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Southern Baptist Convention

Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
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Southeastern Southern Southwestern

Southern Baptists
Background Christianity Protestantism Anabaptists General Baptists, Strict Baptists & Reformed Baptists Landmarkism Conservative/ Fundamentalist Ascendance Baptist theology London Confession, 1689 New Hampshire Confession, 1833 Baptist Faith & Message Doctrinal distinctives Biblical inerrancy Autonomy of the local church Priesthood of believers Two ordinances Individual soul liberty Separation of church and state Two offices People Deceased John Spilsbury Lottie Moon · Annie Armstrong B. H. Carroll W. A. Criswell · Monroe E. Dodd Adrian Rogers · Jerry Falwell, Sr. Living Mark Dever · James T. Draper, Jr. Billy Graham · Franklin Graham Jack Graham Mike Huckabee · Johnny Hunt Richard Land · Duke K. McCall James Merritt · Albert Mohler Paige Patterson · Pat Robertson Charles F. Stanley Rick Warren Related organizations Cooperative Program North American Mission Board International Mission Board LifeWay Christian Resources Women’s Missionary Union Liberty Commission Baptist Press Canadian Convention Seminaries Golden Gate Midwestern New Orleans

The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States-based, mostly conservative[1] Christian denomination. The name "Southern" stems from its having been founded and rooted in the Southern United States. The SBC became a separate denomination in 1845 in Augusta, Georgia, following a regional split with northern Baptists over the issues of slavery and missions. It has become the world’s largest Baptist denomination and America’s largest Protestant body with over 16 million members and more than 42,000 churches.[2] Southern Baptists put a heavy emphasis on the individual conversion experience including a public immersion in water for baptism and a corresponding rejection of infant baptism.[1] Hence, membership statistics do not include infants or children who have not received believer’s baptism. SBC churches are evangelical in doctrine and practice. Specific beliefs based on biblical interpretation can vary somewhat due to the congregational governance system that gives autonomy to individual local Baptist churches. Since the 1940s, the SBC has lost some of its regional identity.[3] While still heavily concentrated in the US South, the SBC has member churches across America and has 42 state conventions.[1]

Further information: Baptists in the United States

Arrival in America
Most early Baptists in the colonies came from England in the seventeenth century when the king and the state church persecuted them for holding their distinct religious views. Baptists like Roger Williams and Dr. John Clarke immigrated to New England in the 1630s. The oldest Baptist church in the South, First Baptist Church, Charleston, South


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Carolina, was organized in 1682 under the leadership of Rev. William Screven. A Baptist church was formed in the Virginia colony in 1715 through the preaching of Robert Norden, and one in North Carolina in 1727 through the ministry of Paul Palmer. By 1740, there were about eight Baptist churches in the colonies of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, with an estimated 300-400 members.[4] New members, both black and white, were converted chiefly by northern Baptist preachers who traveled in the South during the Great Awakening. Baptists welcomed blacks to more active roles than did other denominations. As a result, black congregations and churches were founded in South Carolina, Virginia and Georgia before the Revolution.[5] In Virginia and most southern colonies before the Revolution, the Anglican Church was the state-established church and supported by general taxes, as it was in Great Britain. It opposed the rapid spread of Baptists in the South. Particularly in Virginia, many Baptist preachers were prosecuted for "disturbing the peace" by preaching without licenses from the Anglican Church. Both Patrick Henry and James Madison defended Baptist preachers prior to the American Revolution in cases considered significant to the history of religious freedom. Madison later took his ideas about the importance of religious freedom to the Constitutional Convention, where he ensured they were incorporated into the constitution. Once the Revolution began, Baptists soon became active patriots in the cause.

Southern Baptist Convention
Baptists struggled to gain a foothold in the South. The next generation of Baptist preachers accommodated themselves to the society. Rather than challenging the gentry on slavery, they began to interpret the Bible as supporting its practice. In the two decades after the Revolution, preachers abandoned their pleas that slaves be freed by their owners (manumission).[7] Many Baptist preachers even wanted to preserve the rights of ministers themselves to be slaveholders.[8] The Triennial Convention and the Home Mission Society reaffirmed their neutrality concerning slavery. Georgia Baptists decided to test the claimed neutrality by recommending a slaveholder to the Home Mission Society as a missionary in the South. Home Mission Society’s board refused to appoint a slaveholder as a missionary, a decision that the Baptists in the South saw as an infringement of their rights.[9] A secondary issue that disturbed the churches in the South was the perception that the American Baptist Home Mission Society[10] did not appoint a proportionate number of missionaries to the southern region of the U.S. This was likely a result of the Society’s not appointing slave owners as missionaries.[11] Baptists in different regions also preferred different types of denominational organization. Baptists in the north preferred a loosely structured society composed of individuals who paid annual dues, with each society usually focused on a single ministry. Baptists in southern churches preferred a more centralized organization of congregations composed of churches patterned after their associations, with a variety of ministries brought under the direction of one denominational organization.[12]

Birth pains
By the mid-1800s, numerous social, cultural, economic, and political differences existed among business owners of the North, farmers of the West, and planters of the South. These differences led to the formation of three separate Baptist national societies: the Triennial Convention, the Home Mission Society, and Baptists in the South. Slavery was the most critical issue among Baptists. Early Baptist and Methodist evangelicals in the South before the Revolution had promoted the view of the common man’s equality before God, which embraced African Americans. They challenged the hierarchies of class and race, and urged planters to abolish slavery.[6]

Formation of the SBC
The increasing tensions and discontent of Baptists from the South regarding national criticism of slavery and issues over missions led to their withdrawal from the national Baptist organizations.[13] They met at the First Baptist Church of Augusta,[14] in May 1845. At this historic meeting they formed a new convention, naming it the Southern Baptist Convention. They elected William Bullein Johnson (1782-1862) as the new convention’s first president. He had served as


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president of the Triennial Convention in 1841.

