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Marcelo H. del Pilar

Marcelo H. del Pilar
Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitan (August 30, 1850 – July 4, 1896), was a Filipino writer, journalist, and revolutionary leader of the Philippine Revolution and one of the leading Ilustrado (Knowledgeable) propagandist of the Philippine Propaganda Movement in the late 19th century. Del Pilar was one of the co-publisher and founder of La Solidaridad. He tried to marshal the nationalist sentiment of the enlightened Filipino Ilustrados, or bourgeoisie, against the Spanish imperialism. That made him one of the greatest leader of the Philippine Revolution. The youngest of the ten children born to a wealthy family in the town of Cupang, Bulacan, Bulacan, he attended the college of Herminigilda Flores, then at the Colegio de San Jose, from where he transferred to the University of Santo Tomas where he obtained his law course in 1880. In 1882, he became the editor of Diariong Tagalog which strongly criticized the way the Spaniards ran the government. In 1888, he fled Spain fleeing from clerical persecution, leaving his family behind. He took place of Graciano Lopez Jaena Marcelo H. del Pilar, the editor of La Solidaridad as the editor of the La Solidaridad, the August 30, 1850(1850-08-30) Born mouthpiece of the propagandists working for Cupang, Bulacan, Bulacan, Philippines reforms for the Filipinos. From 1890 to around 1895, he edited the newspaper alJuly 4, 1896 (aged 45) Died Barcelona, Spain most on his own because funds for the support of the fortnightly had become more and Plaridel, Dolores Manapat, Piping Pen name more difficult to raise in the Philippines. Del Dilat, Siling Labuyo, Kupang, Haitalaga, Patos, Carmelo D.A. Pilar slowly lost hope in reforms and began Murgas, and L.O. Crame to entertain the possibility of the Philippines separating from Spain. He stayed there until Occupation Satirist, lawyer, political analyst, writer, journalist, reformist, editor, his death in 1896 at the age of 45 caused by and revolutionary leader hunger and tuberculosis. Marcelo H. del Pilar was popularly known Nationality Filipino Plaridel, Dolores Manapat, Piping Dilat, SilDiariong Tagalog, La Soberania Notable ing Labuyo, Kupang, Haitalaga, Patos, Monacal en Filipinas, La Solidaridad work(s) Carmelo D.A. Murgas, and L.O. Crame his pseudonyms. Marciana del Pilar (Tsanay) Spouse(s)
Marcelo Hilario del Pilar Children Relative(s) Sofia and Anita Gregorio del Pilar (nephew) Deodato Arellano (brother-in-law) Toribio H. del Pilar (brother) Fernando H. del Pilar father of Gregorio del Pilar (brother)

Early life and family background
Marcelo H. del Pilar was born in Cupang, Bulacan, Bulacan, barrio of San Nicolas, on August 30, 1850. His parents were Don Julián


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Marcelo H. del Pilar
When the Cavite Mutiny took place on January 20, 1872, del Pilar was living with father Mariano Sevilla (b.1839 - d.1923), and it was thanks to his diligence that the papers which might have compromised this priest were destroyed. Nevertheless, a letter of Sevilla’s and another of his brother, Toribio H. del Pilar, also a priest, found in the possession of father José Burgos, were sufficient to bring about the deportation to the Marianas of the priests Sevilla and del Pilar.[4] This event inspired him to be actively involved with the Propaganda Movement.

Bulacan, Bulacan (highlighted in red), the birthplace of Marcelo Hilario del Pilar. Hilario del Pilar, an excellent grammarian, poet, writer, a gobernadorcillo of pueblo in Bulacan and afterwards oficial de mesa of the alcalde mayor of the province, and Doña Blasa Gatmaitan, familiarly known as Blasica. The couple owned rice and sugar cane lands, several fish ponds, and an animal-power mill; but as ten children born to them: Toribio (a priest), Fernando, Andrea, Dorotea, Estanislao, Juan, Hilaria (married to Deodato Arellano), Valentin, Maria, and Marcelo, and the share of each was a very small one, del Pilar renounced his in favor of his brothers and sisters.[1] The surname of the family was Hilario. The family adapted the surname del Pilar in accordance with the decree issued by Governor-General Narciso Claveria y Zaldua in 1849. According to the degree of Claveria in 1849, the name of grandmother, del Pilar, had to be added. And inasmuch as the particle Gat which precedes the mother’s name indicates noble origin, it will not be an exaggeration to affirm that the family belonged to the Tagalog nobility or descended from the ancient Tagalog kings.[2] Del Pilar’s youth was a stormy one and his studies were agitated. Though he made the modest boast that he was a cajon de sastre; he certainly had odds and ends of everything. He played violin, piano, and flute. At the Flores de Mayo, he more than one delighted the dalagas were unknown to him: he was in sense, a minstrel or troubadour.[3] At the age of ten, he worked with his uncle Alejo del Pilar, clerk of the court of Quiapo, in the early 1860s.

