Abstract Expressionism Art History A study Guide 2007

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					Art History

A study Guide
     2007
                                         Greek sculpture




   Archaic period-stiff figures




Hellenistic period-flowing figures and
drapery
           Byzantine Art
            400-1453
Byzantine art reflected a decorative style
and the images of saints and apostles
were depicted in an elongated style,
usually seen against a gold background.
Symbols, images an sacramental objects
and their depictions became the intent and
being of Byzantine art
                        Byzantine

Mosaic of Emperor Justinian
San Vitale




                                    Archangel Gabriel
            Romanesque
             1050-1150

Romanesque art consists of a large variety
of regional styles. Most of the art of this
period was religious, and major efforts
were directed toward construction
churches and carving sculpture to
decorate them.
             Pisa
Baptistry, Catheral and Tower
                     Gothic
                   1140-1300
• The term Gothic was coined for architecture, and
  it is in architecture that the characteristics of the
  style are most easily recognized. Great
  cathedrals were built to glorify the Church; and
  they became the religious, cultural, and social
  centers of growing cities.
• The emphasis on height and wide windows were
  dominate in the Gothic society. Breathtaking
  height had become the dominant aim, and the
  creations of “translucent wall” consisting of
  numerous stained glass windows added to the
  heightened feel of spirituality.
                  Gothic


             Flying buttresses made tall walls
                          possible
             With wider windows which held
                       stained glass


Notre Dame
                Renaissance
                 1400-1520
• While Gothic art represented an increase in
  naturalism, pre-Renaissance works began to
  show a three-dimensional life.
• Renaissance is the French word for rebirth and
  this period became the age of discovery. Artists
  explored the scientific aspects of art, such as
  proportion, anatomy and perspective. Northern
  Europe showed a powerful realism, using
  commonplace objects mixed with religious
  significance.
Early renaissance
Van Eyck

                     Renaissance
                        Raphael
                        High renaissance




                        Michelangelo
                        High renaissance


 Early Renaissance
 Botticelli
              Mannerism
• Mannerism was a mix of styles and
  featured elongated bodies, distorted
  forms, various views and expressionistic
  approaches to subject matters. While all
  Mannerist paintings had factors in
  common, each artist stressed individual
  and unique approaches
   Mannerism
Parmagianino
                        El Greco




           Tintoretto
                                       Compare
 • Renaissance                                                   • Mannerism




School of Lorenzo di Credi, Italian,
Madonna and Child, about 1494,         Jacopo da Pontormo)
                                       Oil on panel; 313 x 192
                                       cm Capponi Chapel,
                                       Florence
                                              Baroque
      (realistic and more emotional)-reaction against
                mannerism which was too mechanical


                                               16th to 17th
                                               Century




El Greco (born Doménikos Theotokópoulos), Christ Carrying the
Cross, 1580s (?),
oil on canvas,                                                     Flora Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn
41 3/8 x 31 inches (105 x 79 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY   Oil on canvas; 125 x 101 cm
                                                                   Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Baroque
Usually can see a focal point
  noticeable by a light on the
  main subject with a dark
  background.

Influenced by the colonization of
    strong countries in Europe.
    Brought money to merchants,
    bankers, etc. therefore they
    could afford to decorate their
    homes, estates, etc. with art.

Saw the building of Palace of
  Versailles which is large and
  ornate.
          The Denial of Saint Peter
      Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi)
        (Italian, Lombard, 1571–1610)
Oil on canvas; 37 x 49 3/8 in. (94 x 125.4 cm)
                                 Rococo
Eighteenth-century art-
elegant, graceful, and
intimate. Created to
please rather than
instruct. Used light, lively
colors.
Focused on the
aristocracy and was
playful and wistful, full of
emotion and love.



         Jean-Honore Fragonard
             Neoclassical
Neoclassical
Reacted against excesses of Baroque and Rococo for traditional
design based on the principles of Greek and Roman art.
Influenced by French and American Revolution.
The discovery of Pompeii and Herculeneum (buried under ash
in72AD) brought to mind the classical art of the Greeks and
Romans



                                             Jacques-Louis David
                    Romanticism
An art movement and style that flourished in the early nineteenth
century. It emphasized the emotions painted in a bold, dramatic
manner. Romantic artists rejected the cool reasoning of classicism
— the established art of the times — to paint pictures of nature in its
untamed state, or other exotic settings filled with dramatic action,
often with an emphasis on the past. Classicism was nostalgic too,
but Romantics were more emotional, usually melancholic, even
melodramatically tragic.




