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Next Generation Library Automation

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									         La Nueva Generación en
       Automatización de Bibliotecas


Marshall Breeding
Director for Innovative Technologies and Research
Vanderbilt University
http://staffweb.library.vanderbilt.edu/breeding
http://www.librarytechnology.org/
     Breeding – NASIG June 6, 2008
                 Abstract
“Next Generation Library Automation”
 gives a forward-looking view of some of the
 initiatives currently underway that stand to
 substantially revise the models of
 automation for libraries.
                         Rethinking the ILS
   Fundamental assumption: Print + Digital = Hybrid libraries
   Traditional ILS model not adequate for hybrid libraries
   Libraries currently moving toward surrounding core ILS
    with additional modules to handle electronic content
   New discovery layer interfaces replacing or supplementing
    ILS OPACS
   Working toward a new model of library automation
       – Monolithic legacy architectures replaced by fabric of SOA
         applications
       – Comprehensive Resource Management



“It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007
          ILS: a legacy concept
 ILS = Integrated Library System
   (Cataloging + Circulation + OPAC + Serials +
     Acquisitions)
 Focused on print and physical inventory
 Electronic content at the Journal Title or collection
  level
 Emerged in the 1960’s – 1970’s
 Functionality has evolved and expanded, but basic
  concepts and modules remain intact
 Note: Some companies work toward evolving the ILS to
  competently handle both print and digital content (e.g.
  Innovative Interfaces)
      ILS: ever diminishing role
 Many libraries putting much less emphasis on ILS
 Just an inventory system for physical materials
 Investments in electronic content increasing
 Management of e-content handled outside of the
  ILS
 Yet: libraries need comprehensive business
  automation more than ever. Mandate for more
  efficient operations. Do more with less.
Dis-integration of Library Automation
             Functionality
   ILS -- Print and Physical inventory
   OpenURL Link resolver
   Federated Search
   Electronic Resource Management Module
    – More about this later
 Discovery layer interface
     Is non-integrated automation
              sustainable?
 Major burden on library personnel
 Serial procurement / installation /
  configuration / maintenance cycles take
  many years to result in a comprehensive
  environment
 Inefficient data models
 Disjointed interfaces for library users
 Very long cycle to gain comprehensive
  automation
  Electronic Resource Management
              Systems
 Automation Module specifically designed to
  manage a library’s subscriptions to electronic
  content
 Managed approach for all aspects of electronic
  subscription content
  – Product coverage, license terms, cost, payment and
    procurement data, vendor data, use data
 COUNTER compliant use statistics
 SUSHI for automated gathering of use statistics
  Electronic Resource Management
              Systems
 Promising but troubled genre of software designed
  to manage e-content
 Extending ILS acquisitions to handle license terms
  and other aspects of electronic subscriptions
 Very slow adoption by libraries
 Complex integration issues
 Products launched in 2002-2004
 Increased adoption expected in next 2 years
            Profile-based e-content
                  management
 Reliance on a knowledgebase that describes the contents
  of all available publisher packages and aggregated content
  offerings
 Ability to identify individual titles and articles available to
  library users based on a profile of the library’s current
  subscriptions
 OpenURL link resolvers and ERM products both depend
  on the knowledgebase
 Synchronization of ILS through MARC update services
 Efficacy of these products depends as much on the
  accuracy and currency of the knowledgebase than the
  quality of the software
                  ERM Deployments
Product              Innovative           Verde         360 Resource      TDNet Open
                         ERM                              Manager           ERAM

Company               Innovative        Ex Libris           Serials       TDNet
                      Interfaces                           Solutions

Introduced               June              June             October
                         2002              2004              2005

Number Sold                    275              169                   227 Not disclosed

Number in                      235                25                  174 Not disclosed
Production Use

