Activist Approach of Green Management - Excel by ghu56923


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									Name                      Region/Country   Concept(s)                                Year
John Woodling

                                           Environmental Activist who served as Vice
                                           President under Bill Clinton. He Believes
                                           global warming to be a scientific fact and
                                           is a big fan of renewable energy. Author of
Al Gore                   USA              “An Inconvenient Truth”.                    1948 - Present
                                           Editor of the International Society of
Mark Woods                USA?             Environmental Ethics (ISEE) bulletin. Present
                                           Co-founder of the Group of
                                           Environmental Thinking. Influenced by
                                           Husserlian and Heideggerian
                                           phenomenology. Believes that enviro.
                                           ethics needs a progressive blurring of
                                           the subject and of quantifying
                                           objectifying to overcome linear
Ana Patricia Noguera de                    hierarchies of dominion that prevail in
Echeverri                 Columbia         anthropocentric ethics.                 Present
Chuck Siegel

                                           The environmental crisis is the
                                           reflection and the result of the western
                                           crisis of civilization and is caused by
                                           this civilization’s ways of knowing,
                                           understanding, and therefore
                                           transforming the world. Therefore, the
                                           dichotomy between facts and values,
ENRIQUE LEFF              Mexico           sciences and ethics is overcome.         1980s - current
Maria Luisa Eschenhagen   Columbia
                             Marx summarized his approach to
                             history and politics in the opening line
                             of the first chapter of The Communist
                             Manifesto (1848): “The history of all
                             hitherto existing society is the history of
                             class struggles”. Marx argued that
                             capitalism, like previous socioeconomic
                             systems, will produce internal tensions
                             which will lead to its destruction. Just
                             as capitalism replaced feudalism,
                             capitalism itself will be displaced by
                             communism, a stateless, classless
                             society which emerges after a
                             transitional period, the 'dictatorship of
Karl Marx          Germany   the proletariat'.                           Mid-1800s
                             A rationalist in the Cartesian sense, he
                             opposed "scientific knowledge" to
                             ordinary knowledge, and held that error
                             is only negativity or illusion:

                             Scientifically, we think the truth as the
                             historical rectification of a long error,
                             and we think experience as the
                             rectification of the common and
Gaston Bachelard   France    originary illusion (illusion première)    1928-1961
                              More than just a great theoretician,
                              Canguilhem was one of the few
                              philosophers of the 20th century to
                              develop a n approach that was shaped
                              by a medical education. He helped
                              define a method of studying the history
                              of science which was practical and
                              rigorous. His work focused on the one
                              hand on the concepts of "normal" and
                              "pathological" and, on the other, a
                              critical history of the formation of
                              concepts such as "reflex" in the history
                              of science. Canguilhem was also a
                              mentor to several French scholars, most
Georges Canguilhem   France   notably Foucault.                        1943-1988
                           Althusser is also widely known as a
                           theorist of ideology, and his best-known
                           essay is Ideology and Ideological State
                           Apparatuses: Notes Toward an
                           Investigation[8]. The essay establishes
                           the concept of ideology. Althusser's
                           theory of ideology, as well as Marx,
                           draws on Freud's and Lacan's concepts
                           of the unconscious and mirror-phase
                           respectively, and describes the
                           structures and systems that enable the
                           concept of the self. These structures, for
                           Althusser, are both agents of repression
                           and inevitable - it is impossible to
                           escape ideology; to not be subjected to
                           It should be noted that Althusser's
                           thought went through an evolution in
                           his lifetime, and has been the subject of
                           argument and debate, especially within
                           Marxism and specifically concerning
                           his theory of knowledge
Louis Althusser   France   (epistemology).                            1940-1980s
                           Dissipative structure theory led to
                           pioneering research in self-organizing
                           systems, as well as philosophic
                           inquiries into the formation of
                           complexity on biological entities and
                           the quest for a creative and irreversible
                           role of time in the natural sciences.
                           His work is seen by many as a bridge
                           between natural sciences and social
                           sciences. With University of Texas at
                           Austin professor Robert Herman, he
                           also developed the basis of the two
                           fluid model, a traffic model for urban
                           networks, using Bose-Einstein
                           Condensation theory in traffic
Ilya Prigogine   Belgium   engineering.                              Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977
                             Heidegger claimed that Western
                             philosophy has, since Plato,
                             misunderstood what it means for
                             something "to be," tending to approach
                             this question in terms of a being, rather
                             than asking about being itself. In other
                             words, Heidegger believed all
                             investigations of being have historically
                             focused on particular entities and their
                             properties, or have treated being itself
                             as an entity, or substance, with
                             properties. A more authentic analysis of
                             being would, for Heidegger, investigate
                             "that on the basis of which beings are
                             already understood," or that which
                             underlies all particular entities and
                             allows them to show up as entities in
                             the first place But since philosophers
                             and scientists have overlooked the more
                             basic, pre-theoretical ways of being
                             from which their theories derive, and
                             since they have incorrectly applied
                             those theories universally, they have
                             confused our understanding of being
                             and human existence. To avoid these
                             deep-rooted misconceptions, Heidegger
Martin Heidegger   Germany   believed philosophical inquiry must be 1911-1960s
                               His key ideas include interpreting
                               tragedy as an affirmation of life, an
                               eternal recurrence (which numerous
                               commentators have re-interpreted), a
                               rejection of Platonism, and a
                               repudiation of both Christianity and
                               Egalitarianism (especially in the form
Friedrich Nietzche   Germany   of Democracy and Socialism).                1869-1888
                               The main idea of Jean-Paul Sartre is
                               that we are "condemned to be free."[19]
                               This theory relies upon his atheism, and
                               is formed using the example of the
                               paper-knife. Sartre says that if one
                               considered a paper-knife, one would
                               assume that the creator would have had
                               a plan for it: an essence. Sartre said that
                               human beings have no essence before
                               their existence because there is no
                               Creator. Thus: "existence precedes
Jean-Paul Sartre     France    essence".                                   1930-1980s