    Phillip de Loutherbourg,
    An Avalanche in the Alps
         “I Feel, therefore I am”
         Romanticism




Joseph Mallord William Turner, Saint Denis, c. 1833, oil on canvas,
 Tate Museum, London.
                          Realism
  •     Amid-nineteenth century art movement and style in
      which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism
      and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar
      scenes and events as they actually looked. Typically it
      involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message, in
      the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects.




Jean Francois Millet,
The Gleaners
Compare Rococo-Romanticism-Realism
               Industrial Age
• Invention of steel led
  to large, strong, tall
  buildings
• Built for the world’s
  Fair, the Eiffel Tower
  was despised by the
  Parisians and they
  wanted it torn down


              Eiffel Tower
Impressionism marks the beginning
          of modern art
       Middle to late19th century




          From Realism of Turner to
           Impressionism of Monet
Different artists’ view of impressionism




           •Impressionists were
           refused admittance
           into the Salon in the
           Louvre-
           •Napoleon III ordered
           an exhibition of the
           refused
           •Began the downfall of
           the Salon
          Post Impressionism
• A French art movement that immediately
  followed Impressionism. The artists involved,
  usually meaning Paul Cézanne (French),
  Vincent van Gogh (Dutch), Paul Gauguin
  (French), and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
  (French) showed a greater concern for
  expression, structure and form than did the
  Impressionist artists. These artists rejected the
  emphasis the Impressionists put on naturalism
  and the depiction of fleeting effects of light.
   Paul Gauguin,
Washerwomen 1888,
Paul Cezanne
Mont. Sainte Victoire
       Vincent van Gogh,
Memory of the Garden at Etten (Ladies of Arles),
Impressionism
vs.
post impressionism
Fauvism
Cezanne’s influence on cubism
   Pablo
Picasso, A
  Woman
Sitting in a
   Chair,
1910, oil on
  canvas,
  100 x 73
    cm,
  Georges
 Pompidou
   Center,
   Paris.
         Second part of cubism-Picasso
              invented collages




Pablo Picasso, Bottle of Vieux Marc, Glass, Guitar and Newspaper, 1913, collage and pen and ink on blue
paper, 46.7 x 62.5 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
With the wider use of trains and the invention of the automobile (1908) and
airplane (1903) people were excited about motion, movement and energy




   Umberto Boccioni, The Laugh (La risata), 1911, oil on
canvas, 43 3/8 x 57 1/4 inches (199.3 x 301 cm), Museum of
                      Modern Art, NY.
         Cubism vs. Futurism




                                      Gino Severini (Italian,
                                      1883-1966), Dynamic
                                      Hieroglyphic of the Bal
                                       Tabarin, 1912, oil on
                                       canvas with sequins,
                                      63 5/8 x 61 1/2 inches
                                        (161.6 x 156.2 cm),
Juan Gris                               Museum of Modern
Portrait of Picasso                           Art, NY.
1912; Oil on canvas, 93.4 x 74.3 cm
                  DADA
           World War I-1914-1918
Based on anarchy, cynicism,
  and rejecting laws of social
  organization and beauty
Reaction against traditional art




Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel, 1913,
  metal, painted wood,
  126.5 x 31.5 x 63.5 cm,
  Georges Pompidou Center, Paris.
                        Dada led to surrealism
     • Free from control, convention, reason-based on fantasies and
       dreams
     • Lighter in spirit than dada
Fruit of a Long Experience by Max Ernst, 1919.




