Santee_Sioux by zzzmarcus

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Očhéti Šakówį

• Isanti ("Knife," originating from the name of a lake in present-day Minnesota): residing in the extreme east of the Dakotas, Minnesota, and northern Iowa, and are often referred to as the Santee or Eastern Dakota. • Ihanktowan-Ihanktowana ("Village-at-theend" and "little village-at-the-end"): residing in the Minnesota River area, they are considered to be the middle Sioux, and are often referred to as the Yankton or Western Dakota. • Teton or Tetonwan (uncertain, perhaps "Dwellers on the Prairie"): the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture, and are often referred to as the . Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations, communities, and reserves in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, and also in Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan in Canada.

Sitting Bull, a Hunkpapa Lakota chief and holy man, circa 1885. Total population 150,000+ [1][2] Regions with significant populations United States (SD, MN, NE, MT, ND), Canada (MB, SK, AB) Languages English, Sioux Religion Christianity (incl. syncretistic forms), Midewiwin Related ethnic groups Assiniboine, Stoney (Nakoda), and other Siouan peoples

Oceti Sakowin
The historical Sioux referred to the Great Sioux Nation as the Oceti Sakowin (Očhéti Šakówį [oˈtʃʰetʰi ʃaˈkʰowĩ]), meaning "Seven Council Fires". Each fire was symbolic of an oyate (people or nation). The seven nations that comprise the Sioux are: Mdewakanton, Wahpetowan (Wahpeton), Wahpekute, Sissetowan (Sisseton), the Ihantowan (Yankton), Ihanktowana (Yanktonai), and the Teton (Lakota).[3] The Seven Council Fires would assemble each summer to hold council, renew kinships, decide tribal matters, and participate in the Sun Dance.[4] The seven divisions would select four leaders known as Wicasa Yatapicka from among the leaders of each division.[4] Being one of the four leaders was considered the highest honor for a leader; however, the annual gathering meant the majority of tribal administration was cared for by the usual leaders of each division. The last meeting of the Seven Council Fires was in 1850.[4] Today the Teton, Isanti, or Ihantowan/ Ihanktowana are usually known, respectively,

Sioux (pronounced /suː/) are a Native American and First Nations people. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or any of the nation’s many dialects. The Sioux comprise three major divisions based on dialect and subculture:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
as the Lakota, Eastern Dakota, or Western Dakota.[3] In any of the three main dialects, "Lakota, Dakota" all translate to mean "friend," or more properly, "ally." Usage of Lakota, Dakota may then refer to the alliance that once bound the Great Sioux Nation together.

all spoke mutually intelligible varieties of a Sioux idiom.[6] However, more recent study identifies Assiniboine and Stoney as two separate languages with Sioux being the third language that has three similar dialects: Teton, Santee-Sisseton, Yankton-Yanktonai. Furthermore, the Yankton-Yanktonai never referred to themselves using the pronunciation Nakhóta but rather pronounced it the same as the Santee (i.e. Dakhóta). (Assiniboine and Stoney speakers use the pronunciation Nakhóta or Nakhóda). The term Dakota has also been applied by anthropologists and governmental departments to refer to all Sioux groups, resulting in names such as Teton Dakota, Santee Dakota, etc. This was mainly because of the misrepresented translation of the Ottawa word from which Sioux is derived supposedly meaning "snake."[4]

Name origins
The name "Sioux" is an abbreviated form of Nadouessioux borrowed into French Canadian from Nadoüessioüak from the early Odawa exonym: naadowesiwag "Sioux".[5] It was first used by Jean Nicolet in 1640.[3] The Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake (massasauga, Sistrurus).[6] This information was interpreted by some that the Ottawa borrowing was an insult. However, this Proto-Algonquian term most likely was ultimately derived from a form *-a·towe·, meaning simply "speak foreign language",[5] which was later extended in meaning in some Algonquian languages to refer to the massasauga. Thus, contrary to many accounts, the old Odawa word naadowesiwag did not equate the Sioux with snakes. This is not confirmed though, since usage over the previous decades has led to this term having negative connotations to those tribes to which it refers. This would explain why many tribes have rejected this term when referring to themselves. Some of the tribes have formally or informally adopted traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is also known as the Sicangu Oyate, and the Oglala often use the name Oglala Lakota Oyate, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST. (The alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper).[3]

