Cloud Computing - DOC

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					PROJECT: Cloud Computing
Contents

 Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................ i
 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................. 1
 Layers of Cloud Computing .................................................................................................................. 5
 Characteristics of Cloud Computing ......................................................................................................... 7
 Benefits of Cloud Computing ................................................................................................................... 8
 Risks in Cloud Computing ........................................................................................................................ 8
 Stakeholders of Cloud Computing ............................................................................................................ 9
 Cloud Consulting .................................................................................................................................... 10
 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................. 12
 References ............................................................................................................................................... 13
Executive Summary

Cloud Computing is one of the hottest IT trends of 2010. Cloud computing is all the rage.
"It's become the phrase du jour," says Gartner. Cloud computing comes into focus when
one thinks about what IT always needed: a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on
the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new
software. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription-based or pay-per-use service
that, in real time over the Internet, extends IT's existing capabilities.

Through this project we are actually trying to make sense of the cloud world, how cloud
computing and cloud are so different in the IT world. The report basically deconstructs
the so nebulous sounding term cloud which is not at all fuzzy when one views the value
proposition from the perspective of IT professionals.

The various types of clouds on offer, the framework that caters to the various cloud
components on offer. Also we look at the various risks that moving to the cloud an
enterprise would face and what all is available to address those, although there is much
work needed to cater to the security issues of the cloud in the industry.

Then what all benefits lie for an enterprise besides costs that should actually drive the
enterprises moving to the cloud. Be it the easy scalability, flexibility, access to data
anywhere anytime are some of these.

Then we talk about the most important aspect, that is the role of consultant in this new
technology world. What all he needs to know as a cloud consultant , in terms of technical
expertise, the various cloud computing products on offer to cater to his clients needs and
provide him the best fit solution.

Thus the project demystifies the cloud jargon and attempts to bring out the role a
consultant will play in this ever changing technical landscape.
Introduction

Cloud Computing
In its broadest usage, the term cloud computing refers to the delivery of scalable IT resources over the
Internet, as opposed to hosting and operating those resources locally, such as on a college or university
network. Those resources can include applications and services, as well as the infrastructure on which
they operate. By deploying IT infrastructure and services over the network, an organization can purchase
these resources on an as-needed basis and avoid the capital costs of software and hardware. With cloud
computing, IT capacity can be adjusted quickly and easily to accommodate changes in demand. While
remotely hosted, managed services have long been a part of the IT landscape, a heightened interest in
cloud computing is being fueled by ubiquitous networks, maturing standards, the rise of hardware and
software virtualization, and the push to make IT costs variable and transparent.


“Avanade defines cloud computing as enabling and delivering computing services – compute power, data
storage, network bandwidth, and application software – over a network on an as needed basis.”

Cloud computing is part of a long and powerful trend towards virtualization. Clearly defined business
benefits can be derived from cloud computing.

Cloud computing serves as an umbrella term. It encompasses many types of services, including
prominently known Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). It is a way to use computers and software that reduces
the need for local infrastructure and operational management. At the opposite end of the spectrum,
―private‖ clouds rely on the use of on-premise data center capacity or applications potentially managed by
a third party from a remote location, much like traditional outsourcing.

Cloud computing comes into focus only when you think about what IT always needs: a way to increase
capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or
licensing new software. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription-based or pay-per-use service
that, in real time over the Internet, extends IT's existing capabilities.

Cloud computing is at an early stage, with a motley crew of providers large and small delivering a slew of
cloud-based services, from full-blown applications to storage services to spam filtering. Yes, utility-style
infrastructure providers are part of the mix, but so are SaaS (software as a service) providers such as
Salesforce.com. Today, for the most part, IT must plug into cloud-based services individually, but cloud
computing aggregators and integrators are already emerging.




