Life Cycles (PDF)

Document Sample
Life Cycles (PDF) Powered By Docstoc
					     Life Cycles
Teacher's Guide
                                                      Editors:
                                     Brian A. Jerome, Ph.D.
                                     Stephanie Zak Jerome


                                        Assistant Editors:
                                            Anneliese Brown
                                              Louise Marrier


                                                   Graphics:
                                                Fred Thodal
                                            Lyndsey Canfield
                                               Dean Ladago




             Visual Learning Company              1-800-453-8481
                                                  25 Union Street
                       www.visuallearningco.com   Brandon VT 05733
       A Message from our Company . . .
       Visual Learning is a Vermont-based, family-owned company specializing in the
       creation of science programs. As former classroom science teachers we have
       designed our programs to meet the needs and interests of both students and
       teachers. Our mission is to help educators and students meet educational goals
       while experiencing the thrill of science!

        Viewing Clearances

         The video and accompanying teacher’s guide are for instructional use only. In showing
         these programs, no admission charges are to be incurred. The programs are to be
         utilized in face-to-face classroom instructional settings, library settings, or similar
         instructional settings.

         Duplication Rights are available, but must be negotiated with the Visual Learning
         Company.

         Television, cable, or satellite rights are also available, but must be negotiated with
         the Visual Learning Company.

         Closed circuit rights are available, and are defined as the use of the program
         beyond a single classroom but within a single campus. Institutions wishing to utilize
         the program in multiple campuses must purchase the multiple campus version of the
         program, available at a slightly higher fee.

         Discounts may be granted to institutions interested in purchasing programs in large
         quantities. These discounts may be negotiated with the Visual Learning Company.




        Use and Copyright:

         The purchase of this video program entitles the user the right to reproduce or
         duplicate, in whole or in part, this teacher’s guide and the black line master handouts
         for the purpose of teaching in conjunction with this video, Life Cycles. The right is
         restricted only for use with this video program. Any reproduction or duplication, in
         whole or in part, of this guide and student masters for any purpose other than for use
         with this video program is prohibited.
         The video and this teacher’s guide are the exclusive property of the copyright
         holder. Copying, transmitting, or reproducing in any form, or by any means,
         without prior written permission from the copyright holder is prohibited (Title 17,
         U.S. Code Sections 501 and 506).

         Copyright © 2008

         ISBN 9781592341924



Page
        2      Life Cycles                                                 Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481
            Table of Contents
                                              A Message from our Company              2

                                                         Viewing Clearances           2

                                                          Use and Copyright           2

                                             National Standards Correlations          4

                                                Student Learning Objectives           5

                                                                Assessment            6

                                                     Introducing the Program          7

                                               Program Viewing Suggestions            7

                                                                 Video Script         8

                                         Answer Key to Student Assessments            12

                                             Answer Key to Student Activities         13

                                                                    Pre-Test          14

                                                                   Post-Test          16

                                                               Video Review           18

                                                                  Vocabulary          19

                                                              Writing Activity        20

                                                       The Life of a Butterfly        21

                                                          A Fish’s Life Cycle         23

                                                         Plant Show and Tell          24




Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481                                  Life Cycles        Page
                                                                                                  3
       National Standards Correlations
       Benchmarks for Science Literacy
       (Project 2061 - AAAS)       Grades 3-5

       The Living Environment - Diversity of Life (5A)
       By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that:
       • A great variety of kinds of living things can be sorted into groups in
       many ways using various features to decide which things belong to
       which group.

       The Human Organism - Human Development (6C)
       By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that:
       • Human beings live longer than most other animals, but all living things
       die.




       National Science Education Standards
       (Content Standards: K-4, National Academy of Sciences, c. 1996)

       Life Science - Content Standard C
       As a result of activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an
       understanding of:
       Life Cycles of Organisms
       • Plants and animals have life cycles that include being born, developing
       into adults, reproducing, and eventually dying. The details of this life
       cycle are different for different organisms.




