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Liberation of Tamil Tigers Eelam

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					        University of Petroleum and Energy Studies
             College Of Legal Studies, Dehradun


                            Project On:-
                   Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
                       தமிழீழ விடுதலைப் புைிகள்




Submitted To:-                                        Submitted By:-
Mr. Sambabu K.C.                                      Pratik Raoka
Professor                                             B.A. L.L.B. Section B
COLS, UPES                                            SAP ID:- 500012029
                       Acknowledgement



I feel highly elated to work on this dynamic topic on ―Liberation Tigers
Of Tamil Eelam‖ its ratio is significant in the present legal & political
scenario. As this topic drew my attention and so I was attracted to select
this as a project topic. The practical realization of this project has
obligated the assistance of many persons. I express my deepest regard for
our faculty Professor, the course teacher of Political Science. His
consistent supervision, constant inspiration and invaluable guidance have
been of immense help in carrying out the project work with success. I
would like to thank the librarian staff for all their kind cooperation
extended till the end. I extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and
friends for their moral support and encouragement.
                                      Index
1.  Introduction
2.  An Overview
3.  Why was it formed and why against Srilanka?
4.  History Of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
5.  Ethical Values of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Group
                 i. Culture
                ii. Religion
              iii. Language
6. Rise of Power and Links with terrorist organizations
7. Cease fire, military defeats and operations
8. Different ways to spread terrorism amongst human race
                 i. Suicide Bombing
                ii. Child Soldiers
              iii. Ethnic Cleansing
               iv. Sea Piracy
                v. Arms Smuggling
9. What kind of terror attacks LTTE have undertaken
10. Why was it termed as a terrorist group and assassinations in which LTTE helped
11. Conclusion
                                       Introduction

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, are a
separatist group in Sri Lanka. Since the 1980s, the LTTE have been agitating for a homeland
for ethnic Tamils, who feel persecuted by Sri Lanka's ethnic majority, the Sinhalese. The
LTTE is notorious for having pioneered the suicide bomb jacket, as well as the use of women
in suicide attacks. They are blamed for a dozen high-level assassinations, over two hundred
suicide attacks, and its war against the government has cost more than seventy thousand lives.
In May 2009, the Sri Lankan government declared the twenty-six year long conflict had
ended. The military claimed it had defeated the rebels and killed the LTTE's elusive leader
Vellupillai Prabhakaran. The group conceded defeat and in statement said it had decided to
lay down its arms. However, some experts warn it may be too early to write off the group,
which has proved to be a ruthless guerilla outfit in the past. Both the LTTE and the Sri
Lankan military have been accused of engaging in abductions, extortion, conscription, and
the use of child soldiers.
        To know about this organization, we should firstly try to know what the words
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam collectively mean.


According to Dictionaries
Liberation means the freeing of a place from a tyrannical regime
Therefore Liberation Tigers collectively means People who are brave enough fight for one
common aim to free a place from a tyrannical regime, in this place the regime is Sri Lankan
island for Tamils and people suffering are Tamilians.

Eelam (Tamil: ஈழம், īḻm) also spelled Eezham, Ilam or Izham in English is the native and
                     a

most common Tamil name for the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
Therefore collectively we come to a conclusion that the aim of this group was to free the
South Asian Island State of Srilanka which was basically of the Tamilians but was dominated
by the Srilanka Government.
Who are Tamils?
The Tamils are an ethnic group that lives in southern India (mainly in the state of Tamil
Nadu) and on Sri Lanka, an island of 21 million people off the southern tip of India. Most
Tamils live in northern and eastern Sri Lanka, and they comprise approximately 10 percent of
the island's population, according to a 2001 government census. Their religion (most are
Hindu) and Tamil language set them apart from the four-fifths of Sri Lankans who are
Sinhalese—members of a largely Buddhist, Sinhala-speaking ethnic group. When Sri Lanka
was ruled as Ceylon by the British, most Sri Lankans regarded the Tamil minority as
collaborators with imperial rule and resented the Tamil's perceived preferential treatment. But
since Sri Lanka became independent in 1948, the Sinhalese majority has dominated the
country. The remainder of Sri Lanka's population includes ethnic Muslims, as well as Tamil
and Sinhalese Christians
               An Overview Of Liberation Tigers Of Tamil Eelam


Tamil Tigers, by name of LIBERATION TIGERS             OF   TAMIL EELAM (LTTE), guerrilla
organization that sought to establish an independent Tamil state, Eelam, in northern and
eastern Sri Lanka.

Formed in 1972 by Vellupillai Prabhakaran, the LTTE was one of the worlds most
sophisticated and tightly organized insurgent groups, with an estimated strength in 1998 of
about 9,000 guerrillas, had fought since 1983 to establish an independent Tamil state, Eelam,
in the northern and eastern provinces of Sri Lanka, where most of the country’s Tamil
minority resided. One of the world’s most sophisticated and tightly organized insurgent
groups, the LTTE during the 1970s carried out a number of guerrilla attacks. Following large-
scale violence that broke out in Sri Lanka in July 1983 in retaliation for the killing of 13
soldiers by Tamil guerrillas, the LTTE launched a During the 1970s the LTTE carried out a
number of guerrilla attacks. In 1983, after the killing of 13 soldiers by Tamil guerrillas and
retaliatory attacks by the Sri Lankan military, large-scale violence erupted between the
government and the LTTE. By 1985 the group was in control of Jaffna and most of the Jaffna
Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka. Under Prabhakaran’s orders, the LTTE eliminated most of
its rival Tamil groups by 1987. To fund its operations, the group engaged in bank robberies
and drug smuggling.