Modern geographic divisions
The Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska,South Carolina and also in Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan in Canada. The earliest known European record of the Sioux was in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin.[6] Furthermore, after the introduction of the horse, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Canada to the Platte River, from Minnesota to the Yellowstone River, including the Powder River country.[7]

Isanti (Santee or Dakota)
The Isanti migrated north and westward from the south and east into Ohio then to Minnesota. Some came up from the Santee River and Lake Marion, area of South Carolina which takes its name from them and where some of their ancient mounds can still be seen along the portion of the dammed-up river that forms Lake Marion. In the past, they were a woodland people who thrived on hunting, fishing and subsistence farming. Migrations of Anishinaabe/Chippewa (Ojibwa) people from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward,

The earlier linguistic 3-way division of the Dakotan branch of the Siouan family identified Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota as dialects of a single language, where Lakota = Teton, Dakota = Santee and Yankton, Nakota = Yanktonai & Assiniboine. This classification was based in large part on each group’s particular pronunciation of the autonym Dakhóta-Lakhóta-Nakhóta, meaning the Yankton-Yanktonai, Santee, and Teton groups


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giving the name "Dakota Territory" to the northern expanse west of the Mississippi River and up to its headwaters.[6]


Ihanktonwan-Ihanktonwana (Yankton-Yanktonai)
The Ihanktowan-Ihanktowana, also known by the anglicized spelling Yankton (Ihanktowan: "End village") and Yanktonai (Ihanktowana: "Little end village") divisions consist of two bands or two of the seven council fires. According to Nasunatanka and Matononpa in 1880, the Yanktonai are divided into two subgroups known as the Upper Yanktonai and the lower Yanktonai (Hunkpatina).[6] Economically, they were involved in quarrying pipestone. The Yankton-Yanktonai moved into northern Minnesota. In the 18th century, they were recorded as living in the Mankato region of Minnesota.[8]

Teton (Lakota)
The Sioux likely obtained horses sometime during the seventeenth century (although some historians date the arrival of horses in South Dakota to 1720). The Teton (Lakota) division of the Sioux emerged as a result of this introduction. Dominating the northern Great Plains with their light cavalry, the western Sioux quickly expanded their territory further to the Rocky Mountains (or Heska, "white mountains"). The Lakota once subsisted on the buffalo hunt, and on corn traded with the eastern Sioux and with their linguistic cousins the Mandan and Hidatsa along the Missouri.[6] Womendress of the Sioux

Ethnic divisions
The Sioux are divided into three ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, and further branched into bands. The Yankton-Yanktonai, the smallest division, reside on the Yankton reservation in South Dakota and the Northern portion of Standing Rock Reservation. The Santee live on reservations, reserves, and communities in Minnesota, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Canada. The Lakota are the westernmost of the three groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota. Today, many Sioux also live outside their reservations. • (Isáŋyethi)[9]

Baby sling of the Sioux


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• Mdewakantonwan ("Spirit Lake Village") notable persons: Taoyateduta • Sisseton (Sisitonwan, perhaps meaning "Fishing Grounds Village") • Wahpekute ("Leaf Archers") notable persons: Inkpaduta • Wahpetonwan ("Leaf Village") • • Yankton (Iháŋgtȟuŋwaŋ, "Those Dwelling at the End")[9] • Ihanktonwana (Yanktonai, "Little End Village") notable persons: Wanata, Chief War Eagle • • (Thitȟúŋwaŋ,[9] perhaps meaning "Dwellers on the Prairie"): • Oglala (perhaps meaning "Those Who Scatter Their Own") notable persons: Crazy Horse, Red Cloud, Black Elk and Billy Mills (Olympian) • Hunkpapa (Húŋkpapȟa,[9] meaning "Those who Camp by the Door" or "Wanderers") notable persons: Sitting Bull • Sihasapa ("Blackfoot Sioux,"[9] not to be confused with the Algonquianspeaking Blackfeet) • Minniconjou (Mnikȟówaŋžu, "Those who Plant by Water")[9] notable persons: Lone Horn, Touch the Clouds • Brulé (French translation of Sičáŋǧu, "Burned Thigh")[9] • Sans Arcs (French translation of Itázibčho, "Those Without Bows")[9] • Two Kettles (O’óhenupa, "Those who Boil Meat Twice")[9]

Nations." The land-holdings of the these First Nations are called "Reserves".