Page
       4     Life Cycles                                      Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481
      Student Learning Objectives
      Upon viewing the video and completing the enclosed student activities, students
      will be able to do the following:

      • Understand that living things go through changes in the course of their lives
        referred to as a life cycle.

      • State that most living things follow a pattern of birth, growth, reproduction, and
        death.

      • Create a diagram illustrating the major life stages of a flowering plant. Life
        stages include seed germination; growth of roots, stems, and leaves;
        flower development and reproduction; and seed development.

      • Define pollination as the transfer of pollen from the male part of a flower to
        the female part of a flower.

      • Understand that some animals, including insects and mammals, go through
        the process of changing forms, referred to as metamorphosis.

      • Identify the basic differences between complete metamorphosis and
        incomplete metamorphosis.

      • Create a labeled diagram of the various stages of complete metamorphosis for
        a butterfly. A butterfly goes through four primary stages — as an egg, a larva
        (caterpillar), a pupa (cocoon), and an adult.

      • Describe the life cycle changes of a frog from eggs, to tadpole, and adult.

      • Highlight the major differences between the life cycles of mammals and those
        of other animals. Major differences include: mammal young are nourished by
        milk from the mother, born live, and generally take longer to mature into adults.




Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481                                    Life Cycles    Page
                                                                                                5
       Assessment
       Preliminary Test (p. 14-15):
       The Preliminary Test is an assessment tool designed to gain an
       understanding of students’ preexisting knowledge. It can also be used as a
       benchmark upon which to assess student progress based on the objectives
       stated on the previous pages.


       Post-Test (p. 16-17):
       The Post-Test can be utilized as an assessment tool following student
       completion of the program and student activities. The results of the
       Post-Test can be compared against the results of the Preliminary Test to
       assess student progress.


       Video Review (p. 18):
       The Video Review can be used as an assessment tool or as a student
       activity. There are two sections. The first part contains questions displayed
       during the program. The second part consists of a five-question video quiz
       to be answered at the end of the video.




Page
       6     Life Cycles                                    Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481
    Introducing the Program
    Before viewing the program, ask students to name the first thing that comes
    to mind when they hear the word “cycle.” Common responses may include
    bicycles or motorcycles. Explain that scientists use the term “cycle” to refer
    to scientific processes that occur in a circular or repeating pattern. For
    example, students may have learned about the rock cycle or the water cycle.
    Explain that scientists also use this term to describe the series of changes
    that most living things go through over the course of their lives, referred to
    as a life cycle.

    Let students know that most living things undergo a general life cycle of
    birth, growth, reproduction, and death. However, every living thing has
    its own unique life cycle. For example, most insects begin as eggs and
    develop into larva and pupa before becoming adults. This is very different
    from the life cycle of mammals, who are born live and are already highly
    developed at the time of birth. Tell students to pay close attention to the
    video to more learn about life cycles.



    Program Viewing Suggestions
    The student master “Video Review” is provided (p. 18) for distribution to
    students. You may choose to have your students complete this Master while
    viewing the program or do so upon its conclusion.

    The program is approximately 14 minutes in length and includes a five-question
    video quiz. Answers are not provided to the Video Quiz in the video, but are
    included in this guide on page 12. You may choose to grade student quizzes
    as an assessment tool or to review the answers in class.

    The video is content-rich with numerous vocabulary words. For this reason you
    may want to periodically stop the video to review and discuss new terminology
    and concepts.




Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481                            Life Cycles   Page
                                                                                       7
   Video Script
        1.   These tiny seeds have the potential...
        2.   ...to eventually grow into lush apple trees.
        3.   And this tadpole will one day become...
        4.   ...a large adult frog.
        5.   Living things go through changes in the course of their lives referred to as life
             cycles.
        6.   What are life cycles?
        7.   How do living things change during the course of their lives?
        8.   And what types of life cycles do different plants and animals go through?
        9.   During the next few minutes we are going to investigate these questions and
             others...
       10.   ...as we explore what goes on during the different cycles of life.
       11.   Graphic Transition – What is a Life Cycle?
       12.   You are probably familiar with bicycles.
       13.   A bicycle has two round wheels. The word “cycle” refers to a circular or repeating
             pattern.
       14.   There are many different cycles that scientists study, such as the water cycle...
       15.   ...and the rock cycle, to name just a couple.
       16.   Cycles are often displayed in a circular fashion.
       17.   Each living thing has its own particular life cycle.
       18.   But most living things follow the same general pattern of birth, growth,
             reproduction, and death.
       19.   Okay, let’s take a closer look at the life cycle of flowering plants.
       20.   Graphic Transition – Life Cycle of Flowering Plants
       21.   Next time you get a chance, count the number of different kinds of plants around
             your home.
       22.   There are hundreds of thousands of different kinds of plants on Earth.
       23.   Scientists place plants into groups to make them easier to work with and to study.
       24.   You Observe! What is the major difference between these two plants?
       25.   That’s right. These ferns are nonflowering plants...
       26.   ...and these are flowering plants.
       27.   Flowering plants are the most abundant plants on Earth.
       28.   Let’s take a quick look at the general life cycle of flowering plants.
       29.   These garden seeds will eventually develop into adult bean plants.
       30.   Following a resting period, a seed will germinate if it receives water, the correct
             temperature, and oxygen.
       31.   In the process of germination, a seed sprouts, or in other words, it begins to grow.
       32.   The nourishment for these early stages of growth is provided by the energy within
             the seed.
       33.   If conditions remain favorable, the seed develops roots,...
       34.   ...a stem, and eventually leaves.



Page
       8        Life Cycles                                           Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481
      Video Script
       35. Once a plant develops leaves, it has the ability to produce its own food from the
           sun’s energy through the process of photosynthesis.
       36. A mature flowering plant eventually develops reproductive structures we refer to
           as flowers.
       37. Flowers have both male and female reproductive structures which you can
           sometimes see, even though they can often be quite small.
       38. The wind and animals, such as birds and insects, often help plants reproduce
           through the process of pollination.
       39. Pollination involves transferring pollen from the male plant part to the female
           plant part.
       40. This eventually leads to the development of fertilized eggs, which then mature into
           seeds.
       41. Flowering plants commonly produce fruit, which surround the seeds.
       42. You’ve probably enjoyed eating some of these fruits, such as apples, oranges,
            and melons.
       43. In nature, fruits containing seeds fall to the ground or are eaten by other animals.
       44. Eventually seeds make their way onto the ground and germinate, starting the
           cycle all over again.
       45. Graphic Transition – Insect Life Cycles
       46. It is estimated that there are millions of different kinds of insects on the planet.
       47. Insects have fascinating life cycles.
       48. You Compare! Compare the appearance of these two living things.
       49. They look very different from each other. One is worm-like and the other has legs
           and looks like an insect.
       50. It may seem hard to believe, but they are actually the same insect, just at different
           stages in their lives.
       51. Insects and many other animals go through a series of distinct changes called
           metamorphosis.
       52. Metamorphosis is the process of an animal changing form. We generally refer to
           these different forms as stages.
       53. Insects such as moths, butterflies, bees, and flies go through a type of
           metamorphosis called complete metamorphosis.
       54. In complete metamorphosis, an adult insect lays eggs.
       55. The eggs then hatch into worm-like larva.
       56. Sometimes the larva are called caterpillars, maggots, or grubs.
       57. After several days, weeks, or months, these organisms develop a pupa.
       58. A pupa is sometimes called a cocoon.
       59. Inside the pupa, adult structures begin to form.
       60. When the changes are complete, the pupa splits open and the adult emerges.
       61. Incomplete metamorphosis does not involve as many stages as complete
           metamorphosis.



Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481                                        Life Cycles   Page
                                                                                                   9
       Video Script
       62. Insects such as grasshoppers and termites, for example, undergo incomplete
           metamorphosis.
       63. In incomplete metamorphosis, an egg laid by the female hatches into a nymph.
       64. The nymph looks similar to an adult insect but is smaller and not as fully
           developed.
       65. Usually the nymph goes through a series of molts as it grows larger and more
           closely resembles an adult.
       66. After many weeks or months, the nymph becomes an adult with the ability to
           reproduce.
       67. These are just a couple of examples of insect life cycles.
       68. Graphic Transition – Amphibian Life Cycles
       69. To what category of animals do frogs and salamanders belong?
       70. Frogs and salamanders are in the group of living things called amphibians.
       71. Amphibians are quite remarkable animals in that they spend the early part of
           their lives in the water,...
       72. ...and later develop the ability to live on land.
       73. Amphibians, such as this frog,...
       74. ...lay eggs in the water.
       75. After a period of time, fish-like animals called tadpoles emerge from the eggs.
       76. A tadpole is the larval stage of a frog.
       77. You Compare! How does a tadpole compare to an adult frog?
       78. Well, the two look very different. The tadpole has a tail, no legs, and has gills,
           which enable it to breathe in water.
       79. But as the tadpole matures, it grows legs, the tail gets smaller, and lungs develop.
       80. Within a short period of time, the tadpole, which could only live in water,...
       81. ...develops the ability to live on land.
       82. Graphic Transition – Life Cycles of Mammals
       83. Mammals, such as elk, sea lions, and humans, differ in their life cycles from the
            living things that we have already discussed.
       84. Mammals have a relatively simple life cycle because they are born live and are
           already highly developed.
       85. One major difference is that the young are nourished with milk provided by the
           mother.
       86. Most mammals are cared for by one or both parents for a longer period of time;
           sometimes for many years.
       87. Generally speaking, mammals take longer to mature than other animals...
       88. ...and can take longer to reach an age where they can reproduce.
       89. Graphic Transition – Summing Up
       90. During the past few minutes, we have explored the fascinating topic of life cycles.
       91. We saw that life cycles are often illustrated with a circular graphic.




Page
       10    Life Cycles                                            Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481
    Video Script
      92. The life cycle of flowering plants was explored.
      93. The fascinating life cycles of insects were also briefly discussed.
      94. The process of metamorphosis, in which the form of a living thing changes, was
              addressed.
      95. We investigated the general life cycle of amphibians, specifically that of frogs.
      96. And briefly some of the features of life cycles of mammals were introduced.
      97. So the next time you admire a butterfly,...
      98. ...plant some seeds,...
      99. ...or see tadpoles in a pond, think about some of the things we’ve discussed
             during the past few minutes.
     100. You just might think about life cycles a little differently.
     101. Graphic Transition – Video Assessment
     Fill in the correct word to complete the sentence. Good luck and let’s get started.
     1. A life ______ includes the stages a living thing goes through in its lifetime.
     2. In the process of germination a plant __________ begins to grow.
     3. __________ is the process of an animal changing form.
     4. A ______ is sometimes called a cocoon.
     5. A tadpole is a larval stage of a ______.



     Answers can be found on page 12.




Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481                                      Life Cycles   Page
                                                                                                 11
  Answer Key to Student Assessments
  Pre-Test (p. 14-15)                                 Post-Test (p. 16-17)
   1.   c - circle                                      1. a - seeds
   2.   a - growth                                      2. c - milk
   3.   b - germination                                 3. d - metamorphosis
   4.   a - seeds                                       4. a - growth
   5.   d - metamorphosis                               5. b - on land
   6.   c - worms                                       6. b - germination
   7.   c - water                                       7. a - tadpole
   8.   a - tadpole                                     8. c - worms
   9.   b - on land                                     9. c - circle
  10.   c - milk                                      10. c - water
  11.   true                                          11. false
  12.   false                                         12. true
  13.   true                                          13. true
  14.   true                                          14. false
  15.   false                                         15. true
  16.                  ������                         16. Metamorphosis is the process of an
                                                      animal changing form. Butterflies, bees,
        �����                   ������������          flies, and frogs are a few examples of
                                                      animals that undergo metamorphosis.
                        �����                         17. Mammals are born live, are already
                                                      highly developed, and can take longer
  17. Seed, germination, root and stem
                                                      to mature than other animals. They are
  growth, leaf development, flower, pollination,
                                                      cared for by parents for a longer period of
  and seed development (cycle begins again).
                                                      time.              ������
  18. Metamorphosis is the process of an
                                                      18.
  animal changing form. Butterflies, bees,
  flies, and frogs are a few examples of                    �����                  ������������
  animals that undergo metamorphosis.
  19. A tadpole, the larval stage of a frog, has                          �����
  a tail, no legs, and gills so that it can breathe   19. Seed, germination, root and stem
  underwater. An adult frog has legs, no tail,        growth, leaf development, flower,
  and can live on land.                               pollination, and seed development (cycle
  20. Mammals are born live, are already              begins again).
  highly developed, and can take longer to            20. A tadpole, the larval stage of a frog,
  mature than other animals. They are cared           has a tail, no legs, and gills so that it can
  for by parents for a longer period of time.         breathe underwater. An adult frog has
                                                      legs, no tail, and can live on land.

  Video Review (p. 18)
  1. The fern is a nonflowering plant and the other plants are             1.   cycle
  flowering plants.                                                        2.   seed
  2. One is worm-like and the other has legs and looks like an             3.   metamorphosis
  insect.                                                                  4.   pupa
  3. The tadpole has a tail, no legs, and has gills that enable it to      5.   frog
  breathe in water. An adult frog has the ability to live on land.
Page
       12       Life Cycles                                            Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481
  Answer Key to Student Activities
  Vocabulary (p. 19 )                                In Your Own Words (p. 20)
  1. life cycle                                      1. Life cycle refers to the changes an
  2. seed                                            organism goes through during the course of
  3. germination                                     its life.
  4. flowers                                         2. A female frog lays eggs. An egg hatches
  5. metamorphosis                                   into a tadpole, which is the larval stage of
  6. larval                                          a frog. The tadpole has a tail, no legs, and
  7. complete metamorphosis                          gills, which enable it to survive in the water.
  8. amphibians                                      The tadpole matures into a frog, which has
  9. tadpole                                         legs but no tail and is able to live on land.
  10. mammals                                        3. Metamorphosis is the process of an
                                                     animal changing form. For example, an adult
                                                     butterfly lays an egg, which hatches into a
  Writing Activity (p. 20)
                                                     caterpillar (larva). The caterpillar develops
  Most living things go through a series of          a cocoon (pupa) in which it continues to
  changes in their lives referred to as a life       grow. It emerges from the pupa as an adult
  cycle. While every living thing has its            butterfly.
  own particular life cycle, most living things
  follow the same pattern of birth, growth,
  reproduction, and death. The life cycle of         The Life of a Butterfly (p. 22)
  flowering plants begins with the germination       Answers will vary.
  of a seed. A mature flowering plant develops
  reproductive structures called flowers. Other
  living things, such as insects, go through
                                                     A Fish’s Life Cycle (p. 23)
  changes in form called metamorphosis. In
  complete metamorphosis, an insect, such
  as a butterfly, goes through four general
  stages — as an egg, a larva, a pupa, and an                             Growth
  adult. Incomplete metamorphosis has fewer
  stages than complete metamorphosis. Many
                                                                              Reproduction
  amphibians also go through metamorphosis.
  A tadpole is the larval form of a frog.                        Birth
  Tadpoles live in water, but adult frogs can live
  on land. Mammals are highly developed
  animals with relatively simple life cycles.                             Death
  Mammals are born live and are nourished by
  milk from the mother.




                                                     Plant Show and Tell (p. 25)
                                                     Answers will vary. Examples include
                                                     apple (fruit), cashew (seed), broccoli
                                                     (flower), and carrot (root).

Visual Learning Company 1-800-453-8481                                        Life Cycles     Page
                                                                                                     13
Pre-Test                                     Name



Circle the best answer for each of the following questions.