Southern Baptist Convention
Williams · John Bunyan · Shubal Stearns · Andrew Fuller · Charles Haddon Spurgeon Baptist Associations and Conventions Baptist Portal

Consequences and repentance of early racism
Residual effects of the decision to separate from other Baptists in defense of white supremacy and the institution of slavery have been long lived. A survey by SBC’s Home Mission Board in 1968 showed that only eleven percent of Southern Baptist churches would admit Americans of African descent.[15] African Americans gathered to develop their own churches early on, including some before the American Revolution, to practice their distinct form of American Christianity away from attempts by whites at control. Within the Baptist denomination, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, African Americans established separate associations. During the conservative resurgence, the Southern Baptist Convention of 1995 voted to adopt a resolution[16] renouncing its racist roots and apologizing for its past defense of slavery.[17] The resolution repenting racism marked the denomination’s first formal acknowledgment that racism played a role in its early history. Today there are increasing numbers of ethnically diverse churches within the convention. Baptist numerical strength in the US remains greatest in the former slave-holding states.[18]
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Historical controversies
During its history, the Southern Baptist Convention has had several periods of major internal controversy. The denomination’s lack of a hierarchical form of government (polity) lends itself toward public displays of disagreement. • Landmarkism which led to the formation of Gospel Missions and the American Baptist Association as well as many unaffiliated independent churches. • The "Whitsitt controversy" (1896–1899),[19] in which Dr. William H. Whitsitt, professor at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, set forth his theory that the English Baptists did not begin to baptize by immersion until 1641, when a part of the Anabaptists, as they were then called, began to practice immersion. • The "Conservative Resurgence/ Fundamentalist Takeover" of 1979 was a traumatic disagreement that captured national attention.[20] Russell H. Dilday, president of the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary from 1978 to 1994, described the resurgence/takeover as having fragmented Southern Baptist fellowship and as being "far more serious than a controversy."[21] Dilday described it as being "a self-destructive, contentious, one-sided feud that at times took on combative characteristics." After 1979, Southern Baptists have become polarized into two major groups—moderates and conservatives. All leaders of Southern Baptist agencies were replaced with presumably more conservative (often dubbed "fundamentalist" by dissenters) to reflect the manner in which the majority of messengers (delegates) to the annual meeting of the SBC voted.[22]


Historical Background Christianity · Anabaptists General · Strict · Reformed Doctrinal distinctives Sola scriptura Congregationalism Priesthood of all believers Ordinances Individual soul liberty Separation of church and state Offices Confessions Pivotal figures John Smyth · Thomas Helwys · Roger

The SBC has grown from its regional, sectionalist roots to a major force in American and international Christianity. There are Southern Baptist congregations in every state and territory in the United States,


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though the greatest numbers remain in the Southern United States, its traditional stronghold. 1905 1920 1935 1950 1965 1980 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 President George W. Bush meets with the leadership of the Southern Baptist Convention in the Oval Office at the White House. Pictured with the President are Dr. Morris Chapman, left, Dr. Frank Page and his wife Dayle Page. The national scope of the Convention inspired some members to suggest a name change. In 2005, proposals were made at the SBC Annual Meeting to change the name from the regional-sounding ’"Southern Baptist Convention"’ to a more nationalsounding "North American Baptist Convention" or "Scriptural Baptist Convention" (to retain the SBC initials). The proposals were defeated.[23]

Southern Baptist Convention
1,900,000 3,150,000 4,480,000 7,080,000 10,780,000 13,700,000 15,400,000 15,900,000 16,600,000 16,306,246 16,266,920

Sources[25][26] The SBC has 1,200 local associations and 41 state conventions and fellowships covering all 50 states and territories of the United States. Through their "Cooperative Program," Southern Baptists support thousands of missionaries in the United States and worldwide. They fielded over 10,000 missionaries in 2005.

