     4.5      3.4     0.0           0.0       0.0      5.3     -4.5        2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   0.0   1.1   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         0.0       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                                                 installation.


  3   Fencing /      Retractable      Ramp/ wedge,               Manual or automatic operation. Chain                                                                                                                       3    Fencing / Barriers      Retractable      Ramp/ wedge,
      Barriers       Vehicle          surface mounted            reinforcements increase anti-ram capability,                                                                                                                                            Vehicle          surface mounted
                     Deterrents                                  but substantially lower anti-ram ratings than              13.4       0.9        4.5         5.3        8.9     3.7      2.7     2.5        33                                          Deterrents                                     5.6     4.5      3.4     0.0           0.0       0.0      5.3     -4.5        2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   0.0   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         0.0       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                                                 in-ground mounted ramps (listed
                                                                 separately).

  4   Fencing /      Retractable      Booms and Crash            Manual, automatic, or portable. Range from                                                                                                                 4    Fencing / Barriers      Retractable      Booms and Crash
      Barriers       Vehicle          Beams                      minimal anti-ram capability to DOS K4/L2 or                                                                                                                                             Vehicle          Beams
                     Deterrents       (sliding or swing          higher.                                                    13.4       0.9        4.5         5.3        8.9     3.7      2.7     2.5        33                                          Deterrents       (sliding or swing gates)      5.6     4.5      3.4     0.0           0.0       0.0      5.3     -4.5        2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   0.0   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         0.0       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                      gates)


  5   Fencing /      Retractable      Traffic controllers        Spring-mounted to allow safe one-way travel,                                                                                                               5    Fencing / Barriers      Retractable      Traffic controllers
      Barriers       Vehicle          ("tire teeth")             or retractable (with access control) to allow                                                                                                                                           Vehicle          ("tire teeth")
                     Deterrents                                  two-way travel. Wrong-way penetration                      13.4       0.9        4.5         4.0        8.9     3.7      2.7     2.5        32                                          Deterrents                                     5.6     4.5      3.4     0.0           0.0       0.0      5.3     -4.5        2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   0.0   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         0.0       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                                                 distance can be reduced with low speed
                                                                 conditions.

  6   Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle    Bollards,                  Variable anti-ram capability. Some products                                                                                                                6    Fencing / Barriers      Fixed Vehicle    Bollards, fixed/stationary
      Barriers       Deterrent,       fixed/stationary           rated as high as DOS K12/ L3 depending on                                                                                                                                               Deterrent,       (concrete or steel)
                     Pedestrian       (concrete or steel)        installation.                                              13.4       6.2        4.5         8.6        8.9     3.7      2.7     2.5        42                                          Pedestrian                                     5.6     4.5      3.4     0.0           0.0       0.9      5.3       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   2.1   1.1   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         0.0       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                     Access                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Access


  7   Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle    Decorative Crash-          Wide variety of aesthetic options, metal or                                                                                                                7    Fencing / Barriers      Fixed Vehicle    Decorative Crash-
      Barriers       Deterrent,       Rated Barrier              concrete. Variable anti-ram capability. Some                                                                                                                                            Deterrent,       Rated Barrier
                     Pedestrian       (spheres, benches,         products rated as high as DOS K12/ L3                      13.4       6.2        4.5         8.6        8.9     3.7      2.7     2.5        42                                          Pedestrian       (spheres, benches, bike       5.6     4.5      3.4     0.0           0.0       0.9      5.3       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   2.1   1.1   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         0.0       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                     Access           bike racks, trees, etc.)   depending on installation.                                                                                                                                                              Access           racks, trees, etc.)


  8   Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle    Jersey Barriers,           Various styles, lengths, shapes, colors, can                                                                                                               8    Fencing / Barriers      Fixed Vehicle    Jersey Barriers,
      Barriers       Deterrent,       portable                   be arranged end-to-end, or in multiple rows,                                                                                                                                            Deterrent,       portable
                     Pedestrian       (water filled or steel     and anchored to increase anti-ram capability               13.4       6.2        4.5         8.6        8.9     3.7      2.7     2.5        42                                          Pedestrian       (water filled or steel        5.6     4.5      3.4     0.0           0.0       0.9      5.3       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   2.1   1.1   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         0.0       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                     Access           reinforced concrete)       for equivalence to DOS K12.                                                                                                                                                             Access           reinforced concrete)


  9   Fencing /      Fixed Vehicle    Planters                   Standard planters (i.e., not attached to the                                                                                                               9    Fencing / Barriers      Fixed Vehicle    Planters
      Barriers       Deterrent,       (standard)                 ground) vary in size.                                                                                                                                                                   Deterrent,       (standard)
                     Pedestrian                                                                                             13.4       6.2        4.5         8.6        8.9     3.7      2.7     2.5        42                                          Pedestrian                                     5.6     4.5      3.4     0.0           0.0       0.9      5.3       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   2.1   1.1   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         0.0       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                     Access                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Access


 10   Fencing /      Fixed, Both      Walls                      Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,                                                                                                                   10   Fencing / Barriers      Fixed, Both      Walls
      Barriers       Vehicle and      (e.g.,concrete or          razor wire, sensors, induced pulse                                                                                                                                                      Vehicle and      (e.g.,concrete or brick,
                     Pedestrian       brick, steel               (electrical), etc. Variable anti-ram                       13.4       7.1        4.5         9.4       11.2     6.0      2.7     2.5        46                                          Pedestrian       steel reinforcement)          5.6     4.5      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      5.3       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.1   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         2.2       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                     Deterrent        reinforcement)             capability, may be constructed for                                                                                                                                                      Deterrent
                                                                 equivalence to DOS K12/ L3 ratings.

 11   Fencing /      Fixed, Both      Steel Bar Fence            Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,                                                                                                                   11   Fencing / Barriers      Fixed, Both      Steel Bar Fence
      Barriers       Vehicle and      (with anchored             razor wire, sensors, induced pulse                                                                                                                                                      Vehicle and      (with anchored cables)
                     Pedestrian       cables)                    (electrical), etc. May have anit-ram ratings               5.6        7.1        4.2         9.4       11.2     6.0      2.7     2.5        37                                          Pedestrian                                     5.6     0.0      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      5.3       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.4        0.0        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.1   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         2.2       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                     Deterrent                                   as high as DOS K12.                                                                                                                                                                     Deterrent


 12   Fencing /      Fixed, Both      Earthen Barriers        May have a fence on top. Depending on                                                                                                                         12   Fencing / Barriers      Fixed, Both      Earthen Barriers
      Barriers       Vehicle and      (with steel or concrete design, may have an anti-ram capability                                                                                                                                                    Vehicle and      (with steel or concrete
                     Pedestrian       reinforcement)          equivalent to DOS K12/ L3.                                    5.6        7.1        4.2         9.4       11.2     6.0      2.7     2.5        37                                          Pedestrian       reinforcement)                5.6     0.0      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      5.3       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.4        0.0        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.1   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         2.2       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.9      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                     Deterrent                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Deterrent