Part of the University of Santo Tomas (at right) where both del Pilar and Rizal went as young students in the early 1880’s. They later launched the Propaganda Movement.

Marcelo started school in the Colegio de Jose Flores and then transferred at the Colegio de San Jose, where he finished his Bachelor of Arts. He also studied at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran and later at the University of Santo Tomas, where he obtained his law degree in 1880.[5] Reliable information on his years as a student is incomplete, though he clearly dropped out of law school a couple times, finishing degree only in 1881. The picture on the right side shows the photograph of University of Santo Tomas where del Pilar, Rizal, and the other propagandists went as young students in the early 1880s.

Early anti-friar activities
Though he was active in discussions with his friends who favored change through education like Mariano Ponce, Numeriano Adriano, Paciano Rizal, and Apolinario Mabini, he escaped prosecution in 1872. In 1881, he worked for the Manila Royal Audiencia and at the same time he spread nationalist and antifriar ideas in Manila and in towns and barrios of Bulacan.


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Del Pilar, like many Filipinos during his time, considered friars the enemies of progress. The friars were the most hated persons in the Philippines during the Spanish Colonial Period. They protested against the teaching of Spanish language to the Filipinos. They campaigned against press freedom, the secularization of parishes, and the enjoyment of civil rights and liberties. They blocked the introduction of reforms in the country for fear that an enlightened citizenry would diminish their powers and prerogatives. In books pamphlets, they were lampooned as gluttons, womanizers, and drunkards. They were whispered about as impious, greedy, and power-hungry. Collectively, they were the strongest and most conservative defenders of the Cross and the Crown. But the friars found their match in Marcelo H. del Pilar.[6] He seized every occasion to attack the friars and educate his countrymen. He attacked bigotry and hypocrisy and defended in court the impoverished victims of racial discrimination. He preached the gospel of work, self-respect, and human dignity. His mastery of Tagalog, his native language, enabled him to arouse the consciousness of the masses to the need for unity and sustained resistance against the Spanish tyrants. He was imprisoned in 1870 after a fight with a parish priest of San Miguel, Manila who was charging an exorbitant baptismal fee. Del Pilar happened to be one of the child’s godfathers.[7]

Marcelo H. del Pilar

Wenceslao Emilio Retana y Gamboa (b.1862 d.1924) Spaniards in his book La Soberania Monacal en Filipinas (Monastic Sovereignty in the Philippines). On July 1, 1882, del Pilar founded the newspaper Diariong Tagalog (Diary Tagalog), with the help of Don Francisco Calvo y Muñoz, a wealthy Spanish liberal. This newspaper was the first to publish ideas for reforms in the Philippines. (This is based on Wenceslao E. Retana’s account; other records use June 1, 1882 as its first issue.) It advocated for assimilation and other political demands. It lasted for five months and later ceased publication on October 31, 1882 due to lack of funds.[10][11][12] Other of his writings were Dasalan at Tocsohan (Prayerbook and Teasing Game) (Similar parodies complete the prayerbook section "dasalan". The second part "tocsohan" is a series of questions and answers on the nature of the friar, imitating the section of catechism on the nature of God)[13] "This article together with Pasyong Dapat Ipag-alab nang Puso ng Tauong Babasa (Passion That Should Inflame the Heart of the Reader) (a bitter and inflammatory attack in verse on the friar, which begins: "Oh friar, full of cruelty, whose only thought is to vanquish and to overcome; oh friar, without pity on the blood of innocent ones")[14], were both published with the help

In 1875, he worked as oficial de mesa in Pampanga and subsequently in Quiapo, in 1878. Having fallen in love with his cousin Marciana del Pilar, del Pilar married her in Tondo in the month of February, 1878. From this marriage sprang Sofia, José, Maria Rosario, Maria Consolacion, Maria Concepcion, Anita, and Ana.[8][9]

Campaigning for reforms
His imprisonment in 1870 convinced him to dedicate his whole life to campaign for reforms. He made speeches in cockpits, tiendas, and town plazas. He delivered his tirades against the friars during fiestas, parties and funeral wakes. He wrote poems and essays defending Filipino interests and fought for the equality of Filipinos and


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of his friend, Pedro Serrano Laktaw," Caiingat Cayo (Be Careful) (In it he defended Rizal, and attacked the friars as traffickers in religion, adultering the religion of Jesus)[15], Dudas (Doubts), Kadakilaan ng Diyos (The Greatness of the Lord), Sagot ng España sa Hibik ng Pilipinas (Spain’s Reply to the Complaints of the Filipinos) (In forceful Tagalog verse, he has the Mother Spain answering the laments of her beloved child "Filipinas" with an inflammatory provocation to expel the friar, source of all misery, pitiless robber of widow and orphan, disturber of the peace of families, etc.)[16] and La Frailocracia Filipina (The Frailocracy in the Philippines) (This pamphlet complements the La Soberania Monacal, but suffers by comparison in its organization and the cogency of its argument.).[17] All of these writings were published in 1889.[18] Del Pilar also printed inflammatory pamphlets which looked like prayerbooks. They contained satirical verses and were distributed inside the church or sold openly in the churchyard - right under the friars’ noses.