The LTTE lost control of Jaffna in October 1987 to an Indian peacekeeping force (IPKF) that
had been sent to Sri Lanka to assist in the implementation of a complete cease-fire. However,
following the withdrawal of the IPKF in March 1990, the Tigers grew in strength and
conducted several successful guerrilla operations and terrorist attacks. On May 21, 1991,
a suicide bomber killed former       Indian prime    minister Rajiv Gandhi while he        was
campaigning in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Other attacks included an August 1992 land-
mine explosion in Jaffna, which killed 10 senior military commanders; the May 1993
assassination of Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa; a January 1996 suicide bomb
attack on the central bank of Colombo that killed 100 people; and a July 2001 attack on
Colombo’s international airport that destroyed half of the country’s commercial airliners. An
elite unit of the LTTE, the ―Black Tigers,‖ was responsible for carrying out suicide attacks.
If faced with unavoidable capture by Sri Lankan authorities, Black Tigers purportedly
committed suicide by swallowing cyanide capsules that they wore around their necks.

Negotiations between the LTTE and the government broke down in the mid-1990s. In
December 2000 the LTTE declared a unilateral cease-fire, which lasted only until April.
Thereafter, fighting between the guerrillas and the government again intensified until
February 2002, when the government and the LTTE signed a permanent cease-fire
agreement. Sporadic violence continued, however, and in 2006 the European Union added
the LTTE to its list of banned terrorist organizations. Soon after, heavy fighting erupted
between the rebels and government forces, and thousands were killed.

In January 2008 the government formally abandoned the 2002 cease-fire agreement, and
authorities captured major strongholds of the LTTE over the following months. The town of
Kilinochchi, the administrative centre of the LTTE, came under government control in
January 2009. By late April, government troops had cornered the remaining LTTE fighters
along a small stretch of the northeast coast. A final offensive by army forces in mid-May
succeeded in overrunning and occupying the rebels’ last stronghold, and the LTTE leadership
(including Prabhakaran) was killed. The number of civil-war-related deaths in Sri Lanka
since the early 1980s was estimated at between 70,000 and 80,000, with many tens of
thousands more displaced by the fighting.
                   Why was it formed and why against Srilanka?

The root of modern conflict goes back to British colonial rule when the country was known
as Ceylon. A nationalist political movement from Sinhalese communities arose in the country
in the early 20th century with the aim of obtaining political independence, which was
eventually granted by the British after peaceful negotiations in 1948. Disagreements between
the Sinhalese and Tamil ethnic communities flared up when drawing up the country's first
post-independence constitution.

After their election to the State Council in 1936, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party(LSSP)
members N.M. Perera and Philip Gunawardena demanded the replacement of English as the
official language by Sinhala and Tamil. In November 1936, a motion that 'in the Municipal
and Police Courts of the Island the proceedings should be in the vernacular' and that 'entries
in police stations should be recorded in the language in which they are originally stated' were
passed by the State Council and referred to the Legal Secretary. However, in 1944, J.R.
Jayawardene moved in the State Council that Sinhala should replace English as the official
language. In 1956 Prime Minister S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike's passage of the "Sinhala Only
Act" led to ethnic riots. The civil war is a direct result of the escalation of the confrontational
politics that followed.

The formation of the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) with its Vaddukkodei
(Vattukottai)) resolution of 1976 led to a hardening of attitudes.

In 1963, shortly after the nationalisation of oil companies by the Sri Lankan government,
documents relating to a separate Tamil state of 'Tamil Eelam' began to circulate. At this
time, Anton Balasingham, an employee of the British High Commission in Colombo, began
to participate in separatist activities. He later migrated to Britain, where he became the chief
theoretician of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. In the late 1960s, several Tamil youth,
among them Velupillai Prabhakaran also became involved in these activities. These forces
together formed the Tamil New Tigers in 1972. This was formed around an ideology which
looked back to the 1st Millennium Chola Empire - the Tiger was the emblem of that empire.

A further movement, the Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students, formed
inManchester and London; it became the backbone of the Eelamist movement in the diaspora,
arranging passports and employment for immigrants and levying a heavy tax on them. It
became the basis of the Eelamist logistical organization, later taken over entirely by
the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
The TULF supported the armed actions of the young militants of the TNT who were dubbed
"our boys." These "boys" were the product of the post-war population explosion. Many
partially educated, unemployed Tamil youth fell for revolutionary solutions to their problems.
The leftist parties had remained "non-communal" for a long time, but the Federal Party (as
well as its off-shoot, the TULF), deeply conservative and dominated by Vellala casteism, did
not attempt to form a national alliance with the leftists in their fight for language rights.

Following the sweeping electoral victory of the UNP in July 1977, the TULF became the
leading opposition party, with around one sixth of the total electoral vote winning on a party
platform of secession from Sri Lanka.

In August 1977, Junius Richard Jayawardene's new UNP government followed its attack on
the Left with a well organised pogrom against Tamils living in majority Sinhalese areas. In
August the government granted only the educational rights demanded by the Tamils.[29] But
to the Tamil leadership that was losing the control it had on the Tamil militants after not
being able to follow through with the election promise of seceding from Sri Lanka to form
Tamil, it was too little too late

Supported by the on-going politics of conflict in Sri Lanka, politicized Tamil youth in the
North and the East started to form militant groups. These groups developed independently of
the Colombo Tamil leadership, and in the end rejected and annihilated them. The most
prominent of these groups was the TNT, which changed its name to the Liberation Tigers of
Tamil Eelam or the LTTE in 1976. The LTTE initially carried out a campaign of violence
against the state, particularly targeting policemen and also moderate Tamil politicians who
attempted a dialogue with the government. Their first major operation was the assassination
of the mayor of Jaffna, Alfred Duraiappah in 1975 by Prabhakaran.

The LTTE 's modus operandi of the early war was based on assassinations. The assassination
in 1977 of a Tamil Member of Parliament, M. Canagaratnam, was carried out personally by
Prabhakaran, the leader of the LTTE.
                  History Of Liberation Tigers Of Tamil Eelam



Initially, LTTE operated in cooperation with other Tamil militant groups which shared their
objectives, and in April 1984, the LTTE formally joined a common militant front, the Eelam
National Liberation Front (ENLF), a union between LTTE, the Tamil Eelam Liberation
Organization(TELO),      the Eelam    Revolutionary     Organisation       of   Students (EROS),
the People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE) and theEelam People's
Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF).