Relative decline in membership
Data from church sources and independent surveys indicate that since 1990, membership of SBC churches has declined as a proportion of the American population.[27] Historically, the Convention grew throughout its history until 2007 when membership decreased by a net figure of nearly 40,000 members.[28] Additionally, baptisms within the Convention have decreased every year for seven of the last eight years, and as of 2008 have reached their lowest levels since 1987.[29] This decline in membership and baptisms has prompted some SBC researchers to describe the Convention as a "denomination in decline".[30] Former SBC president Frank Page declared that if current conditions continue, half of all SBC churches will close their doors permanently by the year 2030.[31] This assessment is supported by a recent survey of SBC churches which indicated that 70% of all SBC churches are declining or are plateaued with regards to their membership.[32] The decline of the SBC became an issue leading up to the June 2008 Annual Convention.[33] Former SBC researcher, Curt Watke noted four reasons for the decline of the Southern Baptist Convention based on his research: increase in

The SBC claims to have more than 16.6 million members in 44,000 churches throughout the US. One internal study by the SBC shows that on average, 38% of the membership (6,138,776 members, guests and non-member children) attend their churches’ primary worship services.[24] Southern Baptists do not track church attendance by numbers in the primary worship service; they track attendance through participation in Sunday School. Year 1845 1860 1875 1890 350,000 650,000 1,260,000 1,240,000 Membership


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immigration, decline in growth among predominantly Anglo (white) churches, the aging of the current membership, and a decrease in the percentage of younger generations participating in church life.[34]

Southern Baptist Convention
• —a free church in a free state. Neither one should control the affairs of the other.[41] • —We honor the indigenous principle in missions. We cannot, however, compromise doctrine or give up who we are to win the favor of those we try to reach or those with whom we desire to work.[42] • —We affirm the autonomy of the local church.[43] • —The Cooperative Program of missions is integral to the Southern Baptist genius.[44] • —We affirm God’s plan for marriage and sexual intimacy—one man and one woman, for life. Homosexuality is not a valid alternative lifestyle.[45] • —At the moment of conception, a new being enters the universe, a human being, a being created in God’s image.[46]

Theology and practice
The general theological perspective of the churches of the Southern Baptist Convention is represented in the Baptist Faith and Message (BF&M).[35] The BF&M was first drafted in 1925. It was revised significantly in 1963 and again in 2000, with the latter revision being the subject of much controversy. The BF&M is not considered to be a creed, such as the Nicene Creed. Members are not required to adhere to it. Churches belonging to the SBC are not required to use it as their "Statement of Faith" or "Statement of Doctrine" (though many do in lieu of creating their own Statement). Despite the fact that the BF&M is not a "creed," faculty in SBCowned seminaries and missionaries who apply to serve through the various SBC missionary agencies must "affirm" that their practices, doctrine, and preaching are consistent with the BF&M.

Southern Baptists observe two ordinances: the Lord’s Supper and Believer’s baptism.[35] The denomination makes a theological distinction between their "ordinances" and the more familiar term "sacraments" since the latter implies a connection to one’s salvation.

Position statements
The official Web site of the Southern Baptist Convention lists ten "Position Statements" on various contemporary issues quoted below in whole or in part.[36] • —Laypersons have the same right as ordained ministers to communicate with God, interpret Scripture, and minister in Christ’s name[37] • —the accountability of each person before God[38] • —Statements of belief are revisable in light of Scripture. The Bible is the final word.[39] • —Women participate equally with men in the priesthood of all believers. Their role is crucial, their wisdom, grace and commitment exemplary. Women are an integral part of Southern Baptist boards, faculties, mission teams, writer pools, and professional staffs. The role of pastor, however, is specifically reserved for men.[40]

The Lord’s Supper
Southern Baptists observe the Lord’s Supper with no established frequency. Each local church decides whether it is to be observed monthly, quarterly, etc. Churches tend to use small individual glasses instead of a "common cup." Non-alcoholic grape juice is most often served instead of wine. Both leavened and unleavened bread may be served but the unleavened variety is served most frequently.

Southern Baptists practice Believer’s baptism, also known as credo-baptism (Gk. "belief"). Candidates for baptism must profess belief in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. Southern Baptists maintain the historic Baptist practice of administering baptism only to persons who have reached the "age of accountability,"[47] and who have made a personal commitment to Jesus Christ as Lord


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and Savior (believers). They hold to the historic Baptist belief that immersion is the only valid mode of baptism. Candidates for membership in an SBC church must already be or become baptized believers. Some SBC congregations will accept previous baptisms by immersion from other denominations that they consider of "like faith and order" as being valid, provided that they were performed after the individual accepted Christ for salvation.

Southern Baptist Convention
time the Baptist Faith and Message was revised in 2000, only .08% of all SBC churches were pastored by women. The BF&M gender restrictions inherently discourage any increase in that percentage.[51] (By contrast, 6.2% of Cooperative Baptist Fellowship (CBF) churches and 9.1% of American Baptist Churches, USA (ABC-USA) churches are pastored by women.) A woman’s role in ministry was one of the issues causing the CBF to break from the SBC[52]

Gender-based roles
The SBC voted in 2000 to revise its statement of faith, known as the Baptist Faith and Message (BF&M). Among the notable changes are two statements concerning gender roles in both ministry and marriage.[35] Although similar views have influenced Baptist groups in the past,[48][49] these additions to the Baptist Faith and Message represent the first time such statements have been integrated into the statement of faith of a major American body of Baptists.

The 2000 BF&M describes the family as: The husband and wife are of equal worth before God, since both are created in God’s image. The marriage relationship models the way God relates to his people. A husband is to love his wife as Christ loved the church. He has the God-given responsibility to provide for, to protect, and to lead his family. A wife is to submit herself graciously to the servant leadership of her husband even as the church willingly submits to the headship of Christ. She, being in the image of God as is her husband and thus equal to him, has the God-given responsibility to respect her husband and to serve as his helper in managing the household and nurturing the next generation. – Article XVIII. The Family.

