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					 Applying an ecosystem-based
     approach to fisheries
    management: focus on
seamounts in the southern Indian
             Ocean

    ASCLME Steering Committee Meeting
        Seychelles, 9 – 11 March 2009
              Sarah Gotheil
               Presentation
• Background to the project
• Importance of seamounts & threats
• Project objectives
   – Objective 1: biodiversity assessment
   – Objective 2: improving governance
   – Objective 3: improving management
   – Objective 4: outreach

                                    IUCN – Global Marine Programme
FUNDING
                       Background
GEF Medium-size project

FOCAL AREA
International Waters

STRATEGIC PROGRAM
Restoring and sustaining coastal and marine fish stocks and
associated biological diversity

DURATION
April 2009 – September 2011

MAIN PARTNERS
UNDP/GEF, ZSL/IOZ, IUCN/WCPA, FAO & FAO/NORAD Nansen
Program, CenSeam (CoML), ASCLME, SIODFA
                                              IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                  Overall goal

  “To apply an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries
    management for biologically- globally significant and
 commercially-important areas beyond national jurisdiction
  in the southern Indian Ocean, focusing on seamounts,
with a long-term aim to demonstrate innovative approaches
    to improve conservation and management of unique
   biodiversity and ecological resources in the high seas”




                                         IUCN – Global Marine Programme
  Sessile organisms
                             Why seamounts?
                                                                                  Octocoral gardens




Chrysogorgia spp. Davidson         Lophelia pertusa reef, Hatton Bank, NE
Seamount NOAA/MBARI                Atlantic DTi SEA programme


Sponge communities            Hotspots of biodiversity

                             Davidson Seamount (Benthoctopus) NOAA/MBARI




                                                                            New England Seamounts (Asteroids eating
                                                                            octocoral) NOAA

                                                                              Mobile predators


                                                                                    IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                    Why seamounts?
Evidence of strong coupling
between the pelagic and
benthic ecosystems in the
vicinity of seamounts

Diurnally migrating plankton
layers are trapped by
elevated topography and
preyed on by seamount
fauna (fish and benthic
organisms)

In turn, food-webs associated with benthic communities (e.g. coral
communities) may also help to drive the abundance and diversity of the
seamount ecosystem
                                                      IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                        Why seamounts?
                                      Alfonsino (NOAA)




                                                                  Oreo (NOAA)



                                        Habitats for
                                        commercially-important
                                        species



Spawning sites for demersal species
                                                            IUCN – Global Marine Programme
Serial depletion of seamount fisheries
                                           NE Chatham Rise               NW Chatham Rise                   S Chatham Rise
                                   100       t                    100                              100
                                               t
                                            ccc             c                             e
  Biomass (percentage of virgin)


                                                 t ct
                                                 ct c t c c
                                                      t cc    a
                                                              c
                                    30                  ttc       30                          a    30
                                     0                             0                                0
                                         1980    1990      2000         1980    1990        2000         1980    1990    2000
                                            Mid-East Coast                     Challenger                   Cook Canyon
                                           ccc                             cc                                   cc
                                   100       c cc                 100                              100
                                           c                                    c
                                                 c                             cc                                cccc
                                                 tcc
                                    30            etcccc a
                                                  t               30
                                                                                cccccccccccc
                                                                                                   30                cc ccc c
                                                        ccc                                                            c cc
                                     0                             0                                0
                                       1980 1990 2000                   1980    1990 2000                1980    1990 2000
                                                Puysegur                       East Cape                   Mercury-Colville
                                                    tc                                c                                t
                                   100                            100                              100                cc
                                                     tc                                cc
                                                     t                                                                  c
                                                                                         c                               c
                                    30               c            30                      ccccc    30
                                                     t                                                                    c
                                                                                                                           t
                                     0                             0                                0
                                         1980    1990 2000              1980    1990        2000         1980    1990    2000

40% of the world’s trawling grounds are now located in waters deeper
than the continental shelf (Roberts, 2002)
                                                                                                                     IUCN – Global Marine Programme
             Impacts of trawling
Tasmanian seamounts
Unfished




                                                 Fished




                             IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                  Objectives
Objective 1 – Biodiversity Assessment
Improve scientific understanding and capacity for monitoring,
assessment and analysis of high seas biodiversity and fisheries


Objective 2 - Governance
Enhance governance framework for high seas resources conservation
and management


Objective 3 - Management
Identify management and compliance options for deep and high seas
biodiversity in the southern Indian Ocean, based on precautionary and
ecosystem-based approaches


Objective 4 - Outreach
Raise awareness of and share knowledge with policy makers, the fishing
industry and the public regionally and internationally


                                                  IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                     Objective 1
Improve scientific understanding and capacity for monitoring,
assessment and analysis of high seas biodiversity and fisheries



 Fill a knowledge gap: the SIO remains the most significant gap in
 current knowledge of global seamount ecology and biodiversity


 Assess impact of fishing activities and effectiveness of Benthic
 Protected Areas


 Build regional capacity in deep sea monitoring, assessment and
 analysis through participation of scientists in the region in the cruise
 expedition (in collaboration with ASCLME)




                                                   IUCN – Global Marine Programme
   Database of all coral records on seamounts




SW Indian Ocean appears to be good
habitat for scleractinians and octocorals
according to habitat suitability models

                                            Rogers et al (in press), Clark et al (2006)