TELO usually held the Indian view of problems and pushed for India's view during peace
talks with Sri Lanka and other groups. LTTE denounced the TELO view and claimed that
India was only acting on its own interest. As a result in 1986, the LTTE broke from the
ENLF. Soon fighting broke out between the TELO and the LTTE and clashes occurred over
the next few months. As a result almost the entire TELO leadership and many of the TELO
militants were killed by the LTTE. The LTTE attacked training camps of the EPRLF a few
months later, forcing it to withdraw entirely from the Jaffna peninsula.

The LTTE then demanded that all remaining Tamil insurgents join the LTTE. Notices were
issued to that effect in Jaffna and in Madras, India where the Tamil groups were
headquartered. With the major groups including the TELO and EPRLF eliminated, the
remaining Tamil insurgent groups, numbering around 20, were then absorbed into the LTTE,
making Jaffna an LTTE-dominated city.

LTTE's practice such as wearing a cyanide vial for consumption if captured appealed to the
Tamil people as dedication and sacrifice. Another practice that increased support by Tamil
people was LTTE's practice of taking an oath of loyalty which stated LTTE’s goal of
establishing a state for the Sri Lankan Tamils.

In 1987, LTTE established the Black Tigers, a unit of LTTE responsible for conducting
suicide attacks against political, economic and military targets, and launched its first suicide
attack against a Sri Lanka Army camp, killing 40 soldiers.

The LTTE members are probhibited to smoke cigarattes and consume alcohol in any form.
The LTTE members must also refrain from their family members and hence forth, no
communication must be maintained between them. They are also prohibited from having
sexual intercourse from anyone apart from their spouse. The last rule was effected by
Prabhakaran as a result of an earlier situation of an immoral relationship between two senior
LTTE cadres which almost lead to a rift in the organisation.

In 1987, faced with growing anger among its own Tamils, and a flood of
refugees, India intervened directly in the conflict for the first time by initially airdropping
food parcels into Jaffna. After subsequent negotiations, India and Sri Lanka entered into
the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord. Though the conflict was between the Tamil and Sinhalese people,
India and Sri Lanka signed the peace accord instead of India influencing both parties to sign a
peace accord among themselves. The peace accord assigned a certain degree of regional
autonomy in the Tamil areas with Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF)
controlling the regional council and called for the Tamil militant groups to lay down their
arms. India was to send a peacekeeping force, named the Indian Peace Keeping
Force (IPKF), part of the Indian Army, to Sri Lanka to enforce the disarmament and to watch
over the regional council.

Although the accord was signed between the governments of Sri Lanka and India, and the
Tamil militant groups did not have a role in the agreement, most Tamil militant groups
accepted it. But the LTTE rejected the accord because they opposed the candidate, who
belonged to the EPRLF, for chief administrative officer of the merged Northern and Eastern
provinces. Instead, the LTTE named three other candidates for the position, which India
rejected. The LTTE subsequently refused to hand over their weapons to the IPKF.

Thus LTTE found itself engaged in military conflict with the Indian Army, and launched its
first attack on an Indian army rations truck on October 8, killing five Indian para-commandos
who were on board by strapping burning tires around their necks. The government of India
decided that the IPKF should disarm the LTTE by force, and the Indian Army launched
number of assaults on the LTTE, including a month-long campaign dubbed Operation
Pawan to win control of the Jaffna peninsula from the LTTE. The ruthlessness of this
campaign, and the Indian army's subsequent anti-LTTE operations made it extremely
unpopular among many Tamils in Sri Lanka

The Indian intervention was also unpopular among the Sinhalese majority, and the IPKF
became bogged down in the fighting with the Tamil Tigers for over 2 years, experiencing
heavy losses. The last members of the IPKF, which was estimated to have had a strength of
well over 50,000 at its peak, left the country in 1990 upon the request of the Sri Lankan
government. A shaky peace initially held between the government and the LTTE, and peace
talks progressed towards providing devolution for Tamils in the north and east of the country.

Fighting continued throughout the 1990s, and was marked by two key assassinations carried
out by the LTTE, that of former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1991, and Sri Lankan
President Ranasinghe Premadasa in 1993, using suicide bombers in both occasions. The
fighting briefly halted in 1994 following the election of Chandrika Kumaratunga as President
of Sri Lanka and the onset of peace talks, but fighting resumed after LTTE sunk two Sri
Lanka Navy boats in April 1995. In a series of military operations that followed, the Sri
Lanka Army re-captured the Jaffna peninsula, the heartland of Tamils in Sri Lanka. Further
offensives followed over the next three years, and the military captured vast areas in the north
of the country from the LTTE, including area in the Vanni region, the town
of Kilinochchi and many smaller towns. However, from 1998 onward the LTTE hit back,
regaining control of these areas. This culminated in the capture of the strategically
important Elephant Pass base complex, located at the entrance of the Jaffna Peninsula, in
April 2000, after prolonged fighting against the Sri Lanka Army.

Mahattaya, a one-time deputy leader of LTTE, was accused of treason by the LTTE and
killed in 1994. He is said to have collaborated with the Indian Research and Analysis Wing to
remove Prabhakaran from the LTTE leadership.
              Ethical Values Of Liberation Tigers Of Tamil Eelam



Culture:-

Language and Literature

Tamils have strong feelings towards the Tamil language, which is often venerated in
literature as "Tamil an n ai", "the Tamil mother". It has historically been, and to large
extent still is, central to the Tamil identity. Like the other languages of South India, it is
a Dravidian language, unrelated to the Indo-European languages of northern India. The
language has been far less influenced by Sanskrit than the other Dravidian languages, and
preserves many features of Proto-Dravidian, though modern-day spoken Tamil in Tamil
Nadu, freely uses loanwords from Sanskrit and English. Tamil literature is of considerable
antiquity, and is recognised as a classical language by the government of India. Classical
Tamil literature, which ranges from lyric poetry to works on poetics and ethical philosophy,
is remarkably different from contemporary and later literature in other Indian languages, and
represents the oldest body of secular literature in South Asia.



