Hardware vs. Software
• Local applications are programs or
software that can be run on a single
• The computer on which the local
application is running does not have to be
connected to a computer network such as
Examples of Local Applications
• Media Players (Windows Media Player,
RealPlayer, Winamp, …)
• Word Processors(MS Word, Latex, WordPad,…)
• Graphic, photo and animation applications
(PhotoShop, Word Photo Manager, 3D Studio
Local Applications in
• Accounting (Excel, …)
• Science and Engineering (Mathematica,
Math Lab, System R, Weka, … )
• Medicine ( Computerized Axial
Tomography scan )
• Broadly classified as either text file or
• Text file, the data are organized as
• Binary file requires specific interpretation
of the bits and the application which
supports this file knows how to interpret it.
• Usually the file name has two parts: the main name and the file
extension. The extension indicates the type of the file.
• Create a file
• Delete a file
• Open a file
• Close a file
• Read data from a file
• Write data to a file
• Delete contents of a file
• Rename a file
• Copy a file
• Append data to the end of a file
• Directory is a named collection of files. It is
a way to group files so that you can
organize them in a logical manner.
• In Windows methodology a directory is
called a folder.
• Other than files a folder can contain other
• A sequence of well-defined steps or
instructions for doing a task.
• An algorithm should end (Stop) at some
Word Processors - MS Word
• What you see is what you get!
• Word is a very popular text editing software.
• Enter and edit the text.
• Insert and edit images.
• Arrange page: orientation, border, shade, etc.
• Use bullets in Word.
• Check the grammar and spelling of the contents.
• A basic tutorial for MS word 2007 is available at:
Word Processors - LaTeX
• It is not very easy to write mathematical equations in
MS Word. A much better alternative is LaTeX.
• LaTeX is not a WYSIWYG.
• First we write a .tex file, then we compile it.
• A basic tutorial for Latex is available at:
• A spreadsheet is the computer equivalent of a paper ledger
sheet used by accountants couple of decades ago.
• Using ledger sheet a small mistake could have resulted in
redoing the whole page again. But we can undo any action.
• Also the calculation could have been overwhelming. But using
spreadsheets, computer will take care of calculations.
What is PowerPoint?
• A complete presentation graphics
• Gives you everything you need to produce
a professional-looking presentation.
• Offers word processing, outlining, drawing,
graphing, and presentation management
• A very simple graphics processing
application is the Paint.
• In a painting program, we decompose an
image into a collection of small dots,
known as pixels.
• If you zoom on a picture you will see these