          “Helping you buy: Electronic Resource Management Systems”
          Computers in Libraries: July 2008 issue
    E-Journal Knowledge bases
     Commercial               Community
 Serials Solutions       JAKE: jointly
  – (KnowledgeWorks)       administered knowledge
 Ex Libris                environment was an
  – (SFX Global            collaborative project
    Knowledgebase)        Now defunct. Displaced
 TD Net                   by commercial ventures.
 Openly Informatics /
  OCLC
     New genre of discovery layer
             interfaces
 Traditional ILS OPAC inadequate for today’s
  Web-savvy library users
 Scope too narrow
 Complex, non-intuitive interface
 Yet: Necessary for some types of research
 Working toward a single point of entry for all
  the content and services offered by the
  library
       Common Next-Gen Interface
              features
   Decoupled interface
   Advanced search engines
   Relevancy ranked results
   Faceted Navigation
   Graphically enriched displays
   Real-time interaction with ILS
   Advanced user services and information
    delivery features
              Current Products
   Primo (Ex Libris)
   Encore (Innovative Interfaces)
   Aquabrowser (Bowker / Serials Solutions)
   WorldCat Local (OCLC)
   Visualizer (VTLS)
   eXtensive Catalog (University of Rochester)
   VUFind (open source / Villanova University)
   Scriblio (open source)

http://www.librarytechnology.org/discovery.pl
               Deep search

 Entering post-metadata search era
 Increasing opportunities to search the full
  contents
   – Google Library Print, Google Publisher, Open
     Content Alliance, Microsoft Live Book Search,
     etc.
   – High-quality metadata will improve search
     precision
 Commercial search providers already offer
  “search inside the book”
 No comprehensive full text search for books
      Advancement of Federated
              Search
 Shift from Distributed Query to Centralized Search
 Federated search based on distributed query:
   – Shallow results
   – Limited scalability
   – Slow performance
 Harvest metadata or full text for creating comprehensive
  consolidated indexes
   – E.g. Google Scholar
   – Non-commercial efforts?
   – The Royal Library of using the Deep Search architecture to present
     items found in the Digital Article Database Service repository of 65
     million articles, housed in the Technical Information Center of
     Denmark.
     Architecture and Standards
 Need to have an standard approach for
  connecting new generation interfaces with
  ILS and other repositories
 Proprietary and ad hoc methods currently
  prevail
 Digital Library Federation
  – ILS-Discovery Interface Group
  http://www.librarytechnology.org/blog.pl?ThreadID=43

 Initial foray into a broader set of protocols
  that open up other aspects of the ILS
For more information
          Next Generation Library
            Catalogs by Marshall
            Breeding
          Library Technology
            Reports June/July
            2007
          ALA TechSource
Moving toward a new Generation of
        Library Automation
 Legacy ILS concepts not sustainable
 New automation environment based on
  current library realities and modern
  technology platforms
 Equal footing for digital and print
 Service oriented architecture
    Breaking down the modules
 Traditional ILS
  – Cataloging
  – Circulation
  – Online Catalog
  – Acquisitions
  – Serials control
  – Reporting
 Modern approach: SOA
        Service Oriented Architecture




http://www.sun.com/products/soa/benefits.jsp
    Legacy ILS + e-content modules

  End User
  Interfaces:



                                  Circulation   Acquisitions

  Functional                                                              Electronic
  modules:      Federated                                      OpenURL    Resource
                 Search                                         Linking     Mgmt
                                  Cataloging     Serials                   System

Data Stores:



                   Staff Interfaces:
SOA model for business automation

 Underlying data repositories
  – Local or Global
 Reusable business services
 Composite business applications
     SOA for library workflow processes


                                     Composite
                                     Applications




                               Reusable
         Granular              Business
         tasks:                Services




Data Stores:
    Web Services and the Service-
       Oriented Architecture
 Library Technology Reports
   – May / June 2006
 By Marshall Breeding
 ALA TechSource
 The report includes conceptual descriptions of the
  technology as well as some technical information on how
  Web services are implemented. Library administrators or
  others that need to make decisions regarding library-
  related technology systems or issues will gain a
  perspective on the importance of this technology as well as
  how the implementation of Web services may relate to
  other library trends and initiatives.
              More Open Systems
 Pressure for traditionally licensed products to become more open
 APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) let libraries access and
  manipulate their data outside of delivered software
 A comprehensive set of APIs potentially give libraries more flexibility
  and control in accessing data and services and in extending
  functionality than having access to the source code.
 Customer access to APIs does not involve as much risk to breaking
  core system functions, avoids issues of version management and code
  forking associated with open source models.
         A Continuum of Openness




