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State of Nevada - Lowest point Admission to Union Governor Lieutenant Governor U.S. Senators Flag of Nevada Seal Nickname(s): Silver State (official), Sagebrush State, Battle Born State Motto(s): All For Our Country U.S. House delegation Time zones - most of state - West Wendover Abbreviations Website Colorado River[2] 479 ft (146 m) October 31, 1864 (36th) Jim Gibbons (R) Brian Krolicki (R) Harry Reid (D) John Ensign (R) 1: Shelley Berkley (D) 2: Dean Heller (R) 3: Dina Titus (D) (list) Pacific: UTC-8/-7 (DST) Mountain: UTC-7/-6 (DST) NV Nev. US-NV www.nv.gov

Official language(s) Demonym Capital Largest city Largest metro area Area - Total Width Length % water Latitude Longitude

De jure: None De facto: English Nevadan Carson City Las Vegas Las Vegas Valley Ranked 7th in the US 110,567 sq mi (286,367 km²) 322 miles (519 km) 490 miles (788 km) 35° N to 42° N 114° 2′ W to 120° W Ranked 35th in the US 2,600,167 (2008 est.)[1] 1,998,257 (2000) 23.4/sq mi (9.02/km²) Ranked 42nd in the US $46,984 (16th) Boundary Peak[2] 13,140 ft (4,005 m) 5,499 ft (1,676 m)

Population - Total - Density - Median income Elevation - Highest point - Mean

Nevada ( /nəˈvæːdə/ ) is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. The capital is Carson City and the largest city is Las Vegas. The state’s nickname is the "Silver State," due to the large number of silver deposits that were discovered and mined there. In 1864, Nevada became the 36th state to enter the union, and the phrase "Battle Born" on the state flag reflects the state’s entry on the Union side during the American Civil War. Its first settlement was called Mormon Station. Nevada is the seventh-largest state in area, and geographically covers the Mojave Desert in the south to the Great Basin in the north. Approximately 86% of the state’s land is owned by the U.S federal government under various jurisdictions both civilian and military.[3] As of 2006, there were about 2.6 million residents, with over 85% of the population residing in the metropolitan areas of Las Vegas and Reno.[4] The state is well known for its easy marriage and divorce proceedings, entertainment, legalized gambling and in 8 out of its 16 counties legalized active brothels.


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Etymology and pronunciation
The name Nevada comes from the Spanish "Nevada", meaning "snow-covered".[5] after the Sierra Nevada ("snow-covered mountains") mountain range. In 2005, the state issued a special edition license plate via the Nevada Commission on Tourism that lists the name of the state as Nevăda to help with the pronunciation problem. The local pronunciation of the state’s name is not /nɨˈvɑːdə/ (as in the "a" in "father"), but /nɨˈvæːdə/ (as in the "a" in "glad"). This plate has been discontinued by the DMV due to lack of registration requirements.[6]

Pinion Juniper forests cover large areas of the north and central parts of the state.


Sunrise over Reno Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin Desert, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Occasionally, moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; Pacific storms may blanket the area with snow. The state’s highest recorded temperature was 125 °F (52 °C) in Laughlin (elevation of 605 feet (184 m)) on June 29, 1994.[7] The Humboldt River crosses from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker, Truckee and Carson rivers. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet (4,000 m), harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species. The valleys are often no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet (900 m). The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert. The area receives less rain in the winter but is closer to the Arizona Monsoon

Digitally colored elevation map of Nevada Further information: List of Nevada counties Nevada is almost entirely within the Basin and Range Province, and is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin.


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nighttime winter temperatures may reach as low as 10 °F (−12 °C). The winter season in the southern part of the state, however, tends to be of short duration and mild. Most parts of Nevada receive scarce precipitation during the year. Most rain falls on the lee side (east and northeast slopes) of the Sierra Nevada Range. The average annual rainfall per year is about 7 inches (18 cm); the wettest parts get around 40 inches (102 cm). Las Vegas: Summer daytime highs average 94-104 degrees, and summer nighttime lows average 69-77 degrees. Winter daytime highs average 57-69 degrees, and winter nighttime lows average 37-47 degrees. Reno: Summer daytime highs average 81-91 degrees, and summer nighttime lows average 43-51 degrees. Winter daytime highs average 45-57 degrees, and winter nighttime lows average 20-29 degrees. Elko: Summer daytime highs average 78-89 degrees, and summer nighttime lows average 38-48 degrees. Winter daytime highs average 37-51 degrees, and winter nighttime lows average 13-26 degrees.