Marcelo H. del Pilar
and to have a night school. Many consider this as a turning point of the status of women in the Philippines to have the right to education. The original petition was denied by the parish priest of Malolos, who argued that women should always stay at home and take care of the family. Weyler happened to visit Malolos after that and he granted the petition since the women had not yet lost hope on their petition.[19] Rizal wrote a letter to the women, as a request of del Pilar, praising their initiative and sensibility on their high hopes for women’s education and progress.

Archbishop Pedro P. Payo

Removement of Archbishop Payo
In October, 1888, he joined a demonstration in Manila and sought audience with the governor general, demanding the expulsion of friars from the Philippines. On this day in 1888, more than 800 Filipinos signed a petition to remove Archbishop Pedro P. Payo from the archdiocese and to be banished out of the Philippines. Among the signatories was del Pilar.[20] When José Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere was attacked by church - paid hacks, del Pilar assumed various pseudonyms and wrote pamphlets denouncing the clergymen. Del Pilar used the pseudonyms Piping Dilat and Plaridel by issuing an inflammatory pamphlet against a priest’s attack, exhibiting

Valeriano Weyler Nicolau

Governor-General Weyler
In June, 1888, Governor-General Valeriano Weyler granted the petitions of 20 young women of Malolos, Bulacan to have education


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his deadly wit and savage ridicule of clerical follies.[21] Del Pilar founded the Junta de Programa, an organization which aimed the union of Filipino Ilustrados in Spain and the union for reforms.[22]

Marcelo H. del Pilar

Escape for persecution
Because of his writings and activities, del Pilar became a wanted man. The church wielded their influence to secure an order of banishment against him. But before the order’s release, del Pilar had fled to Spain. On October 28, 1888, del Pilar left Manila for Spain, stopping in Hong Kong, where he spent some time in the company of a small group of Filipinos led by Jose Ma. Basa, one of those exiled in 1872, and a bitter enemy of the friars. Basa set himself up in business in Hong Kong, and had many contacts with Manila commercial firms. Rizal had already established contact with Basa on his way back to Europe, and Basa had become the agent for smuggling Rizal’s novel into the Philippines. It seems likely that such pamphlets as Viva España, Viva el Rey, Viva el Ejercito, Fuera los Frailes, and Manifesto que ala noble nacion española derigen sic los leales filipinos... in which the various expositions against the friars from 1887 to 1888 were circulated were printed through Basa’s enterprise, as a result of del Pilar’s stay in Hong Kong. From the end of 1888, moreover, large numbers of anti-friar broadsides, or proclamas, as they were called, began to be widely circulated in Manila and neighboring provinces. Apparently Basa smuggled them into Manila though Jose Ramos together with merchandise. Ramos himself seems to have been responsible for printing some of them in clandestine press, which urged Filipinos to contribute to the subscription then being taken up to honor the golden jubilee of Archbishop Payo.

A late 19th century photograph of the leaders of the Reform Movement in Spain: L-R: José Rizal, del Pilar, and Mariano Ponce ca. 1890, in Madrid, Spain. in the Philippines. On December 15, 1889, he succeeded Graciano López Jaena as editor of the Filipino reformist periodical La Solidaridad in Madrid.[24][25] He promoted the paper by contacting liberal Spaniards who would support with the Filipinos. The newspaper were expanded to include the removal of the abuses by the friars; and obtained participation in both the Philippine and Spanish government; freedom of speech and representation in the Spanish Cortes or parliament. The writers of La Solidaridad used pseudonyms or aliases to hide their identities. José Rizal used Laong Laan and Dimas Alang; Mariano Ponce used Naning, Tikbalang, and Kalipulako; Antonio Luna was Taga-ilog; Jose Ma. Panganiban was Jomapa; Dominador Gomez used Ramiro Franco; and del Pilar used Plaridel and Kupang. Ferdinand Blumentritt, a Czech scholar and historian, and Emilio Junoy, a Spanish deputy, also worked for the articles of the newspaper.[26] Del Pilar’s struggle increased when the money to support the paper were ignored and there were no sign of immediate response from the Spanish government. The colonial authorities in the Philippines did not favor these reforms even if they were more openly endorsed by Spanish intellectuals like Miguel Morayta, Miguel de Unamuno,