Religion

The most popular deity is Murugan, also known as Karthikeya, the son of Siva. The worship
ofAmman, also called Mariamman, is thought to have been derived from an ancient mother
goddess, is also very common. an n agi, the heroine of the Cilappatik r am, is
worshipped as Pattin i by many Tamils, particularly in Sri Lanka.

Many local deities, called aiyyan     rs, are thought to be the spirits of local heroes who
protect the village from harm. Their worship often centers around nadukkal, stones erected in
memory of heroes who died in battle. This form of worship is mentioned frequently in
classical literature and appears to be the surviving remnants of an ancient Tamil tradition.

The Saivist sect of Hinduism is significantly represented amongst Tamils, more so among Sri
Lankan Tamils, although most of the Saivist places of religious significance are in northern
India.
           Rise of Power and Links with other terrorist organizations

A Council on Foreign Relations article by Preeti Bhattacharji stated, "the secular nationalist
LTTE currently has no operational connection with al-Qaeda, its radical Islamist affiliates, or
other terrorist groups". The group may still interact with other terrorist organizations through
illegal arms markets in Myanmar, Thailand, and Cambodia."

As early as the mid-1970s, LTTE rebels were known to have trained members of the Popular
Front for the Liberation of Palestine in SouthernLebanon, where concepts of suicide
bombings, taxation, and war memorials were imparted to PFLP fighters.

As late as 1998, the Tigers clearly stated:

... the LTTE has resolved to work in solidarity with the world national liberation movements,
socialist states, and international working class parties. We uphold an anti-imperialist policy
and therefore we pledge our militant solidarity against western imperialism, neo-colonialists,
Zionism, racism and other forces of reaction.

The Westminster Journal further states:

Intelligence agencies are well aware that the LTTE was involved in the 1990s in training
the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) both of which
are closely linked to al-Qaeda. In 1995 and 1998, an LTTE combat tactician and an LTTE
explosives expert accompanying groups of al-Qaeda Arabs was recorded training members of
MILF. In 1999, an LTTE combat tactician accompanying a group of al-Qaeda Arabs was
recorded training members of the ASG. At the apparent behest of al-Qaeda, the LTTE is
recorded training members of Al Ummah (An Islamic terrorist group formed in India in 1992,
believed to be responsible for bombings in southern India in 1998) in Tamil Nadu, India.

The Times of India, in a 2001 article, highlights an alleged nexus between al-Qaeda and the
LTTE, and claims that "[al-Qaeda links with the LTTE] are the first instance of an Islamist
group collaborating with an essentially secular outfit". Additionally, the US-based research
organisation "Maritime Intelligence Group" said the Indonesian group Jemaah Islamiya,
which has known links to al-Qaeda, had been trained in sea-borne guerrilla tactics by LTTE
Sea Tiger veterans.

"Norwegians Against Terrorism", a one-man band led by convicted murderer Falk Rune
Rovik, further described how the Tamil community in Norway, at the behest of the LTTE,
sold fake and stolen Norwegian passports to al-Qaeda members. The LTTE itself acquired a
fake passport for Ramzi Yousef, convicted mastermind of the 1993 attack on the World
Trade Center in New York.


LTTE tactics in other terrorist organizations:-


Some of LTTE's attacks in Sri Lanka have similarities to attacks by other proscribed groups.
Some examples are:

   The similarities between previous LTTE attacks against Sri Lanka Navy ships and the al-
    Qaeda attack on the USS Cole which killed 17US Navy sailors. The incident has raised
    suspicions of connections between the two groups. The "Maritime Intelligence Group"
    based in Washington DC claims to have unearthed substantial evidence that the LTTE
    trained Indonesian Islamists in the technique of maritime suicide bombings. The group,
    linked to al-Qaeda, is believed to have then passed the technique it learned from the
    LTTE to al-Qaeda itself.




   The website "South Asian Terrorism Portal" claimed that the LTTE provided forged
    passports to Ramzi Yousef, who was one of the planners of the first attack against
    the World Trade Center in New York in 1993. The allegation has been backed by the
    Westminster Journal as well.




   The website "South Asian Terrorism Portal" also states that there are increasing
    intelligence reports that the LTTE was smuggling arms to various terrorist organizations,
    including Islamic groups in Pakistan and their counterparts in the Philippines, using their
    covert smuggling networks. The London-based International Institute for Strategic
    Studies found that LTTE was building commercial links with al-Qaeda and other
    militants in Afghanistan, and that several cadres were spotted in Afghan militant camps.
   Falk Rovik, a convicted murderer, accused the LTTE of stealing Norwegian passports and
    selling them to al-Qaeda in Algeria to earn money to buy weapons. He further alleged that
    funds from Government of Norway had been inadvertently diverted to the LTTE.




   India's National Security Adviser, M K Narayanan, alleges that LTTE raises money by
    smuggling narcotics. A recent arrest of LTTE operatives in Colombia corroborates this
    claim.




   According to an "anti-LTTE" website, Glen Jenvey, a former employee of the
    government of Sri Lanka and a specialist on international terrorism, claimed that al-
    Qaeda has copied most of its terror tactics from the LTTE He highlighted the LTTE as the
    mastermind that sets the pattern for organizations like al-Qaeda to pursue. The Maritime
    Intelligence Group in Washington DC even states that al-Qaeda learned the tactic through
    LTTE contacts teaching Indonesians the methods.