Modern reservations, reserves, and communities of the Sioux

* Reserves shared with other First Nations

Early History
The Dakotas are first recorded to have resided at the source of the Mississippi river during the seventeenth century.[11] By 1700 some of them have relocated to present day South Dakota.[12] Late in the 17th century, the Dakota entered into an alliance with French merchants,[13] who were trying to gain advantage in the struggle for the North American fur trade against the English, who had recently established the Hudson’s Bay Company.

Dakota War of 1862

Reserves and First Nations
Today, one half of all enrolled Sioux in the United States live off the reservation. Also, to be an enrolled member in any of the Sioux tribes in the United States, 1/4 degree is required.[10] In Canada, the Canadian government recognizes the tribal community as "First

This drawing of the mass hanging in Mankato, Minnesota was long a familiar icon in Minnesota. When 1862 arrived shortly after a failed crop the year before and a winter starvation, the federal payment was late. The local traders would not issue any more credit to the Santee and one trader, Andrew Myrick, went so far as to tell them that they were ’free to eat grass or their own dung’. As a result, on August 17, 1862 the Dakota War began when a few Santee men murdered a white farmer


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Reserve/Reservation Fort Peck Indian Reservation Community Bands residing

Location Montana, USA

Assiniboine and Hunkpapa, Upper YankSioux Tribes tonai (known as the Cut Head; Pabaksa), Mdewakantonwan, Wahpekute, Sisseton, Wahpeton, Assiniboine (Canoe Paddler, Red Bottom) Spirit Lake Tribe
(Mni Wakan Oyate)

Spirit Lake Reservation
(Formerly Devil’s Lake Reservation)

Wahpeton, Sisseton, Upper North Dakota, Yanktonai USA Upper Yanktonai, Hunkp North Dakota, South Dakota, USA South Dakota, USA

Standing Rock Indian Reservation Lake Traverse Indian Reservation Flandreau Indian Reservation

Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe

Sisseton, Wahpeton

Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, South Dakota, Wahpeton USA South Dakota, USA South Dakota, USA South Dakota, USA South Dakota, USA South Dakota, USA South Dakota, USA

Cheyenne River Indian Reservation

Cheyenne River Minneconjou, Blackfoot, Sioux Tribe Two Kettle, Sans Arc Lower Yanktonai Brulé Yankton Oglala, few Brulé

Crow Creek Indian Reservation Crow Creek Sioux Tribe Lower Brule Indian Reservation Lower Brule Sioux Tribe Yankton Sioux Indian Reservation Pine Ridge Indian Reservation Rosebud Indian Reservation Yankton Sioux Tribe Oglala Lakota

Rosebud Sioux Sićangu, few Oglala Tribe (also as Sicangu Lakota or Upper Brulé Sioux Nation)
(Sićangu Oyate)

Upper Sioux Indian Reservation Upper Sioux Community
(Pejuhutazizi Oyate)

Mdewakanton, Sisseton, Wahpeton

Minnesota, USA

Lower Sioux Indian Reservation Lower Sioux In- Mdewakanton, Wahpekute dian Community Shakopee-Mdewakanton Indian Shakopee Mde- Mdewakanton, Wahpekute Reservation wakanton Sioux Community (Formerly Prior Lake Indian

Minnesota, USA Minnesota, USA

Prairie Island Indian Community

Prairie Island Indian Community

Mdewakanton, Wahpekute

Minnesota, USA


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Mille Lacs Lake Indian Reservation Mille Lacs Band Ojibwa, Mdewakanton of Ojibwe (Mille Lacs Indians, St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Minnesota) St. Croix Chip- Ojibwa, Mdewakanton pewa Indians of Wisconsin Santee Sioux Nation Sioux Valley First Nation Mdewakanton, Wahpekute Sisseton, Mdewakanton, Wahpeton, Wahpekute