Reform Movement in Spain
In Spain, del Pilar, with Graciano López Jaena, Mariano Ponce, and Dr. José Rizal, became known as the leading lights of the Reform Movement.[23] On January 12, 1889, del Pilar became the president of La Asociacion Hispano-Filipino, a political group consisting of Filipino Ilustrados and European intellectuals which aimed of exposing the condition


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Francisco Pi y Margall, and others. Before he died of tuberculosis caused by hunger and enormous privation, del Pilar rejected the assimilationist stand and began planning an armed revolt. He vigorously affirmed this conviction: "Insurrection is the last remedy, especially when the people have acquired the belief that peaceful means to secure the remedies for evils prove futile."[27] This idea was inspired by Andrés Bonifacio, who would form the Katipunan, a secret revolutionary organization, which aimed to gained independence from Spain. Del Pilar’s revolutionary movement derived from the classic enlightenment tradition of the French philosophies and the scientific empiricism of the European bourgeoisie. Part of this outlook was transmitted by freemasonry, to which del Pilar subscribed. "Plaridel’s writings in Tagalog were forceful. Rizal’s writings in Spanish were not understood by most Filipinos."

Marcelo H. del Pilar
after the rift he had with del Pilar. This wishful question shows that Rizal shows respect to del Pilar. Rizal admires del Pilar and he wished that we could have a hundred Plaridels who would write about the state of affairs in the Philippines and thereby spreading a propaganda against the Spaniards. He believes that del Pilar’s writing is powerful to awaken the consciousness of the Filipino People. At that time, Rizal’s political philosophies were changing radically. On the other hand, del Pilar’s views were still in accord with the assimilation of Spain and the Philippines. So while Rizal is now on the idea of separation, del Pilar is still stucked with the idea of assimilation. Rizal had not yet revealed this new philosophy. One factor is the fact that he is being wooed to take-over the leadership of the Sol and its beliefs were mainly assimilatory. This factors contributed to the continuing rift between Rizal and del Pilar. This cited the philosophy on separation and assimilation. It will show what kind of leadership they have. Rizal’s leadership was of the subtle type. He would lead more by becoming an example himself. He studied very hard to “teach” the lazy Filipinos a lesson and to awaken them from their slumber. On the other hand, del Pilar’s leadership is more of dominance. Another angle to this issue on leadership is that Rizal is the acknowledged leader of the Reform Movement. Del Pilar was very jealous of this. He was covetous of power and he cannot simply allow Rizal to fully control the whole movement. He probably did not realize that Rizal was doing everything for the cause of the nation. On the other hand, he was doing everything for his own cause, his own honor. One thing that contributed to their conflict is the fact that del Pilar did not do anything when Rizal pointed out that the Filipino community is slowly returning to their old, bad habit of excessive merrymaking. On the other hand, del Pilar was losing its grip in the publication of the articles in the Sol. Sometimes there would be articles that are contrary to the belief and ideals of Rizal and of the movement in Manila where most of the money is coming from. This resulted in a division of the reform movement. Del Pilar has been with a “cautious and less radical” group as Apacible describes it and the rest are with Rizal.

Rizal’s break with del Pilar

This photograph shows del Pilar (standing on the left side of José Rizal) together with the members of the editorial staff of La Solidaridad circa 1890, in Madrid, Spain. In the early 1890s, the reformers rank split into two. One group, led by del Pilar, wanted to become part of - or to "assimilate" with Spain. The other group, led by José Rizal, believed that it was the time to work for full independence from Spain.[28] Rizal and del Pilar share almost the same ideals. They were both anti-friars and they were both freemasons (Rizal in his later life was). In fact, he was in Europe mainly because he was deported by the friars upon learning his anti-friar activities in a press in Cupang, Bulacan. In 1888, he was in Barcelona. His family mainly supported him. Another question that Rizal asked is: “Why haven’t we got a hundred Plaridels?” Rizal may had been rethinking about that question


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The main issue however is yet to come when they are soon to elect a responsable. The responsable will head a committee along with 2 counselors that will determine the ideals and objectives of the movement and as well as the direction of the campaign in favor of the Philippines. Rizal observed that the responsable will be leading not only the committee but the publication as well. He will have a final say in the articles to be published there. Del Pilar strongly objected to it. He insisted that the publication is private. On the other hand, Rizal thought that it was for national interest. Rizal walked out and he decided to leave everything in Madrid. Although he was rightfully elected as the responsable, he declined and left immediately in January, 1891.