Bordering states
Mountains west of Las Vegas in the Mojave Desert in the summer. The terrain is also lower, mostly below 4,000 feet (1,200 m), creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights (due to temperatureinversion). Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line (in respect to the cardinal directions) as a state boundary at just over 400 miles (640 km). This line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly 4 miles (6 km) offshore (in the direction of the boundary), and continues to the Colorado River where the Nevada, California, and Arizona boundaries merge 12 miles (19 km) southwest of the Laughlin Bridge. The largest mountain range in the southern portion of the state is the Spring Mountain Range, just west of Las Vegas. The state’s lowest point is along the Colorado River, south of Laughlin. • • • • • Utah—East Arizona—Southeast California—West Oregon—Northwest Idaho—Northeast

Nevada is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. Carson City is officially a consolidated municipality; however, for many purposes under state law it is considered to be a county. As of 1919 there were 17 counties in the state, ranging from 146 to 18,159 square miles (378 to 47,032 km²). In 1969 Ormbsy County was dissolved and the consolidated municipality of Carson City was created by the Legislature in its place co-terminous with the old boundaries of Ormsby County. • Humboldt was designated as a County in 1856 by Utah Territorial Legislature and again in 1861 by the new Nevada Legislature

Nevada is made up of mostly desert areas, where daytime summer temperatures sometimes may rise as high as 115 °F (46 °C) and


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Annotated map of Nevada’s 17 counties

Before 1861
See History of Utah, History of Las Vegas, and the discovery of the first major U.S. deposit of silver ore in Comstock Lode under Virginia City, Nevada in 1859.

The separation of the territory from Utah was important to the federal government because of the Nevada population’s political leanings, while the population itself was keen to be separated because of animosity (and sometimes violence) between the non-Mormons who dominated Nevada, and the Mormons who dominated the rest of the Utah territory. Animosity between non-Mormon settlers and Mormons was particularly high after the Mountain Meadows massacre of 1857 and the Utah War in 1857-58.

See also: Nevada in the American Civil War Eight days prior to the presidential election of 1864, Nevada became the 36th state in the union. Statehood was rushed to the date of October 31 to help ensure Abraham Lincoln’s reelection on November 8 and post-Civil War Republican dominance in Congress,[8] as Nevada’s mining-based economy tied it to the more industrialized Union. Nevada achieved its current southern boundaries on May 5, 1866 when it absorbed the portion of Pah-Ute County in the Arizona Territory west of the Colorado River, essentially all of present day Nevada south of the 37th parallel. The transfer was prompted by the discovery of gold in the area, and it was thought by officials that Nevada would be better able to oversee the expected population boom. This area includes most of what is now Clark County.

Early locomotives such as this one in Ely, Nevada, played an important part in Nevada’s mining industry

Separation from Utah Territory
See also: Nevada in the American Civil War On March 2, 1861, the Nevada Territory separated from the Utah Territory and adopted its current name, shortened from Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range").


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In 1868 another part of the western Utah Territory, whose population was seeking to avoid Mormon dominance, was added to Nevada in the eastern part of the state, setting the current eastern boundary. Mining shaped Nevada’s economy for many years (see Silver mining in Nevada). When Mark Twain lived in Nevada during the period described in Roughing It, mining had led to an industry of speculation and immense wealth. However, both mining and population declined in the late 19th century. However, the rich silver strike at Tonopah in 1900, followed by strikes in Goldfield and Rhyolite, again put Nevada’s population on an upward trend.

gambling, alike present-day industry. Both Hoover Dam and later war industries such as the Basic Magnesium Plant first started the growth of the southern area of the state near Las Vegas. Over the last 75 years, Clark County in Southern Nevada has been experiencing strong population growth and today encompasses most of the state’s residents.

Nuclear Testing
The Nevada Test Site, 65 miles (105 km) Northwest of the City of Las Vegas, was founded on January 11, 1951 for the testing of nuclear weapons. The site is composed of approximately 1,350 square miles (3,500 km2) of desert and mountainous terrain. Nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site began with a one-kiloton of TNT (4 terajoule) bomb dropped on Frenchman Flat on January 27, 1951. The last atmospheric test was conducted on July 17, 1962 and the underground testing of weapons continued until September 23, 1992. The location is known for the highest amount of concentrated nuclear detonated weapons in the U.S. Over 80% of the state’s area is owned by the federal government. The primary reason for this is that homesteads were not permitted in large enough sizes to be viable in the arid conditions that prevail throughout desert Nevada. Instead, early settlers would homestead land surrounding a water source, and then graze livestock on the adjacent public land, which is useless for agriculture without access to water (this pattern of ranching still prevails). The deficiencies in the Homestead Act as applied to Nevada were probably due to a lack of understanding of the Nevada environment, although some firebrands (so-called "Sagebrush Rebels") maintain that it was due to pressure from mining interests to keep land out of the hands of common folk. This debate continues to be argued among some state historians today.

Gaming and labor

Gambling erupted once more following a recession in the early 20th century, helping to build the city of Las Vegas Unregulated gambling was common place in the early Nevada mining towns but outlawed in 1909 as part of a nation-wide antigaming crusade. Due to subsequent declines in mining output and the decline of the agricultural sector during the Great Depression, Nevada re-legalized gambling on March 19, 1931, with approval from the legislature. At the time, the leading proponents of gambling expected that it would be a short term fix until the state’s economic base widened to include less cyclical industries. However, reoutlawing gambling has never been seriously considered since the industry has become Nevada’s primary source of revenue today. The Hoover Dam, located outside Las Vegas near Boulder City, was constructed in the years 1932–1935. Thousands of workers from across the country came to build the dam, and providing for their needs in turn required many more workers. The boom in population is likely to have fueled the re-legalization of

Historical populations Census Pop. 6,857 1860 42,941 1870 1880 1890 1900 62,266 47,355 42,335 %± — 526.2% 45.0% −23.9% −10.6%


