Name Region/Country Concept(s) Year John Woodling Environmental Activist who served as Vice President under Bill Clinton. He Believes global warming to be a scientific fact and is a big fan of renewable energy. Author of Al Gore USA “An Inconvenient Truth”. 1948 - Present Editor of the International Society of Mark Woods USA? Environmental Ethics (ISEE) bulletin. Present Co-founder of the Group of Environmental Thinking. Influenced by Husserlian and Heideggerian phenomenology. Believes that enviro. ethics needs a progressive blurring of the subject and of quantifying objectifying to overcome linear Ana Patricia Noguera de hierarchies of dominion that prevail in Echeverri Columbia anthropocentric ethics. Present Chuck Siegel The environmental crisis is the reflection and the result of the western crisis of civilization and is caused by this civilization’s ways of knowing, understanding, and therefore transforming the world. Therefore, the dichotomy between facts and values, ENRIQUE LEFF Mexico sciences and ethics is overcome. 1980s - current Maria Luisa Eschenhagen Columbia Marx summarized his approach to history and politics in the opening line of the first chapter of The Communist Manifesto (1848): “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”. Marx argued that capitalism, like previous socioeconomic systems, will produce internal tensions which will lead to its destruction. Just as capitalism replaced feudalism, capitalism itself will be displaced by communism, a stateless, classless society which emerges after a transitional period, the 'dictatorship of Karl Marx Germany the proletariat'. Mid-1800s A rationalist in the Cartesian sense, he opposed "scientific knowledge" to ordinary knowledge, and held that error is only negativity or illusion: “ Scientifically, we think the truth as the historical rectification of a long error, and we think experience as the rectification of the common and Gaston Bachelard France originary illusion (illusion première) 1928-1961 More than just a great theoretician, Canguilhem was one of the few philosophers of the 20th century to develop a n approach that was shaped by a medical education. He helped define a method of studying the history of science which was practical and rigorous. His work focused on the one hand on the concepts of "normal" and "pathological" and, on the other, a critical history of the formation of concepts such as "reflex" in the history of science. Canguilhem was also a mentor to several French scholars, most Georges Canguilhem France notably Foucault. 1943-1988 Althusser is also widely known as a theorist of ideology, and his best-known essay is Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses: Notes Toward an Investigation. The essay establishes the concept of ideology. Althusser's theory of ideology, as well as Marx, draws on Freud's and Lacan's concepts of the unconscious and mirror-phase respectively, and describes the structures and systems that enable the concept of the self. These structures, for Althusser, are both agents of repression and inevitable - it is impossible to escape ideology; to not be subjected to it. It should be noted that Althusser's thought went through an evolution in his lifetime, and has been the subject of argument and debate, especially within Marxism and specifically concerning his theory of knowledge Louis Althusser France (epistemology). 1940-1980s Dissipative structure theory led to pioneering research in self-organizing systems, as well as philosophic inquiries into the formation of complexity on biological entities and the quest for a creative and irreversible role of time in the natural sciences. His work is seen by many as a bridge between natural sciences and social sciences. With University of Texas at Austin professor Robert Herman, he also developed the basis of the two fluid model, a traffic model for urban networks, using Bose-Einstein Condensation theory in traffic Ilya Prigogine Belgium engineering. Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977 Heidegger claimed that Western philosophy has, since Plato, misunderstood what it means for something "to be," tending to approach this question in terms of a being, rather than asking about being itself. In other words, Heidegger believed all investigations of being have historically focused on particular entities and their properties, or have treated being itself as an entity, or substance, with properties. A more authentic analysis of being would, for Heidegger, investigate "that on the basis of which beings are already understood," or that which underlies all particular entities and allows them to show up as entities in the first place But since philosophers and scientists have overlooked the more basic, pre-theoretical ways of being from which their theories derive, and since they have incorrectly applied those theories universally, they have confused our understanding of being and human existence. To avoid these deep-rooted misconceptions, Heidegger Martin Heidegger Germany believed philosophical inquiry must be 1911-1960s His key ideas include interpreting tragedy as an affirmation of life, an eternal recurrence (which numerous commentators have re-interpreted), a rejection of Platonism, and a repudiation of both Christianity and Egalitarianism (especially in the form Friedrich Nietzche Germany of Democracy and Socialism). 