                                             IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                     Objective 1
Improve scientific understanding and capacity for monitoring,
assessment and analysis of high seas biodiversity and fisheries



 Fill a knowledge gap: the SIO remains the most significant gap in
 current knowledge of global seamount ecology and biodiversity


 Assess impact of fishing activities and effectiveness of Benthic
 Protected Areas


 Build regional capacity in deep sea monitoring, assessment and
 analysis through participation of scientists in the region in the cruise
 expedition (in collaboration with ASCLME)




                                                   IUCN – Global Marine Programme
Distribution of deep-sea fisheries



                            ORH = orange roughy
                            BYX = Alfonsino




                                       IUCN – Global Marine Programme
Main areas at risk from orange roughy
fisheries




                                        IUCN – Global Marine Programme
Conservation measures: The industry answer

SIODFA recognise that something has to be done.
Proposed high-seas protected areas in the Indian Ocean (BPAs)




                                         IUCN – Global Marine Programme
Questions to be addressed

• Are the predictions of coral diversity on seamounts in the SW Indian
  Ocean accurate and are such models useful for predicting the
  occurrence of vulnerable marine ecosystems?
• What are the benthic communities of Indian Ocean seamounts like,
  how diverse are they?
• What is driving the seamount fisheries (energy supply to the seamount
  ecosystems)?
• What pelagic species are associated with the targeted seamounts in
  the SIO?
• Are the BPAs effectively contributing to conservation of vulnerable
  deepwater communities?
• Could the BPAs actually benefit fishing?
• What are the impacts of the continuing fishery?
• Can the current fisheries be managed in a sustainable way?
                                                    IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                     Objective 1
Improve scientific understanding and capacity for monitoring,
assessment and analysis of high seas biodiversity and fisheries



 Fill a knowledge gap: the SIO remains the most significant gap in
 current knowledge of global seamount ecology and biodiversity


 Assess impact of fishing activities and effectiveness of Benthic
 Protected Areas


 Build regional capacity in deep sea monitoring, assessment and
 analysis through participation of scientists in the region in the cruise
 expedition (in collaboration with ASCLME)




                                                   IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                      How & when
Cruise 1 – shared with ASCLME
- RV Dr. Fridtjof Nansen
- Aim: 40 days, November-December 2009
- Focus: pelagic ecosystems and biodiversity, pelagic fishery
 resources and oceanography
- Some activities:
   - Acoustic and net-studies of zooplankton, micronekton, nekton
     and fish populations
   - Sampling of animals for studies of pelagic biodiversity, trophic
     ecology, genetics
   - Sampling of fish for analysis of species diversity, age / size
     structure of populations and genetics



                                                     IUCN – Global Marine Programme
Cruise 2
- Led by IOZ/ZSL on the James Cook
- Aim: 40 days, end 2010
- Focus: benthic ecosystems and biodiversity, benthic fishery
 resources and impact assessment of bottom fishing activities
- Some activities:
   - ROV-based surveys of seamounts to estimate abundance
     and diversity of the fauna
   - Some surface-based sampling to analyse the diversity of
     smaller organisms living on seamounts (those not visible with
     ROV cameras)
   - Collection of specimens for taxonomic identification, trophic
     ecology studies, reproductive biological studies, genetic
     studies, palaeooceanographic analyses




                                                    IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                                    Where
Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge
• 5 seamount areas – all exclusively on the high seas
• 3 inside proposed BPAs (A, C & E)
• 2 outside BPAs (B & D)




                A = Coral, B= Melville, C = Bridle, D = Sapmer, E = Atlantis

                                                                     IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                     Objective 2
Enhance governance framework for high seas resources
conservation and management
 Legal Regime for the High Seas
 Global
  UNCLOS: Umbrella Convention covering all ocean uses
  CBD: Obligations to conserve and sustainably use marine
  biodiversity in ABNJ
   Fisheries-related: UNFSA: sustainable management of high seas
  highly migratory and transboundary fish stocks
 Regional
  IOTC: focuses only on tuna and tuna-like species
  SIOFA: focuses on deep-sea fisheries (not yet in force)
  SWIOFC: focuses on FAO area 51
 Project will undertake an institutional and legal gap analysis and
 develop a list of options for improvement and strengthening of
 the legal and institutional framework in the SIO
                                                 IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                     Objective 3
Identify management and compliance options for deep and high
seas biodiversity in the southern Indian Ocean, based on
precautionary and ecosystem-based approaches


 Identification of conservation and management options based on the
 precautionary and ecosystem-approach
 Identification of options for managing deep-sea fisheries to prevent
 significant adverse impacts to VMEs (UNGA Resolution 61/105,
 2006)
 Identification of appropriate monitoring, control and surveillance
 systems to maximise compliance and enforcement
 Development of a draft management framework for high seas
 biodiversity and important high seas areas in the SIO


Involvement of the fishing industry will play a key role

                                                  IUCN – Global Marine Programme
                      Objective 4
Raise awareness of and share knowledge with policy makers,
the fishing industry and the public regionally and internationally



 Website
 Dissemination of information at relevant regional and international
 fora (policy briefs, research results, etc.)
 Display and films
 Pictorial book on seamounts
 Linkages with international programmes and networks (CenSeam,
 Seamounts online, etc.)




                                                    IUCN – Global Marine Programme
THANK YOU!

				
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