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Nanjing ??? — Sub-provincial city —

Location in China

Coordinates: 32°03′N 118°46′E / 32.05°N 118.767°E / 32.05; 118.767 Country Province Countylevel divisions Township divisions Settled
Clockwise from top: Nanjing city night panorama, the former Presidential Palace of ROC, Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, Dr. Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Jiming Temple, City Wall of Nanjing, Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall

China Jiangsu 13 129 495 BC Zhu Shanlu Committee Secretary Jiang Hongkun 6,598 km2 (2,547.5 sq mi) 15 m (50 ft) 7,588,900 1,123.5/km2 (2,909.9/ sq mi) China Standard Time (UTC+8) 210000 - 211300 25 ?A ¥377.5 billion ¥50,327

Government - CPC Nanjing - Mayor Area (ranked 29th) - Total Elevation Population (2008) - Total - Density Time zone Postal code Area code(s)

Nickname(s): Southern Capital

Nanjing’s location within Jiangsu province

License plate prefixes GDP (2008) - per capita

City trees
Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara)

City flowers
Méi (Prunus mume)


City of Nanjing


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nanjing (Chinese: ??; Romanizations: Nánjīng (Pinyin), Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal map spelling)) is the capital of China’s Jiangsu Province, and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. Nanjing (literally: ’Southern capital’) served as the capital of China during several historical periods and is listed as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. Nanjing was the capital of the Republic of China (ROC) before the Chinese Civil War. Nanjing is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People’s Republic of China’s administrative structure, enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province. Located in the lower Yangtze River drainage basin and Yangtze River Delta economic zone, Nanjing has always been one of China’s most important cities. Apart from having been the capital of China for six dynasties and of the Republic of China, Nanjing has also served as a national hub of education, research, transportation and tourism throughout history. With an urban population of over five million, it is also the second largest commercial center in the East China region, after Shanghai.



Geography and climate


Autumn situated in one of the largest economic zones of China, the Yangtze River Delta, which is part of the downstream Yangtze River drainage basin. The Yangtze River flows past the west side of Nanjing City, while the Ningzheng Ridge surrounds the north, east and south side of the city. The city is 300 kilometers (186 mi) west of Shanghai,

Nanjing Area - Lower Yangtze Valley and Eastern China Nanjing, with a total land area of 6,598 square kilometers (2,547.5 sq mi), is


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natural scenery. Natural lakes such as Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake are located in the center of the city and are easily accessible to the public, while hills like Purple Mountain are covered with evergreens and oaks and host various historical and cultural sites. Sun Quan relocated its capital to Nanjing after Liu Bei’s suggestion as Liu Bei was impressed by Nanjing’s impeccable geographic position when negotiating an alliance with Sun Quan. Sun Quan then renamed the city from Moling (??) to Jianye (??) shortly thereafter. [3]

Winter 1,200 kilometers (746 mi) south of Beijing, and 1,400 kilometers (870 mi) east of Chongqing. Nanjing has a humid subtropical climate and is under the influence of the East Asia Monsoon. Seasons are distinct in Nanjing, with usually hot summers and plenty of rainfall throughout the year. Along with Wuhan and Chongqing, Nanjing is often referred to as one of the "Three Furnacelike Cities" along the Yangtze River (????????) for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime.[1] The average temperature during the year is 16 °C (61 °F). The average high temperature in January is 7 °C (45 °F) while the average low is −1 °C (30.2 °F); the average high in July is 32 °C (90 °F) with an average low of 25 °C (77 °F).[2] The highest recorded temperature is 43 °C (109 °F) (July 13, 1934), and the lowest −16.9 °C (2 °F) (Jan 6, 1955). On average it rains 117 days out of the year, and the average annual rainfall is 1,106.5 millimetres (43.6 in). The time from mid-June to the end of July is the plum blossom Meiyu season, during which the city experiences a period of mild rain as well as dampness. Nanjing is endowed with rich natural resources, which include more than 40 kinds of minerals. Among them, iron and sulfur reserves make up 40 percent of those of Jiangsu province. Its reserves of strontium rank first in East Asia and the South East Asia region. Nanjing also possesses abundant water resources, both from the Yangtze River and groundwater. In addition, it has several natural hot springs such as Tangshan Hot Spring in Jiangning and Tangquan Hot Spring in Pukou. Surrounded by the Yangtze River and mountains, Nanjing also enjoys beautiful