1869-1888 The main idea of Jean-Paul Sartre is that we are "condemned to be free." This theory relies upon his atheism, and is formed using the example of the paper-knife. Sartre says that if one considered a paper-knife, one would assume that the creator would have had a plan for it: an essence. Sartre said that human beings have no essence before their existence because there is no Creator. Thus: "existence precedes Jean-Paul Sartre France essence". 1930-1980s Derrida began speaking and writing publicly at a time when the French intellectual scene was experiencing an increasing rift between what could broadly speaking be called "phenomenological" and "structural" approaches to understanding individual and Jacques Derrida France collective life. 1967-1990s Levinas derives the primacy of his ethics from the experience of the encounter with the Other. For Levinas, the irreducible relation, the epiphany, of the face-to-face, the encounter with another, is a privileged phenomenon in which the other person's proximity and distance are both strongly felt. "The Other precisely reveals himself in his alterity not in a shock negating the I, but as the primordial phenomenon of gentleness." At the same time, the revelation of the face makes a demand, this demand is before one can express, or know one's freedom, to affirm or deny.[ One instantly recognizes the transcendence and heteronomy of the Other. Even murder fails as an attempt to take hold of Emmanuel Levinas France this otherness. 1930-1991 Stephanie Noell Griffith specializes in Environmental Management, the recovery of degraded areas, and Environmental Philosophy. James Jackson Griffith USA/Brazil He is also a very nice man. present Ferreira was brought to Brazil by the Portuguese royal court in 1808. He was proficient in his knowledge of Aristotle, Leibniz, and Locke but he also developed his own theories of language, Silvestre Pinheiro Ferreira Portugal knowledge, and world systems. 1769-1846 França studied romanticism and was inspired by spiritualistic French Eduardo Ferreira França Brazil eclecticism. 1809-1857 Magalhães was a philosopher who was Domingos Gonçalves de inspired by spiritualistic French Magalhães Brazil eclecticism. 1811-1882 Comte believed that there are three phases that society goes through in its quest for truth - the theological, the metaphysical, and the positive phases - and we are currently in the third, or scientific, phase. Comte's positivism has greatly influenced Brazilian Auguste Comte France thinkers and Brazilian thought. 1798-1917 Barreto spoke out against French influences such as positivism and spiritualistic ecclecticism. He and the other School of Recife philosophers defended a neo-Kantianism and laid the foundations for culturalism in Brazilian Tobias Barreto Brazil philosophy. 1839-1889 Romualdo Antonio de Seixas was the Romualdo Antonio de 16th Archbishop of Bahia, as well as Seixas Salvador, Bahia the earl and marquis of Santa Cruz. 1787-1860 De Souza was a traditionalist who reacted against economic liberalism and José Soriano de Souza Brazil belittled rationalism. 1833-1895 Identifies several types of positivism present in Brazil's history: theological Comtism, methodological positivism, Antônio Joaquim Severino Brazil and modern positivism. present Aquinas was heavily influenced by Aristotle and Saint Augustine, and he believed that truth is known through Saint Thomas Aquinas Italy reason and faith. 1225-1274 Hegel was one of the founders of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich German Idealism, which developed out Hegel Germany of Kant's works of the 1780s and 1790s. 1770-1831 Marx was the founder of communism and wrote extensively on class struggles Karl Marx Germany in society. 1818-1883 Teilhard attempted to explain how the cosmos came to be and what drives them. His position as a Jesuit priest was not compatible with his break from the traditional creation story, so his cosmogonical work was denied Pierre Teilhard de Chardin France publication by the Roman Holy Office. 