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Demographics of Nevada (csv) By race 2000 (total population) 2000 (Hispanic only) 2005 (total population) 2005 (Hispanic only) Growth 2000–05 (total population) Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) White 86.11% 18.78% 84.25% 22.31% 18.23% 11.17% 43.57% Black 7.67% 0.44% 8.58% 0.69% 35.25% 31.96% 88.97% AIAN* 2.17% 0.45% 2.15% 0.51% 20.23% 16.39% 34.74% Asian 5.67% 0.25% 6.87% 0.30% 46.27% 46.36% 44.46%


NHPI* 0.83% 0.11% 0.92% 0.12% 33.72% 33.55% 34.84%

* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Est. 2008[1] 81,875 77,407 91,058 110,247 160,083 285,278 488,738 800,493 1,201,833 1,998,257 2,600,167 93.4% −5.5% 17.6% 21.1% 45.2% 78.2% 71.3% 63.8% 50.1% 66.3% 30.1% increase of 66,098 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 270,945 people. According to the 2006 census estimate, Nevada is the eighth fastest growing state in the nation.[9] The center of population of Nevada is located in southern Nye County. [10]This area the unincorporated town of Pahrump located 60 miles (97 km) west of Las Vegas on the California state line has grown 26 times in size from 1980 to 2000. In the year 2006, the town may have over 50,000 permanent residents. Las Vegas was America’s fastest-growing city and metropolitan area from 1960 to 2000, but has grown from a gulch of 100 people in 1900 to 10,000 by 1950 to 100,000 by 1970 to have 2.5 million in the metro area today. According to the census estimates the racial distributions were as follows: 65% White American, 7.1% African-American, 6% AsianAmerican (estimates placed them at 10%), 2% others (American Indians and Pacific Islanders) and the remaining 20% were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. Large numbers of new residents in the state originate from California, which led some locals to feel that their state is being "Californicated".[11] Nevada also has a sizable Basque ancestry population. In Douglas and Pershing Counties, a plurality of residents are of Mexican ancestry with Clark County (Las Vegas) being home to over 200,000 Mexican Americans alone; Nye County and Humboldt County have a plurality of Germans; and Washoe County has many of Irish ancestry. Las Vegas is home to rapid-growing ethnic communities like Scandinavians, Italians, Poles, American Jews and Armenians.

Nevada Population Density Map According to the Census Bureau’s 2007 estimate, Nevada has an estimated population of 2,565,382 which is an increase of 92,909, or 3.5%, from the prior year and an increase of 516,550, or 20.8%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 81,661 people (that is 170,451 births minus 88,790 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 337,043 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net


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Largely African-American sections of Las Vegas ("the Meadows") and Reno can be found, but many African-Americans in Nevada are newly transplanted residents from either California and the East Coast, but the US Armed forces, hotels and domestic services attracted black Americans since the 1950s. Since the California Gold Rush of the 1850s brought thousands of Chinese miners in Washoe county, Asian Americans lived in the state followed by few hundreds of Japanese farm workers in the late 1800s. In the late 20th century, many immigrants from China, Japan, Korea, Philippines and recently from India and Vietnam came to the Las Vegas metropolitan area with one of America’s most prolific Asian-American communities, with a mostly Chinese and Taiwanese area known as "Chinatown" west of I-15 on Spring Mountain Boulevard, and an "Asiatown" shopping mall for Asian customers on Charleston Avenue/Paradise Boulevard. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 16.19% of the population aged 5 and older speak Spanish at home, while 1.59% speak Filipino [1] and 1% speak Chinese languages, the majority of foreign languages are found in ethnic sections of Central Las Vegas. 6.8% of its population were reported as under 5, 26.3% under 18, and 13.6% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.7% of the population. As a result of its rapid population growth, Nevada has a higher percentage of residents born outside of the state than any other state. Las Vegas was a major destination for immigrants seeking employment by the gaming and hospitality industries from South Asia and Latin America during the 1990s and 2000s, but farming and construction is the biggest employer of immigrant labor. From about the 1940s to 2003, Nevada was the fastest-growing state in the US percentage-wise. Between 1990 and 2000, Nevada’s population increased 66.3%, while the USA’s population increased 13.1%. Over two thirds of the population of the state live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

• Mainline – 11% • Evangelical – 13% • Other Protestant – 2% • Latter-day Saint/ Mormon – 11% • Muslim – 2% • Jewish – 1% • Other Religions – 1% • Unaffiliated – 20% The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 331,844; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 116,925; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 40,233. 77,100 Nevadans belong to Jewish congregations.[13]


Lake Tahoe on the Nevada, California border The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Nevada’s total state product in 2007 was $127 billion. Resort areas such as Las Vegas, Reno, Lake Tahoe, and Laughlin attract visitors from around the nation and world. The state’s Per capita personal income in 2007 was $39,853, ranking sixteenth in the nation. [14] Its agricultural outputs are cattle, hay, alfalfa, dairy products, onions, and potatoes. Its industrial outputs are tourism, mining, machinery, printing and publishing, food processing, and electric equipment. Prostitution is legal in parts of Nevada in the form of brothels, but only counties with populations under 400,000 residents have the option to legalize it. Of the counties that can legalize it, they may choose to outlaw it if they wish, as some have. Prostitution is illegal and offenders are prosecuted in Clark County

Major religious affiliations of the people of Nevada are:[12] • Roman Catholic – 27% • Protestant