Ancient times through 1910

Remnants of the stone city wall built by the State of Chu in 333 BC Nanjing was one of the earliest established cities in the southern China area. According to the legend, Fu Chai, the Lord of the State of Wu, founded the first city, Yecheng (??) in today’s Nanjing area in 495 BC. Later in 473 BC, The State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the city of Yuecheng (??) on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate. In 333 BC, after eliminating the State of Yue, the State of Chu built Jinling Yi (???) in the northwestern part of present-day Nanjing. Since then, the city has experienced numerous destructions and reconstructions. Nanjing first became a capital in AD 229, where Sun Quan of the Wu Kingdom during the Three Kingdoms Period relocated its capital to Jianye (??), a city he extended on the basis of Jinling Yi in AD 211. After the invasion of the Five Hu, the nobles and wealthy families of the Jin Dynasty escaped across the Yangtze River and established Nanjing as the capital, which was then called Jiankang (??). Thereafter, Jiankang remained as the capital of Southern China during the North-South


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Divine Trail, located in Eastern Suburb Scenic Area of Nanjing, was built in the Ming Dynasty

The City Wall of Nanjing, the world’s longest, built in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Division period, until Sui Dynasty reunified China and destroyed almost the entire city, turning it into a small town. The city was reconstructed during the late Tang Dynasty. It was again named capital (then known as Jinling (??) during the shortlived Southern Tang Kingdom (937–975) (who renamed it Xidu), who succeeded the Wu Kingdom. [4]Jiankang’s textile industry burgeoned and thrived during Song Dynasty despite the constant threat from the northern foreign invasions. The Mongolians, the occupiers of China, further consolidated the city’s status as a hub of the textile industry under the Yuan Dynasty. The first emperor of the Ming Dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang who overthrew the Yuan Dynasty rebuilt this city and made it the capital of China in 1368. He constructed what was the longest city wall in the world at that time. It took 200,000 laborers 21 years to finish the project. The present-day city wall of Nanjing was mainly built during that time, and it is the longest surviving city wall in the world. It is believed that Nanjing was the largest city in the world from 1358 to 1425 with a population of 487,000 in 1400.[5]

Jiming Buddhist Temple As the center of the empire, early Ming Nanjing had worldwide connections: it was home of admiral Zheng He, who went to sail the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and it was visited by foreign dignitaries, such as the sultan of Brunei Abdul Majid Hassan, who died during his visit to China in 1408. The sultan’s grave, with a suitably royal bixi stone tortoise monument, was discovered in Yuhuatai District south of the city in 1958.[6] During the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the Nanjing area was known as Jiangning (??) and served as the seat of government for the Liangjiang Viceroy. Nanjing was the capital of the Taiping Kingdom[7] in the mid-19th century, being renamed as Tianjing (??) (lit. Heaven’s Capital). Both the Viceroy and the


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Taiping king resided in buildings that would later be known as the Presidential Palace. As Qing general Zeng Guofan retook the city in 1864, massive slaughtering occurred in the city with over 100,000 committing suicide or fighting to the death.


After 1911

Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall Hall was built in 1985 to commemorate the event. After the conquest of the city, the Imperial Japanese Army established the bacteriological research Unit 1644, a section of Unit 731, where Japanese doctors experimented on humans. [9] A Japanese-collaborationist government known as the "Nanjing Regime" or "Nanjing Nationalist Government" led by Wang Jingwei was established in Nanjing as a rival to Chiang Kai-Shek’s government in Chongqing, and after World War II, the KMT relocated its central government to Nanjing.

The President House of the Republic of China, when Nanjing was its capital The Xinhai Revolution led to the founding of the Republic of China in January 1912 with Dr. Sun Yat-sen as the first provisional president, and Nanjing was selected as its new capital. However, the Qing Dynasty still controlled the northern provinces, so revolutionaries asked Yuan Shikai to replace Sun as president in exchange for the emperor’s abdication. Yuan demanded the capital be at Beijing (closer to his power base). In 1927, the Kuomintang (KMT) under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek again established Nanjing as the capital of the Republic of China, and this became internationally recognized once KMT forces took Beijing in 1928. The following decade is known as the Nanjing decade, as they used the Presidential Palace in Nanjing as their headquarters.

