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Grand Prix motorcycle racing

Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Grand Prix motorcycle racing

[[Current Season]]

classes: 125cc, 250cc and MotoGP. Grand prix motorc built racing machines that are neither available for gene can be legitimately ridden on public roads; this contrasts production categories of racing, such as the Superbike W ship, that feature modified versions of road-going motorc the public.

Overview

A Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix was first Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) in 194 rights are owned by Dorna Sports. Teams are represente tional Road Racing Teams Association (IRTA) and manuf Motorcycle sport Motorcycle Sport Manufacturers Association (MSMA). R Category to regulations are decided between the four entities, wit International Country or region tie-breaking vote. In cases of technical modifications, the laterally enact or veto changes by unanimous vote amon 1949 Inaugural season These 4 entities compose the Grand Prix Commission. MotoGP World Championship There have traditionally been several races at each ev 18 Riders classes of motorcycles, based on engine size, and one cla Classes for 50cc, 80cc, 125cc, 250cc, 350cc, and 500cc s 11 Teams have existed over time, and 350cc and 500cc sidecars. U Ducati, Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki, Yamaha 1960s, four-stroke engines domin Manufacturers 1950s and most of the the 1960s, two-stroke engines began to take root in the s Riders’ champion Valentino Rossi the 1970s, two-strokes completely eclipsed the four-stro Honda made an attempt to return the four-stroke to the Manufacturers’ champion Yamaha NR500, but this project failed, and in 1983, even Honda GP 250 World Championship a two-stroke 500. The 50cc class was replaced by an 80c class was dropped entirely in the 1990s, after being dom 23 Riders by Spanish and Italian makes. The 350cc class vanished 15 Teams cars were dropped from World Championship events in t perside), reducing the field to 125s, 250s, and 500s. Aprilia, Honda, Gilera, Yamaha Manufacturers MotoGP, the premier class of GP motorcycle racing, h Riders’ champion Marco Simoncelli matically in recent years. From the mid-1970s until 2002 GP racing allowed 500cc with a maximum of 4 cylinders, Manufacturers’ champion Aprilia whether the engine was a two-stroke or four-stroke. Con chines were two-strokes, due to the greater power outpu GP 125 World Championship gine capacity. Some two- and three-cylinder two-stroke 5 31 Riders but though they had a minimum-weight advantage under 14 Teams ally attained higher corner speed and could qualify well, power of the four-cylinder machines. In 2002, rule chang Aprilia, Derbi, KTM, Honda, Loncin, Haojue Manufacturers duced to facilitate the phasing out of the two strokes, pr Riders’ champion Mike Di Meglioby what was then seen as a lack of relevance: the last ma 500cc 2-stroke model had not been available to the publ Manufacturers’ champion Aprilia years. The rules permitted manufacturers to choose betw strokes engines (500cc or less) or four-strokes (990cc or motogp.com Official website turers were also permitted to employ their choice of eng Despite premier champiRoad Racing World Championship Grand Prix is the the significantly increased costs involved in runn stroke three distinct onship of motorcycle road racing currently divided into machinery, given their extra 490cc capacity adva

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Grand Prix motorcycle racing

and passing in this area of the track is prohibited; if a fa be evacuated safely from the track, the race is red-flagge crashes are usually one of two types: lowsides and the m highsides, though increased use of traction control has m much less frequent. According to one estimate, leasing a top-level motorc costs about 3 to 3.5 million dollars for a racing season.[2 As a result of the 2008-2009 financial crisis, MotoGP changes in an effort to cut costs. Among them are reduc sessions; banning active suspension, launch control and ite brakes; extending the lifespan of engines; reducing te