                               Derrida began speaking and writing publicly at
                               a time when the French intellectual scene was
                               experiencing an increasing rift between what
                               could broadly speaking be called
                               "phenomenological" and "structural"
                               approaches to understanding individual and
Jacques Derrida      France    collective life.                               1967-1990s
                                           Levinas derives the primacy of his ethics from
                                           the experience of the encounter with the Other.
                                           For Levinas, the irreducible relation, the
                                           epiphany, of the face-to-face, the encounter with
                                           another, is a privileged phenomenon in which
                                           the other person's proximity and distance are
                                           both strongly felt. "The Other precisely reveals
                                           himself in his alterity not in a shock negating
                                           the I, but as the primordial phenomenon of
                                           gentleness." At the same time, the revelation of
                                           the face makes a demand, this demand is before
                                           one can express, or know one's freedom, to
                                           affirm or deny.[ One instantly recognizes the
                                           transcendence and heteronomy of the Other.
                                           Even murder fails as an attempt to take hold of
Emmanuel Levinas              France       this otherness.                                   1930-1991
Stephanie Noell

                                           Griffith specializes in Environmental
                                           Management, the recovery of degraded
                                           areas, and Environmental Philosophy.
James Jackson Griffith        USA/Brazil   He is also a very nice man.           present

                                           Ferreira was brought to Brazil by the
                                           Portuguese royal court in 1808. He was
                                           proficient in his knowledge of Aristotle,
                                           Leibniz, and Locke but he also
                                           developed his own theories of language,
Silvestre Pinheiro Ferreira   Portugal     knowledge, and world systems.             1769-1846
                                           França studied romanticism and was
                                           inspired by spiritualistic French
Eduardo Ferreira França       Brazil       eclecticism.                              1809-1857
                                             Magalhães was a philosopher who was
Domingos Gonçalves de                        inspired by spiritualistic French
Magalhães                  Brazil            eclecticism.                               1811-1882
                                             Comte believed that there are three
                                             phases that society goes through in its
                                             quest for truth - the theological, the
                                             metaphysical, and the positive phases -
                                             and we are currently in the third, or
                                             scientific, phase. Comte's positivism
                                             has greatly influenced Brazilian
Auguste Comte              France            thinkers and Brazilian thought.            1798-1917
                                             Barreto spoke out against French
                                             influences such as positivism and
                                             spiritualistic ecclecticism. He and the
                                             other School of Recife philosophers
                                             defended a neo-Kantianism and laid the
                                             foundations for culturalism in Brazilian
Tobias Barreto             Brazil            philosophy.                                1839-1889
                                             Romualdo Antonio de Seixas was the
Romualdo Antonio de                          16th Archbishop of Bahia, as well as
Seixas                     Salvador, Bahia   the earl and marquis of Santa Cruz.        1787-1860
                                             De Souza was a traditionalist who
                                             reacted against economic liberalism and
José Soriano de Souza      Brazil            belittled rationalism.                     1833-1895
                                             Identifies several types of positivism
                                             present in Brazil's history: theological
                                             Comtism, methodological positivism,
Antônio Joaquim Severino   Brazil            and modern positivism.                     present
                                             Aquinas was heavily influenced by
                                             Aristotle and Saint Augustine, and he
                                             believed that truth is known through
Saint Thomas Aquinas       Italy             reason and faith.                          1225-1274
                                       Hegel was one of the founders of