After 1949
On April 23, 1949, The People’s Liberation Army conquered Nanjing, officially ending the Republic of China’s rule on the mainland. After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, Nanjing was initially a province-level municipality, but very soon became, and today remains, the provincial capital of Jiangsu. Until 2002, the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of China (ROC), as well as textbooks published in Taiwan, referred to Nanjing as the official capital of the Republic of China, while Taipei is just its temporary capital. It had long been rumored that Nanjing might be split from Jiangsu Province in future years and become its own municipality, but the rumour was never officially confirmed.

World War II
See also: Nanking Massacre and Unit 1855 In 1937, the Japanese army invaded and occupied the Capital city of Republic of China Nanjing, and carried out the systematic and brutal Nanking massacre. The total death toll could not be confirmed, since no official records were kept, and is often contested, but most estimates, including those made by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal, put the number of dead between 200,000 and 350,000.[8] The Nanjing Massacre Memorial

The full name of the government of Nanjing is "People’s Government of Nanjing City". The city is under the one-party rule of the CPC, with the CPC Nanjing Committee Secretary as the de facto governor of the city


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Presidential Palace of the Republic of China when Nanjing was its national capital.

Current Districts of Nanjing (2006) Subdivision Nanjing City Proper ? Xuanwu- ? ? qu Nanjing Suburban and Rural


■ Pukou- ?
qu ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Baixiaqu Nanjing Municipal Hall and the mayor as the executive head of the government working under the secretary. Nanjing currently consists of thirteen county-level divisions, of which eleven are districts, and two are counties. The districts are the urban areas of Nanjing while the counties are the rural areas governed by the city.

? ? ?

■ Luhequ

? Qinhuai- ? ? qu


■ Qixiaqu


? ? ?


? Xiaguan- ? ? qu


? Jiangning- ? ? qu


Administrative divisions
See also: List of administrative divisions of Jiangsu The sub-provincial city of Nanjing has direct jurisdiction over 11 districts (? qu) and 2 Counties (? xian):


? ? ?

■ Lishui- ?
xian ? ? ? ? ?

Gaochunxian The current partition of districts of Nanjing might change in the future. There was a rumor that Lishui County would be designated as a new urban district in the near future.


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further expanded, and the city became one of the most prosperous cities in China and even Population trend the world. It led in textile, mint, printing, shipbuilding and many other industries, and Year Residents natural Year Residents natural was the busiest business center in the Far (in growth (in growth East. million) rate million) rate Into the first half of the twentieth century, (%) (%) Nanjing gradually shifted from a production 1949 2.5670 13.09 1995 5.2172 2.62 hub into a heavy consumption city, mainly be1950 2.5670 15.64 1996 5.2543 2.63 cause of the rapid expansion of the wealthy population after Nanjing once again regained 1955 2.8034 19.94 1997 5.2982 2.16 the political spotlight of China. A number of 1960 3.2259 0.23 1998 5.3231 1.00 huge department stores such as Zhongyang 1965 3.4529 25.58 1999 5.3744 2.01 Shangchang sprouted up, attracting merchants from all over China to sell their 1970 3.6053 20.76 2000 5.4489 2.48 products in Nanjing. In 1933, the revenue 1975 3.9299 9.53 2001 5.5304 1.60 generated by the food and entertainment in1978 4.1238 8.84 2002 5.6328 0.70 dustry in the city exceeded the sum of the 1980 4.3587 8.08 2003 5.7223 1.50 output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. One third of the city population 1985 4.6577 4.56 2006 6.0700 6.11 worked in the service industry, while prosti1990 5.0182 9.18 tution, drugs and gambling also thrived. According to the Fifth China Census, the In the 1950s, the CPC invested heavily in total population of the City of Nanjing Nanjing to build a series of state-owned reached 6.24 million in 2000. The statistics in heavy industries, as part of the national plan 2008 estimated the total population to be of rapid industrialization. Electrical, mechan7.59 million, while the registered population ical, chemical and steel factories were estabwas 6.24 million. The birth rate was 8.75 perlished successively, converting Nanjing into a cent and the death rate was 6.27 percent. heavy industry production center of East ChThe urban area had a population of 5.4 milina. Overenthusiastic in building a “worldlion people. class” industrial city, leaders of Nanjing also As in most of eastern China the ethnic made many disastrous mistakes during the makeup of Nanjing is predominantly Han nadevelopment, such as spending hundreds of tionality (98.56 percent), with 50 other millions of yuan to mine for non-existent coal, minority nationalities. In 1999, 77,394 residresulting in the negative economic growth in ents belonged to minority nationalities, the late 1960s. among which the vast majority (64,832) were Hui nationalities, contributing 83.76 percent Today to the minority population. The second and third largest minority groups were Manchu (2,311) and Zhuang (533) nationalities. Most of the minority nationalities resided in Jianye District, comprising 9.13 percent of the district’s population. In 2003 the sex ratio of the city population was 106.49 males to 100 females.