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(which contains Las Vegas), Washoe County (which contains Reno), and several other counties around the state. In portions of the state outside of the Las Vegas and Reno metropolitan areas, mining and cattle ranching are the major economic activities. By value, gold is by far the most important mineral mined. In 2004, 6.8 million ounces of gold worth $2.84 billion were mined in Nevada, and the state accounted for 8.7% of world gold production (see Gold mining in Nevada). Silver is a distant second, with 10.3 million ounces worth $69 million mined in 2004 (see Silver mining in Nevada).[15] Other minerals mined in Nevada include construction aggregates, copper, gypsum, diotomite and lithium. Despite its rich deposits, the cost of mining in Nevada is generally high, and output is very sensitive to world commodity prices. As of January 1, 2006 there were an estimated 500,000 head of cattle and 70,000 head of sheep in Nevada.[16] Most of these animals forage on rangeland in the summer, with supplemental feed in the winter. Calves are generally shipped to out-of-state feedlots in the fall to be fattened for market. Over 90% of Nevada’s 484,000 acres (1,960 km2) of cropland is used to grow hay, mostly alfalfa, for livestock feed. Further information: Nevada locations by per capita income Nevada is also one of only a few states with no personal income tax and no corporate income tax. The state sales tax in Nevada is 6.5%. Counties can assess option taxes as well, making the combined state/county sales taxes rate in some areas as high as 7.75%. Sales tax in Carson City is 7.125% in Clark County 7.75%, in Washoe County 7.375%, while sales tax in Douglas County is 6.75%.

service from Las Vegas to trains at Needles, California, Los Angeles, and Bakersfield, California; and from Stateline, Nevada, to Sacramento, California. Union Pacific Railroad has some railroads in the north and in the south. Greyhound Lines provides some bus services.

Nighttime on U.S. Route 50 Interstate 15 passes through the southern tip of the state, serving Las Vegas and other communities. I-215 and spur route I-515 also serve the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Interstate 80 crosses through the northern part of Nevada, roughly following the path of the Humboldt River from Utah in the east and passing westward through Reno and into California. It has a spur route, I-580. Nevada also is served by several federal highways: US 6, US 50, US 93, US 95 and US 395. There are also 189 Nevada state highways. Nevada is one of a few states in the U.S. that does not have a continuous interstate highway linking its two major population centers. Even the non-interstate federal highways aren’t contiguous between the Las Vegas area and Reno area, though they are well marked by signs showing where to turn. The state is one of just a few in the country that allow semi-trailer trucks with three trailers—what might be called a "road train" in Australia. However, American versions are usually smaller, in part because they must ascend and descend some fairly steep mountain passes. Citizens Area Transit (CAT) is the public transit system in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The agency is the largest transit agency in the state and operates a network of bus service across the Las Vegas Valley, including the use of double-decker buses on the Las Vegas Strip and a few outlying routes. RTC


Amtrak’s California Zephyr train uses the Union Pacific’s original transcontinental railroad line in a daily service from Chicago to Emeryville, California serving Elko, Winnemucca, Sparks, and Reno. Amtrak Thruway Motorcoaches also provide connecting


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RIDE operates a system of local transit bus service throughout the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area. Other transit systems in the state include Carson City’s JAC. Most other counties in the state do not have public transportation at all. Additionally, a four mile monorail system provides public transportation in the Las Vegas area. The Las Vegas Monorail line services several casino properties and the Las Vegas Convention Center on the east side of the Las Vegas Strip, running near Paradise Road, with a possible future extension to McCarran Airport. Several hotels also run their own monorail lines between each other, which are typically several blocks in length. McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas is one of the busiest airports in the nation. The Reno-Tahoe International Airport (formerly known as the Reno Cannon International Airport) is the other major airport in the state.


Law and government
The current Governor of Nevada is Jim Gibbons (Republican); the governor of Nevada is limited by the Nevada Constitution to two four-year terms in office, by election or succession (lifetime limit). Nevada’s two U.S. senators are Harry Reid (Democrat) and John Ensign (Republican). Nevada’s three U.S. Representatives are Republican Dean Heller and Democrats Shelley Berkley and Dina Titus. Further information: List of Nevada Governors ; Map of Congressional Districts. A view of the Nevada State Legislative Building in Carson City Legislature meets for a constitutionally mandated 120 days in every odd-numbered year, or longer if the Governor calls a special session. Currently, the Senate is controlled by the Democratic Party (12 to 9 majority) and the Assembly is controlled by the Democratic Party (28 to 14 majority).

The Nevada Legislature is a bicameral body divided into an upper house Senate and a lower house Assembly. Members of the Senate serve for four years, and members of the Assembly serve for two years. Both houses of the Nevada Legislature will be impacted by term limits starting in 2010, as Senators and Assemblymen/women will be limited to a maximum of 12 years service in each house (by appointment or election which is a lifetime limit) - this provision in the constitution was recently upheld for legislators by the Supreme Court of Nevada in a unanimous decision (7-0), so term limits will be in effect starting in 2010. Each session of the

Nevada is one of the few U.S. states without a system of intermediate appellate courts. The state supreme court is the Supreme Court of Nevada. Unlike other state supreme courts, the Supreme Court of Nevada lacks the power of discretionary review, so it must hear all appeals; as a result, Nevada’s judicial system is congested. There have been several articles accusing judges in Nevada of making biased or favored decisions as the result of case outcomes and reporting done by the Los Angeles Times newspaper (in which it raised the issue of justice for sale). Original jurisdiction is divided between the District Courts (with general


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jurisdiction), and Justice Courts and Municipal Courts (both of limited jurisdiction).