While both men and women are gifted for service in the church, the office of pastor is limited to men as qualified by Scripture. – Article VI. The Church. By explicitly defining the pastoral office as the exclusive domain of males, the 2000 BF&M provision becomes the SBC’s firstever official position against women pastors. Autonomous local congregations are not required to adopt male-only pastors as their theological position. Neither the BF&M nor the SBC provides any mechanism to trigger automatic expulsion of congregations that adopt practices or theology contrary to the BF&M. However, going against the SBC’s official gender protocol that SBC defends on biblical grounds opens a local Baptist congregation to severe criticism and even further penalties. Some SBC churches that have hired a woman as pastor have been excluded from fellowship and membership in their local associations of Baptist churches. Fewer such expulsions have taken place within annual meetings of state conventions.[50] While this "male-only pastors" language is new to BF&M, it does not represent an innovation in Southern Baptist thought. At the

Worship services
Most Southern Baptists observe a low church form of worship that is less formal and uses no stated liturgy. Worship services usually follow a "Revivalistic" liturgy including: hymns; prayer; choral music by a choir, soloist, or both; the reading of Scripture; the collection of offerings; a sermon; and an invitation to respond to the sermon. Recently, many churches have incorporated various instruments and styles of music into their worship services (see contemporary worship). People may respond during the invitation by receiving Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior and begin Christian discipleship, to enter into vocational ministry, to join the church, or make some other public decision.


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Southern Baptist Convention
most SBC churches, these offices are reserved for men based on interpretation of certain New Testament scriptures (1 Timothy 2:11-14, 1 Timothy 3:1-13, and Titus 1:6-9).

Polity and organization
As is true of most Baptists, Southern Baptists’ typical form of government is congregationalist: each local church is autonomous, without formal lines of responsibility to organizational levels of higher authority. Deacons of each church are elected by the congregation. In some Baptist congregations, deacons function much like a board of directors or an executive committee authorized to make important decisions. Such congregations typically retain the right to vote on major decisions such as purchasing or selling property, large spending and the hiring or firing of pastors and other paid ministers. In recent decades, some SBC congregations have shifted the role of deacons to less governance and more ministering and nurturing responsibilities. One such model is the Deacon Family Ministry Plan in which the number of families in a local church is divided roughly among the active deacons. Each deacon is assigned responsibility for providing pastoral care and other spiritual nurture for the families assigned.[53][54][55] Baptist churches believe strongly in the autonomy of the local church. The Convention is therefore conceived as a cooperative association by which churches can pool resources, rather than as a body with any administrative control over local churches. It maintains a central administrative organization in Nashville, Tennessee. The Executive Committee, as it is called, has no authority over its affiliated state conventions, local associations, individual churches or members. It does exercise authority and control over seminaries and other institutions owned by the Southern Baptist Convention. The Convention’s confession of faith, the Baptist Faith and Message,[35] is not binding on churches or members. Politically and culturally Southern Baptists tend to be conservative. Most do not drink alcohol and in general they oppose abortion and homosexual activity.[1] There are four levels of SBC organization: the local congregation, the local association, the state convention, and the national convention.

Local congregation
Each congregation is independent and autonomous, except for certain "mission churches." Thus, each local congregation is free to: • Associate with or disassociate from the SBC (and/or any of its affiliates) at any time • Determine the level of support which it provides to SBC-affiliated programs and/ or other groups (though in order to affiliate with a local association or a state or the national convention, some minimum level of giving is required) • Conduct its own internal affairs (such as hiring and firing, determining its doctrinal statement and membership qualifications, order and format of services, and other matters) without approval from any higher level entity Certain smaller congregations, called "mission churches," are sponsored by one or more larger congregations or by Baptist associations. The ordinary goal is for each mission church to become self-supporting, and thus become an independent and autonomous church. A mission church is often created to reach a particular demographic group, such as residents of a new real estate development, a particular ethnic group or young families.

Local association
Most individual congregations choose to affiliate with Baptist associations, which are generally organized within certain defined geographic areas within a state (such as a county). The prior general rule was that only one association existed in a specific geographical area, did not cross state lines (unless a state convention consisted of multiple states), and did not accept churches from outside that area. For many years, particularly within metropolitan areas, numerous Baptist associations have existed within the same county. While some believe the conservative takeover of the SBC in the 1980s served as a catalyst to multiple associations, the paradigm in the SBC had existed prior to 1980.

Pastor and deacon
Generally, Baptists recognize only two Scriptural offices: pastor-teacher and deacon. In


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The primary goal of many associations is evangelism and church planting (i.e., assisting churches in starting "mission churches"). Even with related ministries, such as food pantries or crisis pregnancy centers, associational volunteers and staff who conduct the ministries often share an evangelistic message along with material and practical assistance. An association cannot direct the affairs of member churches but can set requirements for continued fellowship. For example, an association may initiate the "disfellowshipping" (or expulsion) of any church with which it disagrees, generally in areas of contentious practice or doctrine, such as: charismatic doctrine; a local church’s ordination of women or sanctioning homosexuality (such as through ordination or "blessing" of same-sex unions in any manner); or acceptance of "alien immersion" (the acceptance of members from Christian denominations who have been baptized with a method, such as sprinkling, not consistent with the typical Baptist requirement of immersion). Association meetings are generally held annually. The association is free to set the time and place, as well as determining the number of delegates (called "messengers") each church may send. Each church is allowed a minimum number; the general practice—at the association level and at the higher levels as well—is that larger churches that provide more financial support are allowed more messengers.