Early Development
Since the Three Kingdoms period, Nanjing has become an industrial center for textile and mint owing to its strategic geographical location and convenient transportation. During the Ming Dynasty Nanjing’s industry was Nanjing Downtown Area The current industry of the city basically inherited the characteristics of the 1960s, with electronics, cars, petrochemical, iron and


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steel, and power as the "Five Pillar Industries". Some representative big state-owned firms are Panda Electronics, Jincheng Motors and Nanjing Steel. The tertiary industry also regained prominence, accounting for 44 percent of the GDP of the city. The city is also vying for foreign investment against neighboring cities in the Yangtze River Delta, and so far a number of famous multinational firms, such as Volkswagen, Iveco, A.O. Smith, and Sharp, have established their lines there. Since China’s entry into the WTO, Nanjing has received increasing attention from foreign investors, and on average, two new foreign firms establish offices in the city every day.

income is RMB 8,951. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.16 percent, lower than the national average (4.2 percent). Nanjing’s Gross Domestic Production ranked 17th in 2008 in China, and its overall competence ranked 9th.

Industrial zones
• Nanjing Economic and Technological Development Zone • Nanjing New and High Develoment Industry Zone • Nanjing Jiangning Development Zone

Nanjing is the transportation hub in eastern China and the downstream Yangtze River area. Different means of transportation constitute a three-dimensional transport system that includes land, water and air. As in most other Chinese cities, public transportation is the dominant mode of travel of the majority of the citizens. Therefore see also Transport in Nanjing.

Nanjing downtown night view The city government is further improving the desirability of the city to investors by building large industrial parks, which now total four: Gaoxin, Xingang, Huagong and Jiangning. Despite the effort, Nanjing’s Gross Domestic Production is still falling behind that of other neighboring cities such as Suzhou, Wuxi and Hangzhou, which have an edge in attracting foreign investment and local innovation. In addition, the traditional state-owned enterprises find themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms, and hence are either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization. This has resulted in large numbers of layoff workers who are technically not unemployed but effectively jobless. In recent years, Nanjing has been developing its economy, commerce, industry, as well as city construction. In 2008 the city’s GDP was RMB 377.5 billion (3rd in Jiangsu), and GDP per capita was RMB 50,327, a 12.1 percent increase from 2007. The average urban resident’s disposable income was RMB 23,123, while the average rural resident’s net

Nanjing Railway Station

Nanjing Railway Platform As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China. Express highways such as HuNing, Ning-He, Ning-Hang enable commuters to travel to Shanghai, Hefei, Hangzhou, and other important cities quickly and conveniently. Inside the city of Nanjing, there are 230 kilometers (143 mi) of highways, with a highway coverage density of 3.38 kilometers


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per hundred square kilometers (2.10 mi/ 38.6 sq mi). The total road coverage density of the city is 112.56 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (69.94 mi/38.6 sq mi). As for the railway system, the Tianjin-Pukou, Shanghai-Nanjing and Nanjing-Wuhu Trunk Railways meet in Nanjing, which has become an important hub of railways linking north, east and central China. Passenger rail service in Nanjing is provided mainly by Nanjing Railway Station, while both Nanjing West Railway Station and Nanjing South Railway Station serve minor roles. Since 2008, A new Nanjing South Railway Station has started construction. This will officially be claimed the largest railway station in Asia after it is finished. • China National Highway 312

million passengers. It was ranked 13th among 126 civil airports in China in terms of yearly passenger transport, and 10th for yearly cargo transport. The airport currently has 85 routes to national and international destinations, which include Japan, Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Germany. The airport is connected by a 29-kilometer (18 mi) highway directly to the city center, and is also linked to various intercity highways, making it accessible to the passengers from the surrounding cities.