Marcelo H. del Pilar
demands, for during the time, Spanish leaders were also dealing with the country’s own internal problem.[29] The monarchy during the time was being challenged and an effort to properly oversee the conditions of Spanish colonies was not quite fruitful. In addition, the friars were very much powerful even in Spain and as expected, Spanish authorities cannot repress them, so even though the La Solidaridad had made good impressions with the Spanish authorities in Madrid, it was trounced by the more influential and powerful organ of the church leaders known as La Politica de España en Filipinas. The gradual decline of La Solidaridad was foreseen by del Pilar after experiencing difficulty in collecting funds for its continued publication. Some members of movement also came to realize the ineffectiveness of the peaceful movement, taking into consideration La Solidaridad’s six years of existence with not so satisfactory output. Due to lack of funds, it later ceased publication. Its last issue appeared on November 15, 1895 and lasted for six years under del Pilar.[30]

The fall of La Solidaridad

A copy of La Solidaridad The rigorous drive of La Solidaridad for reforms was cut short due to several reasons such as lack of funds, health problems among the reformists and conflicts among members. While it is true that they were able to caught the attention of the Spanish government in Madrid with regards to their sentiments, Spain did not paid much attention to their

A rare, undated self-photograph of Marcelo del Pilar in his later years in Madrid, Spain.


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Marcelo H. del Pilar
been replaced by a bicameral Philippine Legislature with Manuel L. Quezon as President of the Senate, and Speaker Sergio Osmeña in the House of Representatives. Chief Justice Victorino Mapa is demonstrating that the country is on its way to self-government. The last decades of the 19th century witnessed the decline of Spanish power brought about by friar misrule, the rise of Filipino nationalism sparked by the Propaganda Movement of Filipino expatriates in Spain led by Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar. Del Pilar died in Spain on July 4, 1896 while Rizal was executed in Bagumbayan on December 30, 1896. Their followers in the Philippines tried to continue the struggle in a secret society known as the Katipunan; its discovery resulted in an open revolt led by Andres Bonifacio and ended with the dramatic death of young Gen. Gregorio del Pilar and the surrender of Emilio Aguinaldo. The year 1900 marked the destruction of all remnants of rebellion, hunted by American forces as bandits and outlaws in a cruel era of “might against right” ironically labelled as the “Pacification Campaign.” By 1920, a year that comes to the observer of history as the climaxing era of “Peace Time”, all these seemed to have calmed down and Filipinos under American tutelage were making its way into the changing world. It seemed that the struggle of the Filipinos to establish the first independent republic in Asia, culminating in the formation of Constitutional Assembly for the Philippine Republic in Barasoain Church of Malolos, Bulacan, was a dismal failure. The Filipinos seemed to have already accepted the rule of America’s manifest destiny in the Orient. Norberto Romualdez was then the Philippine delegate to the Universal Postal Convention in Spain when he received two identical telegrams from Secretary Jakosalem in Manila, saying that speaker Sergio Osmeña of the House of Representatives had asked the Filipino delegates to locate the remains of the hero, Marcelo H. del Pilar, and to bring them home to the Philippines. His acceptance of this order demonstrated that the spirit of nationalism still remained in the Filipino soul. In the following “Detailed account of the task accomplished by the late justice Norberto Romualdez in locating the remains of Marcelo H. del Pilar in Spain and in bringing them back to the Philippines as well as the honors accorded the great Bulakenyo and

Later years
Del Pilar left his wife and two daughters in the Philippines when he went to Spain in 1888. Marciana (popularly known as Doña Tsanay), worked hard to support Sofia and Anita, the only surviving among the seven children. Del Pilar could not afford to send any money to his family since he himself was penniless.[31] A month before the turn of the year 1896, Apolinario Mabini wrote to del Pilar about the condition of the Philippines saying: "They have abandoned us! They have chosen violent means instead of peaceful reforms. I hope they know what they’re doing."[32]

During his last days in Spain campaigning for reforms, he went hungry for days and during winter, he kept himself warm by smoking cigarette butts he picked up in the streets. He tried to reach Hong Kong and Philippines to join the revolution but on his way home, he contracted tuberculosis. He soon fell ill and died in a public hospital in Barcelona, Spain, on July 4, 1896 at the age of 45. The following day, he was buried in unmarked grave at the Cementerio del Sud-Oeste in Barcelona. Graciano López Jaena had died six months earlier in Barcelona in a similar hospital run by the Sisters of Charity, and is said to have retracted Masonry and received the sacraments as del Pilar did. His death was followed December 30 of José Rizal by firing squad, thus ending the great triumvirate of propagandists. A few months after his death, the Philippine Revolution broke out. He died in poverty two and a half years before the declaration of independence from Spain by Emilio Aguinaldo.