1881-1955 Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher (known mainly through the writings of his student, Plato) who is known for his dialectic method of inquiry (in which he would ask a series of questions until he found the answer Socrates Greece that he sought). 469-399BCE Plato was a classical Greek philosopher and student of Socrates. In fact, much of Plato's writing had his teacher as the Plato Greece main voice. 424-348BCE Aristotle was a classical Greek philosopher and student of Plato. The influence of his affinity for categorization can be seen throughout Aristotle Greece Western philosophy. 384-322BCE Kant focused on the problems within traditional metaphysics and epistemology, while also investigating issues in ethics, aesthetics, and Immanuel Kant Germany teleology. 1724-1804 Sartre was a prominent 20th Century French philosopher who focused on existentialism, Marxism, and Jean-Paul Sartre France phenomenology. 1905-1980 Descartes is known as "The Father of Modern Philosophy" and the influence of his rationalism is far reaching in René Descartes France Western society. 1596-1650 Machado does research in the theory and methodology of communication, specifically multiculturalism in Irene Machado Brazil semiotics. present Neiva attempted to use Darwinian evolutionary biology to reorganize the conceptual frame of semiotics. He now is a professor at University of Alabama at Birmingham's Department of Eduardo Neiva Brazil/USA Communication Studies (b. 1950) present Janine's academic work comes in two phases: his earlier academic work, which was focused almost entirely on Thomas Hobbes, and the time after his doctorate when he began to follow the history of ideas in an effort to Renato Janine Ribeiro Brazil understand modern society. (b. 1949) present Fávero led a survey that determined which philosophers were the most A. A., Fávero Brazil frequently taught in Brazil. present Cabrera points out that there are Brazilian philosophers, but these are not the philosophers that are studied in J. Cabrera Brazil Brazilian curriculums. present Rodríguez has mapped out the origins, influences, and history of Brazilian Ricardo Vélez Rodríguez Colombia/Brazil philosophy. (b. 1943) present Cerqueira maps out the history of Brazilian philosophy in his book Luiz A. Cerqueira Brazil Filosofia Brasileira . present Rector traced the development of Monica Rector Brazil/USA semiotics in Brazil. present His Cours de Linguistique Générale got the semiotic ball rolling in Brazil when Ferdinand de Saussure Switzerland it was translated into Portuguese. 1857-1913 American logician who saw logic as a branch of semiotics, of which he was a founder. Peirce defined semiotics as Charles Sanders Peirce USA "formal doctrine of signs". 1839-1914 Pignatari is a poet, essayist, teacher and translator in Brazil. His experiments with poetic language have been very influencial on the concrete, aesthetic Décio Pignatari Brazil movement. (b. 1927) present Sebeok expanded the field of semiotics to include non-human signaling and communication systems and he coined Thomas A. Sebeok Hungary/USA the term "zoosemiotics". 1920-2001 Nascimento is critical of the lack of unity among Brazilian philosophers over environmental issues. He says that "today’s Brazilian political actors are divided by two contrasting environmental views: romantic ecocentric utopia (“ecotopia”) versus anthropocentric realism (especially economic Amós S. Nascimento Brazil/USA rationality)". present Isabel Cristina de Moura Carvalho whose focus is in psychology, culture, and education, with emphasis on environmental education. She believes that teachers should emulate archeologists, digging up cultural Isabel Cristina de Moura meanings of nature and of nature’s use Carvalho Brazil embedded in the real world. present Grün specializes in ethics and hermeneutics and he also explores the concept of language in evironmental education. In 1993, he spent a month at UNT's Center for Environmental Philosophy studying the relationship of environmental ethics and environmental Mauro Grün Brazil education present "Trajber is a specialist on audiovisuals. In an earlier book, she and Larissa Barbosa da Costa (Trajber and Costa, 2001) organized a collection of philosophic evaluations of Brazilian- produced environmental audio-visual Rachel Trajber Brazil materials." present Larissa Barbosa da Costa works on bringing together environmental education and environmental ethics to allow for better teaching capacity. She also wrote a book with Rachel Trajber in which they attempted to organize "a collection of philosophic evaluations of Brazilian-produced environmental Larissa Barbosa da Costa Brazil audio-visual materials." present Pelizzoli is "a specialist on continental phenomenologists Husserl, Heidegger and Lévinas" who has expressed