Tax laws Nevada’s tax laws also draw new residents and businesses to the state. Nevada has no personal income tax or corporate income tax. [2]. Incorporation laws Nevada also provides friendly environment for the formation of corporations, and many (especially California) businesspeople have incorporated their businesses in Nevada to take advantage of the benefits of the Nevada statute. Nevada corporations offer great flexibility to the Board of Directors and simplify or avoid many of the rules that are cumbersome to business managers in some other states. In addition, Nevada has no franchise tax.

Libertarian laws

The courthouse of the Supreme Court of Nevada In 1900, Nevada’s population was the smallest of all states and was shrinking, as the difficulties of living in a "barren desert" began to outweigh the lure of silver for many early settlers. Historian Lawrence Friedman has explained what happened next: "Nevada, in a burst of ingenuity, built an economy by exploiting its sovereignty. Nevada began to legalize or liberalize various institutions in comparison to other states including neighboring California." Prostitution is legal in some parts of Nevada (under the form of licensed brothels). It is, however, illegal in Clark County, which contains Las Vegas; Washoe County, which contains Reno; Carson City; and some other counties. Divorce laws Nevada’s early reputation as a "divorce haven" arose from the fact that, prior to the no-fault divorce revolution in the 1970s, divorces were quite difficult to obtain in the United States. Already having legalized gambling and prostitution, Nevada continued the trend of boosting its profile by adopting one of the most liberal divorce statutes in the nation. This resulted in Williams v. North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942), in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that North Carolina had to give "full faith and credit" to a Nevada divorce.

Financial institutions Similarly, many U.S. states have usury laws limiting the amount of interest a lender can charge, but Federal law allows corporations to ’import’ these laws from their home state. Nevada (amongst others) has relatively lax interest laws, in effect allowing banks to charge as much as they want, hence the preponderance of credit card companies in the state. Drug and alcohol laws Non-alcohol drug laws are notable exception to Nevada’s otherwise libertarian principles. It is notable for having the harshest penalties for drug offenders in the country. Nevada remains the only state to still use mandatory minimum sentencing guidelines for marijuana possession. However, it is now a misdemeanor for possession of less than one ounce but only for persons age 21 and older. In 2006, voters in Nevada defeated attempts to allow possession of 1 ounce of marijuana (for personal use) without being criminally prosecuted, (55% against legalization, 45% in favor of legalization). Also, Nevada is one of the states that allows for use of marijuana for medical reasons (though this remains illegal under federal law). Nevada has very liberal alcohol laws. Bars are permitted to remain open 24 hours, with no "last call". Liquor stores, convenience stores and supermarkets may also sell alcohol 24 hours per day, and may sell beer, wine and spirits.


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Smoking Nevada voters enacted a smoking ban ("the Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act") in November 2006 that became effective on December 8, 2006. It outlaws smoking in most workplaces and public places. Smoking is permitted in bars, but only if the bar serves no food, or the bar is inside a larger casino. Smoking is also permitted in casinos, hotel rooms, tobacco shops, and brothels.[17] However, some businesses do not obey this law and the government tends not to enforce it.[18] Yet, in one case they did prosecute an establishment called "Bilbo’s" but trial is pending until 2008.[19]

population south becoming more influential and perhaps commanding majority rule. The south sees the north as the "old guard" trying to rule as an oligarchy. This has fostered some resentment, however, due to a term limit amendment passed by Nevada voters in 1994, and again in 1996, some of the north’s hold over key positions will soon be forfeited to the south, leaving Northern Nevada with less power. Most people outside the state are not familiar with this rivalry. Clark and Washoe counties—home to Las Vegas and Reno, respectively—have long dominated the state’s politics. Between them, they cast 87 percent of Nevada’s vote, and elect a substantial majority of the state legislature. The great majority of the state’s elected officials are either from Las Vegas or Reno. Nevada has voted for the winner in every presidential election since 1912, except in 1976 when it voted for Gerald Ford over Jimmy Carter. This gives the state status as a political bellwether. As of 2008, 43.8% of voters are registered Democrats, 36.1% are Republican and the remaining 20.1% are considered Independents.[23] Recently, Nevada supported Democrat Bill Clinton in the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections, Republican George W. Bush won in 2000 and 2004, and Democrat Barack Obama won the state in 2008. The state’s U. S. Senators are Democrat Harry Reid, the Senate Majority Leader, and Republican John Ensign, former chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee. Both are from Las Vegas. The Governorship is held by Jim Gibbons, a Republican from Reno. State departments and agencies: • Attorney General • Department of Business & Industry • Department of Conservation & Natural Resources • Consumer Health Assistance • Controller’s Office • Department of Correction • Nevada Department of Cultural Affairs • Nevada Commission on Economic Development • Department of Education • Nevada Secretary of State, Election Division • Department of Employment, Training & Rehabilitation • Gaming Control Board

Nevada has been ranked as the most dangerous state in the United States for five years in a row[20][21]. In 2006, the crime rate in Nevada was approximately 24% higher than the national average rate. Property crimes accounted for approximately 84.6% of the crime rate in Nevada which was 21% higher than the national rate. The remaining 20.3% were violent crimes and were approximately 45% higher than other states[22]. In 2008, Nevada had the third highest murder rate, and the highest rate of robbery and motor vehicle theft.[20] It should be noted that many of these statistics may not totally be attributed to the citizens of Nevada themselves, but partially to the high rate of visitors entering and leaving the state as well.