The return of Del Pilar’s remains in 1920
The year is 1920 and the country, swept by the inevitable currents of the time and led by a new generation of young leaders, has forged a new system of governance patterned after the American style of democracy. There is a civil government, led by an American Governor-general occupying Malacañang with young Filipino pensionados with cabinet rank occupying the 2nd levels of administration. The Philippine Assembly of 1907 has


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about his final burial”, we witness how in 1920 the dormant spirit of Philippine nationalism was re-awakened. “Only one vessel, the mail boat Alicante, was scheduled to leave Barcelona on October 27 for Manila. As he (Judge Norberto Romualdez) was preparing to leave Madrid for Barcelona, the embarkation port on the Mediterranean 400 miles east of the Spanish capital, by train on October 19, the Philppine delegates (to the 7th Universal Postal Convention) received two identical telegrams from Secretary Jakosalem in Manila, saying that Speaker Sergio Osmeña of the House of Representatives had asked the Filipino delegates to locate the remains of the hero, Marcelo H. del Pilar, and to bring them home to the Philippines. Del Pilar or Plaridel, his nom de guerre, editor of the propaganda organ La Solidaridad, died in Barcelona on 4 July 1896.” “It was a big order and there was no time to lose, It fell on Romualdez to execute the task. Before leaving for Barcelona, he dispatched the following telegram to Jakosalem: ‘.... Romualdez goes today Barcelona locate remains del Pilar negotiate Spoliarium stop will embark streamer Alicante 27th instant....“ “Fortunately, Romualdez had a good and resourceful ‘Man Friday’ in Barcelona in the person of Joaquin Pellicena y Camacho, Spanish journalist and chief of the Philippine section of La Casa de America in that city, who facilitated his contacts with the proper Spanish authorities. According to information furnished by Wenceslao E. Retana in Madrid, Del Pilar died in Barcelona on 4 July 1896 at 1:15 o’clock in the morning, and was buried the following day.” “Del Pilar’s remains were in a tomb whose title was owned by Da. Teresa Casas de Battle. With Pellicena, Romualdez went to the Hospital de la Sta. Cruz (Hospital Civil) in Barcelona where they obtained a certification from Jose Boson y Font of the Comisaria de Entrados to the effect that Del Pilar died a natural death at 1:15 a.m. on 4 July 1896, after receiving the Last Sacraments, and was buried in the Cementerio del Sub-Oeste (Southwest Cemetery). From the hospital they got the following data: ‘Entering the hospital on 20 June 1896, Del Pilar gave as his address No. 30-1.0 San Pablo Street, Barcelona, He was taken to the surgeon’s sala (pro- bably to submit to a

Marcelo H. del Pilar
surgical operation). He occupied bed No. 11 in ward Sto. Tomas. This information is contained in Registry No. 2041 of the Registry Book for the year 1896. “Romualdez and Pellicena then proceeded to the Ayuntamiento where they got definite data on Del Pilar’s grave number and section in the cemetery. By special arrangement with the funeral parlor Sociedad Union de Emprearios de Pompas Funebres, the body was exhumed and placed in an urn. In the presence of Pellicena, Angel Valera, representing the American consulate in Barcelona and officials of the funeral parlor, the urn was soldered and sealed. Then the father chaplain of the cemetery said a mass for the deceased. “Romualdez sent a brief letter of thanks to Federico Carlos Bas, civil governor of Barcelona, for facilities extended in the exhumation of Del Pilar’s remains. He also thanked Mr. Rosales of Tabacalera for his help in making arrangements for the transportation of the remains on board the Alicante free of charge.... “Aboard the ship that was taking them home, together with Del Pilar’s remains, he (Romualdez) sent a radiogram to the Marques de Comillas of the Compania TransAtlantics, saying that: ‘En nombre de gobierno Filipino agradezco cordialmente transatlantica generosidad transporte gratuito restos Marcelo del Pilar” (in the name of the Philippine government, I thank you cordially for your ‘trans-atlantic’ generosity in providing free transporta- tion for the remains of Marcelo del Pilar). He asked Pellicena to dispatch a telegram to Jokasalem in Manila saying, ‘Restos Plaridel en urna adecuada embaracon hoy conmigo vapor Alicante. Romualdez’ (Plaridel’s remains in urn leaving with me on boat Alicante. Romualdez). “Temporarily, popular sentiment over Del Pilar’s ‘homecoming’ eclipsed the significance of gains achieved by the Philippine mission (to the Postal Convention). Even Romualdez had to admit that he was ‘especially honored by the distinction conferred upon him in bringing the body of Del Pilar to the native land.’ Large crowds gathered at the Manila waterfront in the afternoon of December 3 as the coastguard cutter Basilan with Del Pilar’s widow, Marciana, his sister, two daughters, and in-laws aboard, fetched the hero’s remains from the Alicante. The body’s arrival at Pier 3 was announced by three long