Southern Baptist Convention
sets the time and place, and determines the number of "messengers" (delegates) allowed per church. State conventions associated with the SBC include:[56] • Alabama Baptist State Board of Missions[57] • Alaska Baptist Convention[58] • Arizona Southern Baptist Convention[59] • Arkansas Baptist State Convention[60] • California Southern Baptist Convention[61] • Colorado Baptist General Convention[62] • The Dakota Baptist Convention[63] • Florida Baptist Convention[64] • Georgia Baptist Convention[65] • Hawaii Pacific Baptist Convention[66] • Illinois Baptist State Association[67] • State Convention of Baptists in Indiana[68] • Baptist Convention of Iowa[69] • Kansas-Nebraska Convention of Southern Baptists[70] • Kentucky Baptist Convention[71] • Louisiana Baptist Convention[72] • Baptist Convention of Maryland/ Delaware[73] • Baptist State Convention of Michigan[74] • Minnesota-Wisconsin Baptist Convention[75] • Mississippi Baptist Convention Board[76] • Missouri Baptist Convention [77] • Montana Southern Baptist Convention[78] • Nevada Baptist Convention[79] • Baptist Convention of New England[80] • Baptist Convention of New Mexico[81] • Baptist Convention of New York[82] • Baptist State Convention of North Carolina[83] • Northwest Baptist Convention[84] • State Convention of Baptists in Ohio[85] • Baptist General Convention of Oklahoma[86] • Baptist Convention of Pennsylvania & New Jersey[87] • South Carolina Baptist Convention[88] • Tennessee Baptist Convention[89] • Baptist General Convention of Texas (dually aligned with both the SBC and the CBF) • Southern Baptists of Texas Convention (SBTC) (convention formed as a conservative response to the more moderate Baptist General Convention of Texas) • Utah-Idaho Southern Baptist Convention[90]

State conventions
Individual congregations and associations may choose to affiliate into state conventions. With the exception of Texas and Virginia, which have two conventions, each state has only one convention. Some smaller states, in terms of number of SBC congregations, are affiliated into a larger multi-state convention. As with associations, the primary goal is evangelism and church planting. The state conventions support educational institutions, often institutions of higher education, and may support retirement and children’s homes. As with associations, the state convention cannot direct individual church affairs but can set requirements for affiliation. It can "disfellowship" churches at its discretion. The state convention generally meets annually,


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• Baptist General Association of Virginia (dually aligned with both the SBC and the CBF) • Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia (convention formed as a conservative response to the more moderate Baptist General Association of Virginia) • West Virginia Convention of Southern Baptists[91] • Wyoming Southern Baptist Convention[92] ADDITIONAL SUPPORTED AND AFFILIATED CONVENTIONS • Canadian Convention of Southern Baptists[93] • Convention of Southern Baptists of Puerto Rico[94] • International Baptist Convention Formally the European Baptist Convention (EBC)

Southern Baptist Convention
2. One additional messenger from each such church for every two hundred and fifty members; or for each $250.00 paid to the work of the Convention during the fiscal year preceding the annual meeting. 3. The messengers shall be appointed and certified by the churches to the Convention, but no church may appoint more than ten. 4. Each messenger shall be a member of the church by which he is appointed. Article IV. Authority: While independent and sovereign in its own sphere, the Convention does not claim and will never attempt to exercise any authority over any other Baptist body, whether church, auxiliary organizations, associations, or convention. – SBC Constitution[96]

Southern Baptist Convention Annual Meeting
The Southern Baptist Convention Annual Meeting consists of representatives, called "messengers," from cooperating churches. In the month of June, They gather to confer and determine the programs, policies, and budget of the SBC. Each church may be represented by up to 10 messengers, the exact number being determined by the church’s number of members and contributions to the national SBC organization.[95] The following quotation from the SBC Constitution explains the membership and description of "messengers" to each annual meeting: Article III. Membership: The Convention shall consist of messengers who are members of missionary Baptist churches cooperating with the Convention as follows: 1. One messenger from each church which (a) is in friendly cooperation with the Convention and sympathetic with its purposes and work. Among churches not in cooperation with the Convention are churches which act to affirm, approve, or endorse homosexual behavior; and (b) has been a bona fide contributor to the Convention’s work during the fiscal year preceding.

