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					                      CONTENT/TEACHING OUTLINE
                  Unit B: Evolution and Movement of Fashion

COMPETENCY:       2.00   Explain the evolution and movement of fashion.

OBJECTIVE:        2.03   Recognize the relationship between historical events
                         and fashion evolution.


    A. Investigate historical events and the evolution of fashion during the twentieth
       century.
       1. 1940 – 1949
           a. Mood of the decade
                (1) World War II
                    (a) Women re-entered the workforce
                    (b) Parisian fashion houses closed their doors due to German
                         invasion of Paris
                    (c) American fashion designers emerged
                    (d) L-85 (General Limitations Order) restricted amount of fabric
                         used in production of apparel.
                         (i) Designers had to create fashions that would remain
                               stylish through multiple seasons.
                         (ii) A new style of suits for women had short skirts and
                               short jackets of twenty-five inches or less in length.
                         (iii) Sheath (see glossary) evening dresses replaced the
                               long flowing gowns of the thirties.
                    (e) Other restrictions limited use of silk, wool, rubber, metal
                    (f) Shorter skirts
                    (g) Sloppy Joe sweaters
                    (h) Bikini introduced
                    (i) Tailored masculine-looking suit
                    (j) The popularity of the jitterbug dance continued.
                (2) Postwar fashion freedom
                    (a) Women wanted a return to more feminine designs.
                    (b) Christian Dior introduced the “New Look” with rounded
                         shoulders, fuller bustlines, and fuller skirts fifteen inches off
                         the ground.
                (3) Paris was re-established as the center of the fashion world.
           b. People who influenced the fashions of this decade
                (1) Christian Dior – designer of the “New Look”; first designer to
                    license his name
                (2) Norman Norrell – winner of the first Coty American Fashion
                    Critics Award (the American fashion designer’s version of the
                    Oscar); known for sweaters with luxurious skirts and beaded
                    sheath gowns; founder of the Council of Fashion Designers of
                    America (CFDA see glossary)

                                 Fashion Merchandising
                                         B-20
      (3) Cristobal Balenciaga – known for huge evening coats, long, full
          skirts, pillbox hats, and chemise dresses
      (4) Jacques Fath – first French designer to export his designs to the
          United States
      (5) Elsa Schiaparelli – known for surreal designs and bold use of
          color, especially shocking pink and ice blue
      (6) Adrian – Hollywood costume designer whose screen fantasies
          influenced street fashions
2. 1950 – 1959
   a. Mood of the decade
      (1) Korean War
      (2) Color television introduced
      (3) Rock-n-Roll explosion
          (a) Teenagers became an emerging fashion voice.
          (b) Leather jackets and T-shirts with the sleeves rolled up
          (c) White shirts and blue jeans
          (d) Letter sweaters
          (e) Beatniks
          (f) American Bandstand
          (g) Elvis Presley appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show.
      (4) Moving to the suburbs
          (a) Sportswear emerges
          (b) Pedal pushers, slacks, halters, shirtwaist dresses
          (c) Ivy League look
               (i) Men wore neat single-breasted jackets with narrow
                    lapels, pressed trousers, with white, yellow, or pale blue
                    button-down collared shirts, and ties.
               (ii) Female students dressed in twin sweater sets, or Peter-
                    Pan collared blouses and sweaters, with pencil-slim or
                    pleated skirts.
          (d) Cashmere sweaters with a matching scarf
          (e) Poodle skirts
          (f) Single-breasted jackets, narrow lapels, and natural
               shoulders
          (g) Tapered trousers and penny loafers
          (h) Shopping malls are built.
      (5) Hairstyles
          (a) Girls wore ponytails early in the decade. Later, the beehive
               was popular.
          (b) Boys “trained” their hair into greased-back ducktails and
               carried a comb at all times.
      (6) Shoes and accessories
          (a) Two-toned bucks
          (b) Bobby socks