Breeding – NASIG June 6, 2008
                            Closed Systems

  End User
  Interfaces:

                                                            Programmer   No
                                                              access:    programmable
                                                                         Access to the
  Functional          Cataloging Circulation Acquisitions                system.
  modules:
                                                                         Captive to the
                                                                         user
Data Stores:
                                                                         Interfaces
                                                                         supplied by the
                                                                         developer

  Staff Interfaces:
                Standard RDBM Systems

  End User                                                               Database
  Interfaces:                                                            administrators
                                                                         can access data
                                                            Programmer
                                                                         stores involved
                                                              access:
                                                                         with the system:

  Functional          Cataloging Circulation Acquisitions                Read-only?
  modules:                                                               Read/write?

Data Stores:                                                             Developer
                                                                         shares database
                                                                         schema


  Staff Interfaces:
                      Open Source Model

  End User
  Interfaces:

                                                            Programmer
                                                              access:

                                                                         All aspects of
  Functional          Cataloging Circulation Acquisitions                the system
  modules:                                                               available to
                                                                         inspection and
Data Stores:                                                             modification.




  Staff Interfaces:
                           Open API Model

  End User
  Interfaces:

                                                            Programmer
                                                              access:    Core
                                                                         application
  Functional          Cataloging Circulation Acquisitions                closed.
  modules:
                                                                         Third party
                              Published APIs                             developers
Data Stores:
                                                                         code against
                                                                         the published
                                                                         APIs or
                                                                         RDBMS tables.
  Staff Interfaces:
      Open Source / Open API Model

  End User
  Interfaces:

                                                            Programmer
                                                              access:    Core
                                                                         application
  Functional          Cataloging Circulation Acquisitions                closed.
  modules:
                                                                         Third party
                              Published APIs                             developers
Data Stores:
                                                                         code against
                                                                         the published
                                                                         APIs or
                                                                         RDBMS tables.
  Staff Interfaces:
            Depth of Openness
 Evaluate level of access to a products data stores
  and functional elements:
  – Open source vs Traditional licenses
 Some traditional vendors have well established
  API implementations
  – SirsiDynix Unicorn (API available to authorized
    customer sites that take training program)
  – Ex Libris: consistent deployment of APIs in major
    products, recent strategic initiative: “Open Platform
    Program”
  – Innovative Interfaces: Patron API
             Universal open APIs?
 Some progress on API to support discovery layer interfaces, but no
  comprehensive framework yet.
 Many industry protocols work like APIs:
    – Z39.50, SRU/W, NCIP, OAI-PMH, OpenURL, etd
 It would be ideal if there were an open set of APIs that were
  implemented by all automation system products.
    – Third party components and add-ons would then work across all products.
 DLF ILS-Discovery Interface protocol. Targets interoperability between
  ILS and new genre of interfaces
         AKA: Berkeley Accords
                           Current initiatives




Breeding – NASIG June 6, 2008
       Comprehensive Resource
            Management
 Broad conceptual approach that proposes a library
  automation environment that spans all types of
  content that comprise library collections.
 Traditional ILS vendors: Under development but
  no public announcements
 Open Source projects in early phases
 Projection: 2-3 years until we begin see library
  automation systems that follow this approach. 5-7
  years for wider adoption.
       Open Library Management
                System
 Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
    – Research in Information Technology program
    – Solicited proposal / Lead institution
 Duke University selected to lead project
 Core Participants: Kansas University, Lehigh University,
  National Library of Australia, Library and Archives Canada,
  University of Pennsylvania, Marshall Breeding
 Advisory Participants: University of Chicago, Wittier
  College, University of Maryland, Orbis Cascade Alliance,
  Rutgers University
 Status: Proposal complete, pending consideration from the
  Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

http://www.mellon.org/grant_programs/programs/rit
          Questions and Discussion




Breeding – NASIG June 6, 2008

								
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