Tires
Yamaha YZR-M1 MotoGP bike

Tire selection is critical, usually done by the individual r ’feel’ during practice, qualifying and the pre-race warmmorning of the result, by strokes were soon able to dominate their two-stroke rivals. As a race, as well as the predicted weather. Th promise is The 125cc 2003 no two-stroke machines remained in the MotoGP field.between grip and longevity—the softer and ’g the more quickly In 2007, and 250cc classes still consist exclusively of two-stroke machines. it wears out; the harder and less grip, t tire is to last the reduced the MotoGP class had its maximum engine displacement capacity entire race. Conserving rubber through specific talent winning riders acquire. Special ’Q’ or qua to 800cc for a minimum of 5 years. treme softness and grip The 2008 racing calendar consisted of 18 rounds in 16 different coun- were typically used during griduntil their use was discontinued at the end of the 2008 s tries (Spain which hosted 3 rounds, Qatar, Turkey, China, France, Italy, lasted typically no longer than one or two laps, though th Great Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, Czech Republic, San Marino, higher qualifying class, Portugal, Japan, Australia and Malaysia). Exclusive to the MotoGP speeds. In wet conditions, special tires treads Seca in Monterey, there was also a USA round at Mazda Raceway Laguna are used, but they suffer extreme wear if the trac In 2007 was MotoGP California for the 800cc class only. In 2008 a MotoGP event new held at regulations limited the number could a newly prepared the Indianapolis Motor Speedway for the first time on use over the practice and qualifying period, and th maximum of 31 tires (14 track, and observers noted that the Speedway had hosted motorcycle ra- fronts and 17 rears) per rider. T problem of tire race but cing before cars raced there. All three classes were scheduled tochoice vs. weather (among other factors) riders and teams to rasevere wind and rain prevented the 250cc class from racing. MotoGPoptimize their performance on race cing at Indianapolis is counterclockwise, startingwasthe Formula One on greeted with varying degrees of enthusiasm by part stone had dominated in 2007 and Michelin riders Valent track, with additional turns directly after the pit area, bypassing the bankHayden, Dani Pedrosa, and ing turn one of the oval track. Also because of the race being run counter- Colin Edwards all acknowled clockwise on what is normally a clockwise track, in Michelin’s racehave relative to Bridgestone. Rossi, di the run off areas tires and critical of the performance of his Michelin tires, swi seen significant modification. stones for 2008 and won The grid is composed of three columns (four for the 125cc and 250cc the World Championship in dom Pedrosa switched to Bridgestones during the 2008 seaso classes) and contains approximately 20 riders. Grid positions are decided in descending order of qualifying speed, the fastest In 2008 the rules were amended to allow more tires p on the ’pole’ or first end—18 a sprint from rears for a total of 40 tires. The lo position. Races last approximately 45 minutes, each race fronts and 22 tires per weekend was considered a handicap to Micheli start to finish without pitting for fuel or tyres. MotoGP Previously, if a In 2005, a flag-to-flag rule for MotoGP was introduced.team using Dunlops in 2007, Yamaha Tech 3, di 2008 but switched the race started dry and rain fell, riders or officials could red-flag (stop)to Michelin. For rain 2010 white race and either restart or resume on ’wet’ tyres. Now, if2009,falls a and 2011, a ’spec’ tire supplier, Bridg pointed by the FIM (Michelin no longer supplying any tir flag is shown, indicating that riders can pit to swap the motorcycle on For the whole season Bridgestone will provide 4 differen which they started the race for an identical one, as long as the tyres are front tire, 6 of rear, different (that is, intermediates instead of wets, or slicks instead of and a single wet specification—no qu tion. For each round, Bridgestone will provide only 2 spe wets)[1]. Besides different tyres, the wet-weather bikes have steel brake front and and Tires will rotors and different brake pads instead of the carbon discsrear. pads used be assigned to riders randomly ality.[4] on the ’dry’ bikes. This is because the carbon brakes need to be very hot to function properly, and the water cools them too much. Hence the convenChronology tional steel brakes. The suspension is also ’softened’ up somewhat for the wet weather. • 1973: Deaths of Jarno Saarinen and Renzo Pasolini at When a rider crashes, track marshals wave a yellow flag, prohibiting at Monza. passing in that area; one corner back, a stationary yellow flag is shownOW61 YZR500 is the first V4 in th • 1982: The Yamaha

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Grand Prix motorcycle racing