Minnesota, USA

St. Croix Indian Reservation

Wisconsin, USA Nebraska, USA Manitoba, Canada Manitoba, Canada Manitoba, Canada

Santee Indian Reservation Sioux Valley Dakota Nation Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve* Dakota Plains Indian Reserve 6A Dakota Tipi 1 Reserve Birdtail Creek 57 Reserve, Birdtail Hay Lands 57A Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve*

Dakota Plains Wahpeton, Sisseton Wahpeton First Nation Dakota Tipi First Nation Birdtail Sioux First Nation Wahpeton

Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Manitoba, Yanktonai Canada

Canupawakpa Dakota First Na- Canupawakpa tion Reserve, Oak Lake 59A Dakota Nation Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve* Standing Buffalo 78 Reserve Standing Buffalo Dakota First Nation Whitecap Dakota First Nation

Wahpekute, Wahpeton, Yanktonai

Manitoba, Canada

Sisseton, Wahpeton

Saskatchewan, Canada Saskatchewan, Canada Saskatchewan, Canada Saskatchewan, Canada Saskatchewan, Canada

Whitecap Reserve

Wahpeton, Sisseton

Dakota Plains Wahpeton Wahpeton First Nation Wood Mountain 160 Reserve, Treaty Four Reserve Grounds Indian Reservation 77* Wood Mountain Hunkpapa

Carry the Kettle Nakota First Carry the Kettle Assiniboine Nation Indian Reserves, First Nation Assiniboine 76 Reserve, Treaty Four Reserve Grounds Indian Reservation 77* Little Black Bear 84 Reserve, Treaty Four Reserve Grounds Indian Reservation 77* Little Black Bear CreeAssiniboine First Nation Cree, Assiniboine

Saskatchewan, Canada


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Mosquito 109 Reserve, Grizzly Bear’s Head 110 & Lean Man 111 Reserves, Mosquito, Grizzly Bear’s Head, Lean Man Treaty Land Entitlement Indian Reserve 1, Golden Eagle Indian Reserve Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man First Nations (Mosquito, Grizzly Bear’s Head, Lean Man) White Bear First Nation Assiniboine, Cree

Saskatchewan, Canada

White Bear 70 Reserve, Treaty Four Reserve Grounds Indian Reservation 77*

Assiniboine, Cree, Ojibwa

Saskatchewan, Canada Alberta, Canada

Stoney 142-143-144 Reserves, Bearpaw, Stoney 142B Reserve, Big Horn Chiniki and 144A Reserve, Eden Valley 216 Wesley Reserve and most of his family, igniting further attacks on white settlements along the Minnesota River. The Santee then attacked the trading post, and Myrick was later found among the dead with his mouth stuffed full of grass.[14] On November 5, 1862 in Minnesota, in courts-martial, 303 Santee Sioux were found guilty of rape and murder of hundreds of American settlers and were sentenced to be hanged. No attorneys or witness were allowed as a defense for the accused, and many were convicted in less than five minutes of court time with the judge.[15] President Abraham Lincoln remanded the death sentence of 284 of the warriors, signing off on the execution of 39 Santee men by hanging on December 26, 1862 in Mankato, Minnesota, the largest mass-execution in U.S. history.[16] Afterwards, annuities to the Dakota were suspended for four years and the money was awarded to the white victims. The men who were pardoned by President Lincoln were sent to a prison in Iowa, where more than half died.[15] During and after the revolt, many Santee and their kin fled Minnesota and Eastern Dakota to Canada, or settled in the James River Valley in a short-lived reservation before being forced to move to Crow Creek Reservation on the east bank of the Missouri.[15] A few joined the Yanktonai and moved further west to join with the Lakota bands to continue their struggle against the United States military.[15] Others were able to remain in Minnesota and the east, in small reservations existing


into the 21st century, including SissetonWahpeton, Flandreau, and Devils Lake (Spirit Lake or Fort Totten) Reservations in the Dakotas. Some ended up eventually in Nebraska, where the Santee Sioux Tribe today has a reservation on the south bank of the Missouri. Those who fled to Canada now have descendants residing on eight small Dakota Reserves, four of which are located in Manitoba (Sioux Valley, Long Plain [Dakota Tipi], Birdtail Creek, and Oak Lake [Pipestone]) and the remaining four (Standing Buffalo, Moose Woods [White Cap], Round Plain [Wahpeton], and Wood Mountain) in Saskatchewan.