 13   Fencing /      Fixed, Both      Transparent Fences         Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,                                                                                                                   13   Fencing / Barriers      Fixed, Both      Transparent Fences
      Barriers       Vehicle and                                 razor wire, sensors, induced pulse                                                                                                                                                      Vehicle and
                     Pedestrian                                  (electrical), etc.                                         2.8        7.1        4.2         9.4        9.6     4.7      2.4     2.5        33                                          Pedestrian                                     2.8     0.0      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      5.3       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.4        0.0        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.1   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         2.2       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.6      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                     Deterrent                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Deterrent


 14   Fencing /      Fixed, Both      Solid Fences               Top or side-mounted spikes, barbed wire,                                                                                                                   14   Fencing / Barriers      Fixed, Both      Solid Fences
      Barriers       Vehicle and                                 razor wire, sensors, induced pulse                                                                                                                                                      Vehicle and
                     Pedestrian                                  (electrical), etc.                                         2.8        7.1        4.2         9.4        9.6     4.7      2.4     2.5        33                                          Pedestrian                                     2.8     0.0      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      5.3       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.4        0.0        0.0         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.1   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         2.2       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       0.9       0.6      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                     Deterrent                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Deterrent


 15   Access         Credentials      Mechanical key             standard or custom keys                                                                                                                                    15   Access Control          Credentials      Mechanical key
      Control
                                                                                                                            11.2       1.8        3.4         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        33                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        0.0        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 16   Access         Credentials      Combination                mechanical and electronic                                                                                                                                  16   Access Control          Credentials      Combination
      Control
                                                                                                                            11.2       1.8        3.4         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        33                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        0.0        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 17   Access         Credentials      Barcode Card               With or without photo, magnetic stripe,                                                                                                                    17   Access Control          Credentials      Barcode Card
      Control                                                    and/or Wiegand wire, readers have varied
                                                                 memory and ability to provide time-date                    11.2       1.8        3.9         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                                                 stamps.


 18   Access         Credentials      Magnetic Stripe Card       With or without photo, barcode, and/or                                                                                                                     18   Access Control          Credentials      Magnetic Stripe Card
      Control                                                    Wiegand wire, readers have varied memory
                                                                 and ability to provide time-date stamps.                   11.2       1.8        3.9         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 19   Access         Credentials      Wiegand Card               With or without photo, may also include                                                                                                                    19   Access Control          Credentials      Wiegand Card
      Control                                                    barcode or magnetic stripe.
                                                                                                                            11.2       1.8        3.9         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 20   Access         Credentials      Proximity Card or Tag      With or without photo (dye sublimation or                                                                                                                  20   Access Control          Credentials      Proximity Card or Tag
      Control                                                    laminated), may also include magnetic stripe
                                                                 or barcode for ID information.                             11.2       1.8        3.9         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        0.6        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 21   Access         Credentials      Smart Card                 Access to areas and/or data, can restrict                                                                                                                  21   Access Control          Credentials      Smart Card
      Control                                                    data access to read-only. With or without a
                                                                 photo that may be electronically transferred               11.2       1.8        4.5         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        1.1        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                                                 when created with Dye Diffusion Thermal
                                                                 Transfer. May be Integrated Circuit
                                                                 Memory Cards, Integrated Circuit
 22   Access         Credentials      Optical Card               May include biometric information (e.g.,                                                                                                                   22   Access Control          Credentials      Optical Card
      Control                                                    fingerprint) or photo that may be
                                                                 electronically transferred when created with               11.2       1.8        4.5         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        1.1        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                                                 Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer. Varied
                                                                 cryptology levels.

 23   Access         Credentials      Finger print               Finger print identification with optical                                                                                                                   23   Access Control          Credentials      Finger print
      Control                                                    scanner, capacitative sensor, or ultrasonic
                                                                 scanner. Data file may be part of an ID card               11.2       1.8        4.5         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        1.1        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                                                 (Smart or optical).


 24   Access         Credentials      Iris Scan                  Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or                                                                                                              24   Access Control          Credentials      Iris Scan
      Control                                                    optical).
                                                                                                                            11.2       1.8        4.5         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        1.1        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 25   Access         Credentials      Retinal Scan               Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or                                                                                                              25   Access Control          Credentials      Retinal Scan
      Control                                                    optical).
                                                                                                                            11.2       1.8        4.5         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        1.1        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 26   Access         Credentials      Hand Geometry              Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or                                                                                                              26   Access Control          Credentials      Hand Geometry
      Control                                                    optical).
                                                                                                                            11.2       1.8        4.5         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        1.1        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 27   Access         Credentials      Face Scan                  Data file may be part of an ID card (Smart or                                                                                                              27   Access Control          Credentials      Face Scan
      Control                                                    optical).
                                                                                                                            11.2       1.8        4.5         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.1         0.0        0.1        1.1        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 28   Access         Locks            Mechanical lock            Varied designs and security levels of both                                                                                                                 28   Access Control          Locks            Mechanical lock
      Control                                                    lock and door.
                                                                                                                            11.2       1.8        3.9         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.0        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 29   Access         Locks            Electric Strike Lock       Varied designs and security levels of both                                                                                                                 29   Access Control          Locks            Electric Strike Lock
      Control                                                    lock and door.
                                                                                                                            11.2       1.8        3.9         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.0        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 30   Access         Locks            Magnetic Lock              Varied design and security levels of both                                                                                                                  30   Access Control          Locks            Magnetic Lock
      Control                                                    lock and door -- some lock versions can
                                                                 withstand over 600 lb force.                               11.2       1.8        3.9         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.0        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 31   Access         System Control   Stand Alone                Some require a PC for programming.                                                                                                                         31   Access Control          System           Stand Alone Electronic
      Control                         Electronic Access                                                                                                                                                                                                  Control          Access Points
                                      Points                                                                                11.2       1.8        3.9         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        34                                                                                         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.0        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 32   Access         System Control   Network Control of         Multiple readers may be connected using                                                                                                                    32   Access Control          System           Network Control of
      Control                         Electronic Access          hardwire or wireless technology.                                                                                                                                                        Control          Electronic Access
                                      Points                                                                                13.4       1.8        3.9         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        36                                                           Points                        5.6     4.5      3.4     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        0.0        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 33   Access         System Control   Integrated Security        Multiple readers and users with hardwire or                                                                                                                33   Access Control          System           Integrated Security
      Control                         System                     wireless connections. Integrate with                                                                                                                                                    Control          System
                                                                 personnel identification, intrusion detection,             13.4       3.6        5.6         8.8        8.0     4.0      1.5     2.5        39                                                                                         5.6     4.5      3.4     0.0           1.8       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.1        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                                                 and monitoring.