                                                 Marc Chagall, Birthday (L'Anniversaire), 1915, oil on
                                                 cardboard, 31 3/4 x 39 1/4 inches (80.6 x 99.7 cm), Museum
                                                 of Modern Art, NY.
                                                                       Salvador
                                                                       Dali
                                                                       Premature
                                                                       Ossification
                                                                       of a Railway
                                                                       Station,
                                                                       1930




Joan Miró, Women and Bird in the Moonlight,
  1949, oil on canvas, 81.3 x 66.0 cm, Tate                                     Marc Chagall,
               Gallery, London.                                                 Over Vitebsk
                                                                                (Au dessus
                                                                                de Vitebsk),
                                                                                1915-20
                                                                                oil on canvas,
                                              René MAGRITTE                     26 3/8 x 36
                                              Belgium 1898 – 1967               1/2 inches (67
                                              Les Amants
                                                                                x 92.7 cm),
                                              [The lovers] 1928                 Museum of
                                              oil on canvas
                                                                                Modern Art,
                                                                                NY
                                              54.0 (h) x 73.0 (w) cm
     Joan Miró,
       Painting,
        1933,
oil on canvas, 146 x
       114 cm,
Georges Pompidou
    Center, Paris.
De Stijl-The Style
should give off an anonymous feel and viewer should
not feel the artist’s personality




                               Piet Mondrian, Composition in
                               Brown and Gray, 1913-14, oil
                                on canvas, 33 3/4 x 29 3/4
                                  inches (85.7 x 75.6 cm),
                               Museum of Modern Art, NY.
Abstract expressionism
First American art style to be
 received all over the world
   Two types: Action Painting
              and
           Color field
   Jackson
    Pollock
Shimmering
 Substance.
 (sounds in
  the Grass
Series). 1946.
Oil on canvas,
 30 1/8 x 24
 1/4" (76.3 x
61.6 cm). The
 Museum of
 Modern Art,
 New York. a
        Color field paintings
• Artists interested in the effects large
  expanses of color had on the atmosphere
  and mood of the work.
• Convey a sense of infinity and being
  immersed in an environment of color
 Mark
Rothko,
 No. 2.
 1954
 Oil on
canvas
291.5 x
207 cm
                                     Alma Woodsey Thomas
                                     (American, 1891-1978)
                                     Iris, Tulips, Jonquils and
                                     Crocuses
                                     1969
                                     Acrylic on canvas, 60 x 50 in.
                                      National Museum of Women in
                                     Art




Morris Louis, Alpha-Phi, 1961, acrylic on unprimed
 canvas, 259.1 x 459.7 cm, Tate Gallery, London.


                                                                      Alma Woodsey
                                                                      Thomas
                                                                      (American, 1891-
                                                                      1978)
                                                                      Orion
                                                                      1973
                                                                      Oil on canvas, 53
                                                                      3/4 x 64 in.
                                                                      National Museum
                                                                      of Women in Art
              Regionalism:
American Scene painting and Social Realism
Thomas Hart Benton (American, 1889-1975), Mine Strike,
                                                               Thomas Hart Benton, The Ballad of the Jealous Lover of
lithograph
                                                               Lone Green Valley, 1934, Oil and tempera on canvas,




                                                                     Grant
                                          Jacob Lawrence,
                                          Tombstones
                                                                     Wood
                                          1942                       Spring
                                          Gouache on paper
                                          28 3/4 x 20 1/2 in
                                                                     in Town
                                          Whitney Museum
                                          of American Art,
                                          New York
   John Steuart Curry, (1897-1946), “Tornado Over
Kansas,” 1929, oil on canvas, Muskegon Museum of Art
                         1935
                           Pop Art




Roy Lichtenstein (American, 1923-1997), Mustard on White, 1963,
Magnacolor on Plexiglass, 80.0 x 94.0 x 5.1 cm, Tate Gallery, London
  Andy Warhol.
   Roll of Bills.
      (1962).
Pencil, crayon, and
  felt-tip pen on
       paper,
 40 x 30" (101.6 x
     76.2 cm).
Museum of Modern
  Art, New York
Op Art-the art of optical illusions to
         create movement
"Mira-Spectrum" textile, ca. 1970
Verner Panton (Danish, 1926–1998)
Victor Vasarely, Blue-Black
                     M.C. Escher
 Print Gallery Maurits Cornelis Escher, Print Gallery,
1956, lithograph, image 31.9 x 31.7 cm, sheet 41.2 x
40.4 cm, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA.
   Ellsworth Kelly
(American, 1923-),
  Study for White
Plaque: Bridge Arch
  and Reflection,
        1951,
  cut-and-pasted
   black papers,
  20 1/4 x 14 1/4
       inches,
Museum of Modern
       Art, NY.
Minimalism vs. Color field

				
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