1. Cycles are commonly displayed in the shape of a:
    a. square               b. pentagon             c. circle              d. rectangle

2. Most living things follow the same general pattern of birth, ______, reproduction,
   and death.
    a. growth               b. pollination          c. germination          d. spore development

3. This is the term used to describe the process of a seed sprouting:
    a. photosynthesis       b. germination          c. development         d. metamorphosis


4. In flowering plants, fertilized eggs mature into:
    a. seeds                b. spores               c. tadpoles            d. larva


5. Insects and many other animals go through a series of changes in form called:
    a. osmosis              b. pollination          c. birth               d. metamorphosis

6. In the early larval stages, insects such as flies and butterflies look like:
    a. adults               b. cicadas              c. worms               d. children

7. Amphibians spend the early part of their lives in the:
    a. ice                   b. air                 c. water               d. earth


8. The larval stage of a frog is called a(n):
    a. tadpole              b. egg                  c. adult               d. worm


9. An adult frog is different from a tadpole in that it can live:
    a. in air               b. on land              c. in a hole           d. underground

10. Most mammal young are nourished by _________ from the mother.

     a. soda                 b. water                  c. milk              d. juice




                                                                                 Life Cycles    Page
                                                                      Visual Learning Company   14
Pre-Test                                      Name


Write true or false next to each statement.
11.                              Every living thing has its own particular life cycle.

12.                              Flowering plants have the same life cycle as mammals.

13.                              Most insects change form via the process of metamorphosis.

14.                              Incomplete metamorphosis does not involve as many
                                 stages as complete metamorphosis.

15.                              Most mammals are not cared for by parents.


Write a short answer for each of the following.

16. Using arrows, arrange the following terms in the correct order to represent an
    organism’s life cycle: growth, death, reproduction, and birth.



17. Arrange the following terms in the correct order to represent the life cycle of a flowering
    plant: seed, pollination, germination, flower, leaf development, seed development, root
    and stem growth. Start with seed and indicate at which point the cycle beings again.




18. Define metamorphosis and give an example of a living thing that goes through this
    process.




19. Compare the larval stage of a frog to an adult frog.




20. List two ways the life cycle of most mammals differs from that of other animals.




                                                                                   Life Cycles    Page
                                                                        Visual Learning Company   15
 Post-Test                                      Name


 Circle the best answer for each of the following questions.
1. In flowering plants, fertilized eggs mature into:
    a. seeds                 b. spores              c. tadpoles           d. larva


2. Most mammal young are nourished by __________ from the mother.
    a. soda                  b. water               c. milk               d. juice


3. Insects and many other animals go through a series of changes in form called:
    a. osmosis               b. pollination         c. birth              d. metamorphosis


4. Most living things follow the same general pattern of birth, ______, reproduction,
   and death.
    a. growth                b. pollination         c. germination        d. spore development

5. An adult frog is different from a tadpole in that it can live:
    a. in air                b. on land             c. in a hole          d. underground


6. This is the term used to describe the process of a seed sprouting:
    a. photosynthesis        b. germination         c. development        d. metamorphosis


7. The larval stage of a frog is called a(n):
    a. tadpole               b. egg                 c. adult              d. worm


8. In the early larval stages, insects such as flies and butterflies look like:
    a. adults                b. cicadas             c. worms              d. children


9. Cycles are commonly displayed in the shape of a:
    a. square                b. pentagon            c. circle             d. rectangle


10. Amphibians spend the early part of their lives in the:
     a. ice                   b. air                 c. water               d. earth




                                                                                   Life Cycles    Page
                                                                        Visual Learning Company   16
Post-Test                                     Name


Write true or false next to each statement.
11.                             Most mammals are not cared for by parents.

12.                             Incomplete metamorphosis does not involve as many
                                stages as complete metamorphosis.

13.                              Most insects change form via the process of metamorphosis.

14.                              Flowering plants have the same life cycle as mammals.


15.                              Every living thing has its own particular life cycle.

Write a short answer for each of the following.
16. Define metamorphosis and give an example of a living thing that goes through this
    process.