Red Cloud’s War
Red Cloud’s War (also referred to as the Bozeman War) was an armed conflict between the Lakota and the United States in the Wyoming Territory and the Montana Territory from 1866 to 1868. The war was fought over control of the Powder River Country in north central Wyoming, which lay along the Bozeman Trail, a primary access route to the Montana gold fields. The war is named after Red Cloud, a prominent Oglala chief who led the war against the United States following encroachment into the area by the U.S. military. The war ended with the Treaty of Fort Laramie, resulting in a complete victory for the Sioux and the temporary preservation of their control of the Powder River country.[17]


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Great Sioux War of 1876-77
Between 1876 and 1877, the Great Sioux War of 1876-77 took place. The Lakota and their allies fought against the United States military in a series of conflicts. The earliest being the Battle of Powder River, and the final battle being at Wolf Mountain. Included are the Battle of the Rosebud, Battle of the Little Bighorn, Battle of Warbonnet Creek, Battle of Slim Buttes, Battle of Cedar Creek, and the Dull Knife Fight.

Wounded Knee Massacre

A young Sioux boy poses with a club while part of a "living display" a the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha c. 1898 Mass grave for the dead Lakota after massacre of Wounded Knee. The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota and the United States, subsequently described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.[18] On December 29, 1890, five hundred troops of the U.S. 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns (a lightweight artillery piece capable of rapid fire), surrounded an encampment of the Lakota bands of the Miniconjou and Hunkpapa [19] with orders to escort them to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. By the time it was over, 25 troopers and more than 150 Lakota Sioux lay dead, including men, women, and children. Some of the soldiers are believed to have been the victims of "friendly fire" because the shooting took place at point blank range in chaotic conditions.[20] Around 150 Lakota are believed to have fled the chaos, many of whom may have died from hypothermia. Usage of the Ghost Dance reportedly instigated the massacre.

Forced relocation

Traditional location of Sioux tribes (dark green and prior to 1770) and their current reservations (orange) Later in the 19th century, as the railroads hired hunters to exterminate the buffalo herds, their primary food supply, the Santee


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
and Lakota were forced to accept whitedefined reservations in exchange for the rest of their lands, and domestic cattle and corn in exchange for buffalo, becoming dependent upon annual federal payments guaranteed by treaty. In Minnesota, the treaties of Traverse des Sioux and Mendota in 1851 left the Sioux with a reservation twenty miles (32 km) wide on each side of the Minnesota River.

Falls/Minnehaha County (Mne haha: "waterfall"), Inyan Kara, Sisseton (derived from the orgiinal tribal name "Sissetowan"), Winona ("first daughter"), etc. Frontwoman Siouxsie Sioux of the postpunk band Siouxsie and the Banshees also derived her stage name from the "Sioux." The University of North Dakota’s athletic teams are known as the "Fighting Sioux." While there is a local desire to retain the mascot, numerous organizations other than the native tribe are asking the university to abolish it.[23][24]

Wounded Knee incident
The Wounded Knee incident began February 27, 1973 when the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota was seized by followers of the American Indian Movement. The occupiers controlled the town for 71 days while the United States Marshals Service laid siege.

Derived names from other Siouan languages
The name Nebraska comes from the related Chiwere language of the Siouan language family. Furthermore, the names of the states Kansas, Iowa, and Missouri derive from the names of other tribes within the Siouan language family: Kansa, Iowa, and Missouri, respectively. The names of the cities of Omaha, Nebraska and Ponca City, Oklahoma also derive from the Omaha and Ponca tribes. The names vividly demonstrate the wide dispersion of the Siouan language family across the Midwestern United States. Though they are considered part of the Siouan language family, none of these tribes or their languages are considered Sioux.