Public Transportation

Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge Port of Nanjing is the largest inland port in China, yearly throughput reaching 108.59 million tons in 2007. The port area is 98 kilometers (61 mi) in length and has 64 berths including 16 berths for ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000. Nanjing is also the biggest container port along the Yangtze River; in March 2004, the one million container-capacity base, Longtan Containers Port Area opened, further consolidating Nanjing as the leading port in the region. In the 1960s the first Yangtze river bridge was completed, becoming almost the only solid connection between North and South in eastern China at that time. The bridge became a source of pride and an important symbol of modern China, having been built and designed by the Chinese themselves following failed surveys by other nations and the reliance on and then rejection of Soviet expertise. Begun in 1960 and opened to traffic in 1968, the bridge is a two-tiered road and rail design spanning 4,600 metres on the upper deck, with approximately 1,580 metres spanning the river itself.

Nanjing Metro The city also boasts an efficient network of public transportation, which mainly consists of bus, taxi and metro systems. The bus network, which is currently run by four companies (Nanjing Gongjiao, Zhongbei, Argos and Xincheng), provides more than 170 routes covering all parts of the city and suburban areas. Nanjing Metro Line 1, started service on May 15, 2005, and Line 2 began construction in November 2005. The city is planning to complete a 433-kilometer (269 mi)-long Metro and light-rail system by 2050. The expansion of the Metro network will greatly facilitate the intracity transportation and reduce the currently heavy traffic congestion.

Nanjing’s airport, Lukou International Airport, serves both national and international flights. In 2008, the airport handled 8.8813


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Culture and art

Museum dedicated to Admiral Zheng He at Nanjing Being one of the four ancient capitals of China, Nanjing has always been a cultural center attracting intellectuals from all over the country. In the Tang and Song dynasties, Nanjing was a place where poets gathered and composed poems reminiscent of its luxurious past; during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the city was the official imperial examination center for the Jiangnan region, again acting as a hub where different thoughts and opinions converged and thrived. Today, with a long cultural tradition and strong support from local educational institutions, Nanjing is commonly viewed as a “city of culture” and one of the more pleasant cities to live in China.

Remnants of the Ming Dynasty City Wall in Nanjing Many traditional festivals and customs were observed in the old times, which included climbing the City Wall on January 16, bathing in Qing Xi on March 3, hill hiking on September 9 and others (the dates are in Chinese lunar calendar). Almost none of them, however, are still celebrated by modern Nanjingese. Instead, Nanjing, as a popular tourist destination, hosts a series of government-organised events throughout the year. The annual International Plum Blossom Festival held in Plum Hill, the largest plum collection in China, attracts thousands of tourists both domestically and internationally. Other events include Nanjing Baima Peach Blossom and Kite Festival, Jiangxin Zhou Fruit Festival and Linggu Temple Sweet Osmanthus Festival.

Some of the leading art groups of China are based in Nanjing; they include: Qianxian Dance Company, Nanjing Dance Company, Jiangsu Peking Opera Institute, Nanjing Xiaohonghua Art Company are just a few to list. Jiangsu Province Kun Opera is one of the best theatres for Kunqu, China’s oldest stage art. It is considered a conservative and traditional troupe. Nanjing also has professional opera troupes for the Yang, Yue (shaoxing), Xi and Jing (Chinese opera varieties) as well as Suzhou pingtan, spoken theatre, and puppet theatre. Jiangsu Art Gallery is the largest gallery in Jiangsu Province, presenting some of the best traditional and contemporary art pieces of China; many other smaller-scale galleries, such as Red Chamber Art Garden and Jinling Stone Gallery, also have their own special exhibitions.


The New Nanjing Library Nanjing Library, founded in 1907, houses more than 7 million volumes of printed


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materials and is the third largest library in China, after the National Library in Beijing and Shanghai Library. Other libraries, such as city-owned Jinling Library and various district libraries, also provide considerable amount of information to citizens. Nanjing University Library, owned by Nanjing University, with a collection of 4.2 million volumes, is also one of the leading university libraries .


People’s Convention Hall cinemas in both Xinjiekou and the Confucious Temple, such as the Xinjiekou International Cinema Complex located on the seventh floor of Deji Plaza and Hengdian International Cinema in Aqua City on Jiankang Road.