17. List two ways the life cycle of most mammals differs from that of other animals.




18. Using arrows, arrange the following terms in the correct order to represent an organism’s
    life cycle: growth, death, reproduction, and birth.



19. Arrange the following terms in the correct order to represent the life cycle of a flowering
    plant: seed, pollination, germination, flower, leaf development, seed development, root
    and stem growth. Start with seed and indicate at which point the cycle beings again.




20. Compare the larval stage of a frog to an adult frog.




                                                                                   Life Cycles    Page
                                                                        Visual Learning Company   17
 Video Review                               Name



While you watch the video, answer these questions:

You Observe!
1. What is the major difference between these two plants?




You Compare!
2. Compare the appearance of these two living things.




You Compare!
3. How does a tadpole compare to an adult frog?




 After you watch the video, test your knowledge with these
 questions.
 1. A life ____________ includes the stages a living thing goes through in its lifetime.

 2. In the process of germination, a plant _____________ begins to grow.

 3. _____________ is the process of an animal changing form.


 4. A ___________ is sometimes called a cocoon.


 5. A tadpole is a larval stage of a _________.


                                                                                Life Cycles    Page
                                                                     Visual Learning Company   18
 Vocabulary                                 Name



 Use these words to fill in the blanks next to the sentences below.
 Words




         complete metamorphosis      seed         amphibians     tadpole               life cycle

         flowers       germination       larval        mammals             metamorphosis


 1.                        The stages a living thing goes through during the course of
                           its life.


  2.                       The structure from which a plant sprouts.


 3.                        The process of a seed beginning to sprout.


 4.                        The reproductive structures on plants that are responsible
                           for producing seeds.


  5.                       The process of an animal changing form.


 6.                         In this worm-like stage, some insects are referred to as
                            grubs, caterpillars, or maggots.


 7.                         The type of metamorphosis that involves the following
                            stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult.


 8.                        A group of living things that live in water as young and can
                           live on land as adults.


 9.                        The larval stage of a frog.


10.                        The group of animals that are usually born live and are
                           cared for by one or both parents.




                                                                               Life Cycles          Page
                                                                    Visual Learning Company         19
Writing Activity                          Name


          mammals             tadpole      flowers   metamorphosis                 growth
Words


        incomplete          land         complete        life cycle                    seed

Use the correct word from above to complete the sentences in the following
paragraph.

Most living things go through a series of changes in their lives referred to as a
___________. While every living thing has its own particular life cycle, most living
things follow the same pattern of birth, ___________, reproduction, and death.
The life cycle of flowering plants begins with the germination of a ___________. A
mature flowering plant develops reproductive structures called ___________. Other
living things, such as insects, go through changes in form called __________.
In ___________ metamorphosis, an insect, such as a butterfly, goes through
four primary stages — as an egg, a larva, a pupa, and an adult. ___________
metamorphosis has fewer stages than complete metamorphosis. Many amphibians
also go through metamorphosis. A ___________ is the larval form of a frog.
Tadpoles live in water, but adult frogs can live on ___________. ___________ are
highly developed animals with relatively simple life cycles. Mammals are born live
and are nourished by milk from the mother.

In Your Own Words
1. What is a life cycle?




2. Briefly describe the life cycle of a frog.




3. What does metamorphosis involve? Use an example of a living thing in your
   explanation.




                                                                        Life Cycles           Page
                                                             Visual Learning Company          20
The Life of a                               Name

Butterfly
Background: Every organism goes through several stages in its life, referred
to as a life cycle. The term “cycle” is used because life cycles are a circular or
repeating pattern. Plants start as small seeds and eventually grow into flowering
plants with the ability to produce more seeds. Animals, including insects,
mammals, and amphibians, go through metamorphosis, which is the process of
an animal changing form. Some insects go through complete metamorphosis
and some go through incomplete metamorphosis, which involves fewer
stages. Butterflies are an example of an insect that goes through complete
metamorphosis. An adult butterfly lays an egg, which hatches into a worm-like
larva, referred to as a caterpillar. The caterpillar develops a pupa, referred to as
a cocoon. The butterfly grows while inside the cocoon and eventually emerges
as an adult with the ability to produce eggs.