Republic of Lakota
The Lakotah Freedom Delegation, a group of Native American activists, declared on December 19, 2007 the Lakotah were withdrawing from all treaties signed with the United States to regain sovereignty over their nation. One of the activists, Russell Means, claims that the action is legal and cites Natural, International and U.S. law.[21] The group consider Lakotah to be a sovereign nation, although as yet the state is generally unrecognized. The proposed borders reclaim thousands of square kilometres of North and South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska and Montana.[22]


Derived names
The U.S. states of North Dakota and South Dakota are named for the Sioux. The name for Minnesota originated as the name of the Minnesota River in the heart of Isanti territory: Mnisota (mni translates to "water" and sota means "reflects the sky"). Several Midwestern municipalities utilize Sioux in their names, including Sioux City, Iowa, Sioux Center, Iowa, and Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Midwestern rivers include the Little Sioux River in Iowa and Big Sioux River along the Iowa/South Dakota border. Many smaller towns and geographic features in the northern Great Plains retain their Sioux names (some are heavily Anglicized) or English translations of those names. These are: Wasta (from "Waste" meaning "good"), Owanka, Oacoma, Rapid City (Mne luza: "cataract" or "rapids"), Sioux

Play video Video clip of a dance performed by a Sioux tribe from Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show. This is part of a group of films constituting the first appearance of Native Americans in motion pictures


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• The HBO movie Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee depicts the relocations and reservations from the Sioux perspective. • The films Dances with Wolves and Thunderheart contain depictions of the Sioux People. • "Elegy to the Sioux," a poem by Norman Dubie • The mini-series Into the West depicts the Sioux, specifically the Lakota, during some of first ventures of the "White Men" into the great plains and to the Rocky Mountains.

• Elizabeth Cook-Lynn, activist, academic, and writer • Mary Crow Dog, writer and activist • Vine Deloria, Jr., activist and essayist • Indigenous, blues band (Nakota) • Illinois Jacquet, jazz saxophonist (half Sioux and half African American) • Russell Means, activist (Oglala) • Ed McGaa, author, (Oglala) CPT US Marine Corp F-4 Phantom Fighter Pilot • Billy Mills, only American ever to win the 10,000 meters at the Olympics (1964) – Oglala • Eddie Spears, actor (Lakota Sioux Lower Brule) • Michael Spears, actor (Lakota Sioux Lower Brule) • Terry Ree, comedian • John Trudell,activist, poet, actor • Floyd Red Crow Westerman, singer and actor (Dakota) • Kim Winona (1930-1978), actress • Leonard Peltier, imprisoned for allegedly killing two FBI agents in 1975 • Woodrow Keeble, (Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate) first Sioux Medal of Honor recipient for his valor during the Korean War • Luther Standing Bear, Sioux author, actor, and rights activist

Famous Sioux
• Sinte Gleśka (Spotted Tail) — Brule chief • Taoyateduta (Little Crow) — Chief famous for role in the Dakota War of 1862 • Tatanka Iyotanke (Sitting Bull) — Chief famous for role in the Battle of Little Bighorn • Tasunka Witko (Crazy Horse) — Famous for leadership and courage in battle • Mahpia Icahtagya (Touch the Clouds) Famous for his legendary strength and size, a great warrior • Makhpiya-luta (Red Cloud) — Chief famous for role in Red Cloud’s War • Tasunkakokipapi (Young Man Afraid Of His Horses) — Oglala chief who participated in Red Cloud’s War • Ishtakhaba (Sleepy Eye) — Chief of the Sisseton band in the mid 19th century; signed four treaties[25] • Hehaka Sapa (Black Elk) — Lakota holy man, source of Black Elk Speaks and other books • Tahca Ushte (Lame Deer) — Lakota holy man, carried traditional knowledge into modern era • Ohiyesa Charles Eastman — Author, physician and reformer • Colonel Gregory "Pappy" Boyington — World War II Fighter Ace and Medal of Honor recipient; 1/4 Sioux • Wambditanka - Big Eagle - Mdewakanton Dakota chief - Narrated his account of the Dakota War of 1862