There are two major sports centers in Nanjing, Wutaishan Sports Center and Nanjing Olympic Sports Center. Both of these two are comprehensive sports centers, including stadium, gymnasium, natatorium, tennis court, etc.. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People’s Republic of China. Nanjing was hosted the 10th National Games of P.R.C., in 2005 and would bid the 2nd summer Young Olympic Games, in 2014.

Nanjing Museum Nanjing has some of the oldest and finest museums in China. Nanjing Museum, formerly known as National Central Museum under KMT rule, is the first modern museum and remains as one of the leading museums in China. Other museums include the China Modern History Museum in the Presidential Palace, the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall, the City Museum of Nanjing, the Taiping Kingdom History Museum, the Nanjing Customs Museum, the Nanjing City Wall Cultural Museum, and a small museum and tomb honoring the 15th century seafaring admiral Zheng He.

Night life

Most of Nanjing’s major theatres are multipurpose, used as convention halls, cinemas, musical halls and theatres on different occasions. The major theatres include the People’s Convention Hall and the Nanjing Arts and Culture Center. A new cinema, Nanjing Shangying-Warner Cinema Complex, was opened in 2004, as the first modern cinema complex in Nanjing.It has become a must-visit for movie enthusiasts. After that, Nanjing had more modern

Pubs in Nanjing 1912 block Traditionally Nanjing’s nightlife was mostly centered around Confucius Temple area


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along the Qinhuai River, where night markets, restaurants and pubs thrived. Boating at night in the river was a main attraction of the city. The area was also famous for the concentration of upper-class prostitutes, many of them patronized by high-ranking government officials and wealthy businessmen. Prostitution was banned after the CCP took over Nanjing. In recent years, several commercial streets have been developed, hence the nightlife has become more diverse: there are shopping malls opening late in the Xinjiekou CBD and Hunan Road. The well-established "Nanjing 1912" district hosts a wide variety of pastime facilities ranging from traditional restaurants and western pubs to dance clubs. In 2005, in order to host The 10th National Game of People’s Republic of China, there was a new stadium, Nanjing Olympic Sports Center, constructed in Nanjing. Compared to Wutaishan Sports Center, whose major stadium’s capacity is 18,600, the stadium in Nanjing Olympic Sports Center is more advanced and has a bigger capacity. Nanjing Olympic Sports Center has a stadium of capacity 60,000. Its gymnasium has capacity of 13,000, and natatorium of capacity 3,000.


Zhonghua Gate


Linggu Temple Bei Ji Ge • • • • • • • • • • • • Jiangnan Gongyuan Jiming Temple Jinghai Temple Linggu Temple Ming Dynasty Palace Site Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum and its surrounding complex City Wall of Nanjing and Zhonghua Gate Qixia Temple South Tang Mausoleums Stone City The Porcelain Pagoda of Nanjing The Presidential palace

Buildings and monuments
Ancient period
• Bei Ji Pavillion • Zhonghua City Gate Soldiers Hidding Cache • Chaotian Palace (museum and Kunqu opera house) • Confucius Temple (Temple of Confucius) and Qinhuai River • Drum Tower


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Xuanwu Lake Dr. Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum • Central Hotel (237 E. Zhongshan Road) • Central Stadium (present day Nanjing Physical Education Institute) • China Bank of Communications Nanjing Branch (1 E. Zhongshan Road) • Dahua Theatre (67 S. Zhongshan Road) • Former Central Government Building Group along N. Zhongshan Road • Former Foreign Embassies in Gu Lou Area • Huiwen Institute Bell Tower (196 Zhongshan Road) • Jiangsu Art Gallery (Former National Art Gallery) • Lizhi She (307 E. Zhongshan Road) • Macklin Hospital (321 Zhongshan Road, present day Gu Lou Hospital) • Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall • Nanjing Museum Complex • Officials Residence Cluster along Yihe Road • Presidential Palace, Nanjing • Purple Mountain Observatory • St. Paul’s Church (396 S. Taiping Road) • The Complex of Former Academia Sinica (39 E. Beijing Road) • The Complex of Former Central University • The Complex of Former Jinling University • Yangzi Hotel (2 Baoshan Road) • Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum and its surrounding area

Classical buildings in the Mochou Lake

Fu Zi Miao buildings along Qinhuai River • Yuejiang Lou • Xu Garden • Zhan Garden

• • • • Jinling Hotel On Zhongshan (19th) Avenue Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge River-crossing Victory Monument Nanjing Harbor on Latitude 8th Street

Republic of China period (1912-1949)
Because it was designated as the national capital, many structures were built around that time. Even today, some of them still remain which are open to tourists.