Activity: In this activity, you are going to write a story about a butterfly as it goes
through the process of metamorphosis. The only rules are to: 1) include the four
primary stages of the butterfly’s life (as an egg, a larva, a pupa, and an adult) and
2) be creative. To help you begin writing, consider the following questions:

• Does the butterfly have a name?
• What does the butterfly look like at each stage? Draw a picture of the butterfly in
  each of the four stages on the following page.
• How does the butterfly feel at each stage? For example, is it nervous about
  creating a cocoon while it is in the larval stage? Is it excited to be able to explore
  the world as an adult?
• What is the butterfly’s favorite stage in the life cycle? For example, does it like to
  stay warm wrapped inside the cocoon, or does it prefer to fly around?
• What is the butterfly’s least favorite stage? Why?




                                                                              Life Cycles    Page
                                                                   Visual Learning Company   21
The Life of a                               Name
Butterfly
Directions: Draw a picture of your butterfly in each of its stages.




 Stage 1: Egg                                    Stage 2: Caterpillar (larval stage)




 Stage 3: Cocoon (pupal stage)                   Stage 4: Adult




                                                                                 Life Cycles    Page
                                                                      Visual Learning Company   22
A Fish’s Life                               Name

Cycle
Background: Living things go through a series of changes in their lives referred to as
a life cycle. The term “cycle” is used to describe the circular or repeating pattern of the
life stages of an animal. Every organism has its own unique life cycle. However, there
are four basic stages that all animals go through: birth, growth, reproduction, and death.

Activity: Below are four images of the basic life stages of fish. Cut out the images and
paste them onto a separate piece of paper in the correct order to represent a fish’s life
cycle. Label each image with the appropriate term: birth, growth, reproduction, and
death. Use arrows to indicate the order of the cycle.




                                                                              Life Cycles    Page
                                                                   Visual Learning Company   23
Plant                                     Name

Show and Tell
Background: Plants go through a series of stages referred to as a life cycle. The
life cycle of a flowering plant begins with a seed. If a seed receives adequate water,
oxygen, and the correct temperature, it begins to germinate, or sprout. If conditions
remain favorable, the seed develops roots, a stem, and eventually leaves. A mature
flowering plant develops reproductive structures, called flowers. Flowering plants
reproduce via pollination, which is the process of transferring pollen from the male
reproductive structures of a plant to the female reproductive structures of a plant.
This leads to the development of fertilized eggs, which mature into seeds. The
seeds are often surrounded by fruit. When seeds fall to the ground and germinate,
the life cycle begins again.

Humans use plant parts from the various stages of a plant’s life cycle in our everyday
lives, mostly as food. For example, people eat plant seeds, such as sunflower
seeds. We also eat roots (carrots), leaves (lettuce), and stems (celery). Wood from
tree trunks, or stems, is used to build houses, make pencils, and construct furniture.
We also use flowers to decorate our homes!

Activity: Ask students to bring from home at least one object that represents a
stage of a plant. Have the students show the objects to their class mates. On the
following page, students will identify the plant part from which the object is made.




                                                                           Life Cycles    Page
                                                                Visual Learning Company   24
Plant                                         Name
Show and Tell
Directions: Write the name of each show-and-tell
object in the chart below. Place a check mark in the
correct column to indicate the part of the plant that it
is or from which it comes. For example, if the object
is celery, place a check mark in the “stem” column.




          Object           Seed        Root       Stem     Leaf          Flower             Fruit
 Celery                                             X




                                                                             Life Cycles            Page
                                                                  Visual Learning Company           25

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Most living things go through a series of changes in their lives referred to as a life cycle. While every living thing has its own particular life cycle, most living things follow the same pattern of birth, growth, reproduction, and death.