Mobile Spatial Interaction Special Issue in the Personal and by Intheaters


									                         Mobile Spatial Interaction
    Special Issue in the Personal and Ubiquitous Computing Journal

                              Table of Contents

Theme Issue: Mobile Spatial Interaction
Peter Fröhlich, Rainer Simon, Lynne Baillie
ftw. Telecommunications Research Center (ftw.), Vienna, Austria

Supporting Device Discovery and Spontaneous Interaction with
Spatial References
Hans Gellersen1, Carl Fischer1, Dominique Guinard2, Roswitha Gostner1, Gerd
Kortuem1, Christian Kray3, Enrico Rukzio1 and Sara Streng4
 Computing Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, U.K.
 ETH Zurich / SAP Research, Zurich, Switzerland
  Informatics Research Institute, University of Newcastle, U.K.
 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany
The RELATE interaction model is designed to support spontaneous interaction
of mobile users with devices and services in their environment. The model is
based on spatial references that capture the spatial relationship of a user’s
device with other co-located devices. Spatial references are obtained by
relative position sensing and integrated in the mobile user interface to
spatially visualize the arrangement of discovered devices, and to provide
direct access for interaction across devices. In this paper we discuss two
prototype systems demonstrating the utility of the model in collaborative and
mobile settings, and present a study on usability of spatial list and map
representations for device selection.

Bearing-based selection in Mobile Spatial Interaction
Steven Strachan1, Roderick Murray-Smith2
Hamilton Institute, NUI Maynooth, Ireland
Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Scotland
We introduce a mobile spatial interactive application that uses a combination
of a GPS, inertial sensing, gestural interaction, probabilistic models and Monte
Carlo sampling, with vibration and audio feedback. This system allows the
probing or querying of targets in a local area, based on a model of the local
environment and specific context variables of interest, to enable a rich,
embodied and location-aware spatial interaction. An experiment was
conducted to investigate how spatial target selection at di®erent distances,
target separations and target widths is a®ected by a system with added
`typical' noise characteristics. Results showed that the successful selection of
targets in the virtual environment is maximised with a combination of high
angular separation and angular width.

Handheld Augmented Reality for Underground Infrastructure
Gerhard Schall1, Erick Mendez1, Ernst Kruijff1, Eduardo Veas1, Sebastian
Junghanns2, Bernhard Reitinger3, Dieter Schmalstieg1
 Graz University of Technology
 Microsoft Photogrammetry
In this paper we present an Augmented Reality (AR) system for aiding field
workers of utility companies in outdoor tasks such as maintenance, planning
or surveying of underground infrastructure. Our work addresses these issues
using spatial interaction and visualization techniques for mobile AR
applications as well as a new mobile device design. We also present results
from evaluations of the prototype application for underground infrastructure
spanning various user groups. Our application has been driven by feedback
from industrial collaborators in the utility sector, and includes a translation
tool for automatically importing data from utility company databases of
underground assets.

The Role of Spatial Contextual Factors in Mobile Personalization at
Large Sports Events
Xu Sun, Andrew May
Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Loughborough University, UK
This paper presents three field studies undertaken at large sports events in
the UK and China, with aim of improving the user experience at these types of
events through the design of personally-relevant mobile services. These field
studies investigated: which aspects of spatial context were relevant within the
confines of a large sporting event, how their relevance differed according to
sports event and language/culture, and how they could be used to prescribe
the behaviour of a personalizable/adaptive mobile device. Spatial aspects of
context were found to be highly significant within the large sports arena. They
can be used to maximize the relevance of information and communication
services delivered to a spectator over a mobile device. A range of design
implications are discussed.

Embodied Interaction with a 3D versus 2D Mobile Map
Antti Oulasvirta, Sara Estlander, Antti Nurminen
Helsinki Institute for Information Technology HIIT, Helsinki University of
Technology and University of Helsinki
In comparison to 2D maps, 3D mobile maps involve volumetric instead of flat
representation of space, photorealistic instead of symbolic representation of
objects, more variable views that are directional and bound to a first-person
perspective, more degrees of freedom in movement, and dynamically
changing object details. We conducted a field experiment to understand the
influence of these qualities on a mobile spatial task where buildings shown on
the map were to be localized in the real world. The representational
differences were reflected in how often users interact with the physical
environment and in when they are more likely to physically turn and move the
device, instead of using virtual commands. 2D maps direct users into using
reliable and ubiquitous environmental cues like street names and crossings,
and 2D better affords the use of pre-knowledge and bodily action to reduce
cognitive workload. Both acclaimed virtues of 3D mobile maps—rapid
identification of objects and ego-centric alignment—worked poorly due
reasons we discuss. However, with practice, some 3D users learned to shift to
2D-like strategies and could thereby improve performance. We conclude with
a discussion of how representational differences in mobile maps affect
strategies of embodied interaction.

Planners, Navigators, and Pragmatists: collaborative wayfinding using
a single mobile phone
Derek Reilly, Bonnie Mackay, Carolyn Watters and Kori Inkpen
Faculty of Computer Science, Dalhousie University, Canada
Shared use of mobile devices is increasingly prevalent in both research
prototypes and in practice, however little is known as to how to best support
this interaction paradigm. In this paper we present a study examining how
pairs share a single mobile phone during a collaborative wayfinding activity.
We provide a classification of strategies, role relationships and phone
interactions employed to conduct the wayfinding activities in our study. While
acknowledging that the factors determining how the phone was shared are
nuanced and intertwined, our results illustrate how differences in the mobile
application’s interface influenced shared use, wayfinding strategy and


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