   According to Asian Tribune, attacks on civilians in buses and trains in Sri Lanka were
    copied in the attack on public civilian transport during July 2005 bombings in London.
                    Cease Fire, Military Defeats and Operations
In 2001, the LTTE dropped its demand for a separate state. Instead, it stated that a form of
regional autonomy would meet its demands. Following the landslide election defeat of
Kumaratunga and the coming to power of Ranil Wickramasinghe in December 2001, the
LTTE declared a unilateral ceasefire. The Sri Lankan Government agreed to the ceasefire. In
March 2002, both sides signed an official Ceasefire Agreement (CFA). As part of the
agreement, Norwayand the other Nordic countries agreed to jointly monitor the ceasefire
through the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission.

Six rounds of peace talks between the Government of Sri Lanka and LTTE were held, but
they were temporarily suspended after the LTTE pulled out of the talks in 2003 claiming
"certain critical issues relating to the ongoing peace process".

In 2003, the LTTE proposed an Interim Self Governing Authority (ISGA). This move was
welcomed by the international community, but rejected by the Sri Lankan President.

In December 2005, the LTTE boycotted the 2005 presidential election. While LTTE claimed
that the people under its control were free to vote, it is alleged that they used threats to
prevent the population from voting. The United States condemned this act.

The new government of Sri Lanka came into power in 2006 and demanded to abrogate the
ceasefire agreement, stating that the only possible solution to the ethnic conflict was military
solution, and that the only way to achieve this is by eliminating the Liberation Tigers of
Tamila. Further peace talks were scheduled in Oslo, Norway, on June 8 and 9, 2006, but
canceled when the LTTE refused to meet directly with the government delegation, stating its
fighters were not being allowed safe passage to travel to the talks. Norwegian mediator Erik
Solheim told journalists that the LTTE should take direct responsibility for the collapse of the
talks. Rifts grew between the government and LTTE, and resulted in a number of ceasefire
agreement violations by both sides during 2006. Suicide attacks, military skirmishes and air
raids took place during the latter part of 2006. Military confrontation continued into 2007 and
2008. On January 2008, the government officially pulled out of the Cease Fire Agreement. In
the biggest show of dissent from within the organization, a senior LTTE commander
named Colonel Karuna (nom de guerre of Vinayagamoorthi Muralitharan) broke away from
the LTTE in March 2004 and formed the TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal amid
allegations that the northern commanders were overlooking the needs of the eastern Tamils.
The LTTE leadership accused him of mishandling of funds and questioned him about his
recent personal behaviour. He tried to take control of the eastern province from the LTTE,
which caused clashes between the LTTE and TEMVP. The LTTE has suggested that TEMVP
was backed by the government and the Nordic SLMM monitors have corroborated this.

On January 2, 2009, the President of Sri Lanka, Mahinda Rajapaksa, announced that the Sri
Lankan troops had captured Kilinochchi, the city which the LTTE had used for over a decade
as its de facto administrative capital. It was stated that the loss of Kilinochchi had caused a
substantial dent in the LTTE's image. It was also stated that after the fall of Kilinochchi the
LTTE was likely to collapse soon under unbearable military pressure on multiple fronts. As
of January 8, 2009, the LTTE was abandoning its positions on the Jaffna peninsula to make a
last stand in the jungles of Mullaitivu, their last main base. The entire Jaffna peninsula was
captured by the Sri Lanka Army by January 14. On January 25, 2009 SLA troops "completely
captured" Mullaitivu town, the last major LTTE stronghold.

Top LTTE leader Cheliyan, the second-in-command of the Sea Tigers, was killed
in Kariyamullivaikkal on May 8, 2009 dealing another blow to the organization. The Sri
Lankan Government accused the LTTE of causing a human disaster by trapping civilians in
the shrinking area under their control. With the LTTE on the brink of defeat, the fate of their
leader Velupillai Prabhakaran remained uncertain. On May 12, 2009 the BBC reported that
the LTTE was now clinging to 840 acres (3.4 km2) of land near the town of Mullaitivu, which
is roughly the same area as New York City's Central Park.

U.N. secretary General Ban Ki Moon appealed to the LTTE that children should not be held
hostage, recruited as child soldiers or put in harm's way. Claude Heller of United Nations
Security Council said 'We demand that the LTTE immediately lay down arms, renounce
terrorism, allow a UN-assisted evacuation of the remaining civilians in the conflict area, and
join the political process.' The council president, speaking on behalf of the 15 members, also
said they 'strongly condemned the LTTE, a terrorist organisation, for the use of civilians as
human shields and for not allowing them to leave the area'. On May 13, 2009 the UN
Security Council condemned the LTTE again and denounced its use of civilians as human
shields and urged them to acknowledge the legitimate right of the government of Sri Lanka to
combat terrorism by laying down their arms and allowing the tens of thousands of civilians to
leave the conflict zone. On May 14, 2009 The United Nations acting representative for Sri
Lanka, Amin Awad, said that 6,000 civilians had fled or were trying to flee, but that LTTE
was firing on them to prevent them from escaping.
President Mahinda Rajapaksa declared military victory over the Tamil Tigers on May 16,
2009 after 26 years of conflict. On the same day for the first time in their long struggle
against the Sri Lankan government, the rebels were offering to lay down their weapons in
return for a guarantee of safety. Sri Lanka's disaster relief and human-rights
minister Mahinda Samarasinghe stated 'The military phase is over. The LTTE has been
militarily defeated. Now the biggest hostage rescue operation in the world has come to a
conclusion, The figure I have here is since 20 April, 179,000 hostages have been rescued.'

On May 17, 2009, LTTE official Selvarasa Pathmanathan conceded defeat, saying in
an email statement "This battle has reached its bitter end". Several LTTE fighters committed
suicide when they became surrounded. On May 18, it was confirmed that the LTTE leader
Velupillai Prabhakaran had been killed along with several other high ranking Tamil officials.
State run television interrupted its regular programming and a government information
department sent a text message to cell phones across the country with the news.

In 2010 elements of the LTTE have been trying to re-consolidate the organization by raising
money from the Tamil Diaspora.
              Different ways to spread terrorism amongst human race

Suicide Bombing:-
The LTTE have employed the use of concealed suicide vests. According to Jane's
Information Group, between 1980 and 2000, the LTTE carried out 168 suicide attacks
causing heavy damage on economic and military targets.

