Accounting Department Project Proposals - PowerPoint by zsm20820

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Accounting Department Project Proposals document sample

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									         Proposals
Dr. Thomas L. Warren, Professor
   Technical Writing Program
   Oklahoma State University
      Stillwater, OK 74078
      twarren@okstate.edu
 www.okstate.edu/artsci/techwr
                                  1/28
Overview

• Proposals in general
• Typical parts of a proposal
• Questions

 RFP       Proposal   Recommendation     Feasibility



             Project Completion Report


                                             2/28
Definition of Proposal

• Written offer to . . .
  . . . perform work, do research, or solve
   problems
     . . . another person has—who says, “How
       do I solve this problem of „Should I convert
       the Accounting Department from PC-
       compatible computers to Mac?‟”
     . . . proposal writer has—who says, “I have
       this problem of needing funding for my
       research project.”
                                            3/28
Definition, cont.

• Directed toward
  Governmental agency or agencies
     Agency has a need—Request for Proposal
       = RFP
  Foundation
     Agency has a need: RFP
  Company: Internal
     Department has a need: RFP


                                      4/28
Proposal Types (Generally)

• Solicited: Responds to an RFP
  Formal—complete with all the parts (cover,
    title page, front and back matter)
  Informal—typically an internal memo
• Unsolicited
  Formal
  Informal



                                         5/28
Types

                   FORMAL/INFORMAL


                         Proposal


           Solicited                  Unsolicited



    Known to      Unknown       Known to      Unknown
     Reader       to Reader      Reader       to Reader


                                                    6/28
Rhetorical Situation
• Your proposal will will persuade the reader that
  . . . you have a task analysis with reasonable
    assignments
  . . . and a realistic schedule with balanced
    work loads
  . . . you are qualified to work on the problem
  . . . you have a risk management plan
  . . . the schedule shows that you can
    complete the project on time

                                            7/28
Typical Parts of a Proposal

•  Format
   Front matter
   Introduction
   Body
    I. Technical section
    II. Management section
    III. Cost section
   Conclusion
• Attachments (Appendix materials)
                                     8/28
Typical Parts of the Proposal

I.   Technical elements—the technical solution to
     the problem
II. Management—proving that you can do what
     you say you will do
III. Cost—how much the solution will cost




                                           9/28
I. Technical Section

• Focus on client‟s needs
   Understand the client‟s . . .
     . . . limitations
     . . . capabilities
• Presents the problem(s)
   Does client know of problem? Determines . . .
     . . . amount of background
     . . . technical detail

                                          10/28
I. Technical Section, cont.

• Technical details
   Must convince client of . . .
     . . . your understanding of the problem
     . . . the soundness of the technical solution
   Provides a plan (tasks and schedule) for
    solving the problem




                                            11/28
I. Technical Section, cont.

• Contains
  Project´s purpose/scope (limitations)
  Methods/procedures (steps) and rationale
  Resources (physical, personnel, literature,
    etc.)
  Task breakdown (what will be done) and
    timetable (when will it be done)



                                          12/28
I. Technical Section, cont.

• Schedule
  Steps and tasks to solve the problem
  Time each task will take
  Start and end dates; relation to other tasks,
    duration and dependencies
  Personnel working on the task
     Currently available
     Need to hire (justify)


                                           13/28
II. Management Section

• Qualifications (prove you and your group can
  do the work)
   Focus on requirements to complete this work
   Formal schooling
     Courses taken in area of work
     Similar projects completed successfully
   Experience
     Work on similar projects
     Previous proposals submitted
• Reference résumés in Appendix
                                         14/28
III. Costs

• Budget I (usually not published; internal)
   Direct costs to you to solve the problem
   Include costs of final report
• Budget II (published; part of proposal)
   Costs to others to complete project
   Relate specifically to methods/ procedures
• At Proposal stage, "GOOD" estimates
• At Recommendation stage, “EXCELLENT”
  estimates
                                          15/28
Conclusion

• Last chance to “sell” client/reader
• Summary of project
   Problem
   Need for solution/benefits
   Methods/procedures
   Expected results
   Costs
• Urge for action by client/reader

                                        16/28
Appendix Materials

• Personnel resources and qualifications
• Working bibliography
• Additional information reader may need—for
  example
   Maps or photographs
   Histories of problem/proposed solution(s)
   Balance sheets to support need
• Résumés


                                          17/28
Typical Proposal Content

•Introduction              •Research Plan
   Overview of            •Work Plan with
     document              Schedule and Risk
   Establish rhetorical   Management Plan
     position              •Qualifications
•Analysis of Problem       •Required Resources
and Solution(s)
•Audience/Client
Analysis

                                          18/28
Typical Sections

• Introduction
   Subject, purpose, scope, plan of
     development, assumed reader, and action for
     this memo
   Appropriateness of topic
   Feasibility of success




                                          19/28
Typical Sections, cont.

• Analysis of problem and solution(s)
  Statement of the problem
  Scope and purpose of project
  Context in which problem is situated
  Significance of problem (what happens if you
    do not solve the problem?)
  Consequences of solving the problem
    (economic, technical, social, etc.)
  Solution criteria
  Possible solution(s)
                                         20/28
Typical Sections, cont.


• Analysis of client/reader
  Primary reader = client (person who has
    approval authority)
  Secondary and tertiary readers




                                         21/28
Typical Sections, cont..


• Research Plan
  How will you investigate the problem/
    solution(s)?
  Identify
     Questions to be answered
     Information required—what are you
      looking for
     Methodology for acquiring information
     Resources used for research
                                         22/28
Typical Sections, cont.

• Work and risk management plans
   Key to convincing reader that you will solve the
    problem
   Covers from researching the problem to writing the
    final report (including various drafts and
    presentations)
   Include
      Approach to the plan and schedule
      Comprehensive list of tasks and responsible team
       member(s)
      Risk management plan focused on what happens
       when Murphy‟s Law kicks in

                                                23/28
Typical Sections, cont..


•   Qualifications
     Team‟s qualifications for completing project
     Described individually in terms of required
      tasks
     Submit résumés focusing on this project—
      most companies boilerplate this section




                                            24/28
Typical Sections, cont.

•   Resources required to complete project
•   Physical resources (labs, sites, computers,
    etc.)
     Libraries, software, and internet
     Personnel (client, survey recipients, experts
      to consult, etc.)
     Budget to solve problem
       Secondary budget NOT in proposal is
          costs to prepare proposal
       Maintained internally only
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Budgets
       Budget I            Budget II



   Costs to solve the   Costs to actually do
       problem             the solution


   In Proposal Memo        In Executive
                          Summary with
                        details in Appendix


                                          26/28
Typical Sections, cont.


•    Closing—request approval, willingness to
     answer questions, and how to contact team
     members




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Conclusion

• Proposals are persuasive documents that
  respond to problems
• Major source for products and services
• Sections
   Technical—problem-solution
   Management—perform work described
   Cost—budget to complete project
• Solicited and unsolicited


                                        28/28
Questions




            29/28

								
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