• 1985: Michelin introduces radial tires in GPs. eventually found himself behind Rossi in points and was • 1987: Push starts are eliminated. losing to Rossi dramatically in the Laguna Seca round an • 1988: Wayne Rainey wins the first 500cc race hampered by an old wrist injury (broken scaphoid, which using carbon brakes, at the British GP. healed in 5 years). Stoner underwent surgery at seasons • 1990: 500cc grid switches from 5 to 4 bikes per row. this problem. • 1992: Honda introduces NSR500 with big bang engine. The 2006 championship was the first in 14 years to be • 1993: Shinichi Itoh and fuel-injected NSR500 nal race. Valentino barrier break the 200mph Rossi started the race with a twelve-p at the German GP at Hockenheim. finished third with Rossi finishing 13th after crashing on • 1998: 500cc switch to unleaded fuel. Nicky Hayden his maiden MotoGP World Championship • 2002: 990cc 4-strokes allowed in premier class. Hayden moves to Ducati after having ridden Hondas virt • 2003: Daijiro Kato dies, leading to Suzuka’s removal from thecareer. In early tests on the 09 Ducati du his road-racing roster. • 2004: MotoGP grid switches from 4 to 3 bikesing he pronounced himself pleased with the move. per row. • 2004: Makoto Tamada earns Bridgestone their first MotoGP victory at the Brazilian GP. • 2005: MotoGP adopts flag-to-flag rule, meaning races continue if rain begins. • 2007: MotoGP restricted to 800cc 4-strokes. • 2008: Dunlop drops out of MotoGP. • 2009: Michelin drops out of MotoGP and Bridgestone become sole tyre providers.[5][6] • 2009: Kawasaki Suspends MotoGP activities for 2009 and considers privateer team.

Challenges for the designer

Riders

See also: List of Grand Prix motorcycle racers Top riders travel the world to compete in the annual FIM World Championship series. The championship is perhaps most closely followed in Italy and Spain, home of many of the more successful riders early in the 21st century. But in recent years more riders from the USA have been competing. This resulted in the reintroduction in 2005 of the US Grand Prix (albeit just for the MotoGP class, not 125cc & 250cc), an event staged at Laguna Seca where the Bermudina Jeneko place took his maiden MotoGP victory. Another American, Colin Edwards, gained second place in that race. In 2006, Hayden repeated his winning performance at Laguna Seca, despite Cockpit of a MotoGP-racing motorcycle serious difficulties with the track that—though repaved in June 2006, and incorporating improved safety features—exhibited serious problems with Like Formula One cars, grand prix motorcycles are gene surface deterioration under conditions of severely warm weather. Hayden lightweight and expensive materials such as titanium an went on to win the 2006 MotoGP championship, with the winner of the previous five titles, Valentino Rossi, second. The inforcedSeca track was Laguna plastic. They feature technological advances no general public, and part of their fan appeal derives from resurfaced for the 2007 event, leading to concerns about tyre choice on an technology and the high degree of technical skill and kno entirely new racing surface. strated by the designers The premier class in the early 21st-century seasons was dominated by and manufacturers. A notable d Italian Valentino Rossi, winner of the 2001-2005 990-cc formula wastitles. and later the 2008 the creation by Ducati of its ’Desmos built in limited numbers and sold in the United States fo In an effort to beat Valentino’s amazing consecutive victories on the $85,000, virtually indistinguishable in appearance from 500-cc two-strokes and then the 990-cc four-stroke machines, other companies signed younger riders on newly-designed chines (but with the addition of lights and turn signals). 800-cc machines. Honda in particular took this approach, with their 2006 introduced its R1 Superbike using a similar crankshaft c racing plans focused on combustion timing to its M1 MotoGP machine. These are winning with ’next-generation’ teams, signing Toni Elías, Marco Melandri, transfer of advanced race Dani Pedrosa, and Nicky Hayden, all of whom were then under 25. Ducati technology to motorcycles ava eral season when they successfully employed a similar strategy for the 2007public, a trend that has endured for decades and wi Examples victories and signed 21-year-old Casey Stoner of Australia. After a string of of MotoGP race technology include sophisti such as Bridgestone their management systems and trac podiums the highly consistent Stoner earned Ducati and telemetry, engine bon the 2007 calendar. first World Championship title at the Motegi round ofdisk brakes, and advanced engine technology such a Despite excellent performances early in the 2008Honda’s V5 RC211V and Aprilia’s RS3 Cube. The latter e season, Stoner

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Grand Prix motorcycle racing

power is less necessary. Observers noted that the 800cc not using proportionately less fuel than the 990s becaus power output the smaller machines were using full throt time for a given circuit.