Affiliated organizations
Missions agencies
The Southern Baptist Convention was organized in 1845 primarily for the purpose of creating a mission board to support the sending of Baptist missionaries. The North American Mission Board, or NAMB, (founded as the Domestic Mission Board, and later the Home Mission Board) in Alpharetta, Georgia serves missionaries involved in evangelism and church planting in the U.S. and Canada, while the International Mission Board, or IMB, (originally the Foreign Mission Board) in Richmond, Virginia sponsors missionaries to the rest of the world. Among the more visible organizations within the North American Mission Board is Southern Baptist Disaster Relief. In 1967, a small group of Texas Southern Baptist volunteers helped victims of Hurricane Beulah by serving hot food cooked on small "buddy burners." In 2005, volunteers responded to 166 named disasters, prepared 17,124,738 meals, repaired 7,246 homes, and removed debris from 13,986 yards. Southern Baptist Disaster Relief provides many different types: food, water, child care, communication, showers, laundry, repairs, rebuilding, or other essential tangible items that contribute to


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the resumption of life following the crisis – and the message of the Gospel. All assistance is provided to individuals and communities free of charge. SBC DR volunteer kitchens provide more than 80% of the food distributed by the Red Cross in major disasters. SBC DR volunteers are easily recognizable in their bright yellow shirt and hats, and are often among the first to arrive at a disaster event.

Southern Baptist Convention
publishing houses in America and operates the "LifeWay Christian Stores" chain of bookstores. • Woman’s Missionary Union, founded in 1888, is an auxiliary to the Southern Baptist Convention, and helps facilitate two large annual missions offerings: the Annie Armstrong Easter Offering and the Lottie Moon Christmas Offering. • Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission,[101] is an entity of the Southern Baptist Convention that is dedicated to addressing social and moral concerns and their implications on public policy issues from City Hall to Congress. Its mission is "To awaken, inform, energize, equip, and mobilize Christians to be the catalysts for the Biblically-based transformation of their families, churches, communities, and the nation." The Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission was formerly known as the Christian Life Commission of the SBC.

SBC seminaries and colleges
There are six SBC theological seminaries devoted to religious instruction and ministry preparation. • Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary, Mill Valley, California • Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Kansas City, Missouri • New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, New Orleans, Louisiana (founded in 1916, first seminary created as a direct act of the SBC) • Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, Wake Forest, North Carolina • Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky (founded in 1859 in Greenville, South Carolina, and the oldest of the six institutions) • Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas There are multiple Baptist universities and colleges throughout the United states. See Southern Baptist-related Schools, Colleges, and Universities for further information.

Prominent Southern Baptists
This list does not assume that all are active in the SBC or living their lives according to Southern Baptist principles. The following well-known individuals identified themselves as Southern Baptists at some time:

Former members
• Jimmy Carter, former President of the United States. Carter publicly identifies himself with the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship because of his differences with the direction of the SBC leadership and beliefs, but he continues to be a member of a church which is still part of the Southern Baptist Convention.[102] • Bill Clinton, former President of the United States. Raised Southern Baptist, but left the Convention due to disagreement with its positions.[103] Working with Jimmy Carter to conduct "Celebration of a New Baptist Covenant" meeting of over 30 Baptist denominations and organizations in the US and Canada, which was held in Atlanta, January 30 February 1, 2008.[104][105] • Al Gore, Vice-President of the United States (1993–2001); Democratic presidential candidate in 2000. Gore was

Other SBC organizations
• Baptist Men on Mission,[97] formally known as Brotherhood, BMEN is the mission organization for men in Southern Baptist Churches. • Baptist Press,[98] the largest Christian news service in the country, was established by the SBC in 1946. • Guidestone Financial Resources[99] (founded in 1920 as the Annuity Board of the Southern Baptist Convention) exists to provide insurance, retirement, and investment services to ministers and employees of Southern Baptist churches and agencies. It underwent a severe financial crisis in the 1930s. • LifeWay Christian Resources,[100] founded as the Baptist Sunday School Board in 1891, which is one of the largest Christian


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raised as a Southern Baptist, but like Carter and Clinton, he formally left the Southern Baptist Convention due to his disagreements with many of the SBC’s positions. • Bill Moyers, raised a Southern Baptist and educated at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary. Now a member of The Riverside Church in New York City, a dually-aligned American Baptist-United Church of Christ congregation. Press secretary to President Lyndon Johnson, later publisher of Newsday, and wellknown journalist and TV commentator (CBS and PBS).

Southern Baptist Convention
[3] The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. "Southern Baptist Convention." doc/ 1O101-SouthernBaptistConvention.html [4] Baker, Robert A. "Southern Baptist Beginnings," 2001 Baptist History and Heritage Society. Online at: sbaptistbeginnings.htm [5] Raboteau, Albert J., Slave Religion: The "invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004 (25th anniversary edition), ISBN 0195174135 [6] ’’Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery. Greenwood Press, 1997. ISBN 0275957993, 9780275957995 [7] Christine Leigh Heyrman, Southern Cross: The Beginning of the Bible Belt, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998, pp.10-18, 155 [8] The origins of the Southern Baptist Convention: a historiographical [9] The Baptist Encyclopedia. Edited by William Cathcart. 2 Vols. Rev. ed. Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1883. Accessible online: staughton/triennial.htm. Accessed 04–25–2007. [10] Organized in 1832 [11] See 1G1-94160891.html. [12] McBeth, H. Leon. The Baptist Heritage: Four Centuries of Baptist Witness. Nashville: Broadman, 1987. [13] Baker, Robert A. "Southern Baptist Beginnings." Baptist History and Heritage Society. sbaptistbeginnings.htm [14] 1128.article First Baptist Church building landmark restoration] [15] The American Baptist Convention and the Civil Rights Movement: Rhetoric and Response, Dana Martin, 1999, page 44. [16] amResolution.asp?ID=899 [17] This Side of Heaven: Race, Ethnicity, and Christian Faith. Edited by Robert J. Priest and Alvaro L. Nieves. Oxford University Press, 2007, pp 275 and 339 [18] Department of Geography and Meteorology, "Baptists as a Percentage