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whistles from government ice-plant at Plaza Lawton. “A long funeral procession starting from the pier conveyed the body to the Funeraria Nacional. Masonic lodges in the Philippines took part in the procession to pay their respects to a departed comrade. Del Pilar was one of the first Filipino masons in Barcelona and Madrid. On December 11, a popular program was held at the Grand Opera House, highlighted by speeches by Lope K. Santos, Dr. Dominador Gomez (del Pilar’s colleague in La Solidaridad), and poems in English by Fernando Maramag, in Spanish by Manuel Bernabe, and in Tagalog by Benigno Ramos. “State necrological services were held at 2:30 p.m. on December 12 at the Salon de Marmol, Ayuntamiento, the same place where the first Philippine Assembly was opened in 1907. The speakers included Representative Manuel C. Briones of Cebu, Senator Rafael Palma, Secretary of Interior Teodoro M. Kalaw and Dr. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, representing the hero’s colleagues in Madrid and Barcelona. After the service, the body was taken to the mausoleum for national heroes at the North Cemetery. The pall bearers from the Ayuntamiento to the cemetery included the country’s elite: Senate President Quezon, Speaker Sergio Osmeña, Chief Justice Victorino Mapa, members of the Cabinet and Supreme Court, leaders of both House of the Philippine Legislature, labor leaders, journalists, lawyers, and many others. “Del Pilar, lawyer and newspaperman, left the Philippines in 1888, fleeing from Spanish political persecution; his remains returned in a hermetically sealed urn 32 years later, amidst a hero’s welcome....” When the Del Pilar shrine was completed at his birth site in Bulacan, Bulacan on the land donated by his family, his remains were finally brought back to his last resting place, now known as Dambana ni Plaridel under the National Historical Institute. To this shrine, students and patriotic groups flock throughout the year viewing his memorabilia in the small museum building erected after the first centennial of his death in 1996. Every year, his birthday on August 30 is a provincial holiday when Bulakenos march on the streets, bring flowers to the shrine and recall in speeches and presentations the life, ideals and sacrifices of Marcelo H. del Pilar,

Marcelo H. del Pilar
one of the country’s most respected national heroes, the beloved son and pride of Bulacan.

Marcelo H. del Pilar appears on the obverse side of the 50 centavo coin Flora and Fauna Series ca. (1986)

Organized in his memory, Samahang Plaridel is a fellowship of journalists and other communicators that aims to propagate Marcelo H. del Pilar’s ideals. This fellowship fosters within its capacity, mutual help, cooperation, and assistance among its members; dedicated to the journalistic standards of accuracy and truth, and in promoting these standards in the practice of journalism. Plaridel’s ideology of truth, fairness and impartiality is anchored on democratic principles, as these are the bastions of a society acceptable to all Filipinos. Marcelo H. del Pilar, one of the great figures of the Philippine Propaganda Movement, the heroic group whose writings inspired the Philippine Revolution. Plaridel is the chosen "patron saint" of today’s journalists, as his life and works prized freedom of thought and opinion most highly, loving independence above any material gain. • Two sites related to del Pilar have been chosen to host shrines in his honor: • Marcelo H. del Pilar Shrine, a small museum located in San Nicholas, Bulacan, gives of Marcelo’s life, his struggles and triumphs. In this historical landmark is Marcelo’s final resting place that was transferred from the mausoleum of the Veterans


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
of the Philippine Revolution located in the North Cemetery. The shrine is under the management of the National Historical Institute. • Marcelo H. del Pilar Historical Landmark, a historical landmark located in Bulacan, is a monument to Marcelo Hilario del Pilar. The structure also houses a library which has a collection of materials about the various towns of Bulacan. • Del Pilar’s face appears on the obverse side of the 50 centavo coin Flora and Fauna Series (1986). • The Gawad Plaridel Award or the U.P. Gawad Plaridel is the sole award in the University of the Philippines System given to outstanding media practitioners. The award is named after Marcelo H. del Pilar, the selfless propagandist whose stewardship of the reformist newspaper La Solidaridad from 1889 to 1895 helped crystallize nationalist sentiments and ignite libertarian ideas, mainly through his 150 essays and 66 editorials published under the nom de plume Plaridel. Like Plaridel, the recipient of this award must believe in the vision of a Philippine society that is egalitarian, participative, and progressive, and in media that are socially responsible, critical and vigilant, liberative and transformative, and free and independent. • Bulacan, Bulacan (now Plaridel, Bulacan), a 2nd class urban municipality in the province of Bulacan, Philippines, was named in the honor of Marcelo del Pilar. • Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School, a public high school in Bulacan in term of students population, was named after him.

Marcelo H. del Pilar

About del Pilar
"Plaridel’s writings in Tagalog were forceful. Rizal’s writings in Spanish were not understood by most Filipinos."