Cloud computing is fully enabled by virtualization technology (hypervisors) and virtual appliances. A
virtual appliance is an application that is bundled with all the components that it needs to run, along with
a streamlined operating system. In a cloud computing environment, a virtual appliance can be instantly

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provisioned and decommissioned as needed, without complex configuration of the operating
environment. This flexibility is the key advantage to cloud computing, and what distinguishes it from
other forms of grid or utility computing and software as a service (SaaS).


ARCHITECTURE OF CLOUD COMPUTING




When talking about a cloud computing system, it's helpful to divide it into two sections: the front end and
the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. The front end is the side
the computer user, or client, sees. The back end is the "cloud" section of the system.

The front end includes the client's computer (or computer network) and the application required to access
the cloud computing system. Not all cloud computing systems have the same user interface. Services like
Web-based e-mail programs leverage existing Web browsers like Internet Explorer or Firefox. Other
systems have unique applications that provide network access to clients.On the back end of the system are
the various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of computing services. In
theory, a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program you can imagine, from
data processing to video games. Usually, each application will have its own dedicated server.

A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs
smoothly. It follows a set of rules called protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware.
Middleware allows networked computers to communicate with each other.If a cloud computing company
has a lot of clients, there's likely to be a high demand for a lot of storage space. Some companies require
hundreds of digital storage devices. Cloud computing systems need at least twice the number of storage
devices it requires to keep all its clients' information stored. That's because these devices, like all
computers, occasionally break down. A cloud computing system must make a copy of all its clients'
information and store it on other devices. The copies enable the central server to access backup machines
to retrieve data that otherwise would be unreachable. Making copies of data as a backup is called
redundancy.

Foundation of cloud computing comprises data centers(servers, storage, networking) , the business
applications and middleware, virtualization software and of course operating system.



EVOLUTION OF CLOUD COMPUTING

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                                             Grid Computing

                           Solving large problems with parallel computing




                                           Utility Computing
                                                               Offering computed resources as a
              Introduced in late 1900s
                                                                        metered service




                                           Cloud Computing
                                                                 Network based subscriptions to
            Gained momentum in 2001
                                                                         applications

Grid computing is a term referring to the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative
domains to reach common goal. What distinguishes grid computing from conventional high performance
computing systems such as cluster computing is that grids tend to be more loosely coupled,
heterogeneous, and geographically dispersed. Although a grid can be dedicated to a specialized
application, it is more common that a single grid will be used for a variety of different purposes. Grids are
often constructed with the aid of general-purpose grid software libraries known as middleware.

Utility computing is the packaging of computing resources, such as computation, storage and services, as
a metered service similar to a traditional public utility (such as electricity, water, natural gas, or telephone
network). This system has the advantage of a low or no initial cost to acquire hardware; instead,
computational resources are essentially rented. Customers with very large computations or a sudden peak
in demand can also avoid the delays that would result from physically acquiring and assembling a large
number of computers.

In general, cloud computing customers do not own the physical infrastructure, instead avoiding capital
expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider. They consume resources as a service and pay
only for resources that they use. Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model,
which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed, whereas others
bill on a subscription basis. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants
can improve utilization rates, as servers are not unnecessarily left idle (which can reduce costs
significantly while increasing the speed of application development). A side-effect of this approach is that
overall computer usage rises dramatically, as customers do not have to engineer for peak load limits. In
addition, "increased high-speed bandwidth" makes it possible to receive the same response times from
centralized infrastructure at other sites.

The software-as-a-service (SaaS) model for delivering software, in which a software application is hosted
and provided to customers via per user licensing, borrows many characteristics from both traditional
corporate IT systems and the Internet. The fusion between the two generates compelling solutions to the

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many application management issues, such as system configuration, application performance, and
availability, etc. that almost all IT organizations face. At the same time, the nature of SaaS delivery also
creates new challenges for software vendors, particularly with regard to profitability, data center
operations, and customer support. Overcoming these obstacles can make SaaS a much more strategic
option for vendors looking to create competitive differentiation, drive customer volume and increase their
revenue amid an increasingly crowded marketplace.