Presidential elections results Year Republican 2008 42.65% 412,827 Democratic 55.15% 533,736

2004 50.47% 418,690 47.88% 397,190 2000 49.49% 301,575 45.94% 279,978 1996 44.55% 198,775 1992 34.71% 175,828 45.60% 203,388 37.41% 189,148

1988 58.90% 206,040 37.91% 132,738 Due to heavy growth in the southern portion of the state, there is a noticeable divide between politics of northern and southern Nevada. The north has long maintained control of key positions in state government, even while the population of Southern Nevada is larger than the rest of the state combined. The north sees the high


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• Governor’s Office • Department of Health and Human Services • Department of Information Technology • Department of Justice • Lieutenant Governor • Nevada Military Department • Division of Minerals, Commission on Mineral Resources • Department of Motor Vehicles • Nevada National Guard • Department of Personnel • Advisory Council for Prosecuting Attorneys • Public Employees Benefit Program • Public Employees Retirement System • Department of Public Safety • Public Utilities Commission [24] • Department of Secretary of State • Department of Taxation • Commission on Tourism • Department of Transportation • Nevada State Treasurer • Universities and Community Colleges of Nevada • Nevada Office of Veterans’ Services • Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education • Nevada Department of Wildlife Further information: Political party strength in Nevada

Town Boards are limited local governments created by either the local county commission, or by referendum. The board consists of five members elected to four-year terms. Half the board is required to be up for election in each election. The board elects from within its ranks a town chairperson and town clerk. While more powerful than Town Advisory Boards and Citizens Advisory Councils, they also serve a largely advisory role, with their funding provided by their local county commission. The local county commission has the power to put before residents of the town a vote on whether to keep or dissolve a town board at any general election. Town boards have the ability to appoint a town manager if they choose to do so.

Important Cities and Towns

Local government
Incorporated towns in Nevada, known as cities, are vested with home rule powers, meaning that they are given the authority to legislate anything not prohibited by law. Unincorporated towns are settlements eminently governed by the county in which they are located, but who, by local referendum or by the act of the county commission, can form limited local governments in the form of a Town Advisory Board (TAB)/ Citizens Advisory Council (CAC), or a Town Board. Town Advisory Boards and Citizens Advisory Councils are formed purely by act of the county commission. Consisting of three to five members, these elected boards form a purely advisory role, and in no way diminish the responsibilities of the county commission that creates them. Members of advisory councils and boards are elected to two year terms, and serve without compensation. The councils and boards, themselves, are provided no revenue, and oversee no budget. Las Vegas

Reno Paradise, Sunrise Manor, and Spring Valley are unincorporated towns in the Las Vegas metropolitan area.


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Rank City Population
within city limits

Land Area
sq. miles

Population Density
per sq mi


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank

Las Vegas Henderson North Las Vegas Reno Sunrise Manor Paradise Spring Valley Sparks Carson City Pahrump County

591,536 265,790 216,672 214,853 195,727 189,958 175,581 88,518 58,350 44,614 Population
within county limits

131.3 79.7 78.5 69.1 38.2 47.1 33.4 23.9 143.4 297.9

4,217.8 2,200.8 1,471.0 2,611.4 4,081.8 3,947.3 3,519.4 2,773.6 366 82.7 Population Density
per sq mi

Clark Clark Clark Washoe Clark Clark Clark Washoe Carson City Nye

Land Area
sq. miles

Largest city

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Clark Washoe Carson City Douglas Elko Lyon Nye Churchill Humboldt White Pine

1,715,337 383,453 56,146 47,803 46,499 44,646 38,181 26,106 17,129 8,966

7,910 6,342 155.7 710 17,179 1,994 18,147 4,929 9,648 8,876

174 54 366 58 3 17 2 5 2 1

Las Vegas Reno Carson City Gardnerville Ranchos Elko Fernley Pahrump Fallon Winnemucca Ely

Note: table was compiled using Nevada State estimates from 2004 for population and Census 2000 for area and density

See also: List of cities in Nevada

10 richest places in Nevada
Ranked by per capita income 1. Incline Village-Crystal Bay $52,521 Washoe County, Nevada 2. Kingsbury $41,421 Douglas County, Nevada

Carson City 3. Mount Charleston $38,821 Clark County, Nevada 4. Verdi-Mogul $38,233 Washoe County, Nevada 5. Zephyr Cove-Round Hill Village $37,218 Douglas County, Nevada


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
6. Summerlin South $33,017 Clark County, Nevada 7. Blue Diamond $30,479 Clark County, Nevada 8. Minden $30,405 Douglas County, Nevada 9. Boulder City $29,770 Clark County, Nevada 10. Spanish Springs $26,908 Washoe County, Nevada Further information: Nevada locations by per capita income