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich                German Idealism, which developed out
Hegel                        Germany   of Kant's works of the 1780s and 1790s.     1770-1831
                                       Marx was the founder of communism
                                       and wrote extensively on class struggles
Karl Marx                    Germany   in society.                                 1818-1883
                                       Teilhard attempted to explain how the
                                       cosmos came to be and what drives
                                       them. His position as a Jesuit priest
                                       was not compatible with his break from
                                       the traditional creation story, so his
                                       cosmogonical work was denied
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin   France    publication by the Roman Holy Office.       1881-1955
                                       Socrates was a classical Greek
                                       philosopher (known mainly through the
                                       writings of his student, Plato) who is
                                       known for his dialectic method of
                                       inquiry (in which he would ask a series
                                       of questions until he found the answer
Socrates                     Greece    that he sought).                            469-399BCE
                                       Plato was a classical Greek philosopher
                                       and student of Socrates. In fact, much
                                       of Plato's writing had his teacher as the
Plato                        Greece    main voice.                                 424-348BCE
                                       Aristotle was a classical Greek
                                       philosopher and student of Plato. The
                                       influence of his affinity for
                                       categorization can be seen throughout
Aristotle                    Greece    Western philosophy.                         384-322BCE
                                     Kant focused on the problems within
                                     traditional metaphysics and
                                     epistemology, while also investigating
                                     issues in ethics, aesthetics, and
Immanuel Kant           Germany      teleology.                                1724-1804
                                     Sartre was a prominent 20th Century
                                     French philosopher who focused on
                                     existentialism, Marxism, and
Jean-Paul Sartre        France       phenomenology.                            1905-1980
                                     Descartes is known as "The Father of
                                     Modern Philosophy" and the influence
                                     of his rationalism is far reaching in
René Descartes          France       Western society.                          1596-1650
                                     Machado does research in the theory
                                     and methodology of communication,
                                     specifically multiculturalism in
Irene Machado           Brazil       semiotics.                                present
                                     Neiva attempted to use Darwinian
                                     evolutionary biology to reorganize the
                                     conceptual frame of semiotics. He now
                                     is a professor at University of Alabama
                                     at Birmingham's Department of
Eduardo Neiva           Brazil/USA   Communication Studies                     (b. 1950) present
                                     Janine's academic work comes in two
                                     phases: his earlier academic work,
                                     which was focused almost entirely on
                                     Thomas Hobbes, and the time after his
                                     doctorate when he began to follow the
                                     history of ideas in an effort to
Renato Janine Ribeiro   Brazil       understand modern society.                (b. 1949) present
                                     Fávero led a survey that determined
                                     which philosophers were the most
A. A., Fávero           Brazil       frequently taught in Brazil.              present
                                            Cabrera points out that there are
                                            Brazilian philosophers, but these are
                                            not the philosophers that are studied in
J. Cabrera                Brazil            Brazilian curriculums.                     present
                                            Rodríguez has mapped out the origins,
                                            influences, and history of Brazilian
Ricardo Vélez Rodríguez   Colombia/Brazil   philosophy.                                (b. 1943) present
                                            Cerqueira maps out the history of
                                            Brazilian philosophy in his book
Luiz A. Cerqueira         Brazil            Filosofia Brasileira .                     present
                                            Rector traced the development of
Monica Rector             Brazil/USA        semiotics in Brazil.                       present