CLOUD STRATEGY MAP




With cloud computing, the burden of creating, developing and sustaining the entire infrastructure
unilaterally gets lifted from a company that may be shouldering it unnecessarily. In the cloud, companies
can share the load. And if serious problems arise, cloud access provides opportunities that could help the
business leverage more affordable and robust disaster recovery options.

One way some companies are taking advantage of the cloud is in using short-term computing power in
product development. For example, a company wants to manage a team of software developers working
on a new product and wants to set up a test environment for the application. Instead of buying servers,
configuring and testing the systems and applications, the company simply taps a cloud service provider
for instant access to pre-configured developer workstations as well as unlimited testing environments.
This also offers the opportunity to run programs whenever and wherever the need arises. Applications
could be tested, and tested concurrently on multiple servers in the cloud. And if a company needs to shut
down the project and leave it for a time, it could be picked up later – quickly, with no upfront capital
expense required.




Types of cloud computing environments
The cloud computing environment can consist of multiple types of clouds based on their deployment and
usage.



Public clouds
This environment can be used by the general public. This includes individuals, corporations and other
types of organizations. Typically, public clouds are administrated by third parties or vendors over the

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Internet, and services are offered on pay-per-use basis. These are also called provider clouds. Public
clouds are ―stand-alone,‖ or proprietary, clouds mostly off-premise, run by third party companies such as
Google, Amazon, Microsoft, and others. Public clouds are hosted off customer premises and usually mix
applications (transparently) from different consumers on shared infrastructure. Business models like SaaS
(Software-as-a-Service) and public clouds complement each other and enable companies to leverage
shared IT resources and services.
Advantages
     Public clouds are widely used in the development, deployment and management of enterprise
         applications, at affordable costs
     Allows organizations to deliver highly scalable and reliable applications rapidly and at more
         affordable costs
Limitations
    Security is a significant concern in public clouds



Private clouds
This cloud computing environment resides within the boundaries of an organization and is used
exclusively for the organization’s benefits. These are also called internal clouds. They are built primarily
by IT departments within enterprises who seek to optimize utilization of infrastructure resources within
the enterprise by provisioning the infrastructure with applications using the concepts of grid and
virtualization.
Private clouds are typically designed and managed by an IT department within an organization. A private
cloud is usually built specifically to provide services internally to an organization. Private clouds may be
in a collocated facility or in an existing data center. This model gives a high level of control over the
cloud services and the cloud infrastructure.

Advantages
     They improve average server utilization, allow usage of low-cost servers and hardware while
       providing higher efficiencies; thus reducing the costs that a greater number of servers would
       otherwise entail
    High levels of automation, reducing operations costs and administrative overheads
Limitations
       IT teams in the organization may have to invest in buying, building and managing the clouds
        independently



Hybrid clouds
This is a combination of both private (internal) and public (external) cloud computing environments. The
cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain
unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and
application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds).




Layers of Cloud Computing

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There are several recognized layers in cloud computing. The vendors in these layers have very different
service offerings and operating models. Some vendors concentrate on building and maintaining a huge
data center, while others concentrate on building a user friendly and feature-rich application.

Cloud computing is broken down into three segments: ―software‖, ―platform‖ and ―infrastructure‖. Each
segment serves a different purpose and offers different products to businesses and individuals around the
world.

1. Software as a Service (SaaS)

SaaS is the service based on the concept of renting software from a service provider rather than buying it
yourself. The software is hosted on centralized network servers to make functionality available over the
web or intranet. Also known as ―software on demand‖ it is currently the most popular type of cloud
computing because of its high flexibility, great services, enhanced scalability and less maintenance.
Yahoo mail, Google docs, CRM applications are all instances of SaaS. With a web-based CRM all that
employees need to do is register and login to the central system and import any existing customer data.
The service provider hosts both the application and the data so the end user is free to use the service from
anywhere. SaaS is very effective in lowering the costs of business as it provides the business an access to
applications at a cost normally far cheaper than a licensed application fee which is possible due to its
monthly fees based revenue model. With SaaS user need not wor
				
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