 34   Intruder       Doors &          Mechanical Switch          Commonly used in conjunction with open                                                                                                                     34   Intruder Sensors        Doors &          Mechanical Switch
      Sensors        Windows                                     area sensors at the exterior of portals, or                                                                                                                                             Windows
                                                                 inside the secured area.                                   9.5        1.8        5.7         8.0        6.5     1.5      0.0     5.0        32                                                                                         2.8     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.3        0.0     1.3   2.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       0.0      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0



 35   Intruder       Doors &          Magnetic Switch            Commonly used in conjunction with open                                                                                                                     35   Intruder Sensors        Doors &          Magnetic Switch
      Sensors        Windows                                     area sensors at the exterior of portals, or                                                                                                                                             Windows
                                                                 inside the secured area.                                   9.5        1.8        5.7         8.0        6.5     1.5      0.0     5.0        32                                                                                         2.8     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.3        0.0     1.3   2.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       0.0      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0



 36   Intruder       Doors &          Balanced Magnetic          Commonly used in conjunction with open                                                                                                                     36   Intruder Sensors        Doors &          Balanced Magnetic
      Sensors        Windows          Switch                     area sensors at the exterior of portals, or                                                                                                                                             Windows          Switch
                                                                 inside the secured area.                                   9.5        1.8        5.7         8.0        6.5     1.5      0.0     5.0        32                                                                                         2.8     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.3        0.0     1.3   2.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       0.0      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0



 37   Intruder                        Acoustic /                 Acoustic (passive ultrasonic, high                                                                                                                         37   Intruder Sensors                         Acoustic /
      Sensors        Walls/ Fence     Shock Wave /               frequency, e.g. 20 to 30 kHz) or shock wave                                                                                                                                             Walls/ Fence     Shock Wave /
                                      Audio Discriminator /      (electric piezo or non-electric piezo, low                                                                                                                                                               Audio Discriminator /
                                                                                                                            12.3       1.8        5.7         6.4        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        35                                                                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                                      Passive Ultrasonic /       frequency, e.g., 5 kHz). Dual systems                                                                                                                                                                    Passive Ultrasonic /
                                      Glass Break                combine acoustic and shock sensors to                                                                                                                                                                    Glass Break
                                                                 reduce nuisance alarms.

 38   Intruder                        Vibration --               Built in or applied to a wall, ceiling, or fence.                                                                                                          38   Intruder Sensors                         Vibration --
      Sensors        Walls/ Fence     Electro-mechanical         Sensor types: piezoelectric, and electro-                                                                                                                                               Walls/ Fence     Electro-mechanical
                                      Piezoelectric              mechanical. Variations in sensitivity,                                                                                                                                                                   Piezoelectric
                                                                 processor abilities, and sensitivity                       12.3       1.8        5.7         6.4        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        35                                                                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                                                                 adjustability. Often used with an outer fence
                                                                 and clear zone prior to intruder sensors to
                                                                 reduce false alarms.

 39   Intruder                        Vibrations -- Fiber        Built in or applied to a wall, ceiling, or fence.                                                                                                          39   Intruder Sensors                         Vibrations -- Fiber optic
      Sensors        Walls/ Fence     optic                      Variations in processor abilities and                                                                                                                                                   Walls/ Fence
                                                                 sensitivity adjustability. Often used with an              12.3                              6.4        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        35                                                                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                                                                                                                                       1.8        5.7
                                                                 outer fence and clear zone prior to intruder
                                                                 sensors to reduce false alarms.

 40   Intruder                        Taut Wire = Strain         Freestanding or fence-mounted. Variations                                                                                                                  40   Intruder Sensors                         Taut Wire = Strain
      Sensors        Walls/ Fence     Sensitive Wire             in signal processor ability to detect tension                                                                                                                                           Walls/ Fence     Sensitive Wire
                                                                 changes and in sensitivity adjustability.                  12.3       1.8        5.7         6.4        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        35                                                                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0



 41   Intruder                        Capacitive Cable           Variations in signal processor ability to                                                                                                                  41   Intruder Sensors                         Capacitive Cable
      Sensors        Walls/ Fence                                detect tension changes and in sensitivity                                                                                                                                               Walls/ Fence
                                                                 adjustability.                                             12.3       1.8        5.7         6.4        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        35                                                                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0



 42   Intruder                        Electric Field = E-        Stand-alone fence, or mounted on separate                                                                                                                  42   Intruder Sensors                         Electric Field = E-field
      Sensors        Walls/ Fence     field                      posts attached to an existing fence. May be                                                                                                                                             Walls/ Fence
                                                                 used with a weather station that adjusts E-                12.3                              6.4        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        35                                                                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                                                                                                                                       1.8        5.7
                                                                 field sensor sensitivity based on weather
                                                                 conditions.

 43   Intruder       Volume           Microwave Sensors          Monostatic (transmitter and received                                                                                                                       43   Intruder Sensors        Volume           Microwave Sensors
      Sensors        Sensors --       (Short-range Radar)        encased on a single housing) or bistatic                                                                                                                                                Sensors --       (Short-range Radar)
                     Motion                                      (transmitter and received are separate                     12.3                              9.1        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        38                                          Motion                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                                                                                                                                       1.8        5.7
                     Detectors                                   units). Dual technology units often include                                                                                                                                             Detectors
                                                                 microwave and PIR.

 44   Intruder       Volume           Passive Infrared           One or two sensors (Quad PIR) in one                                                                                                                       44   Intruder Sensors        Volume           Passive Infrared (PIR)
      Sensors        Sensors --       (PIR)                      housing to reduce nuisance alarms.                                                                                                                                                      Sensors --       (Heat/ Motion
                     Motion           (Heat/ Motion              Sensitivity depends on circuiting design,                  12.3                              9.1        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        38                                          Motion           Detectors)                    5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                                                                                                                                       1.8        5.7
                     Detectors        Detectors)                 programs to ignore first movement, etc.                                                                                                                                                 Detectors
                                                                 Often used in dual technology systems.

 45   Intruder       Volume           Scanning Laser             Scanning range from a single plane up to                                                                                                                   45   Intruder Sensors        Volume           Scanning Laser
      Sensors        Sensors --       (Infrared)                 360 degrees. System sensitivity depends on                                                                                                                                              Sensors --       (Infrared)
                     Motion                                      signal processing software.                                12.3       1.8        5.7         9.1       10.1     4.5      0.6     5.0        39                                          Motion                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.5          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.6       2.0    2.0     1.0
                     Detectors                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Detectors


 46   Intruder       Volume           Active Infra-Red (IR)      Indoor or outdoor, variations in coverage                                                                                                                  46   Intruder Sensors        Volume           Active Infra-Red (IR)
      Sensors        Sensors --       (Beam or Curtain)          distance and the number of laser lines and                                                                                                                                              Sensors --       (Beam or Curtain)
                     Motion                                      their distance apart within the IR "curtain".              12.3       1.8        5.7         9.1        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        38                                          Motion                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                     Detectors                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Detectors