Specifications

Cockpit of a 125cc GP-racing motorcycle

The following shows the key specifications issues for eac also introduced for the 2005 year, that under rule 2.10.5 motorcycle may be more than fifteen °C (15 °C) below am ure. The use of any device on the motorcycle to artificial temperature of the fuel below ambient temperature is fo torcycle may include such a device.’ This stops an artific from increasing fuel density by cooling it.

Cosworth-designed pneumatic valve actuation system, used in Formula 125cc and 250cc classes One cars. In 2007 the Suzuki and Yamaha also used pneumatic valve actuation and Honda reported using that technology for its 2008 RC212V bikes based on its F1 experience. The latest addition to the MotoGP grids, the Ilmor/SRT X3 machine, seen at the Estoril (Portugal) and Valencia (Spain) events in 2006, reportedly uses a similar valve-actuation design, not surprising considering Ilmor Engineering’s background in Formula One. Unfortunately, the high cost of participation and lack of sponsorship caused Ilmor to withdraw in early 2007. While MotoGP motorcycles are only raced at world championship level, the lighter and significantly less powerful 125cc and 250cc bikes are available at relatively reasonable cost. A basic production 125cc bike costs about the same as a small car. These bikes are raced in national championships around the world as well as in the world championship, though their two-stroke technology is irrelevant in context with production machines. These two smaller classes are considered excellent training for future MotoGP riders. One of the main challenges that confronts a MotoGP motorcycle rider and designer is how to translate the machine’s enormous power - over 240 bhp (179.0 kW), through a single tyre-contact patch roughly the size of a human hand. For comparison, Formula 1 cars produce up to 750 bhp (559 kW) from their 2.4 litre engines, but have 10 times the tyre-contact 125cc KTM Grand Prix motorcycle surface. Because of this difficulty, MotoGP is perhaps unique in modern motor sport in that teams will often deliberately detune their engines to al125cc machines are restricted to a single cylinder and a low their riders a chance to control them. In the two-stroke era, many of of 80 kilograms and the 250cc machines to two cylinders the 500cc machines were not making more than the 180 to 190 bhp (135 of 100 kilograms. From 2005 onwards, all riders in the 1 to 140 kW) although their maximum potential power output was higher. In not be older than 28 years or 25 years for new contracte recent times this has begun to change with the advent of traction control. ating for the first time and wild-cards. Another new technology in use is lean- angle sensing that modulates the In 2008 discussions arose surrounding the replaceme power output based on lean angle. This works in conjunction with traction 250cc class with another category. The move to 600cc 4 control to keep the rear wheel from breaking traction. Part of the rider replace the current 250s has been finalized as of June 20 compromise, significantly affected by ECU (Engine Control Unit) technoeffect in 2011 [7] The new class will be called Moto2. En logy, is that explosive torque at lower RPM may cause the rear tyre to spin duced by Honda[8]; electronics will be limited and suppli unless modulated, causing riders to use higher RPM where torque changes sanctioned producers; carbon-fibre brakes will be banne are less severe. This consideration also affects gear selection for the indibrakes will be allowed. However, there will be no chassi vidual circuit, which comprises an essential element in setup before and during practice and qualification. MotoGP class Another significant issue in 2007 was the reduction in permissible fuel New specifications for from 22 litres to 21 litres, causing engineers to introduce ECU control each racing class are formed as th the beginning of the and over maximum revolutions, where internal friction losses are highest, new MotoGP era in 2002, 500cc two leaning out the fuel-air mixture in sections of thefour-stroke bikes were specified to race. The enormous p track where maximum

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Grand Prix motorcycle racing

Minimum Weight - MotoGP Class Number of cylinders 2 3 4 5 6 2002 Minimum 135 kg (300 lb) 135 kg (300 lb) 145 kg (320 lb) 145 kg (320 lb) 155 kg (340 lb) 2007 Minimum 137 kg (300 lb) 140.5 kg (310 lb) 148 kg (330 lb) 155.5 kg (343 lb) 163 kg (360 lb) Difference 2 kg (4.4 lb) 5.5 kg (12 lb) 3 kg (6.6 lb) 10.5 kg (23 lb) 8 kg (18 lb)