                       Fashion Merchandising
                               B-21
   b. People who influenced the fashions of this decade
      (1) Designer influence was significant.
          (a) Dior – the A-line silhouette for women
          (b) Givenchy – the chemise or “sack” dress (late 50s - early 60s)
          (c) Claire McCardell – known for wrap-around sashes, harem
               pajamas, and large pockets with topstitching; also designed
               bias-cut dartless clothes with an easy-to-wear relaxed look
      (2) Movie idols and musicians
          (a) Elvis Presley – international rock-n-roll star; tight pants,
               leather jackets, ducktail hairstyle
          (b) James Brown – rhythm and blues singer; suit, boots
          (c) James Dean – teen idol movie star; rebel image; T-shirts,
               jeans, leather jackets
          (d) Marlon Brando – movie star with image as leader of a
               motorcycle pack
3. 1960 – 1969
   a. Mood of the decade
      (1) Civil Rights Movement
          (a) Black Pride
          (b) The Afro
          (c) African prints
          (d) Dashiki : A loose, brightly-colored African tunic
      (2) Youthquake Revolution
          (a) Youth take ownership of the decade
          (b) Mod look: Clothing with psychedelic colors and geometric
               designs; miniskirts with white go-go boots
          (c) Nehru jackets
      (3) Election of John F. Kennedy
          (a) Youngest president in history
           a. The bare-headed President Kennedy begins the demise of
               the men’s hat industry.
           b. First Lady Jackie Kennedy is the fashion icon of the decade
               wearing Chanel suits and simple dresses, pillbox hat, pearls,
               and low-heeled shoes.
      (4) Man walks on the moon
           a. Pierre Cardin and André Courreges are called the space age
               designers.
           b. Space age and futuristic looks, use of metals, unisex
               jumpsuits, and space travel themes appear on high fashion
               runways.
      (5) Onset of the women’s liberation movement
           a. See-through blouses, no bra
           b. Unisex look
           c. Pantyhose introduced because garter belts wouldn’t work
               with the miniskirts (Glen Raven Mills, North Carolina, 1959)



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                               B-22
      (6) Anti-war movement (Vietnam)
          (a) Hippie look, suede fringe jackets, appliquéd bell-bottom
               trousers, tie-dyed shirts, love beads, granny glasses, and
               peace symbols
          (b) Woodstock Festival
   b. People who influenced the fashions of this decade
      (1) Influence of designers decreased.
          (a) Mary Quant – London designer who introduced the Mod look
          (b) Emilio Pucci – used exotic, psychedelic, beautiful fabric
               prints
          (c) Yves St. Laurent – geometric-look shift dresses in reds,
               yellows, and blues inspired by the paintings of Piet
               Mondrian; see-through blouses
          (d) Twiggy – skinny British model who became the top model of
               the sixties
      (2) Jackie Kennedy – influenced fashion with her simple suits,
          pillbox hats, and her pearl necklace
      (3) Audrey Hepburn – movie star identified with classic styles such
          as Givenchy’s “little black dress”
4. 1970 – 1979
   a. Mood of the decade
      (1) Watergate Scandal
      (2) Vietnam War ends
      (3) Dawn of the Disco, Studio 54, Saturday Night Fever
          (a) John Travolta wears white suit with an open-necked shirt
          (b) Platform shoes
          (c) Bell-bottom hip-hugger pants
          (d) Hot pants with white go-go boots
      (4) Punk Rock, short-lived anti-social and anti-fashion movement
          (a) Torn, frayed clothing
          (b) Body piercing
          (c) Spiked hair colored pink or green
          (d) T-shirts being worn as billboards
          (e) Political statement designs
      (5) Rap and hip-hop emerge
          (a) Athletic clothes
          (b) Track suits
          (c) Excessive amounts of gold jewelry
      (6) Ethnic influence
          (a) Macramé bags
          (b) Crochet waistcoats and shawls
          (c) Ponchos
          (d) Gypsy tops with gathered necklines trimmed with bells and
               puffed sleeves
          (e) Nehru jackets