Many of these attacks have involved military objectives in the north and east of the country,
although civilians have been targeted on numerous occasions, including during a high profile
attack on Colombo's International Airport in 2001 that caused damage to several commercial
airliners and military jets, and killed 16 people. The LTTE was also responsible for a 1998
attack on the Buddhist shrine, andUNESCO world heritage site, Sri Dalada Maligawa
in Kandy that killed 8 worshipers. The attack was symbolic in that the shrine, which houses a
sacred tooth of the Buddha, is the holiest Buddhist shrine in Sri Lanka. Other Buddhist
shrines have been attacked, notably the Sambuddhaloka Temple in Colombo that killed 9
worshipers.

Relatively speaking, there have been fewer operations in the south where most of the
Sinhalese live, including the capital Colombo, although such attacks have often engaged
high-profile targets and attracted much international publicity as a result.

The LTTE's Black Tigers has been attributed with the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, who
was killed in 1991 using a prototype suicide vest, and Ranasinghe Premadasa, assassinated in
1993.



Attack On Civilians:-

The LTTE has launched attacks on civilian targets several times. Notable attacks include
the Aranthalawa          Massacre, Anuradhapura            massacre, Kattankudy      mosque
massacre, the Kebithigollewa massacre and the Dehiwala train bombing. Civilians have also
been killed in attacks on economic targets, such as the Central Bank bombing.
Child Soldiers:-
The LTTE has been accused of recruiting and using child soldiers to fight against Sri Lankan
government forces. The LTTE was accused of having up to 5,794 child soldiers in its ranks
since 2001.

Amid international pressure, the LTTE announced in July 2003 that it would stop
conscripting child soldiers, but both UNICEF and Human Rights Watch have accused it of
reneging on its promises, and of conscripting Tamil children orphaned by the tsunami.
However, since 2007, the LTTE has claimed that it will release all of the recruits under the
age of 18 before the end of the year. On 18 June 2007, the LTTE released 135 children under
18. UNICEF, along with the United States, states that there has been a significant drop in
LTTE recruitment of children, but claims that 506 child recruits remain under the LTTE. A
report released by the LTTE's Child Protection Authority (CPA) in 2008 reported that less
than 40 soldiers under age 18 remained in its forces. However in 2009 a Special
Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations said the Tamil Tigers
"continue to recruit children to fight on the frontlines", and "use force to keep many civilians,
including children, in harms way".

The LTTE argues that instances of child recruitment occurred mostly in the east, under the
purview of former LTTE regional commander Colonel Karuna. After leaving the LTTE and
forming the TMVP, it is alleged that Karuna continued to forcibly kidnap and induct child
soldiers. Its official position is that earlier, some of its cadres erroneously recruited volunteers
in their late teens.




Ethnic Cleansing:-
The LTTE is responsible for forcibly removing, or "ethnically cleansing" Sinhalese and
Muslim inhabitants from areas under its control, and using violence against those who refuse
to leave. The evictions happened in the north in 1990, and the east in 1992. Tamil sources
openly state:

Islam, however, is not being practiced presently [In Tamil Eelam], as the Muslims have been
asked to leave the Tamil Eelam territory until the independence of Tamil Eelam. The
Muslims supported the aggressive Sri Lankan Sinhala and Muslim Military against the
freedom of Tamil Eelam.
Ironically, however, Muslim and Tamil communities in the North of Sri Lanka had
participated together in the early days of the Tamil movement, and Muslim ironmongers in
Mannar fashioned weapons for the LTTE, and local Tamil leaders were disturbed at the
LTTE’s call for the eviction of Muslims. However, as Tamil intellectuals began viewing
Muslims as outsiders, rather than a part of the Tamil nation as they had been referred to
previously, the LTTE undertook its anti-Muslim campaigns.

In its 1976 Vaddukodai Resolution, LTTE condemns the Sri Lankan government for, as it
claimed, "unleashing successive bouts of communal violence on both the Tamils and
Muslims." In 2005, the "International Federation of Tamils" claimed that the Sri Lankan
military purposefully stoked tensions between Tamils and Muslims, in an attempt to
undermine Tamil security. As Tamils turned to the LTTE for support, the Muslims were left
with the Sri Lankan state as their sole defender, and so in the eyes of the LTTE, the Muslims
had legitimized the role of the state, and were thus viewed as Sri Lankans.

Beginning in 1985, the LTTE forcibly occupied 35,000 acres (140 km2) of Muslim-owned
farmland in the north of Sri Lanka, before systematically evicting the Muslims from areas
under LTTE control.

Although anti-Muslim pogroms had occurred in the north and east of Sri Lanka since 1985,
the LTTE embarked on a campaign to expel Muslims from the North in 1989. The first
eviction notice was sent to the Muslims of Chavakacheri on October 15, 1989, after the
LTTE entered the local mosque and threatened Muslims a few weeks earlier. Afterward, the
houses of evicted Muslims were ransacked and looted. On October 28, 1989, the Muslims of
Mannar, in the North of Sri Lanka, were told,

"All Muslims living in Mannar island should leave by 28 October. Before leaving, they must
seek permission and clearance at the LTTE Office. The LTTE will decide their exit route."