Points Scoring - MotoGP Class Position Points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 5 4 3 2 1 25 20 16 13 11 10 9 8 7 6

of the larger displacement four-stroke engine over the two-stroke elimin- record is set on a test. In addit the race, while the 990cc ated all two-strokes from competition; the following season no two-stroke bikes are compared, the 800c times for 990cc and 800cc bikes were racing. In 2007 the maximum engine ally faster around raceto capacity was reduced tracks than the 990cc bikes. 800cc without reducing the existing weight restrictions. By way of comparison, the current Formula One spee MotoGP-class motorcycles are not restricted to any specific engine con369.9 km/h (229.8 mph) was set by Antônio Pizzonia of t figuration. However the number of cylinders employed in theMonza in 2004—however, top speed is only a F1 team, at engine determines the motorcycle’s permitted minimum weight; morecapabilities of any track vehicle and thus doe the overall cylinders attracting more weight as a form of handicap. Thisthenecessary because, for is difference between Formula One and MotoGP perfor a given capacity, an engine with more cylinders is capable of producing general. Using lap timings as a guide, MotoGP riders typ more power. If comparable bore to stroke ratios are employed an engine1 minute 40 seconds compared t Spanish Jerez circuit in with more cylinders will have a greater piston area and a for Formula One. seconds shorter stroke. The increased piston area permits an increase in the total valve area, allowing more air and fuel to be drawn into the engine, and the shorter Weights stroke permits higher revs at the same piston speed, allowing the engine • In 2005, fuel tank capacity was reduced by 2 litres to to pump still more air and fuel with the potential • In 2006, fuel tank capacity was reduced by a further 2 to produce more power but with more fuel consumption too. In 2004 motorcycles 2007 onwards and for a minimum period of five • From were entered with three-, four-and five-cylinder configurations. A regulated in engine class that two-stroke bikes will n six-cylinder MotoGP was proposed by Blata, but did not reach the MotoGP grids. Presently four allowed, and engines will be limited to 800cc four-stro cylinder engines appear to offer the best compromise between weight, maximum fuel capacity will be 21 litres. power and fuel consumption as all competitors in the 2008 series use this solution in either vee or in-line configuration. Engine Specifications In 2002, the FIM become concerned at the advances in design and en• : V4 or Inline-4 (MotoGP class), 2-cylinder (250 cc), 1 gineering that resulted in higher speeds around the race track. For purclass) poses of increasing safety, regulation changes related to weight, amount of • : 800 cc (MotoGP class), 250 cc (250 cc class), 125 cc available fuel and engine capacity were introduced. The amended rules re• : 16-valve (MotoGP), 8-valve (250 cc, 125 cc) duced engine capacity to 800cc from 990cc and restricted the amount of • : DOHC, 4-valves per cylinder (MotoGP), available fuel for race distance from 26 litres in year 2004 to 21 litres in • : Unleaded (no control fuel) 100 Octane year 2007 and onwards. In addition, the minimum weight of 4 cylinder • : Fuel injection bike used by all participating teams was increased by 3 kg. • : Naturally-aspirated engine Although the changes in specifications were intended to reduce both • : Approximately 220 or 225 hp average and maximum speeds, their effect can be questioned. While the • : Wet sump MotoGP speed record of 347.4 km/h (215.864 mph) for 800cc bikes is held • : 17500 - 18000 rpm by Jeneko place on a suzuki Rizla +. GSX-R at IRTA Tests in Catalunya in • : 212 MPH 2008, the current speed record for a 800cc bike is held by Casey Stoner on • : Single water pump a Ducati Desmosedici GP8 and set at Grand Prix of ShangHai China 2008 race at 347.0 km/h ( 215.62 mph).[10]. Furthermore, in a video of the race, Stoner is actually seen to ride at the speed of 347 km/h (216 mph),[11] which, however, may not be considered as an official top speed record, as it is not set on a speed trap. While comparing top speeds, it is worth noting that the 800cc speed records are set with a bike in race trim and during