                                            His Cours de Linguistique Générale got
                                            the semiotic ball rolling in Brazil when
Ferdinand de Saussure     Switzerland       it was translated into Portuguese.         1857-1913
                                            American logician who saw logic as a
                                            branch of semiotics, of which he was a
                                            founder. Peirce defined semiotics as
Charles Sanders Peirce    USA               "formal doctrine of signs".                1839-1914
                                            Pignatari is a poet, essayist, teacher and
                                            translator in Brazil. His experiments
                                            with poetic language have been very
                                            influencial on the concrete, aesthetic
Décio Pignatari           Brazil            movement.                                  (b. 1927) present

                                            Sebeok expanded the field of semiotics
                                            to include non-human signaling and
                                            communication systems and he coined
Thomas A. Sebeok          Hungary/USA       the term "zoosemiotics".               1920-2001
                                        Nascimento is critical of the lack of
                                        unity among Brazilian philosophers
                                        over environmental issues. He says that
                                        "today’s Brazilian political actors are
                                        by two contrasting environmental
                                        views: romantic ecocentric utopia
                                        (“ecotopia”) versus anthropocentric
                                        realism (especially economic
Amós S. Nascimento         Brazil/USA   rationality)".                              present
                                        Isabel Cristina de Moura Carvalho
                                        whose focus is in psychology, culture,
                                        and education, with emphasis on
                                        environmental education. She believes
                                        that teachers should emulate
                                        archeologists, digging up cultural
Isabel Cristina de Moura                meanings of nature and of nature’s use
Carvalho                   Brazil       embedded in the real world.                 present
                                        Grün specializes in ethics
                                        and hermeneutics and he also explores
                                        the concept of language in evironmental
                                        education. In 1993, he spent a month at
                                        UNT's Center for Environmental
                                        Philosophy studying the relationship of
                                        environmental ethics and environmental
Mauro Grün                 Brazil       education                                   present
                                        "Trajber is a specialist on audiovisuals.
                                        In an earlier book, she and Larissa
                                        Barbosa da Costa (Trajber and Costa,
                                        2001) organized a collection of
                                        philosophic evaluations of Brazilian-
                                        produced environmental audio-visual
Rachel Trajber             Brazil       materials."                                 present
                                    Larissa Barbosa da Costa works on
                                    bringing together environmental
                                    education and environmental ethics to
                                    allow for better teaching capacity. She
                                    also wrote a book with Rachel Trajber
                                    in which they attempted to organize "a
                                    collection of philosophic evaluations of
                                    Brazilian-produced environmental
Larissa Barbosa da Costa   Brazil   audio-visual materials."                    present
                                    Pelizzoli is "a specialist on continental
                                    phenomenologists Husserl, Heidegger
                                    and Lévinas" who has expressed
Marcelo Luiz Pelizzoli     Brazil   concern over urban environments.            present
                                    Junges is a Jesuit priest who focuses on
                                    bioethics. He "has done considerable
                                    research on how transformations in
                                    socio-economic ambience affect
José Roque Junges          Brazil   collective health."                         present
                                    Nalini is "a jurist with considerable
                                    environmental experience as a
                                    federal criminal magistrate" and he has
                                    expressed concern over urban
José Renato Nalini         Brazil   environments.                               present
                                    Boff is a liberation theologist and
                                    former member of the Franciscan order
                                    who tries to bring together "African and
                                    Brazilian Native religious world views
                                    with the teachings of Saint Francis of
                                    Assisi (1182-1226)." Concern for
                                    nature as well as the poor are themes
Leonardo Boff              Brazil   throughout his works.                       (b. 1938) present
                              Gebara is a liberation theologist and
                              urban ecofeminist. She is also a
                              Brazilian Sister of Our Lady, which
                              means she is a "member of a convent
                              dedicated to the teachings of Saint
Ivone Gebara         Brazil   Augustine".                             (b. 1944) present
                              Friedman is an award-winning
                              American journalist, columnist and
                              author who advocates globalization as
                              well as energy independence for the
Thomas L. Friedman   USA      USA.                                    (b. 1953) present