The deadline was extended by four days after pleas from local Tamil Catholics, who were left
to look after many Muslims' property in anticipation of looting by the Sri Lankan army –
although the Catholics themselves were later robbed by the LTTE of both their own, and the
Muslims’ property. On the 28th, while Muslims were preparing to leave, the LTTE barred
Hindus from entering Muslim villages and dealing with them. The areas were reopened on
the November 3, after Muslims had been packed onto the boats of Muslim fishermen and sent
southwards along the coast.
After a lull in ethnic cleansing, the LTTE on August 3, 1990, sealed off a Shiite mosque in
Kattankady, the Meera Jumma and Husseinia, and opened fire through the mosque's
windows, leaving 147 Muslim worshipers dead, out of 300 gathered for Friday
prayers. Fifteen days later, LTTE gunmen shot dead between 122 and 173 Muslim civilians
in the town of Eravur

Ethnic cleansing culminated on October 30, 1990 when the LTTE forcibly expelled the entire
Muslim population of Jaffna. LTTE commanders from the east announced at 7:30 A.M. that
all Muslims in Jaffna were to report to Osmania stadium, where they were to be addressed by
two LTTE leaders, Karikalana and Anjaneyar. After listening to the leaders denigrate
Muslims for allegedly attacking Tamils in the east, the leaders explained to the community
that they had two hours to evacuate the city. The community was released from the stadium
at 10 A.M., and by noon, and were only allowed to carry 500 rupees, while the rest of their
possessions were seized by the LTTE after they were forced to report to LTTE checkpoints
upon exiting Jaffna.

In total, over 12,700 Muslim families, roughly 75,000 people, were forcibly evicted from
LTTE-controlled areas on the Northern Province.

In 1992, the LTTE embarked on a campaign to create a contiguous Tamil Hindu-Christian
homeland that stretched from the North of Sri Lanka, and downwards along the Eastern
Coast. A large Tamil-speaking Muslim population inhabited a narrow strip of land between
the two entities, and so a pattern of "ethnic cleansing" emerged in Eastern Sri Lanka, as was
already done in the North. "The LTTE unleashed violence against the Muslims of
Alinchipothanai and killed 69 Muslim villagers. This led to a retaliatory violence against the
Tamils in Muthugala, where 49 Tamils were killed allegedly by the Muslim Home
guards." Later in the year, the LTTE attacked four Muslim villages (Palliyagodalla,
Akbarpuram, Ahmedpuram and Pangurana) and killed 187 Muslims. The Australian Muslim
Times later commented on 30 October 1992: ―The massacres, eviction and the atrocities by
the Tamil Tigers are carried out in order to derive the Muslim Community from their
traditional land in the Eastern province as they have done it in the northern province and then
set up a separate state only for Tamils‖.

In 2002, the LTTE leader Vellupillai Prabhakaran had formally apologized for the expulsion
of Muslims from the north and asked the Muslims to return. Some families have returned and
re-opened the Osmaniya College and two mosques are functioning now. Since the
apology, TamilNet, which is widely seen as an LTTE mouthpiece, has featured numerous
stories of Muslim civilians coming under attack from Sinhalese forces.

During the summer of 1990, the LTTE killed over 370 Muslims in the North and East of Sri
Lanka in 11 mass killings The LTTE is also accused of organizing massacres of Sinhala
villagers who settled in the Northeast under the dry lands policy.



                                    Criminal Activities

Sea Piracy:-

The LTTE has been accused of hijacking several vessels and ships in waters outside Sri
Lanka,     including   the Irish   Mona (in    August     1995),Princess   Wave (in    August
1996), Athena (in May 1997), Misen (in July 1997), Morong Bong (in July 1997),
MV Cordiality (in September 1997), Princess Kash (in August 1998) and MV Farah
III (December 2006). The MV Sik Yang, a 2,818-ton Malaysian-flag cargo ship which sailed
from Tuticorin, India on May 25, 1999 was reported missing in waters near Sri Lanka. The
ship with a cargo of bagged salt was due at the Malaysian port of Malacca on May 31. The
fate of the ship's crew of 15 is unknown. It is suspected that the vessel was hijacked by the
LTTE and is now being used as a Phantom vessel. Likewise the crew of
a Jordanian ship, MV Farah III, that ran aground near LTTE-controlled territory off the
island's coast, accused the Tamil Tigers of risking their lives and forcing them to abandon the
vessel which was carrying 14,000 tonnes of Indian rice.



Arms Smuggling:-

The LTTE members operated a cargo company called "Otharad Cargo" in the United Arab
Emirates. There are reports that the LTTE metTaliban members and discussed the Sharjah
network, which existed in the Sharjah emirate of the United Arab Emirates. The Sharjah
network was used by Victor Bout, an arms-smuggling Russian intelligence agent, to provide
Taleban with weapons deliveries and other flights between Sharjah and Kandahar. Otharad
Cargo reportedly received several consignments of military hardware from the Sharjah
network.
The Mackenzie Institute claimed that one of LTTE's secretive international operations is the
smuggling of weapons, explosives, and "dual use" technologies. The part of the LTTE
responsible for these activities is nicknamed "KP Branch", taking the initials of its high level
operative, Kumaran Padmanathan. The workers for the KP Branch are from outside the
fighting wing of the LTTE, since the identities of those fighters are recorded and available to
law enforcement and counter-intelligence agencies by India's Research and Analysis Wing,
who had helped train many Tiger cadres in the early 1980s. The KP Branch operates
secretively by having the minimum connection possible with the LTTE's other sections for
further security. It hands over the arms shipments to a team of Sea Tigers to deliver them to
the LTTE-dominated areas.

The Mackenzie Institute further claimed that in order to carry out the activities of
international arms trafficking, the LTTE operates its own fleet of ocean-going vessels. These
vessels only operate a certain period of time for the LTTE and in the remaining time they
transport legitimate goods and raise hard cash for the purchase of weapons. The LTTE
initially operated a shipping base in Myanmar, but was forced to leave due to diplomatic
pressure. To overcome this loss, a new base has been set up on Phuket Island, in Thailand.

Furthermore, The Mackenzie Institute claimed that the most expertly executed operation of
the KP Branch was the theft of 32,400 rounds of 81 mm mortar ammunition purchased
from Tanzania destined for the Sri Lanka Army. Being aware of the purchase of 35,000
mortar bombs, the LTTE made a bid to the manufacturer through a numbered company and
arranged a vessel of their own to pick up the load. Once the bombs were loaded into the ship,
the LTTE changed the name and registration of their ship. The vessel was taken to Tiger-held
territory in Sri Lanka's north instead of transporting it to its intended destination

Western countries are the main territory for fund raising activities of the LTTE. The money
raised from donations and enterprises are transferred into bank accounts of the Tigers and
from there to the accounts of a weapons broker, or the money is taken by KP operatives
themselves. LTTE's need for resources is mostly fulfilled by the Tamils who reside outside
Sri Lanka. In 1995, when the LTTE lost Jaffna, its international operatives were ordered to
increase, by 50%, the amount raised from Tamils outside the island.
          What kind of terrorist attacks have the LTTE undertaken?