 47   Intruder       Volume           Photo-Electric Eye /       Variations in coverage distance and the                                                                                                                    47   Intruder Sensors        Volume           Photo-Electric Eye /
      Sensors        Sensors --       Electric Eye               number of laser lines and their distance                                                                                                                                                Sensors --       Electric Eye
                     Motion           (Beam or Curtain)          apart within the photo-electric curtain.                   12.3       1.8        5.7         9.1        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        38                                          Motion           (Beam or Curtain)             5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                     Detectors                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Detectors


 48   Intruder       Volume           Active Ultrasonic          Wall or ceiling mounted. Used in tandem                                                                                                                    48   Intruder Sensors        Volume           Active Ultrasonic
      Sensors        Sensors --                                  with passive IR.                                                                                                                                                                        Sensors --
                     Motion                                                                                                 12.3       1.8        5.7         9.1        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        38                                          Motion                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                     Detectors                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Detectors


 49   Intruder       Volume           Dual-Technology            Common motion detection technologies                                                                                                                       49   Intruder Sensors        Volume           Dual-Technology
      Sensors        Sensors --                                  paired in a single unit include PIR with                                                                                                                                                Sensors --
                     Motion                                      either microwave or active ultrasonic                      12.3       1.8        5.7         9.1        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        38                                          Motion                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                     Detectors                                   technologies. Indoor and outdoor systems.                                                                                                                                               Detectors


 50   Intruder       Volume           Video Motion               Color (visible light), Low light level (black-                                                                                                             50   Intruder Sensors        Volume           Video Motion Detection
      Sensors        Sensors --       Detection (VMD)            and-white), or infrared. View changes may                                                                                                                                               Sensors --       (VMD)
                     Motion                                      trigger alarm. Variable number of channels,                12.3       1.8        5.7         9.1        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        38                                          Motion                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                     Detectors                                   may be stand-alone or software on a PC.                                                                                                                                                 Detectors


 51   Intruder       Volume           Air Turbulence             Varied signal processing methods.                                                                                                                          51   Intruder Sensors        Volume           Air Turbulence
      Sensors        Sensors --       (Acoustic Sensor or                                                                                                                                                                                                Sensors --       (Acoustic Sensor or
                     Motion           RF)                                                                                   12.3       1.8        5.7         6.4        6.6     0.7      0.9     5.0        33                                          Motion           RF)                           5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     2.7   1.1   1.6   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.7          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.9       2.0    2.0     1.0
                     Detectors                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Detectors


 52   Intruder       Buried           Balanced Pressure          For monitoring sensitive approach or                                                                                                                       52   Intruder Sensors        Buried           Balanced Pressure
      Sensors        (in ground)      Buried Tube/pipe           access areas, and restricted zones. Several                                                                                                                                             (in ground)      Buried Tube/pipe
                                                                 technologies exist.                                        12.3       1.8        5.7         4.3        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        33                                                                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     1.3   0.0   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0



 53   Intruder       Buried           Buried Geophone            Sensitivity depends on sensors and control                                                                                                                 53   Intruder Sensors        Buried           Buried Geophone
      Sensors        (in ground)                                 algorithm ability to compensate for                                                                                                                                                     (in ground)
                                                                 background signals.                                        12.3       1.8        5.7         4.3        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        33                                                                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     1.3   0.0   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0



 54   Intruder       Buried           Fiber Optic                Sensitivity depends on sensors and control                                                                                                                 54   Intruder Sensors        Buried           Fiber Optic
      Sensors        (in ground)                                 algorithm ability to compensate for                                                                                                                                                     (in ground)
                                                                 background signals.                                        12.3       1.8        5.7         4.3        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        33                                                                                         5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     1.3   0.0   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0



 55   Intruder       Buried           Coaxial Cable =            Uses continuous wave or pulsed sensors.                                                                                                                    55   Intruder Sensors        Buried           Coaxial Cable =
      Sensors        (in ground)      Ported Coax Line =         Sensitivity depends on sensors and                                                                                                                                                      (in ground)      Ported Coax Line =
                                      Capacitive Cable           processor ability to compensate for                        12.3       1.8        5.7         4.3        9.0     4.0      0.0     5.0        33                                                           Capacitive Cable              5.6     6.7      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.8        0.0     1.3   0.0   1.6   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.0       0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                                                                 background signals. Cable placement and
                                                                 soil density affect zone covered.

 56   Monitoring     Lighting         Spot/ Zone Lighting        Incandescent, tungsten halogen, or                                                                                                                         56   Monitoring              Lighting         Spot/ Zone Lighting
      Technology                                                 fluorescent systems. Reflectors for spot                                                                                                                        Technology
                                                                 lights and flood lighting. May be triggered                7.3        6.2        3.1         15.8       6.0     2.0      1.5     2.5        38                                                                                         2.8     4.5      0.0     0.0           1.8       1.8      2.7       0.0       0.7        0.6         0.0        0.1        1.7        0.5         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.0         0.7       1.2      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                                                 by a motion detector.


 57   Monitoring     Lighting         Wide-Area Lighting         Metal halide, high pressure sodium, or low                                                                                                                 57   Monitoring              Lighting         Wide-Area Lighting
      Technology                                                 pressure sodium systems.                                                                                                                                        Technology
                                                                                                                            7.3        6.2        3.1         15.8       6.0     2.0      1.5     2.5        38                                                                                         2.8     4.5      0.0     0.0           1.8       1.8      2.7       0.0       0.7        0.6         0.0        0.1        1.7        0.5         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.0         0.7       1.2      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 58   Monitoring     Lighting         Infrared (IR) lights       Used with CCTV in dark areas. IR lights                                                                                                                    58   Monitoring              Lighting         Infrared (IR) lights
      Technology                                                 and CCTV may be triggered by a motion                                                                                                                           Technology
                                                                 detector.                                                  7.3        6.2        3.1         15.8       6.0     2.0      1.5     2.5        38                                                                                         2.8     4.5      0.0     0.0           1.8       1.8      2.7       0.0       0.7        0.6         0.0        0.1        1.7        0.5         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.0         0.7       1.2      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.3       0.9       0.3      0.0       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 59   Monitoring     CCTV / Video     Black & white              Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and tilt                                                                                                           59   Monitoring              CCTV / Video     Black & white
      Technology     Camera           (Low Light Levels)         capability. Image intensifiers for low light                                                                                                                    Technology              Camera           (Low Light Levels)
                                                                 conditions. Reflective mirrors to see around               9.5        7.1        5.9         15.8      18.0     6.0      4.5     7.5        56                                                                                         2.8     6.7      0.0     0.0           1.8       2.7      2.7       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.4        1.7        0.5         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.0         2.2       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       2.7       0.9      0.0       0.0       3.0    3.0     1.5
                                                                 obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/ washer
                                                                 system, and heater/ cooler.