Parks and gardens
• Purple Mountain Scenic Area • Zhongshan Botanical Garden


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• Nanjing Medical University (??????) • Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine(???????) • Nanjing University of Finance & Economics (??????) • Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (??????) • Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (????????,founded in 1960) • Nanjing Institute of Physical Education(?? ????) • Nanjing Arts Institute (??????) • Nanjing Audit University (??????) • Nanjing Xiaozhuang College (??????) • Jinling Institute of Technology (??????)

Other places of interests
• • • • Tangshan Hot Spring Jiangxin Islet Yangshan Tomb Stone Yangtze River Crossing Nanjing, tallest electricity pylons built of concrete.

Nanjing has been the educational center in southern China for more than 1700 years. Currently, it boasts of some of the most prominent educational institutions in the region, which are listed as follows:

National Universities
• Nanjing University (????) (Part of National Central University ??????, founded in 1902,Part of Private University of Nanking ???????founded in 1888) • Southeast University (????) (Part of National Central University ??????, founded in 1902,Part of Private University of Nanking ???????founded in 1888) • Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (????????, founded in 1952) • Nanjing University of Science & Technology (??????) • Hohai University (????)(Part of National Central University ??????, founded in 1915) • Nanjing Agricultural University (??????) (Part of National Central University ????? ?, founded in 1902,Part of Private University of Nanking ???????founded in 1888) • China Pharmaceutical University (??????? founded in 1936)

Private Colleges
• Sanjiang College (????) • Hopkins-Nanjing Center

Notable Public Schools
• High School Affiliated to Nanjing Normal University (??????????) • Jinling High School (??????) • Nanjing No.1 High School (??????? • Nanjing Foreign Language School (?????? ?) • Nanjing Zhonghua High School (???????

Sister cities
Nanjing currently has 18 sister cities (areas), namely: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alsace, France Barranquilla, Colombia Bloemfontein, South Africa Eindhoven, Netherlands Florence, Italy Hauts-de-Seine, France Houston, Texas, United States Leipzig, Germany Limassol, Cyprus London, Ontario, Canada Malacca Town, Malaysia (2001) Mexicali, Mexico Nagoya, Japan Perth, Australia St. Louis, Missouri, United States (Nov 02, 1978, The 1st pair of Twin Cities between America and People’s Republic of China) Daejeon, South Korea

Provincial Universities
• Nanjing Normal University (??????)(Part of National Central University ??????, founded in 1902,Part of Private University of Nanking ??????,founded in 1888,Part of Ginling Women University??????? ?,founded in 1913) • Nanjing University of Technology (????? ?)(Part of National Central University ???? ??, founded in 1902,Part of Private University of Nanking ???????founded in 1888) • Nanjing Forestry University (??????)(Part of National Central University ??????, founded in 1902,Part of Private University of Nanking ???????founded in 1888)



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Birmingham, England, United Kingdom • Sunderland, England, United Kingdom • Belo Horizonte, Brazil •

to four months after the massacres began. Six charity groups buried total of 195,240 bodies from 1937.12--1938.10. Detailed bury records are available. From the verdict, the 200,000 number did not include victims whose bodies were disposed by Japanese (as common in the early stages of the massacre) or by individuals Chinese other than the charities groups, nor did it include those who were massacred after the first six weeks. Therefore, the 200,000 number is the most conservative number. Adding the people murdered in smaller scale killings and whose bodies had been buried by other people, over 300,000 Chinese were massacred in Nanking. [9] Hal Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, 1996, p.151-152

See also
• • • • • Treaty of Nanjing Nanjing Massacre The Rape of Nanking (book) Jiangnan List of cities in the People’s Republic of China by population