                      Fashion Merchandising
                              B-23
      (7) “Me” decade, self indulgence
          (a) String bikini
          (b) Tight clothes
          (c) Men’s leisure suits
          (d) Designer jeans
          (e) Hand-braided friendship bracelets
      (8) Feminism, sexual equality, women’s liberation, equal rights
          (a) Bra burning
          (b) Women no longer wear girdles
          (c) Women buy pantyhose to wear with miniskirts and micro-
               miniskirts (Seamless pantyhose were developed in North
               Carolina in 1965.)
          (d) Women wear pants and pantsuits
          (e) Double-knit polyester man-made fabrics
          (f) Micro, mini, midi, and maxi skirts
      (9) Shoes
          (a) Platforms: Shoes with a thick mid-sole that makes the
               wearer appear taller.
          (b) Clogs: Heavy, usually wooden-soled shoes.
      (10)Movies and their stars
          (a) Annie Hall – women wearing oversized men’s shirts, very
               long skirts, khaki pants, and men’s hats
          (b) Grease – leather motorcycle jackets
      (11)Television
           a. Charlie’s Angels – Farrah Fawcett Major’s hair style and
               flared trousers
           b. Happy Days – Fonzie’s leather jacket, jeans, white shirt
           c. Dukes of Hazzard – Daisy Duke’s cutoff jean shorts
   b. People who influenced the fashions of this decade
      (1) Yves Saint Laurent - womenswear based on menswear;
          pantsuits
      (2) Halston – use of cashmere
      (3) Calvin Klein – denim jeans
      (4) Mary McFadden – use of fine pleating
      (5) Bill Blass -- most noted for high-quality, high-priced, classic
          clothing featuring a look of sporty sophistication and offhand
          glamour; a favorite of Nancy Reagan
5. 1980 – 1989
   a. Mood of the decade
      (1) Excess
          (a) Shoulder pads, retro 1940s
          (b) Big hair
          (c) Brand names appeared on outside of garment
      (2) MTV
          (a) Music becomes visual



                       Fashion Merchandising
                               B-24
          (b) Videos become a major influence on apparel choices
               (i) Lace tops, tight skirts
               (ii) Bustier worn by Madonna
      (3) Television influence
          (a) Dallas – jeans, boots, western shirts, and cowboy hat
          (b) Dynasty – wide shoulder silhouettes
          (c) Miami Vice – T-shirts worn under Armani suits, pastel colors
               for men
          (d) Lady Diana Spencer’s wedding to Prince Charles viewed
               worldwide; Diana’s wedding dress becomes one of the most
               copied in the world
      (4) Workout craze, Jane Fonda
          (a) Legwarmers, leotards, sneakers
          (b) Nike, Reebok
          (c) Women left their high-heels at home and wore sneakers to
               work.
          (d) Introduction of the thong bikini
          (e) Stirrup pants: Stretch pants with tapered legs that end with
               a flat fabric or elastic loop to be worn under the foot to hold
               the pants legs taut.
          (f) Warm-up suits
          (g) Flashdance – increased the popularity of legwarmers,
               sweatshirt fabric, and sweatshirts with cut out necks
      (5) Punk
          (a) Dog collars
          (b) Mohawk hairstyles
          (c) Leather jackets and chains
   b. People who influenced the fashions of this decade
      (1) Ralph Lauren – classic silhouettes
      (2) Calvin Klein – minimalist look, designer jeans
      (3) Donna Karan – women’s career apparel
      (4) First Ladies – Nancy Reagan (Reagan red) and Barbara Bush
          (faux pearls)
      (5) Giorgio Armani – styles seen in American Gigolo had major
          influence on menswear
6. 1990 – 1999
   a. Mood of the decade
      (1) Sandra Day O’Connor – first woman on Supreme Court
      (2) AIDS first identified
      (3) Collapse of the Soviet Union and the expansion of overseas
          companies
      (4) Longest bull market in Wall Street history
          (a) More luxurious fashions are introduced as people have more
               money to spend.
          (b) More luxurious fabrics enter the market.