The LTTE, which may have between 7,000 and 15,000 armed combatants (PDF), is notorious
for its suicide bombings. Since the late 1980s, the group has conducted approximately two
hundred suicide attacks. Targets have included transit hubs, Buddhist shrines, and office
buildings. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the LTTE invented the
suicide belt and pioneered the use of women in suicide attacks. LTTE fighters wear cyanide
capsules around their necks so they can commit suicide if they are captured.
Beyond suicide bombings, the LTTE has used conventional bombs and Claymore mines to
attack political and civilian targets, and has gunned down both Sri Lankan officials and
civilians. In an April 2008 report, the U.S. State Department also accuses the LTTE of
engaging in abductions and extortion. According to the report, violations of the 2002 cease-
fire agreement by both the LTTE and the government have killed more than 5,000
people since 2006.
Many of the LTTE's victims have been public officials. Over the past twenty years, the LTTE
has been accused of assassinating almost a dozen high-level figures, including two heads of
state. Assassinations and attacks on officials allegedly committed by the LTTE include:




   The May 1991 assassination of former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi at a campaign
    rally in India;


   The May 1993 assassination of Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa;


   The July 1999 assassination of a Sri Lankan member of parliament, Neelan
    Thiruchelvam, an ethnic Tamil involved in a government-sponsored peace initiative;


   A pair of December 1999 suicide bombings in Colombo that wounded Sri Lankan
    President Chandrika Kumaratunga;
   The June 2000 assassination of Sri Lankan Industry Minister C.V. Goonaratne;


   The August 2005 assassination of Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar;


   The January 2008 assassination of a member of parliament from the opposition United
    National Party (UNP), T. Maheswaran;


   The January 2008 assassination of Sri Lankan Nation-Building Minister D. M.
    Dassanayake;


   The February 2008 assassination of two cadres of the political party and paramilitary
    group Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP); and


   The April 2008 assassination of Sri Lankan Highway Minister Jeyaraj Fernandopulle.
    Why was it termed as a terrorist group and assassinations in which LTTE
                                      helped


The United States Department of State states that its reason for banning LTTE as a proscribed
terrorist group is based on allegations that LTTE does not respect human rights and that it
does not adhere to the standards of conduct expected of a resistance movement or what might
be called "freedom fighters". The FBI has described the LTTE as "amongst the most
dangerous and deadly extremist outfits in the world". Other countries have also proscribed
LTTE under the same rationale. Numerous countries and international organizations have
accused the LTTE of attacking civilians and recruiting children.

32 countries have listed the LTTE as a terrorist organization. As of January 2009, these
include:

     India (since 1992)
     United States (designated as Foreign Terrorist Organizations by the Department of
      State since October 8, 1997. Named as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT)
      since November 2, 2001)
     United Kingdom (designated as Proscribed Terrorist Group under the Terrorism Act
      2000 by the Home Secretary since 2000)
     European Union (since 2006; 27 countries)
     Canada (since 2006) Canada does not grant residency to LTTE members on the grounds
      that they have participated in crimes against humanity.
     Sri Lanka (from January 1998 to September 4, 2002, and again from January 7, 2009)
The first country to ban the LTTE was its early ally, India. The Indian change of policy came
gradually, starting with the IPKF-LTTE conflict, and culminating with the assassination
of Rajiv Gandhi. India opposes the new state Tamil Eelam that LTTE wants to establish,
saying that it would lead to Tamil Nadu's separation from India though the leaders of Tamil
Nadu are opposing it. Sri Lanka itself lifted the ban on the LTTE before signing the ceasefire
agreement in 2002. This was a prerequisite set by the LTTE for the signing of the agreement.

The European Union banned LTTE as a terrorist organization on May 17, 2006. In a
statement, the European Parliament said that the LTTE did not represent all the Tamils and
called on it to "allow for political pluralism and alternate democratic voices in the northern
and eastern parts of Sri Lanka".
                                        Conclusion

Srilanka’s 26 year long insurgency ended as the leader of Tamil Tiger Vellupillai
Prabhakaran was killed in 2009 while trying to flee the battle zone in the Mullaitivu in north
region of the country. It marked the collapse of The Liberation Tigers Of Tamil Eelam which
is one of the most well armed insurgent in the world with its own army navy and airforce.
Prabhakaran’s death came after his elder son Charles Anthony who was being groomed to
succeed him was also killed. The tiger’s intelligence Shanmugalingam Shivashankar, the
naval wing leader Soosai, the political wing chief Balasingham. A large no. Of LTTE fighters
were reported to have committed mass suicide so as to avoid falling into the hands of the
military.

The insurgency caused severe hardship to the people, environment and the economy of the
Srilanka with over 80000 people killer. In 2009, the government started taking control of the
entire area previously controlled by Tigers, including their de-facto capital Kilinochichi, main
military base Mullaitivu and the strategic A9 highway leading the LTTE to finally admit
defeat on May 17, 2009.
                         Research and Methodology



Answer.com

Google

Srilankan Civil War from Encarta Encyclopedia

Culture of Tamilians in Human Race Of India

Eelam War

Rediff.com

Times Of India

United Nations Organization- Terrorist organizations List

Gambetta, D. (26 May 2005). Making sense of suicide missions. New
York: Oxford University Press

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) (10 January 2008). "Taming The Tamil
Tigers"

"Human rights violations in a context of armed conflict". Amnesty International
USA.

O'Ballance, Edgar (1989). The Cyanide War

				
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