 60   Monitoring     CCTV / Video     Color                      Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and tilt                                                                                                           60   Monitoring              CCTV / Video     Color
      Technology     Camera                                      capability. Image intensifiers for low light                                                                                                                    Technology              Camera
                                                                 conditions. Reflective mirrors to see around               9.5        7.1        5.9         15.8      18.0     6.0      4.5     7.5        56                                                                                         2.8     6.7      0.0     0.0           1.8       2.7      2.7       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.4        1.7        0.5         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.0         2.2       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       2.7       0.9      0.0       0.0       3.0    3.0     1.5
                                                                 obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/ washer
                                                                 system, and heater/ cooler.

 61   Monitoring     CCTV / Video     Convertible                Variations in field of view, zoom, pan, and tilt                                                                                                           61   Monitoring              CCTV / Video     Convertible
      Technology     Camera           (B&W and Color)            capability. Image intensifiers for low light                                                                                                                    Technology              Camera           (B&W and Color)
                                                                 conditions. Reflective mirrors to see around               9.5        7.1        5.9         15.8      18.0     6.0      4.5     7.5        56                                                                                         2.8     6.7      0.0     0.0           1.8       2.7      2.7       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.4        1.7        0.5         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.0         2.2       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       2.7       0.9      0.0       0.0       3.0    3.0     1.5
                                                                 obstacles. For outdoor use: wiper/ washer
                                                                 system, and heater/ cooler.

 62   Monitoring     CCTV / Video     Analog / VHS               Real-time and time-lapse recorders.                                                                                                                        62   Monitoring              CCTV / Video     Analog / VHS
      Technology     Recorder                                    Variations in VHS tape resolution. May have                                                                                                                     Technology              Recorder
                                                                 remote control device. May be triggered by                 9.5        7.1        5.9         15.8      18.0     6.0      4.5     7.5        56                                                                                         2.8     6.7      0.0     0.0           1.8       2.7      2.7       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.4        1.7        0.5         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.0         2.2       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       2.7       0.9      0.0       0.0       3.0    3.0     1.5
                                                                 a motion detector.


 63   Monitoring     CCTV / Video     Digital / DVD              Varied resolution and compression formats.                                                                                                                 63   Monitoring              CCTV / Video     Digital / DVD
      Technology     Recorder                                    Continous real-time or event recorders                                                                                                                          Technology              Recorder
                                                                 which may have audio capability.                           9.5        7.1        5.9         15.8      18.0     6.0      4.5     7.5        56                                                                                         2.8     6.7      0.0     0.0           1.8       2.7      2.7       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.4        1.7        0.5         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.0         2.2       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       2.7       0.9      0.0       0.0       3.0    3.0     1.5



 64   Monitoring     CCTV / Video     guard                      Number of guards on duty, duration of                                                                                                                      64   Monitoring              CCTV / Video     guard
      Technology     Analysis                                    viewing shift, etc.                                                                                                                                             Technology              Analysis
                                                                                                                            9.5        7.1        5.9         15.8      18.0     6.0      4.5     7.5        56                                                                                         2.8     6.7      0.0     0.0           1.8       2.7      2.7       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.4        1.7        0.5         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.0         2.2       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       2.7       0.9      0.0       0.0       3.0    3.0     1.5



 65   Monitoring     CCTV / Video     computer                   Variations in the ability to separate                                                                                                                      65   Monitoring              CCTV / Video     computer
      Technology     Analysis                                    background/ normal images from unusual                                                                                                                          Technology              Analysis
                                                                 images.                                                    9.5        7.1        5.9         15.8      18.0     6.0      4.5     7.5        56                                                                                         2.8     6.7      0.0     0.0           1.8       2.7      2.7       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.4        1.7        0.5         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.0         2.2       3.7      0.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.9       2.7       0.9      0.0       0.0       3.0    3.0     1.5



 66   Procedural /   Procedural /     Vary procedures to         Randomly alter procedures such as                                                                                                                          66   Procedural / Low Cost   Procedural /     Vary procedures to
      Low Cost       Low Cost         reduce certainty of        passenger processing, cargo handling,                                                                                                                                                   Low Cost         reduce certainty of
                                      expected patterns          time intervals, sequences, etc.                            9.0        -3.6       1.7         9.1       13.9     5.0      3.9     5.0        30                                                           expected patterns             5.6     0.0      3.4     0.0           0.0       0.9      0.0     -4.5        0.7        0.6         0.0        0.4        0.0        0.3         0.3        0.0     2.7   2.1   1.1   0.3   0.5   0.5   0.8     0.5         1.5       2.5      1.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.6       1.8       0.6      0.6       0.3       2.0    2.0     1.0



 67   Procedural /   Procedural /     Simulate / fake            Exaggerate security measures e.g., deploy                                                                                                                  67   Procedural / Low Cost   Procedural /     Simulate / fake security
      Low Cost       Low Cost         security measures          more camera housings than cameras, use                                                                                                                                                  Low Cost         measures
                                                                 "untrained" K9 units, park police cars on                  5.6        1.8        4.1         15.8      13.4     4.5      3.9     5.0        41                                                                                         5.6     0.0      0.0     0.0           0.0       1.8      0.0       0.0       1.4        1.1         0.0        0.4        1.1        0.5         0.8        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.0         1.5       2.5      0.5       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.6       1.8       0.6      0.6       0.3       2.0    2.0     1.0
                                                                 premises, etc.


 68   Procedural /   Procedural /     Vary equipment             Random physical, operational, administrative                                                                                                               68   Procedural / Low Cost   Procedural /     Vary equipment
      Low Cost       Low Cost         locations to reduce        changes, e.g., move guard house, cameras,                                                                                                                                               Low Cost         locations to reduce
                                      certainty of expected      lights, change routes and passes (e.g.,                    11.2                              14.7      13.4     4.5      3.9     5.0        44                                                           certainty of expected         5.6     2.2      3.4     0.0           0.0       0.9      0.0       0.0       0.7        1.1         0.0        0.3        1.7        0.0         0.5        0.0     2.7   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     1.1         1.5       2.5      0.5       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.6       1.8       0.6      0.6       0.3       2.0    2.0     1.0
                                                                                                                                       0.9        3.8
                                      patterns                   under bridges, near shore, etc.).                                                                                                                                                                        patterns



 69   Procedural /   Procedural /     Public communication       Communicate that sensitive areas and                                                                                                                       69   Procedural / Low Cost   Procedural /     Public communication of
      Low Cost       Low Cost         of security                targets are well secured and detection                                                                                                                                                  Low Cost         security
                                                                 systems are in place. Disclosed measures                   8.4                               15.2      15.9     7.0      3.9     5.0        46                                                                                         8.4     0.0      0.0     0.0           0.0       2.7      2.7       0.0       0.7        0.6         0.0        0.1        0.0        0.3         0.5        0.0     4.0   3.2   1.1   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4     0.5         2.2       3.7      1.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.6       1.8       0.9      0.6       0.0       2.0    2.0     1.0
                                                                                                                                       5.3        1.4
                                                                 may be or may not be real. (All real
                                                                 measures should not be disclosed.)