Continuing members
• Billy Graham - Preacher and educator • Franklin Graham - Evangelist and missionary (son of Billy Graham) • Dr. Charles F. Stanley - Senior pastor of First Baptist Church Atlanta and founder of In Touch Ministries. • Zach Johnson - Professional golfer[106] • Jack Graham - Former President of the Southern Baptist Convention and current pastor of mega-church Prestonwood Baptist Church. • Rick Warren - Pastor of the 20,000-member Saddleback Church in California and author of The PurposeDriven Life • Mike Huckabee - Former Southern Baptist Minister, governor of Arkansas, and Republican candidate in the 2008 Presidential primaries • Duncan Hunter - US Congressman from San Diego County • Billy Ray Cyrus - Country singer • Miley Cyrus - Pop singer and actress • Dakota Fanning - Actress • Elle Fanning - Actress • S. Truett Cathy - Founder of Chick-fil-A • Justin Gaston - Underwear model and country singer • Anita Bryant - Pop Singer

[1] ^ politicsNews/idUSN1033434120080610 [2] 1P2-9918150.html


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Southern Baptist Convention

of all Residents, 2000" Valparaiso [37] University, Valparaiso, Indiana. pspriesthood.asp Priesthood of all [19] History of Kentucky Baptists — believers 1770-1922 [38] SBC Position Statements - Soul [20] Flick, David. "How Fundamentalist Competency Myths Changed the SBC." Onine: [39] Soul competency Kingmaker%20Myth.htm. Accessed July [40] 2, 2007 pswomen.asp Women in ministry [21] Dilday, Russell. Higher Ground: A Call [41] for Christian Civility. Macon, Georgia: Church and state Smyth and Helwys, 2007. ISBN [42] 1–57312–469–9. psmissions.asp Missions [22] Humphreys, Fisher. The Way We Were: [43] How Southern Baptist Theology Has psautonomy.asp Autonomy of local Changed and What It Means to Us All. church Macon, Georgia: Smyth & Helwys, 2002. [44] ISBN 1–57312–376–5 pscooperation.asp Cooperation [23] Southern Baptist Convention Tuesday [45] Evening June 15, 1999 pssexuality.asp Sexuality [24] [46] 2007SBCAnnual.pdf pssanctity.asp Sanctity of life [25] Historical Statistics of the U.S. (1976) [47] Age of Accountability: the age at which a series H805 (with 2005 estimate from child is old enough to understand the Convention figures). moral consequences of his or her actions [26] Southern Baptist numbers, baptisms and can be held accountable for sins. drop | [48] Aldon D. Morris and Shayne Lee. "The [27] National Baptist Convention: Traditions {CDA250E8–8866–4236–9A0Cand Contemporary Challenges." C646DE153446}/ Available online: RCS_Comparison_1990_2000.pdf [28] faculty/morris/docmorrislee-baptist.pdf BB_PDFS/BB_apr30_2008.pdf Northwestern University Website. [29] Accessed 07–19–2007. Pages 27-38 article_main_page/ contain a discussion of long-standing 0,1703,A%3D167523&M%3D201280,00.html attitudes regarding gender and their [30] relationship to ministry. 2008/04/ [49] "Baptist General Convention position the_end_of_the_beginning_1.html statement on The Family Unit - Adopted [31] 1973." Available online: 4421.article [32] 69/ Baptist General Convention Website. bpnews.asp?ID=19542 Accessed 07–19–2007. [33] [50] Campbell, Kristen. "Baptist Church sharedcontent/dws/dn/religion/stories/ Ousted for Hiring Woman Pastor." DNReligion News Service. Available online: relSBC_07met.ART.West.Edition1.467b548.html [34] story_20231_1.html Accessed 09-26-2007 4421.article [51] Tammi Reed Ledbetter. "SBC and [35] ^ Women Pastors, Comprehensive Report bfmcomparison.asp Comparison of 1925, Does Not Sustain Inflated Statistics 1963, 2000 versions (October 2000)." Available online: [36] positionstatements.asp Position b2barticle.asp?ID=228 Baptist 2 Baptist statements Website. Accessed 07-19-07