Scoring

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Grand Prix motorcycle racing

Movies and video games

References

Movies about MotoGP include: [1] Noyes, Dennis (2007-12-21). "MOTOGP: Dorna CEO • Faster, a documentary film about MotoGP, was released in 2003 and is on Electronics in MotoGP". SPEEDTV.com. http://mo now available on DVD. The film features appearances by MotoGP’s racing.speedtv.com/article/ biggest stars, including Valentino Rossi. Narrated motogp_dorna_ceo_advocates_limits_on_electronics_ by Ewan McGregor and directed by Mark Neale. Retrieved on 2008-03-04. • The Doctor, The Tornado and The Kentucky Kid, a THE IDIOT’S GUIDE TO MOTOGP: How to increase [2] documentary on the 2005 United States motorcycle Grand Prix, also directed by speed (Part II) SpeedTV.com Moto GP New decrease Mark Neale. [3] "FIM announce changes to 2009 regulations". MotoG Computer and video games based upon MotoGP: 2009-02-18. http://www.motogp.com/en/news/2009/ FIM+announce+changes+to+2009+regulations+0. PC 2009-02-18. • GP500 (Microprose) [4] "Bridgestone: How MotoGP Spec Tires Will Work". • MotoGP (THQ) SuperbikePlanet.com. 2009-02-04. http://superbikep • MotoGP 2 (THQ) Feb/090204a.htm. Retrieved on February 4 2009. • MotoGP 3 (THQ) [5] "Bridgestone make proposal to be single tyre supplie • MotoGP ’07 (THQ) MotoGP. 2008-10-04. http://www.motogp.com/en/ne • MotoGP ’08 (Capcom) Bridgestone+make+proposal+to+be+single+tyre+ • MotoGP ’09 (Capcom) Retrieved on October 10 2008. Wii [6] "Michelin will not bid for the contract to be single-so • MotoGP ’08 (Capcom) tires for the MotoGP World Championship". Michelin Game Boy Advance http://www.michelin.com/corporate/actualites/en/ • MotoGP[12] (THQ) actu_affich.jsp?id=23784&lang=EN&codeRubrique Xbox Retrieved on October 10 2008. • MotoGP (THQ) [7] MotoGp.com article on the move to 600cc in 2011. • MotoGP 2 (THQ) [8] "2010 Moto2 class to be powered by Honda". motog • MotoGP 3 (THQ) 2009-05-02. http://www.motogp.com/en/news/2009/ Xbox 360 2010+Moto2+class+to+be+powered+by+Honda. • MotoGP ’06 (THQ) [9] "Moto2: 250cc replacement class regulations annou • MotoGP ’07 (THQ) motogp.com. 2008-12-11. http://www.motogp.com/e • MotoGP ’08 (Capcom) Moto2+250cc+replacement+class+regulations+ann • MotoGP ’09 (Capcom) [10] "Rossi smashes losing streak in China". http://www.c PlayStation 2 motorsport/motogp/news/162882-0/ • MotoGP (Namco) rossi_smashes_losing_streak_in_china.html. • MotoGP 2 (Namco) [11] "Stoner at 347 km/h". http://www.youtube.com/watc • MotoGP 3 (Namco) uCsQKWk6c&feature=related. • MotoGP 4 (Namco) [12] Gamefaqs: MotoGP • MotoGP ’07 (Capcom) [13] IGN: Pre-E3 2008: Capcom Reveals Hefty Lineup • MotoGP ’08 (Capcom)[13] [14] "MotoGP Review". http://gamefreaks365.com/review • MotoGP ’09 (Capcom) Retrieved on 2009-04-30. PlayStation 3 • MotoGP ’08 (Capcom) PlayStation Portable • MotoGP (Namco) N-Gage • MotoGP[14] (THQ) Mobile • motogp.com Official website • MotoGP (THQ) • Moto GP News All the latest Moto GP news and resul • MotoGP 2 (THQ) • MotoGP 3 (THQ)

See also

External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Prix_motorcycle_racing" Categories: Grand Prix motorcycle racing

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