 70   Procedural /   Procedural /     Separate and dilute        Maximize distance and barriers between                                                                                                                     70   Procedural / Low Cost   Procedural /     Separate and dilute
      Low Cost       Low Cost         targets                    targets (vessels, fuel, cargo, passengers,                                                                                                                                              Low Cost         targets
                                                                 etc.), and reduce target size, e.g., increase
                                                                                                                            7.8        1.8        0.3         10.7      23.5     9.7      6.3     7.5        44                                                                                         5.6     0.0      0.0     2.2           1.8       0.0      0.0       0.0       0.0        0.0         0.0        0.3        0.0        0.0         0.0        0.0     2.7   2.1   1.1   0.5   1.1   0.5   1.6     1.1         2.2       3.7      1.5       0.7        0.7     0.7          0.9       2.7       0.9      0.9       0.9       3.0    3.0     1.5
                                                                 distance of vehicles from fuel tanks, stagger
                                                                 boarding times to minimize shoreside
                                                                 crowding, etc.

 71   W aterside     Surface          RADAR                      Detection distance is limited by height over                                                                                                               71   W aterside Security     Surface          RADAR
      Security                        (Radio Detection And       water. Variations in receiver sensitivity,                                                                                                                                                               (Radio Detection And
                                      Ranging)                   options include use with a chart plotter or                5.0        1.8        2.9         3.2        8.2     1.5      4.2     2.5        21                                                           Ranging)                      2.8     2.2      0.0     0.0           1.8       0.0      0.0       0.0       0.7        0.6         0.0        0.0        1.7        0.0         0.0        0.0     0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0     1.6         0.0       0.0      1.5       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.6       2.7       0.0      0.9       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                                                 fishfinder, split-screen viewing of short and
                                                                 long-distance targets, etc.

 72   W aterside     Surface          Buoys                       Lights can be placed on buoys to illuminate                                                                                                               72   W aterside Security     Surface          Buoys
      Security                                                   boundaries. Signage can posted on or
                                                                 directly engraved into the buoys.                          2.8        0.0        3.8         2.7        6.5     1.0      3.0     2.5        16                                                                                         2.8     0.0      0.0     0.0           0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.0        0.0        0.0         0.0        0.0     0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0     1.1         0.0       0.0      1.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.6       1.8       0.0      0.6       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 73   W aterside     Surface          Pier and Buoy              Signage of wood, metal construction with                                                                                                                   73   W aterside Security     Surface          Pier and Buoy Signage
      Security                        Signage                    reflectorized materials. Signage can posted
                                                                 on or directly engraved into the buoys.                    2.8        0.0        3.8         2.7        6.5     1.0      3.0     2.5        16                                                                                         2.8     0.0      0.0     0.0           0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.0        0.0        0.0         0.0        0.0     0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0     1.1         0.0       0.0      1.0       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.6       1.8       0.0      0.6       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5



 74   W aterside     Surface          Vessel Barriers            Commonly constructed of composites and                                                                                                                     74   W aterside Security     Surface          Vessel Barriers
      Security                                                   metals. May appear as connected colored
                                                                 buoy . May or may not have nets.                           2.8        0.0        3.8         1.6        8.2     1.5      4.2     2.5        16                                                                                         2.8     0.0      0.0     0.0           0.0       0.0      0.0       0.0       2.1        1.7         0.0        0.0        0.0        0.0         0.0        0.0     0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0     0.0         0.0       0.0      1.5       0.0        0.0     0.0          0.6       2.7       0.0      0.9       0.0       1.0    1.0     0.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Hidden Calculations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    b4a3bc73-73a2-4ab3-b40f-b4f41754d733.xls




75    W aterside    Underwater       Side Scan Sonar          Towed through water or mounted on vessel                                                                   75    W aterside Security   Underwater      Side Scan Sonar
      Security                                                hull, ROV, or AUV. Depth and area
                                                              variations. Options: distortion correction and    7.3    0.0    5.5   3.2    8.1    1.7   3.9   2.5   24                                                                         2.8   4.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0    2.1   1.7   0.0   0.0   1.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0   1.5   0.0   0.2   0.0   0.3   2.7   0.0   0.9   0.0   1.0   1.0   0.5
                                                              image enhancement software, digital
                                                              recording, and positioning equipment.

76    W aterside    Underwater       Forward Looking          Towed through the water or mounted on the                                                                  76    W aterside Security   Underwater      Forward Looking Sonar
      Security                       Sonar                    hull of a vessel, ROV, or AUV. Towing
                                                              usually needs currents of at least 8 knots.       7.3    0.0    5.5   3.2    8.1    1.7   3.9   2.5   24                                                                         2.8   4.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0    2.1   1.7   0.0   0.0   1.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0   1.5   0.0   0.2   0.0   0.3   2.7   0.0   0.9   0.0   1.0   1.0   0.5
                                                              Different frequency options for deep water
                                                              and shallow water applications.

77    W aterside    Underwater       Multibeam Sonar          Towline or mounted on hull of vessel, ROV,                                                                 77    W aterside Security   Underwater      Multibeam Sonar
      Security                       (3-D images)             or AUV. Variations in depth rating, housing                                                                                                            (3-D images)
                                                              type, number of beams, range, etc.                7.3    0.0    5.5   3.2    8.4    2.0   3.9   2.5   24                                                                         2.8   4.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0    2.1   1.7   0.0   0.0   1.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0   1.5   0.0   0.5   0.0   0.3   2.7   0.0   0.9   0.0   1.0   1.0   0.5



78    W aterside    Underwater       Remotely Operated        Subsurface, remotely controlled hull                                                                       78    W aterside Security   Underwater      Remotely Operated
      Security                       Vehicle (ROV)            inspection system. May include side scan                                                                                                               Vehicle (ROV)
                                                              and forward looking sonar, bathymetry, video,     7.3    0.0    5.5   2.7    8.6    2.2   3.9   2.5   24                                                                         2.8   4.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0    2.1   1.7   0.0   0.0   1.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0   1.1   0.0   0.0   1.5   0.0   0.7   0.0   0.3   2.7   0.0   0.9   0.0   1.0   1.0   0.5
                                                              two-way communication system, etc.