Colleges and universities
• Nevada System of Higher Education • University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) • University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) • Nevada State College • Truckee Meadows Community College (TMCC) • Great Basin College • College of Southern Nevada (CSN) • Western Nevada College • Sierra Nevada College • Touro University Nevada • University of Southern Nevada

Great Basin National Park

Valley of Fire State Park • Pony Express National Historic Trail

Research Institutes
• Desert Research Institute

Southern Nevada
• • • • Ash Meadows National Wildlife Preserve Bootleg Canyon Mountain Bike Park Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest Mount Charleston and the Mount Charleston Wilderness • Spring Mountains and the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area

Further information: List of wilderness areas in Nevada There are 68 designated wilderness areas in Nevada, protecting some 6,579,014 acres (26,624.33 km2) under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Bureau of Land Management.[25]

Mount Charleston

Recreation areas maintained by the National Park Service
• • • • • California National Historic Trail Death Valley National Park Great Basin National Park near Baker Lake Mead National Recreation Area Old Spanish National Historic Trail

State Parks
See: List of Nevada state parks.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Several United States Navy ships have been named USS Nevada in honor of the state. The one that preceded the ship that was at Pearl Harbor was eventually renamed USS Tonopah, for the Nevada city Nevada is home to Nellis Air Force Base, a major testing and training base of the United States Air Force. Nellis is reputedly the home of Area 51, a top-secret installation of the Federal Government. Area 51 is located near Groom Lake a dry salt lake bed. Some time ago, the United States Air Force confirmed that there is an operating facility at Groom Lake, but the nature of the activities being conducted at Groom Lake are classified and cannot be disclosed. The much smaller Creech Air Force Base is located in Indian Springs, Nevada and can be seen on the right side of US 95 when entering the town. The paranormal radio talk show host Art Bell lives in Pahrump. In the Finnish language, there is a very well known concept "huitsin Nevada", which refers to some far away place in spoken language (in a same way as a saying "from here to Timbuktu"). The origin and history of the saying is unknown. "Nevada" refers to the name of this U.S. state and "huitsin" is a slang word meaning "very" or "utter".

Although Nevada is not well-known for their professional sports, the state takes pride in college sports, most notably the University of Nevada, Reno Wolf Pack of the Western Athletic Conference and the UNLV Runnin’ Rebels of the Mountain West Conference. UNLV is most remembered for their basketball program, which experienced its height of supremacy in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Coached by Jerry Tarkanian, the Runnin’ Rebels became one of the most elite programs in the country. In 1990, UNLV won the Men’s Division I Championship by defeating Duke University 103–73, which set tournament records for most points scored by a team and largest margin of victory in the national title game. In 1991, UNLV finished the regular season undefeated. Forward Larry Johnson won several awards, including the Naismith Award. UNLV reached the Final Four yet again, but lost their national semifinal against Duke 79-77, and is referred to as one of the biggest upsets in the NCAA Tournament. The Runnin’ Rebels were the Associated Press pre-season #1 back to back (1989–90, 1990–91). North Carolina is the only other team to accomplish that (2007-08, 2008-09). Complete List of Nevada sports teams. • Las Vegas 51s, Minor League Baseball • Las Vegas Wranglers, East Coast Hockey League • Battle Born Derby Deamons, Roller Derby • Reno Aces, Minor League Baseball • Reno Bighorns, NBA D-League • Reno Silver Sox, Golden Baseball League • Reno Raiders, ECHL • Las Vegas Posse, Canadian Football League (defunct) • Las Vegas Outlaws, XFL (defunct) • UNLV Rebels • Nevada Wolf Pack, UNR • Las Vegas Motor Speedway

Songs about Nevada
• Sands of Nevada from Mark Knopfler’s 2000 release Sailing to Philadelphia • Darcy Farrow • Sin City from AC/DC’s Powerage album • Sin City from Limbeck’s 2005 release Let Me Come Home • Home Means Nevada, the state song of Nevada, by Bertha Rafetto

Future Issues
Nevada enjoys many economic advantages as a whole, and the southern portion of the state enjoys mild winter weather, but rapid growth has led to issues of overcrowded schools. Nevada is already home to the nation’s 5th largest school district in the Clark County School District (projected fall 2007 enrollment is 314,000 students grades K-12), the state has seen rising crime levels, and problems with transportation (according to state figures, there is a 1 billion dollar shortfall in funds for road construction projects in Nevada). Most recently, there has been news of water shortfalls in southern Nevada in the

Miscellaneous topics
Nevada’s nicknames are "Sagebrush State, "Battle Born State", and "Silver State", and the state’s motto is "All for Our Country". ’Home Means Nevada by Bertha Raffetto is the state song. The phrase "Battle Born" is on the state flag; "The Battle Born State" is the official state slogan, as Nevada was admitted into the union during the American Civil War.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
years to come, due to the population increase, and the Southern Nevada Water Authority estimates that there will be water shortages by the year 2010, despite plans to import water from rural and northern Nevada. Despite this, the state remains one of the fastest growing in the country. The residents of the communities in the Las Vegas Valley pay some of the highest car insurance rates in the nation. Some have suggested that Nevada annex the town of Wendover, Utah, which would be merged with West Wendover, Nevada, as well as Needles, California. These deals will require the permissions of the Nevada and Utah/California legislatures, respectively, as well as the approval of the U.S. Congress. In 2008, the "American State Litter Scorecard," presented at the American Society for Public Administration national conference, positioned Nevada next to Mississippi and Louisiana as one of the worst states for removing litter from public roadways and properties.[26] Recently, an economic downturn due to the house market collapse in Las Vegas (which has one of the highest home foreclosure rates in the nation), coupled with many months of declining gaming revenue and higher prices for gasoline and consumer goods has caused a 1.2 billion dollar shortfall in the state budget (which is required by the constitution to be balanced), and has caused Nevada to drain its rainy day fund of 267 million coupled with budget cuts means that hard times are ahead for the Silver state. In August 2008, it was announced that Boyd Gaming would halt construction on a 4.2 billion dollar project called Echelon, which was to replace the old Stardust Hotel & Casino, the reason cited for this is lack of funding/ credit from banks, and a souring economy.