[1] "Nanjing’s takes off the title of furnace, who shall replace it?". Nanjing Bureau of Environmental Protection. 2007-06-12. jcms1/web1/site/art/2007/06/12/ art_29_11168.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-30. [2] Nanjing, China. Last accessed January 17, 2008. [3] Zizhi Tongjian, vols. 66, 94. [4] Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China (900-1800). Harvard University Press. [5] Largest Cities Through History [6] Rozan Yunos, "The Brunei Sultan who died in China" The Brunei Times, 9.11.2008 [7] Eduardo Real: ‘’The Taiping Rebellion’’ [8] In a document sent by former Japanese foreign minister Hirota Koki to the Japanese Embassy in Washington in January 17, 1938, he stated "based upon investigation, over 300,000 Chinese killed". (ref. National Archives, Washington, D.C., Released in Sept. 1994) The verdict of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East reads in part: "Approximately 20,000 cases occurred within the city during the first month of the occupation ... The total number of civilians and prisoners of war murdered in Nanking during the six weeks was over 200,000. ... These figures do not take into account those persons whose bodies were destroyed by burning or by throwing into the Yangtze River or otherwise disposed by Japanese." The 200,000 number was mostly based on the records of several humanitarian and charity organizations who buried the remaining bodies a week

• Cotterell, Arthur. (2007). The Imperial Capitals of China - An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. London: Pimlico. pp. 304 pages.. ISBN 9781845950095. • Danielson, Eric N. (2004). Nanjing and the Lower Yangzi River. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 981-232-598-0. • Eigner, Julius (February 1938). "The Rise and Fall of Nanking" in National Geographic Vol. LXXIII No.2. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. • Farmer, Edward L. (1976). Early Ming Government: The Evolution of Dual Capitals. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. • Hobart, Alice Tisdale (1927). Within the Walls of Nanking. New York: MacMillan. • Jiang, Zanchu (1995). Nanjing shi hua. Nanjing: Nanjing chu ban she. ISBN 7-80614-159-6. • Lutz, Jessie Gregory (1971). China and the Christian Colleges, 1850-1950. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. • Ma, Chao Chun (Ma Chaojun) (1937). Nanking’s Development, 1927-1937. Nanking: Municipality of Nanking. • Michael, Franz (1972). The Taiping Rebellion: History and Documents (3 vols.). Seattle: University of Washington Press. • Mote, Frederick W. (1977). "The Transformation of Nanking, 1350-1400," in The City in Late Imperial China, ed. by


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Preceded by Beijing Preceded by Beijing Preceded by Chongqing Capital of China 1368-1420 Capital of China 1928-1937 Capital of China 1945-1949 Succeeded by Beijing


Succeeded by Wuhan (wartime) Succeeded by Guangzhou
for the Republic of China

Succeeded by Beijing
for the People’s Republic of China







G. William Skinner. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Mote, Frederick W., and Twitchett, Denis, ed. (1988). The Cambridge History of China Vol. 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Musgrove, Charles D. (2000). "Constructing a National Capital in Nanjing, 1927-1937," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900-1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Nanking Women’s Club (1933). Sketches of Nanking. Nanking: Nanking Women’s Club. Ouchterlony, John (1844). The Chinese War: An Account of All the Operations of the British Forces from the Commencement to the Treaty of Nanking. London: Saunders and Otley. Prip-Moller, Johannes (1935). "The Hall of Lin Ku Ssu (Ling Gu Si) Nanking," in Artes Monuments Vol. III. Copenhagen: Artes Monuments. Smalley, Martha L. (1982). Guide to the Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia (Record Group 11). New Haven: Yale University Divinity Library Special Collections.

• Teng, Ssu Yu (1944). Chang Hsi (Zhang Xi) and the Treaty of Nanking, 1842. Chicago: Chicago University Press. • Thurston, Mrs. Lawrence (Matilda) (1955). Ginling College. New York: United Board for Christian Colleges in China. • Till, Barry (1982). In Search of Old Nanking. Hong Kong: Hong Kong and Shanghai Joint Publishing Company. • Tyau, T.Z. (1930). Two Years of Nationalist China. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh. • Uchiyama, Kiyoshi (1910). Guide to Nanking. Shanghai: China Commercial Press. • Wang, Nengwei (1998). Nanjing Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Nanjing). People’s Fine Arts Publishing House. • Ye, Zhaoyan (1998). Lao Nanjing: Jiu Ying Qinhuai (Old Nanjing: Reflections of Scenes on the Qinhuai River). Nanjing: Zhongguo Di Er Lishi Dang An Guan (China Second National Archives).

External links
• Nanjing Government website • Nanjing English guide with open directory • Nanjing travel guide from Wikitravel Coordinates: 32°03′N 118°46′E / 32.05°N 118.767°E / 32.05; 118.767

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