Marcelo Luiz Pelizzoli Brazil concern over urban environments. present Junges is a Jesuit priest who focuses on bioethics. He "has done considerable research on how transformations in socio-economic ambience affect José Roque Junges Brazil collective health." present Nalini is "a jurist with considerable environmental experience as a federal criminal magistrate" and he has expressed concern over urban José Renato Nalini Brazil environments. present Boff is a liberation theologist and former member of the Franciscan order who tries to bring together "African and Brazilian Native religious world views with the teachings of Saint Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)." Concern for nature as well as the poor are themes Leonardo Boff Brazil throughout his works. (b. 1938) present Gebara is a liberation theologist and urban ecofeminist. She is also a Brazilian Sister of Our Lady, which means she is a "member of a convent dedicated to the teachings of Saint Ivone Gebara Brazil Augustine". (b. 1944) present Friedman is an award-winning American journalist, columnist and author who advocates globalization as well as energy independence for the Thomas L. Friedman USA USA. (b. 1953) present Hess is the Director of the Digital Library of the Commons at Indiana University. With Elinor Ostrom, she edited Understanding Knowledge as a Charlotte Hess USA Commons: From Theory to Practice . present Ostrom is one of the leading scholars in the study of common pool resources, specifically how humans and ecosystems interact to provide for long run sustainable resource yields. With Charlotte Hess, she edited Understanding Knowledge as a Elinor Ostrom USA Commons: From Theory to Practice . (b. 1933) present Hobbes was a political philosopher whose doctrine was based on social contract theory. He believed that humans without government would always be warring, leaving humans in a state of nature living lives that are (as he famously said) "solitary, poor, nasty, Thomas Hobbes England brutish, and short". 1588-1679 Leibniz believed that our universe was the best possible universe that God could have made, so he has been labeled an optimist. He also believed reason to be the source for human knowledge and has thus been labeled a Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Germany rationalist. 1646-1716 Locke believed that experience is the source for knowledge and has thus been labeled a rationalist. He was also a political philosopher who believed that humans are naturally rational and John Locke England tolerant. 1632-1704 Jon Parker Brazil/University of Amós Nascimento Washington Tacoma Mary Midgley extensionist ethics Published Paper 1995 Initiatives for preservation of natural President Getulio Vargas Brazil resources in Brazil 1930's creation of several national parks, establishment of laws (e.g. Forestry Code, First Brazilian Conference for Mining Code, Water Code, Fishing Code, the Protection of Nature Rio de Janeiro and Hunting Code). 1934 militarism: controversial mega-projects (e.g. Trans-Amazonic Highway, Itaipu Dam, Contareira Water System, nuclear power Military Coup/Dictatorship Brazil plants, etc.). 1964-1985 American Billionaire, financed Jari Project Daniel Ludwig USA (tree farm) 1967-1980's (roughly) Xapuri Rural Worker's Union: rubber tappers, reacting against impact of development plans on their culture/means Chico Mendes Brazil/Amazon of subsistence. 1970- UN Conference Rio de Janeiro sustainable development 1992 "showed how the idea of 'paradise' was a main motive in the ecological imainary of Carvalho Brazilian society." argued that env. Issues in Brazil need to be understood in light of the fact that social and env. Movements, politicians, and Alonso and Costa academia have conflicting interests 2002 env. Movement institutionalized (Green Party) after dictatorship into party politics Eduardo Viola Brazil but lacked sound prinicples/strategies. 1998 Leme Machado Brazil environmental law 1989 Marina Silva Brazil concerns over genetically modified crops environmental economics/sustainable Alexander Fuchs, Peter May Sao Paulo/Brazil tourism 1996 Isabel Carvalho Brazil environmental education 2003 liberation theology -- ecological questions incorporating spiritual concerns and Loenardo Boff Brazil concerns for the poor; ethics of care 1990's rights of Native American Indians against Bartolome de Las Casas Spain Sepulveda (before time of "human rights") first book about Brazil criticizing George Buchanan Scotland/Brazil colonialism and destruction of nature 16th Century Adam Smith, Thomas Reid, philosophers this author refers to as Humboldt, Karl Marx, Quine Europe/USA having refered to Brazil in their writings.
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