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					Approaches to study within the context of
        the hospitality industry




                    David Coy, Tim Duffy
                    and Russell Rimmer
Coffield et al (2004)


  ‘Learners are not all alike, nor are they all
  suspended in cyberspace … they live in
 particular socio-economic settings where
 age, gender, race and class all interact to
 influence their attitudes to learning’ (p. 60)
Self-Assessed Motivational
Instrument (SAMI)

   Consists of
    –   Questions: How well is student doing? Potential?
    –   A learning-style inventory (LSI): to induce reflection
        and dissonance about current study habits
    –   Motivational interviewing:
            to encourage self-motivational talk/statements
            reflect on the costs & benefits of change/no change
    –   Analytical problem solving: identify study changes,
        rank them, set goals, review points and rewards
Previously

   Tested reliability and validity of LSIs for use
    in the SAMI

    –   With cohorts of pre- & post-registration nurses

    –   One LSI satisfied all criteria (Duffy 2005; Coffield
        et al 2004)
            Revised Approaches to Study Inventory (RASI)
RASI reliability

Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha scores for main-scales)

    Deep approach         0.78

    Strategic approach    0.81

Reliability (Guttman’s split test)

    Deep approach         0.77

    Strategic Approach    0.82
RASI validity

Exploratory factor analysis

Two factors emerged (Deep and Strategic), all questions apart
from 1 loaded above the required 0.36

Confirmatory factor analysis

        Required         Actual

²/df      <3.0                     2.83
CFI        >0.9                     0.97
TLI        >0.9                     0.93
NFI        >0.9                     0.95
RMSEA      <0.08                    0.07
How well, motivational interviewing &
problem solving

  –   encourage self-motivational statements (Miller &Rollnick 2002)
  –   generate cognitive dissonance
         ‘How well do you think you are doing with your study?’
          (based on Entwistle et al 2000)
         ‘How well could you do if you did your best?’ (ibid.)
  –   induce reflection on
         approaches to study (as measured by the RASI)
         costs and benefits of continuing current approach to study
         costs and benefits of changing study approach
  –   Identify
           main problem involved in changing study approach
          solutions to the main study problem that are measurable and sustainable
Summary of SAMI findings for nurses

   Nurses who did the SAMI
    –   were more likely to get an A or B1 for their studies
    –   on average became more strategic learners
    –   More than 70%
            changed their deep or strategic score by as much as +5 or
             –5 points between weeks 2 and week 11 of a semester.
            Change can happen with brief intervention!
Review of nursing responses

   First stage: identify initial themes
   Second stage: sample of transcripts coded by one researcher
    and then by others to
       gauge levels of correspondence and agreement on analytic framework
        and structure
   Third stage: group themes - using correspondence approach
   Fourth stage: groups of themes identified by one researcher
       underlying themes agreed among team
   Fifth stage: interpret themed responses using the trans-
    theoretical model of change (Prochaska & Di Clemente 1982)
       an integrated model of stages of change
Summary of findings for nurses

  • Some students
     1. do not want to change
     2. want to change but cannot
     3. attempt to change but are unsuccessful
     4. make minor adjustments
     5. plan considerable changes to time allocation in relation
        to study, family, work, social life; and
     6. make these considerable changes

  • States 1 to 5 are seen among the H & T responses to the
    SAMI
  • State 6 is yet to be investigated
Demographics
                 L 1 Nurses   L 3 Nurses   H & T Cert   H & T B Sc
 less than 21       29.4         0.0          87.0         13.9
 21 & over          70.1        100.0         13.0         86.1
 Female             88.8         95.8         69.6         58.3
 Bulgaria                                     8.7           -
 China                                        30.4         41.7
 Hungary                                      8.7          13.9
 India                                        6.5          8.3
 Malaysia                                      -           11.1
 Russia                                       10.9          -
 UK                100.0         99.4         2.2          5.6
 Rest of World                                32.6         19.4
 Number             160          168          46           36
How well?

                L 1 Nurses     L 3 Nurses     Certificate   Degree
How well do you think you are doing with your study?
1 to 3              4.4           11.3           2.3         11.5
4 to 6             58.8           56.6           45.4        65.7
7 or better        36.3           32.1           52.3        22.9
How well could you do if you did your best?
1 to 3               -              -              -         2.9
4 to 6              1.1            7.7           11.4        22.9
7 or better        98.9           82.3           88.6        74.3
LSI: Deep and Strategic scores

            L 1 Nurses   L 3 Nurses   Certificate   Degree
Deep
17-24          3.1          1.8           4.5        7.3
25-32          40.0         50.0         43.2        53.6
33-40          56.3         48.2         52.3       39.0


Strategic
21-30          6.9          20.8         6.8         22.9
31-40          45.6         50.0         36.4        54.3
41-50          47.5         28.6         56.8        22.9
Comments in SAMI

   How well now = 3; potentially = 4; deep = 34; strategic = 27

    Dissonance: ‘Laziness, English ability.’

