Communicating Across Cultures - PowerPoint

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					Communicating Across
     Cultures
    On April 18, 2002, the San Francisco Chronicle ran the following headline on the front
      page, regarding the explosive new products launched by Abercrombie & Fitch:



                        "ABERCROMBIE & GLITCH
              Asian Americans rip retailer for stereotypes on T-shirts“

  Slogans on these T-shirts included:

  "Wong Brothers Laundry Service -- Two Wongs Can Make It White."

  "Abercrombie and Fitch Buddha Bash -- Get Your Buddha on the Floor"




Comment from representative of Abercrombie & Fitch
"We personally thought Asians would love this T-shirt," said Hampton Carney, with Paul
Wilmot Communications in New York, the public relations firm where Abercrombie referred a
reporter's call.
              Objectives
• Define communication and list its four
  functions
• Describe the communication process
• Contrast the three common types of small-
  group networks
• Identify factors affecting the use of the
  grapevine
          Objectives (cont.)
• Describe common barriers to effective
  communication
• List four rules for improving cross-cultural
  communication
• Outline behaviors associated with
  providing effective feedback
• Identify the behaviors related to effective
  active listening
  Functions of Communication
• Control - both formal and informal
• Influence - clarification and feedback
• Emotional expression - fulfillment of social
  needs
• Information - facilitating decision making
The Communication Process
    Classification by Direction
• Downward

• Lateral

• Upward
         Classification by Form
• Oral

• Written




• Non-verbal
   Non-verbal Communication
Body movement - Body language adds to,
  and often complicates, verbal
  communication
• Intonations - Change the meaning of the
  message
• Facial expression - Characteristics that
  would never be communicated if you read
  a transcript of what is said
• Physical distance - Proper spacing is
  largely dependent cultural norms
Computer-Aided
Communication
     • Electronic mail (e-mail)

     • Videoconferencing
  Communicating Emotion via E-mail

Symbol   Translation   Symbol   Translation     Symbol   Translation


         smiley
: -)     face/happ     8-)      eye-glasses     :-|      indifference
         y
         disappoint
:-e                    :-P      wry smile       :-!      foot in mouth
         ment
         tongue
:-&                    ;-)      wink            :-O      yell
         tied
:-/      perplexed     :->      devilish grin   :-Q      smoker

:-{      mustache      :-       male            :-(      frown/sad

:-@      scream        ;-}      leer            :-D      shock or surprise

                                baseball
C=:-)    chef          d:-)                     >-       female
                                smiley
       The Grapevine
• Not controlled by management
• Perceived as being more believable
  and reliable
• Largely used to serve self-interest
• Appear in response to situations
  – Important to us
  – Where there is ambiguity
  – Under conditions that arouse anxiety
          Barriers to Effective
           Communication
•   Filtering
•   Selective Perception
•   Information Overload
•   Gender Styles
•   Emotions
•   Language
High- vs. Low-Context Cultures
            High                                                    •     Chinese
           Context                                                  •     Korean
                                                                    •     Vietnamese
                                                                    •     Arab
                                                                    •     Greek
                                                                    •     Spanish
                                                                    •     Italian
                                                                    •     English
                                                                    •     North American
                                                                    •     Scandinavian
            Low                                                     •     Swiss
                                                                    •     German
           Context
 Source: Based on the work of E.T. Hall from R.E. Dulck, J.S. Fielden, and J.S. Hill, “International Communication:
 An Executive Primer,” Business Horizons, January-February 1991, p. 21.
          A Cultural Guide
• Assume differences until similarity is
  proved
• Emphasize description rather than
  interpretation or evaluation
• Practice empathy
• Treat your interpretation as a working
  hypothesis
    Ethics in Cross Cultural
        Communication

• What is a lie?
• What is humor?
Improving Active Listening Skills
1. Make eye contact
2. Exhibit affirmative head nods and
   appropriate facial expressions
3. Avoid distracting actions or gestures
4. Ask questions
5. Paraphrase
6. Avoid interrupting the speaker
7. Do not over talk
                  Summary
• Defined communication
• Described the communication process
• Described common barriers to effective
  communication
• Listed four rules for improving cross-cultural
  communication
• Identified factors affecting the use of the
  grapevine
• Identified the behaviors related to effective
  active listening