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[52] Campbell-Reed, Eileen R. and Pamela R. Durso. "Assessing Attitudes About Women in Baptist Life (2006)." Available online: html/main/welcome.html Baptist Women in Ministry Website. Accessed 07-18-2007 [53] Emerging models of deacon ministry [54] [55] DeaconTraining.pdf [56] Complete Listing of SBC aligned State Conventions [57] Alabama Baptist State Board of Missions [58] Alaska Baptist Convention [59] Arizona Southern Baptist Convention [60] Arkansas Baptist State Convention [61] California Southern Baptist Convention [62] Colorado Baptist General Convention [63] Dakota Baptist Convention [64] Florida Baptist Convention [65] Georgia Baptist Convention [66] Hawaii Pacific Baptist Convention [67] Illinois Baptist State Association [68] State Convention of Baptists in Indiana [69] Baptist Convention of Iowa [70] Kansas-Nebraska Convention of Southern Baptists [71] Kentucky Baptist Convention [72] Louisiana Baptist Convention [73] Baptist Convention of Maryland/ Delaware [74] Baptist State Convention of Michigan [75] Minnesota-Wisconsin Baptist Convention [76] Mississippi Baptist Convention Board [77] Missouri Baptist Convention [78] Montana Southern Baptist Convention [79] Nevada Baptist Convention [80] Baptist Convention of New England [81] Baptist Convention of New Mexico [82] Baptist Convention of New York [83] Baptist State Convention of North Carolina [84] Northwest Baptist Convention [85] State Convention of Baptists in Ohio [86] Baptist General Convention of Oklahoma [87] Baptist Convention of Pennsylviania & New Jersey [88] South Carolina Baptist Convention [89] Tennessee Baptist Convention [90] Utah-Idaho Southern Baptist Convention [91] West Virginia Convention of Southern Baptists [92] Wyoming Southern Baptist Convention [93] Canadian National Baptist Convention

Southern Baptist Convention
[94] Convention of Southern Baptists of Puerto Rico [95] "Becoming A Church Messenger." messenger.asp [96] About Us - Constitution [97] Baptist Men on Mission [98] Baptist Press - News with a Christian Perspective [99] Guidestone Financial Resources [100] ttp://]\ h [101]1] [ [102] ttp:// h 10_23/pages/carter.html [103] ill Clinton’s sermon on being a good B Christian without being a republican [104]Carter & Clinton call for ’New Baptist " Covenant.’" Baptist Press," January 10, 2007. [105] ew Baptist Covenant Celebration N News [106] aptist Press B

Primary sources
• Baker, Robert. ed. A Baptist Source Book. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman Press, 1966. • Religious Congregations & Membership in the United States, 2000. Glenmary Research Center

Secondary sources
• Ammerman, Nancy, Baptist Battles: Social Change and Religious Conflict in the Southern Baptist Convention. Rutgers University Press, 1990. • Ammerman, Nancy, ed. Southern Baptists Observed University of Tennessee Press, 1993. • Baker, Robert. The Southern Baptist Convention and Its People, 1607–1972. Broadman Press, 1974. • Barnes, William. The Southern Baptist Convention, 1845–1953 Broadman Press, 1954. • Eighmy, John. Churches in Cultural Captivity: A History of the Social Attitudes of Southern Baptists. University of Tennessee Press, 1972. • Encyclopedia of Southern Baptists: Presenting Their History, Doctrine, Polity, Life, Leadership, Organization & Work Knoxville: Broadman Press, v 1–2 (1958),


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1500 pp; 2 supplementary volumes 1958 and 1962; vol 5 = Index, 1984 Farnsley II, Arthur Emery, Southern Baptist Politics: Authority and Power in the Restructuring of an American Denomination; Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994 Fuller, A. James. Chaplain to the Confederacy: Basil Manly and Baptist Life in the Old South (2002) Gatewood, Willard. Controversy in the 1920s: Fundamentalism, Modernism, and Evolution. Vanderbilt University Press, 1969. Hankins, Barry. Religion and American Culture. Tuscaloosa and London: University of Alabama Press, 2002. Argues that Baptist conservatives see themselves as cultural warriors critiquing a secular and liberal America Harvey, Paul. Redeeming the South: Religious Cultures and Racial Identities among Southern Baptists, 1865–1925. University of North Carolina Press, 1997 Heyrman, Christine Leigh. Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt (1998) 1770–1860 Hill, Samuel, et al. Encyclopedia of Religion in the South (2005) Kell, Carl L. and L. Raymond Camp, In the Name of the Father: The Rhetoric of the New Southern Baptist Convention. Southern Illinois University Press, 1999 Leonard, Bill J. God’s Last and Only Hope: The Fragmentation of the Southern Baptist Convention. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1990. Lumpkin, William L. Baptist History in the South: Tracing through the Separates the

Southern Baptist Convention
Influence of the Great Awakening, 1754–1787 (1995) Marsden, George. Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of 20th Century Evangelicalism. Oxford University Press, 1980. Rosenberg, Ellen. The Southern Baptists: A Subculture in Transition. University of Tennessee Press, 1989. Scales, T. Laine. All That Fits a Woman: Training Southern Baptist Women for Charity and Mission, 1907–1926 Mercer U. Press 2002 Smith, Oran P. The Rise of Baptist Republicanism (1997), on recent voting behavior Spain, Rufus B. At Ease in Zion: A Social History of Southern Baptists, 1865–1900 (1961) Sutton, Jerry. The Baptist Reformation: The Conservative Resurgence in the Southern Baptist Convention (2000). Wills, Gregory A. Democratic Religion: Freedom, Authority, and Church Discipline in the Baptist South, 1785–1900. Oxford University Press, 1997 Yarnell III, Malcolm B. The Formation of Christian Doctrine (2007), on Baptist theology















• •

External links
• Official website • Clarifying The Bible - A schematic for the Bible • Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives • Baptist Theology • Article by Wayne Flynt in the Encyclopedia of Alabama



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