Approaches to study within the context of the hospitality industry David Coy, Tim Duffy and Russell Rimmer Coffield et al (2004) ‘Learners are not all alike, nor are they all suspended in cyberspace … they live in particular socio-economic settings where age, gender, race and class all interact to influence their attitudes to learning’ (p. 60) Self-Assessed Motivational Instrument (SAMI) Consists of – Questions: How well is student doing? Potential? – A learning-style inventory (LSI): to induce reflection and dissonance about current study habits – Motivational interviewing: to encourage self-motivational talk/statements reflect on the costs & benefits of change/no change – Analytical problem solving: identify study changes, rank them, set goals, review points and rewards Previously Tested reliability and validity of LSIs for use in the SAMI – With cohorts of pre- & post-registration nurses – One LSI satisfied all criteria (Duffy 2005; Coffield et al 2004) Revised Approaches to Study Inventory (RASI) RASI reliability Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha scores for main-scales) Deep approach 0.78 Strategic approach 0.81 Reliability (Guttman’s split test) Deep approach 0.77 Strategic Approach 0.82 RASI validity Exploratory factor analysis Two factors emerged (Deep and Strategic), all questions apart from 1 loaded above the required 0.36 Confirmatory factor analysis Required Actual ²/df <3.0 2.83 CFI >0.9 0.97 TLI >0.9 0.93 NFI >0.9 0.95 RMSEA <0.08 0.07 How well, motivational interviewing & problem solving – encourage self-motivational statements (Miller &Rollnick 2002) – generate cognitive dissonance ‘How well do you think you are doing with your study?’ (based on Entwistle et al 2000) ‘How well could you do if you did your best?’ (ibid.) – induce reflection on approaches to study (as measured by the RASI) costs and benefits of continuing current approach to study costs and benefits of changing study approach – Identify main problem involved in changing study approach solutions to the main study problem that are measurable and sustainable Summary of SAMI findings for nurses Nurses who did the SAMI – were more likely to get an A or B1 for their studies – on average became more strategic learners – More than 70% changed their deep or strategic score by as much as +5 or –5 points between weeks 2 and week 11 of a semester. Change can happen with brief intervention! Review of nursing responses First stage: identify initial themes Second stage: sample of transcripts coded by one researcher and then by others to gauge levels of correspondence and agreement on analytic framework and structure Third stage: group themes - using correspondence approach Fourth stage: groups of themes identified by one researcher underlying themes agreed among team Fifth stage: interpret themed responses using the trans- theoretical model of change (Prochaska & Di Clemente 1982) an integrated model of stages of change Summary of findings for nurses • Some students 1. do not want to change 2. want to change but cannot 3. attempt to change but are unsuccessful 4. make minor adjustments 5. plan considerable changes to time allocation in relation to study, family, work, social life; and 6. make these considerable changes • States 1 to 5 are seen among the H & T responses to the SAMI • State 6 is yet to be investigated Demographics L 1 Nurses L 3 Nurses H & T Cert H & T B Sc less than 21 29.4 0.0 87.0 13.9 21 & over 70.1 100.0 13.0 86.1 Female 88.8 95.8 69.6 58.3 Bulgaria 8.7 - China 30.4 41.7 Hungary 8.7 13.9 India 6.5 8.3 Malaysia - 11.1 Russia 10.9 - UK 100.0 99.4 2.2 5.6 Rest of World 32.6 19.4 Number 160 168 46 36 How well? L 1 Nurses L 3 Nurses Certificate Degree How well do you think you are doing with your study? 1 to 3 4.4 11.3 2.3 11.5 4 to 6 58.8 56.6 45.4 65.7 7 or better 36.3 32.1 52.3 22.9 How well could you do if you did your best? 1 to 3 - - - 2.9 4 to 6 1.1 7.7 11.4 22.9 7 or better 98.9 82.3 88.6 74.3 LSI: Deep and Strategic scores L 1 Nurses L 3 Nurses Certificate Degree Deep 17-24 3.1 1.8 4.5 7.3 25-32 40.0 50.0 43.2 53.6 33-40 56.3 48.2 52.3 39.0 Strategic 21-30 6.9 20.8 6.8 22.9 31-40 45.6 50.0 36.4 54.3 41-50 47.5 28.6 56.8 22.9 Comments in SAMI How well now = 3; potentially = 4; deep = 34; strategic = 27 Dissonance: ‘Laziness, English ability.’ Main problem: ‘Laziness’ Number of solutions = 5 First-ranked solution: ‘Read journals everyday (stop accessing Facebook. Although it is hard I will block my browser. Start creating a timetable with my study buddy).’ Comments in SAMI How well now = 4; potentially = 7; deep = 41; strategic = 19 Dissonance: ‘This is bothering me a lot, because I am not trying my best. Not even trying for the best and never tried also.’ Main problem: ‘I think myself, because I don't even have any motivation and cannot concentrate on one thing for long.’ Number of solutions = 10 First-ranked solution: ‘To be organised (to make a timetable to prepare myself for studies).’ Comments in SAMI How well now = 5; potentially = 8; deep = 44; strategic = 28 Dissonance: ‘Laziness and other external factors.’ Main problem: ‘When I am surfing the internet to do research, finally, I end up chatting with my friends and using Facebook.’ Number of solutions = 10 First-ranked solution: ‘Force myself to be focussed. (Write a paper to ask me to focus and put it in front of my desk.)’ Comments in the SAMI How well now = 6; potentially = 6; deep = 32; strategic = 36 Dissonance: - Main problem: ‘I am not good enough to apply what I have learned in class to real skills.’ Number of solutions = 5 First-ranked solution: ‘Try to think more about the relations of theory in daily life.’ Comments in the SAMI How well now = 6; potentially = 8; deep = 37; strategic = 39 Dissonance: ‘Lack of concentration, caused by Facebook while doing research and assignments.’ Main problem: ‘Always need to read documents on the computer which makes my eyes feel tired. Lack of concentration because of Facebook. Not skilfull in self organising, since I need to find someone to push me.’ Number of solutions = 4 First-ranked solution: ‘Log out of Facebook and MSN (print out documents).’ Comments in SAMI How well now = 6; potentially = 8; deep = 40; strategic = 45 Dissonance: ‘I got lower that shows that I did not try my best.’ Main problem: ‘Not using my time effectively enough.’ Number of solutions = 2 First-ranked solution: ‘Manage my time differently (spending more time studying in the morning).’ Comments in the SAMI How well now = 6; potentially = 8; deep = 43; strategic = 33 Dissonance: ‘Poor time management. Very often do things at last minute.’ Main problem: ‘Don't enjoy to learn something that is not my real interest.’ Number of solutions = 10 First-ranked solution: ‘Try to find a better way to study (e.g., work in groups, work-life balance; accept the failure).’ Comments in the SAMI How well now = 6; potentially = 9; deep = 44; strategic = 38 Dissonance: ‘Perhaps there is a difference because I try to balance my study with other priorities.’ Main problem: ‘I have other priorities, my personal future. I might end up regretting the path I have chosen. ’ Number of solutions = 4 First-ranked solution: ‘To organise my time more carefully/efficiently (to balance it with other priorities in life) .’ Comments in the SAMI How well now = 7; potentially = 8; deep = 42; strategic = 38 Dissonance: ‘I should concentrate more and focus more. If I feel tired my mind cannot concentrate that much.’ Main problem: ‘Time management .’ Number of solutions = 5 First-ranked solution: ‘More attention (no MSN messenger; no movie watching; more research; no social life) .’ Comments in the SAMI How well now = 8; potentially = 9; deep = 41; strategic = 48 Dissonance: ‘I'm trying to do my best. It is only the beginning of the semester. ’ Main problem: - Number of solutions = - First-ranked solution: - Comments in the SAMI How well now = 8; potentially = 9; deep = 42; strategic = 45 Dissonance: ‘At present, we are all engaged in various activities other than studies. So we are not able to dedicate our full time towards studies. But, if I study hard I can score really high.’ Main problem: ‘Lack of concentration, lack of reflection.’ Number of solutions = 6 First-ranked solution: ‘Organise myself effectively.’ Comments in the SAMI How well now = 8; potentially = 9; deep = 48; strategic = 50 Dissonance: ‘….for now I keep doing my utmost best.’ Main problem: - Number of solutions = - First-ranked solution: - Implications for teachers • Tutors may need to have a greater understanding of how students juggle their study, work, family and social commitments. • Change in study approaches can happen as measured by Deep and Strategic measures. • Changes in study approaches can be influenced by tutors by implementing a brief intervention: the SAMI • Tutor can help set and review student goals, targets • Tutors could put in place a time management course at an early stage of the academic programme and support this on an ongoing basis. Where to now? Second stage of investigation to be undertaken shortly Themes so far for H & T students? Differences between H & T certificate and degree? Are there differences between – H & T and Nursing students? – Private-college and public-institution students? – UK and other nationalities in approaches to study? Four-way study required? We’ve done – for now! Thanks for your attention Questions/Discussion!