    Main problem: ‘Laziness’ Number of solutions = 5

    First-ranked solution: ‘Read journals everyday (stop accessing
    Facebook. Although it is hard I will block my browser. Start
    creating a timetable with my study buddy).’
Comments in SAMI

   How well now = 4; potentially = 7; deep = 41; strategic = 19
    Dissonance: ‘This is bothering me a lot, because I am not trying
    my best. Not even trying for the best and never tried also.’

    Main problem: ‘I think myself, because I don't even have any
    motivation and cannot concentrate on one thing for long.’
    Number of solutions = 10

    First-ranked solution: ‘To be organised (to make a timetable to
    prepare myself for studies).’
Comments in SAMI

   How well now = 5; potentially = 8; deep = 44; strategic = 28
    Dissonance: ‘Laziness and other external factors.’

    Main problem: ‘When I am surfing the internet to do research,
    finally, I end up chatting with my friends and using Facebook.’
    Number of solutions = 10

    First-ranked solution: ‘Force myself to be focussed. (Write a
    paper to ask me to focus and put it in front of my desk.)’
Comments in the SAMI

   How well now = 6; potentially = 6; deep = 32; strategic = 36
    Dissonance: -

    Main problem: ‘I am not good enough to apply what I have
    learned in class to real skills.’ Number of solutions = 5

    First-ranked solution: ‘Try to think more about the relations of
    theory in daily life.’
Comments in the SAMI

   How well now = 6; potentially = 8; deep = 37; strategic = 39
    Dissonance: ‘Lack of concentration, caused by Facebook while
    doing research and assignments.’

    Main problem: ‘Always need to read documents on the computer
    which makes my eyes feel tired. Lack of concentration because of
    Facebook. Not skilfull in self organising, since I need to find
    someone to push me.’        Number of solutions = 4

    First-ranked solution: ‘Log out of Facebook and MSN (print out
    documents).’
Comments in SAMI

   How well now = 6; potentially = 8; deep = 40; strategic = 45
    Dissonance: ‘I got lower that shows that I did not try my best.’

    Main problem: ‘Not using my time effectively enough.’
    Number of solutions = 2

    First-ranked solution: ‘Manage my time differently (spending
    more time studying in the morning).’
Comments in the SAMI

   How well now = 6; potentially = 8; deep = 43; strategic = 33
    Dissonance: ‘Poor time management. Very often do things at last
    minute.’

    Main problem: ‘Don't enjoy to learn something that is not my real
    interest.’
    Number of solutions = 10

    First-ranked solution: ‘Try to find a better way to study (e.g., work
    in groups, work-life balance; accept the failure).’
Comments in the SAMI

   How well now = 6; potentially = 9; deep = 44; strategic = 38
    Dissonance: ‘Perhaps there is a difference because I try to
    balance my study with other priorities.’

    Main problem: ‘I have other priorities, my personal future. I
    might end up regretting the path I have chosen. ’
    Number of solutions = 4

    First-ranked solution: ‘To organise my time more
    carefully/efficiently (to balance it with other priorities in life) .’
Comments in the SAMI

   How well now = 7; potentially = 8; deep = 42; strategic = 38
    Dissonance: ‘I should concentrate more and focus more. If I
    feel tired my mind cannot concentrate that much.’

    Main problem: ‘Time management .’
    Number of solutions = 5

    First-ranked solution: ‘More attention (no MSN messenger; no
    movie watching; more research; no social life) .’
Comments in the SAMI

   How well now = 8; potentially = 9; deep = 41; strategic = 48
    Dissonance: ‘I'm trying to do my best. It is only the beginning of
    the semester. ’

    Main problem: -
    Number of solutions = -

    First-ranked solution: -
Comments in the SAMI

   How well now = 8; potentially = 9; deep = 42; strategic = 45
    Dissonance: ‘At present, we are all engaged in various activities
    other than studies. So we are not able to dedicate our full time
    towards studies. But, if I study hard I can score really high.’

    Main problem: ‘Lack of concentration, lack of reflection.’
    Number of solutions = 6

    First-ranked solution: ‘Organise myself effectively.’
Comments in the SAMI

   How well now = 8; potentially = 9; deep = 48; strategic = 50
    Dissonance: ‘….for now I keep doing my utmost best.’

    Main problem: -
    Number of solutions = -

    First-ranked solution: -
Implications for teachers


•   Tutors may need to have a greater understanding of how students
    juggle their study, work, family and social commitments.
•   Change in study approaches can happen as measured by Deep and
    Strategic measures.
•   Changes in study approaches can be influenced by tutors by
    implementing a brief intervention: the SAMI
•   Tutor can help set and review student goals, targets
•   Tutors could put in place a time management course at an early
    stage of the academic programme and support this on an ongoing
    basis.
Where to now?

   Second stage of investigation to be undertaken shortly
   Themes so far for H & T students?
   Differences between H & T certificate and degree?
   Are there differences between
     –   H & T and Nursing students?
     –   Private-college and public-institution students?
     –   UK and other nationalities in approaches to study?
   Four-way study required?
We’ve done – for now!


   Thanks for your attention

   Questions/Discussion!

				
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posted:12/5/2010
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