A Manitoba Historical Plaque was erected at the Spruce Woods Provincial Park by the province to commemorate Assiniboin (Nakota) First Nation’s role in Manitoba’s heritage. [26]

[1] "United States Census Data" (PDF). sa04aian.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. ew and their daughters 15 married 25 or over [2] "Ethnologue Report for Lakota". show_language.asp?code=lkt. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. [3] ^ Johnson, Michael (2000). The Tribes of the Sioux Nation. Osprey Publishing Oxford. ISBN 185532878X. [4] ^ Hassrick, Royal B.; Dorothy Maxwell, Cile M. Bach (1964). The Sioux: Life and Customs of a Warrior Society. University

• Robert "Tree" Cody, Native American flutist (Dakota)


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of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-0607-7. [5] ^ "Sioux". sioux. Retrieved on 2007-09-05. [6] ^ Riggs, Stephen R. (1893). Dakota Grammar, Texts, and Ethnography. Washington Government Printing Office, Ross & Haines, Inc.. ISBN 0-87018-052-5. [7] Mails, Thomas E. (1973). Dog Soldiers, Bear Men, and Buffalo Women: A Study of the Societies and Cults of the Plains Indians. Prentice-Hall, Inc.. ISBN 013-217216-X. [8] OneRoad, Amos E.; Alanson Skinner (2003). Being Dakota: Tales and Traditions of the Sisseton and Wahpeton. Minnesota Historical Society. ISBN 0-87351-453-X. [9] ^ Rood, David S. and Allan R. Taylor. (1996). Sketch of Lakhota, a Siouan Language. In "Languages", ed. Ives Goddard, pp. 440-482. Vol. 17 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution. [10] "Enrollment Ordinance". ccfolder/ sisseton_wahpeton_codeoflaw2.htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. [11] George E. Hyde, "Red Cloud’s Folk: A History of the Oglala Sioux Indians", University of Oklahoma Press, 1984, pg. 3, [1] [12] Michael Johnson, Jonathan Smith, Tribes of the Sioux Nation, Osprey Publishing, 2000, pg. 3, [2] [13] van Houten, Gerry (1991). Corporate Canada An Historical Outline. Progress Books. pp. 6–7. [14] Mark, Steil; Tim Post (2002-09-26). "m/part2.shtml Let them eat grass". Minnesota Public Radio. features/200209/23_steilm_1862 m/part2.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. [15] ^ Time-Life Books (1994). War for the Plains. Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-9445-0. [16] Mark, Steil; Tim Post (2002-09-26). "m/part5.shtml Execution and expulsion". Minnesota Public Radio.

Sioux features/200209/23_steilm_1862 m/part5.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. [17] *Brown, Dee (1970). Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, ch. 6. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-5531-1979-6. [18] Letter: General Nelson A. Miles to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, March 13, 1917. [19] Liggett, Lorie (1998). "Wounded Knee Massacre - An Introduction". Bowling Green State University. 1890s/woundedknee/WKIntro.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-02. [20] Strom, Karen (1995). "The Massacre at Wounded Knee". Karen Strom. Wounded_Knee.html. [21] Descendants of Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse break away from US, Agence FrancePresse news [22] Bill Harlan (21 December 2007). "Lakota group secedes from U.S.". Rapid City Journal. 2007/12/21/news/local/ doc476a99630633e335271152.txt. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. [23] "North Dakota to appeal ruling on Sioux mascot". 2005-09-25. story?id=2174858. Retrieved on 2007-08-18. [24] "Tribal Resolutions and other Resolutions asking for the removal of the "Fighting Sioux" moniker and name". resolutions.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-18. [25] Upham, Warren (2001). Minnesota Place Names, A Geographical Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition. Saint Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society. pp. 75. ISBN 0-87351-396-7. [26] Manitoba Plaque

External links
• Dakota Blues: The History of The Great Sioux Nation • The official Lakota Language Forum

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