                       Fashion Merchandising
                               B-25
   (5) Casual Friday – khakis, polos, loafers, jeans with company T-
       shirts worn to work
   (6) Street Fashions
       (a) Hip-Hop style – jeans, logo T-shirts, windbreakers, all
            oversized
       (b) Grunge style – leather, denim, and tattered flannel shirts
       (c) Body piercing
       (d) Tattooing
       (e) Doc Martens
       (f) Backpack purses
   (7) Megabrands
       (a) Youthquake with Tommy Hilfiger
       (b) FUBU – urban streetwear first popular among rap artists;
            started by childhood friends as a tie-hat business; “for us by
            us”
       (c) Banana Republic
       (d) J. Crew
       (e) Old Navy, The Gap, Abercrombie and Fitch
       (f) Tweens (8 to 12 years old), Gap Kids, Limited Too
   (8) Women’s competitive and adventure sports – Example: WNBA
       (a) Athletic shoes
       (b) Sports bras
   (9) Internet
       (a) Finger-tip access to global fashion information
       (b) Online shopping
b. People who influenced the fashions of this decade
   (1) Tommy Hilfiger – “brand image” designer; used red, white, and
       blue as signature colors
   (2) Gianni Versace – designer with rock star type sex appeal
   (3) Isaac Mizrahi – high-fashion designer whose line is sold
       exclusively by Target; has recently started a made-to-order line
       for Bergdorf Goodman
   (4) Ralph Lauren – classy, sophisticated, “preppy” styles for men
       and women; began with a line of wide neckties
   (5) Princess Diana – most photographed woman ever
   (6) Music, movies, and television
       (a) Garth Brooks – western shirts
       (b) Shania Twain – bare midriffs and tight fitting clothes
       (c) Back Street Boys – oversized clothes
       (d) Madonna – bustier as outer clothing
       (e) Jennifer Aniston – “Rachel” hairdo on Friends
       (f) Russell Simmons – credited with bringing rap culture to the
            mainstream; developed Phat Farm hip-hop clothing line
       (g) Kimora Lee (Simmons) – director of Baby Phat fashions
       (h) Sean John (Sean “P. Diddy” Combs) – denim-based
            signature sportswear for men and boys


                   Fashion Merchandising
                           B-26
B. Investigate historical events and the evolution of fashion during the twenty-
   first century.
   1. 2000 –
         a. Mood of the decade
            (1) Y2K – the Millennium Bug
            (2) Unclear winner in the United States presidential election
            (3) Firestone recalled tires
            (4) Microsoft ordered to split
            (5) September 11, 2001 attack on the Twin Towers
            (6) Taliban regime
            (7) Anthrax scare
            (8) Invasion of Iraq
            (9) Stem cell research
            (10)Number of AIDS victims rises
            (11)Arnold Schwarzenegger became Governor of California
            (12)Recording industry cracked down on people who illegally
                 downloaded more than 1,000 songs over the Internet
            (13)Saddam Hussein captured December 13, 2003
            (14)Streetwear
                 (a) Low-rise jeans
                 (b) Slashed T-shirts (T-shirts with tears that appear to be cut)
                 (c) Overtly sexual clothes
                 (d) Bling bling (big jewelry)
                 (e) Ugg boots: Trendy sheepskin boots from Australia; made
                     popular among teens by Britney Spears; originally referred to
                     as “uglies.”
         b. People who are influencing the fashions of this decade
            (1) Valentino – Italian couturier known for his trademark red and as
                 master of the elegant “occasion dress”; a favorite designer of
                 Jackie Onassis, Rita Wilson (Hanks), Kate Capshaw (Spielberg),
                 and other “Best Dressed List” personalities
            (2) Paris Hilton – party-hopping socialite, television reality-show
                 personality, and occasional high-fashion model
            (3) Rappers and hip hop artists in music videos – emphasized
                 baggy pants, big jewelry (bling bling) and urban wear (Enyce,
                 Rocawear, Baby Phat, Phat Farm)
                 (a) Lil Kim – female rapper known for her “bad girl” image and
                     her provocative, skimpy clothing; increased the popularity of
                     wearing weave and wigs; is a spokesperson for Old Navy
                     and others
                 (b) Camron – hip-hop artist known for his sense of fashion and
                     his love of pink clothing; influenced male acceptance of pink
                 (c) Jay-Z – wearing earrings in both ears




                           Fashion Merchandising
                                   B-27
(4) Film and popstars are trendsetters for teens.
    (a) Britney Spears – bare-midriff tops, skimpy skirts and shorts;
    (b) Janet Jackson – bare, sexy, metallic, urban streetwear
(5) Celebrities who have launched clothing lines
    (a) Beyonce Knowles
    (b) Jennifer Lopez
    (c) Sean “P. Diddy” Combs
    (d) Russell Simmons
    (e) Jessica Simpson
    (f) Reba McEntyre




               Fashion Merchandising
                       B-28

				
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