                              Hess is the Director of the Digital
                              Library of the Commons at Indiana
                              University. With Elinor Ostrom, she
                              edited Understanding Knowledge as a
Charlotte Hess       USA      Commons: From Theory to Practice .      present

                              Ostrom is one of the leading scholars in
                              the study of common pool resources,
                              specifically how humans and
                              ecosystems interact to provide for long
                              run sustainable resource yields. With
                              Charlotte Hess, she edited
                              Understanding Knowledge as a
Elinor Ostrom        USA      Commons: From Theory to Practice . (b. 1933) present
                                                        Hobbes was a political philosopher
                                                        whose doctrine was based on social
                                                        contract theory. He believed that
                                                        humans without government would
                                                        always be warring, leaving humans in a
                                                        state of nature living lives that are (as
                                                        he famously said) "solitary, poor, nasty,
Thomas Hobbes                    England                brutish, and short".                      1588-1679
                                                        Leibniz believed that our universe was
                                                        the best possible universe that God
                                                        could have made, so he has been
                                                        labeled an optimist. He also believed
                                                        reason to be the source for human
                                                        knowledge and has thus been labeled a
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz        Germany                rationalist.                              1646-1716
                                                        Locke believed that experience is the
                                                        source for knowledge and has thus been
                                                        labeled a rationalist. He was also a
                                                        political philosopher who believed that
                                                        humans are naturally rational and
John Locke                       England                tolerant.                                 1632-1704
Jon Parker
                                 Brazil/University of
Amós Nascimento                  Washington Tacoma
Mary Midgley                                            extensionist ethics                        Published Paper 1995
                                                        Initiatives for preservation of natural
President Getulio Vargas         Brazil                 resources in Brazil                        1930's
                                                        creation of several national parks,
                                                        establishment of laws (e.g. Forestry Code,
First Brazilian Conference for                          Mining Code, Water Code, Fishing Code,
the Protection of Nature         Rio de Janeiro         and Hunting Code).                                              1934
                                                militarism: controversial mega-projects
                                                (e.g. Trans-Amazonic Highway, Itaipu Dam,
                                                Contareira Water System, nuclear power
Military Coup/Dictatorship   Brazil             plants, etc.).                              1964-1985
                                                American Billionaire, financed Jari Project
Daniel Ludwig                USA                (tree farm)                                 1967-1980's (roughly)
                                                Xapuri Rural Worker's Union: rubber
                                                tappers, reacting against impact of
                                                development plans on their culture/means
Chico Mendes                 Brazil/Amazon      of subsistence.                             1970-
UN Conference                Rio de Janeiro     sustainable development                                           1992
                                                "showed how the idea of 'paradise' was a
                                                main motive in the ecological imainary of
Carvalho                                        Brazilian society."

                                                argued that env. Issues in Brazil need to be
                                                understood in light of the fact that social
                                                and env. Movements, politicians, and
Alonso and Costa                                academia have conflicting interests                              2002

                                                env. Movement institutionalized (Green
                                                Party) after dictatorship into party politics
Eduardo Viola                Brazil             but lacked sound prinicples/strategies.                          1998
Leme Machado                 Brazil             environmental law                                                1989

Marina Silva                 Brazil             concerns over genetically modified crops
                                                environmental economics/sustainable
Alexander Fuchs, Peter May   Sao Paulo/Brazil   tourism                                                          1996
Isabel Carvalho              Brazil             environmental education                                          2003

                                                liberation theology -- ecological questions
                                                incorporating spiritual concerns and
Loenardo Boff                Brazil             concerns for the poor; ethics of care       1990's
                                               rights of Native American Indians against
Bartolome de Las Casas       Spain             Sepulveda (before time of "human rights")
                                               first book about Brazil criticizing
George Buchanan              Scotland/Brazil   colonialism and destruction of nature     16th Century

Adam Smith, Thomas Reid,                       philosophers this author refers to as
Humboldt, Karl Marx, Quine   Europe/USA        having refered to Brazil in their writings.

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