79    W aterside    Underwater       Autonomous               May include side and forward sonar,                                                                        79    W aterside Security   Underwater      Autonomous
      Security                       Underwater Vehicle       bathymetry, video, etc.                                                                                                                                Underwater Vehicle
                                     (AUV)                                                                      7.3    0.0    5.5   2.7    8.6    2.2   3.9   2.5   24                                               (AUV)                     2.8   4.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0    2.1   1.7   0.0   0.0   1.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0   1.1   0.0   0.0   1.5   0.0   0.7   0.0   0.3   2.7   0.0   0.9   0.0   1.0   1.0   0.5



80    Screening     Passengers &     Human inspections        Cargo searches may use of a mirror and                                                                     80    Screening             Passengers &    Human inspections
                    Cargo                                     flashlight. Pat-down passenger inspections                                                                                             Cargo
                    All threats                               with or without hand-held detectors.              7.8    -7.1   3.1   13.4   12.5   6.0   1.5   5.0   30                               All threats                               5.6   2.2   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.8   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.4   0.6   0.0   0.8   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   1.1   0.5   1.6   0.5   2.2   3.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.9   0.3   0.0   0.0   2.0   2.0   1.0



81    Screening     Passengers &     Backscatter x-rays       Portals designed for scans of people or                                                                    81    Screening             Passengers &    Backscatter x-rays
                    Cargo                                     vehicles, mobile units transported in vans for                                                                                         Cargo
                    Weapons,                                  scanning passing vehicles. Software               12.3   -7.1   2.4   8.6    11.0   6.0   0.0   5.0   27                               Weapons,                                  5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.8   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.8   0.0   4.0   3.2   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   2.2   3.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   2.0   2.0   1.0
                    explosives                                graphics overlays to protect privacy/                                                                                                  explosives
                                                              modesty.

82    Screening     Passengers       Millimeter Wave          Software graphics overlays to protect                                                                      82    Screening             Passengers      Millimeter Wave
                    Weapons,         (MMW)                    privacy/ modesty.                                                                                                                      Weapons,        (MMW)
                    explosives                                                                                  12.3   -2.7   4.1   7.2    11.0   6.0   0.0   5.0   32                               explosives                                5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.8   0.0   -4.5   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   1.7   0.0   0.8   0.0   0.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   0.0   0.8   0.8   0.0   2.2   3.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   2.0   2.0   1.0



83    Screening     Cargo            Transmission x-ray       Unit size and throughpout rate.                                                                            83    Screening             Cargo           Transmission x-ray
                    Weapons,                                                                                                                                                                         Weapons,
                    explosives                                                                                  12.3   -7.1   2.4   7.2    8.5    6.0   0.0   2.5   23                               explosives                                5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.8   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   4.0   3.2   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   2.2   3.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.0   1.0   0.5



84    Screening     Cargo            CAT Scan                 Unit size and throughpout rate.                                                                            84    Screening             Cargo           CAT Scan
                    Weapons,                                                                                                                                                                         Weapons,
                    explosives                                                                                  12.3   -7.1   2.4   7.2    8.5    6.0   0.0   2.5   23                               explosives                                5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.8   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   4.0   3.2   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   2.2   3.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.0   1.0   0.5



85    Screening     Cargo            Metal detectors          Hand-held wands (requires 2 minutes per                                                                    85    Screening             Cargo           Metal detectors
                    Weapons                                   scan for trained security personel), or portal                                                                                         Weapons
                                                              systems .                                         12.3   -7.1   2.4   6.4    6.0    6.0   0.0   0.0   20                                                                         5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.8   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.3   3.2   0.5   0.3   0.0   0.3   0.8   0.0   2.2   3.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0



86    Screening     Cargo            Gamma rays               Portals for scans of vehicles, or mobile units                                                             86    Screening             Cargo           Gamma rays
                    Weapons,                                  transported on vans.                                                                                                                   Weapons,
                    explosives                                                                                  12.3   -7.1   2.4   8.6    8.5    6.0   0.0   2.5   25                               explosives                                5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.8   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.8   0.0   4.0   3.2   0.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   2.2   3.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.0   1.0   0.5



87    Screening     Trace Detection K-9 Units                 Canines trained for explosives detection, and                                                              87    Screening             Trace           K-9 Units
                    Explosives                                / or drug detection. Training for detection of                                                                                         Detection
                                                              biological and CWA may be possible, but is        12.3   -2.7   3.5   10.2   8.0    6.0   0.0   2.0   31                               Explosives                                5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.8   0.0   -4.5   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   1.1   0.0   0.3   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   0.0   0.3   0.8   0.0   2.2   3.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.0   1.0   0.0
                                                              not standard.


88    Screening     Trace Detection IMS (Ion Mobility         Continuous monitors with alarms or hand-                                                                   88    Screening             Trace           IMS (Ion Mobility
                    Explosives,     Spectrometry)             held units. Sensitivity to specfic chemical                                                                                            Detection       Spectrometry)
                    CWA                                       varies. Specific chemicals detected               12.3   -8.0   2.4   10.2   9.0    6.0   0.0   3.0   26                               Explosives,                               5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.9   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   0.0   0.3   0.8   0.0   2.2   3.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   0.0   0.0
                                                              depends on the units software.                                                                                                         CWA


89    Screening     Trace Detection SAW (Surface              The hand-held or wall mounted. Chemicals                                                                   89    Screening             Trace           SAW (Surface Acoustic
                    Explosives,     Acoustic Wave)            detected depend on the units design but may                                                                                            Detection       Wave)
                    CWA                                       include nerve agents, blister agents and          12.3   -8.0   2.4   10.2   9.0    6.0   0.0   3.0   26                               Explosives,                               5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.9   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   0.0   0.3   0.8   0.0   2.2   3.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   0.0   0.0
                                                              several classes of toxic industrial chemicals                                                                                          CWA
                                                              (TIC’s). Detection of explosives is under
                                                              development.
90    Screening     Trace Detection Enzyme-Based,             Specific assays for specific chemical                                                                      90    Screening             Trace           Enzyme-Based,
                    CWA             Immunoassay               agents. Variations in the extent of assay                                                                                              Detection       Immunoassay
                                                              automation.                                       12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   20                               CWA                                       5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   1.1   0.3   0.8   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   0.0   0.0



91    Screening     Trace Detection Hand-Held Geiger          Pager sized geiger counters and gamma                                                                      91    Screening             Trace           Hand-Held Geiger
                    Radioactivity   Counters                  detectors can detect radiological agents in                                                                                            Detection       Counters
                                                              the immediate vaccinity. They can be easily       12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   1.5    0.0   0.0   1.5   19                               Radioactivity                             5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   1.1   0.3   0.8   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.5
                                                              carried by law enforcement agents.


92    Screening     Trace Detection Smear Counters            The time needed for measurements depends                                                                   92    Screening             Trace           Smear Counters
                    Radioactivity                             on the desired level of sensitivity.                                                                                                   Detection
                                                                                                                12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   20                               Radioactivity                             5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   1.1   0.3   0.8   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   0.0   0.0



93    Screening     Trace Detection Hand and Shoe             Variations in sensitivity.                                                                                 93    Screening             Trace           Hand and Shoe
                    Radioactivity   Monitors                                                                                                                                                         Detection       Monitors
                                                                                                                12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   20                               Radioactivity                             5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   1.1   0.3   0.8   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   0.0   0.0



94    Screening     Trace Detection Chemical Detection        M8 paper or M9 tape                                                                                        94    Screening             Trace           Chemical Detection
                    CWA             Paper                                                                                                                                                            Detection       Paper
                                                                                                                12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   20                               CWA                                       5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   1.1   0.3   0.8   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   0.0   0.0