Playa areas of Nevada • State metal: Silver (Ag) • State motto: "Battle Born" • State precious gemstone: Virgin Valley black fire opal • State semiprecious gemstone: Nevada turquoise • State song: "Home Means Nevada" by Bertha Raffetto • State reptile: Desert Tortoise • State rock: Sandstone • State soil: Orovada (soil) series • State tartan: A particular tartan designed for Nevada by Richard Zygmunt Pawlowski • State trees: Single-leaf Pinyon pine and Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)

State symbols
State animal: Desert Bighorn Sheep State artifact: Tule Duck Decoy State bird: Mountain Bluebird State colors: Silver and Blue State fish: Lahontan cutthroat trout State flower: Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) • State fossil: Ichthyosaur • State grass: Indian ricegrass • State march: "Silver State Fanfare" by Gerald Willis • • • • • •

See also
• Index of Nevada-related articles

[1] ^ www.census.gov "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/ tables/NST-EST2008-01.csv www.census.gov. Retrieved on 2009-02-05. [2] ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/ pubs/booklets/elvadist/ elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved on November 6 2006. [3] "Federal Land Acres in Nevada". Nevada Bureau of Land Management. http://www.nv.blm.gov/landsales/ LandFedAcresAgency.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. [4] Popul of Nevada’s Counties and Incorp cities 2006 Time Series EMAIL 012207.xls [5] "Nevada". Wordreference.com. http://www.wordreference.com/es/en/ translation.asp?spen=nevada. Retrieved on 2007-02-24. [6] The name is derived from the Spanish word Nevada, which is the feminine form of "covered in snow," although it is common for Spanish-derived place names in the United States to be no longer pronounced by native English speakers in a manner which reflects the name’s Spanish roots (the pronunciation of the name "Los Angeles," for instance, is commonly accepted as a "Los An-JELLes" not "Los An-HELL-es" by native English speakers). [7] National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, N.C., and Storm Phillips, Stormfax, Inc. [8] Rocha Guy, Historical Myth a Month: Why Did Nevada Become A State? [9] CNN [10] www.census.gov [11] http://employerblog.recruitingnevada.com/ 2008/08/08/people-keep-moving-tonevada/ [12] Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life [13] http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/ reports/state/32_2000.asp [14] http://www.bea.gov/regional/gsp/ [15] Nevada Mining Association, Economic Overview of the Nevada Mining Industry 2004 [16] United States Department of Agriculture Nevada State Agriculture Overview 2005

[17] State smoking ban sparks zone-change request for Gardnerville parcel Nevada Appeal serving Carson City, Nevada [18] Have Nevada bars given up the smoking habit? [19] Las Vegas Now-Breaking News, Local News, Weather, Traffic, Streaming Video, Classifieds, Blogs - UPDATED: Bilbo’s Smoking Lawsuit Case [20] ^ "Nevada Ranked Most Dangerous State". KIROTV. 2008-03-17. http://www.kirotv.com/news/15618530/ detail.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-04. [21] "The 15th Annual Most Dangerous State Award, Nevada Still Fighting the Problem". cqpress. 2009-01-04. http://os.cqpress.com/ Crime%20State%202008_Most%20Dangerous.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-01-04. [22] "Overview of Nevada’s CorrectionalSystem". NICIC. 2009-01-04. http://www.nicic.org/Features/ StateStats/?State=NV. Retrieved on 2009-01-04. [23] http://sos.state.nv.us/elections/voter-reg/ 2009/0309nvtotage.asp [24] http://puc.state.nv.us [25] Wilderness.net [26] S. Spacek, The American State Litter Scorecard" March 2008

External links
• Official state website • State Domain Registry website • Nevada State Databases - Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Nevada state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association. • State Tourism website • Nevada state symbols • Secretary of State of Nevada • Nevada State Library and Archives • Energy Profile for Nevada • USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Nevada • US Census Bureau • County Maps of Nevada Full color maps. List of cities, towns and county seats • Nevada State Facts • Pronunciation Guide: Nevada • Forgotten Nevada - Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of Nevada • Nevada’s Historical Markers • Nevada at the Open Directory Project


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Preceded by West Virginia List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on October 31, 1864 (36th) Succeeded by Nebraska


Related information

Coordinates: 39°N 117°W / 39°N 117°W / 39; -117

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevada#Politics" Categories: Nevada, States of the United States, Former Spanish colonies, Western United States, States and territories established in 1864, West Coast of the United States This page was last modified on 22 May 2009, at 20:55 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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