95    Screening     Trace Detection Colorimetric tubes        Specific detector tubes for different CWA                                                                  95    Screening             Trace           Colorimetric tubes
                    CWA, TIC                                  and toxic industrial chemicals (TIC).                                                                                                  Detection
                                                                                                                12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   20                               CWA, TIC                                  5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   1.1   0.3   0.8   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   0.0   0.0



96    Screening     Trace Detection Electron Capture          Sensitivity to specific chemicals varies.                                                                  96    Screening             Trace           Electron Capture
                    Explosives,     Detectors (ECD)           Specific chemicals detected depends on the                                                                                             Detection       Detectors (ECD)
                    CWA                                       units software.                                   12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   9.0    6.0   0.0   3.0   26                               Explosives,                               5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   1.1   0.3   0.8   0.0   2.2   3.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   0.0   0.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                     CWA


97    Screening     Trace Detection Immunoassays,             Separate assays (i.e., tickets) for detection                                                              97    Screening             Trace           Immunoassays,
                    Bio Agents      Hand-Held Assay           of different biological agents (e.g., anthrax,                                                                                         Detection       Hand-Held Assay
                                    (HHA) Kits,               plague, botulina, etc.). If sample is not         12.3   -8.9   2.4   11.2   3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   20                               Bio Agents      (HHA) Kits,               5.6   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   -8.9   2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   0.0   0.3   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.1   0.5   1.1   0.3   0.8   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   0.0
                                    Antibody identification   visible (e.g., powder), a sampler that                                                                                                                 Antibody identification
                                                              concentrates particles is needed. Sensitivity
                                                              of the test is limited by the strip reader,
98    Screening     Trace Detection Protein Screening         For testing air samples, an air collector that                                                             98    Screening             Trace           Protein Screening
                    Bio Agents                                concentartes particles is needed.                                                                                                      Detection
                                                              Variations in sensitivity and time required for   5.6    0.0    4.1   9.1    3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   22                               Bio Agents                                5.6   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0    2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   1.7   0.0   0.3   0.0   1.3   3.2   1.1   0.3   0.5   0.8   1.6   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   0.0
                                                              reaction.


99    Screening     Trace Detection Particle Fluorescence Indoor units operate continously. Alarms                                                                       99    Screening             Trace           Particle Fluorescence
                    Bio Agents      Monitoring            may silently indicate the need for further                                                                                                 Detection       Monitoring
                                                          testing. Variations in sensitivity and the            10.1   3.6    1.8   11.5   17.9   7.2   5.7   5.0   45                               Bio Agents                                5.6   4.5   0.0   0.0   1.8   1.8   0.0   0.0    0.7   0.6   0.0   0.0   0.6   0.8   0.5   0.0   2.7   3.2   0.5   0.5   1.1   0.8   0.8   0.5   2.2   3.7   1.0   0.0   0.0   0.2   0.9   2.7   0.9   0.9   0.3   2.0   2.0   1.0
                                                          ability to collect samples for additional
                                                          analyses.

100   Screening     Trace Detection Aerosol Particle          Hand-held and stationary units. Variations                                                                 100   Screening             Trace           Aerosol Particle Sizers
                    Bio Agents      Sizers (APS)              in the ability to discriminate between particle                                                                                        Detection       (APS)
                                                              types based on their size and general shape.      5.6    0.0    4.1   9.1    3.0    0.0   0.0   3.0   22                               Bio Agents                                5.6   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0    2.1   0.0   0.0   0.3   1.7   0.0   0.3   0.0   1.3   3.2   1.1   0.3   0.5   0.8   1.6   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   3.0   0.0



101   Human         All Areas        Public Watch             Request and instruct passengers and                                                                        101   Human Observation     All Areas       Public Watch
      Observation                                             neighbors to observe and report suspicious
                                                              and unusual activities                            10.1   3.6    1.8   11.5   17.9   7.2   5.7   5.0   45                                                                         5.6   4.5   0.0   0.0   1.8   1.8   0.0   0.0    0.7   0.6   0.0   0.0   0.6   0.8   0.5   0.0   2.7   3.2   0.5   0.5   1.1   0.8   0.8   0.5   2.2   3.7   1.0   0.0   0.0   0.2   0.9   2.7   0.9   0.9   0.3   2.0   2.0   1.0



102   Human         All Areas        Employee Watch --        Establish procedures and train employees to                                                                102   Human Observation     All Areas       Employee Watch --
      Observation                    Awareness Training       recognize and report unusual and                                                                                                                       Awareness Training
                                                              suspicious activities, vehicles, and luggage.     12.9   6.2    3.1   17.1   20.9   7.7   5.7   7.5   60                                                                         5.6   4.5   1.7   1.1   1.8   1.8   2.7   0.0    0.7   1.1   0.0   0.1   1.1   0.3   0.8   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4   1.6   2.2   3.7   1.5   0.0   0.0   0.2   0.9   2.7   0.9   0.9   0.3   3.0   3.0   1.5



103   Human         All Areas        Uniform Patrols on       Shore-side or on ferry vessels, set or                                                                     103   Human Observation     All Areas       Uniform Patrols on
      Observation                    ground or on ferry       random route                                                                                                                                           ground or on ferry
                                                                                                                15.7   7.1    3.6   15.8   14.1   5.2   3.9   5.0   56                                                                         8.4   4.5   1.7   1.1   1.8   2.7   2.7   0.0    0.7   1.1   0.0   0.1   1.7   0.5   0.8   0.0   4.0   3.2   1.6   0.8   1.6   0.8   2.4   0.0   1.5   2.5   1.0   0.0   0.0   0.2   0.6   1.8   0.6   0.6   0.3   2.0   2.0   1.0



104   Human         Waterside        Patrol Vessels and       Fiberglass or metal hull vessels varying in                                                                104   Human Observation     Waterside       Patrol Vessels and
      Observation                    Escorts                  length and on-board equipment (e.g., sonar,                                                                                                            Escorts
                                                              weapons, etc). Escort may be random or            15.7   2.7    2.9   3.2    8.2    1.5   4.2   2.5   33                                                                         8.4   4.5   1.7   1.1   1.8   0.9   0.0   0.0    0.7   0.6   0.0   0.0   1.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0   1.5   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.6   2.7   0.0   0.9   0.0   1.0   1.0   0.5
                                                              scheduled, and for portions of a route or the
                                                              entire route.

105   Human         Waterside        Divers                   Certified divers visually inspect undersides                                                               105   Human Observation     Waterside       Divers
      Observation                                             of vessels, piers and supporting
                                                              infrastructure                                    9.5    0.0    2.9   2.1    5.8    2.2   3.6   0.0   20                                                                         2.8   6.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0    0.7   0.6   0.0   0.0   1.7   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0   1.6   0.0   0.0   0.5   0.0   0.0   1.5   0.0   0.7   0.0   0.0   2.7   0.0   0.9   0.0   0.0   0.0   0.0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hidden Calculations
b4a3bc73-73a2-4ab3-b40f-b4f41754d733.xls




          Hidden Calculations

				
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