See also
• Bulacan, • Ilustrado • Journalism Bulacan • Deodato • Katipunan • La Arellano • Philippine Solidaridad • Freemasonry Revolution • Gregorio del Pilar

[1] Michigan Ann Arbor - Marcelo Hilario del Pilar’s family background. The Philippine review (Revista filipina) (Vol. 1, no. 5) [1] accessed April 2009 [2] The real surname of Marcelo’s family was Hilario; but pursuant to 1849 Claveria degree, the name of the grandmother, del Pilar had to be added. The Philippine review (Revista filipina) (Vol. 1, no. 5) [2] accessed 10 Ferbruary 2009 [3] At a young age, he played violin, piano, flute, and guitar. He was also good in fencing and he used to sing serenades at the Flores de Mayo. The Philippine review (Revista filipina) (Vol. 1, no. 5) [3] accessed April 2009 [4] When the uprising or the Cavite Mutiny in 1872 took place, del Pilar was living with father Mariano Sevilla and a letter of Sevilla’s and another of his brother, Toribio, a priest, were sufficient to bring about the deportation to the Marianas of the priests Sevilla and del Pilar. The Philippine review (Revista filipina) (Vol. 1, no. 5) [4] accessed 19 April 2009 [5] Turning Points I (Philippine History) p. 183 [6] As said, del Pilar was a vulgar enemy of friars and at the same time he spread nationalist and anti-friar ideas in Manila and in towns and barrios of Bulacan. [7] A disagreement with a parish priest in Manila concerning baptismal fees caused a regrettable break of eight years in the fourth year study of his profession. The Philippine review (Revista filipina) (Vol. 1, no. 5) [5] accessed March 2009

From del Pilar
"Insurrection is the last remedy, especially when the people have acquired the belief that peaceful means to secure the remedies for evils prove futile." - Marcelo Hilario del Pilar


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[8] At the age of 25, he worked as oficial de mesa in Pampanga and in Quiapo. [9] While in Quiapo, del Pilar married his cousin Marciana del Pilar in the month of February in Tondo, from this marriage sprang seven children. The Philippine review (Revista filipina) (Vol. 1, no. 5) [6] accessed 15 April 2009 [10] According to the Spanish writer Wenceslao E. Retana, other records of Diariong Tagalog’s first issue use June 1, 1882 as its first publication. [7] accessed March 2009 [11] Wenceslao E. Retana was a 19th-century Spanish civil servant, colonial administrator, writer, publisher, and Philippine scholar. He was known as one of the most erudite collectors of Filipiniana. [12] Filway’s Philippine Almanac Second Edition p. 345 [13] Dasalan at Tocsohan (Banal na Kasulatan, vol. 11; n.p., n.d.). Copy in NA-PIR, folder 467, no. 3 (microfilm roll 29). [14] This pamphlet is produced in Santos, Philippine Review 3:959-60. [15] Dolores Manapat, Caiingat Cayo (Manila, 1888), reproduced in Santos, Philippine Review, 3:961-63. [16] Originally published anonymously in Barcelona, it is reprinted in De los Santos, Philippine Review 3 (Nov 1918): 869-73. [17] La frailocracia filipina (Barcelona: Imprenta Iberica de Francisco Fossas, 1889) was published under del Pilar’s pen name Plaridel. [18] Del Pilar’s writings "Caiingat Cayo" and "Dasalan at Tocsohan" were the pamphlets answering the criticisms received by Jose Rizal’s novel Noli Me Tangere. Dasalan was parody of the prayer books used by the Church, while "Ang Sampung Kautusan" was a satirical take on the Ten Commandments, which highly ridiculed the Spanish friars. [8] accessed March 2009 [19] Governor-general Valeriano Weyler happened to visit Malolos after that and he granted the petition since the women had not yet lost hope on their petition. [9] accessed April 15, 2009 [20] Removement of Archbishop Pedro P. Payo from the archodiocese [10] accessed March 2009

Marcelo H. del Pilar
[21] Ateneo de Manila U Press: The Propaganda Movement 1880-1895 Del Pilar and the Nationalist Activity [11] [22] Before del Pilar went to Spain on October 1888, he founded the Junta de Programa, an organization that serves as the liason between the Filipinos in Spain and the colonial authorities in the Philippines. [23] Republic of the Philippines, Microsoft Corporation,, 2007 [12] [24] When the publication was in Barcelona, the editor of La Solidaridad was Graciano Lopez Jaena. But when the circulation was transferred to Madrid, del Pilar became its editor and became known as one of the reform movement’s leading lights; the newspaper were expanded to include the removal of the abuses by the friars; and obtained participation in both the Philippine and Spanish government; freedom of speech; enjoyment of civil rights and liberties; and representation in the Spanish Parliament. Consisting of twelve pages, the paper came out on fifteenth and the last day of every month and later ceased publication in 1895 due to lack of funds. [13] accessed April 2009 [25] A.M. Batubalani Simplified Biographies: The Great Filipino Heroes p. 14 [26] Turning Points I (Philippine History) p. 182 [27] Before he died in 1896, del Pilar affirmed this conviction: "Insurrection is the last remedy, especially when the people have acquired the belief that peaceful means to secure the remedies for evils prove futile." [28] The Conflict Between Rizal and Del Pilar [14] accessed April 20, 2009 [29] The gradual decline of La Solidaridad was foreseen by the reformist after experiencing difficulty in collecting funds for its continued publication. Some members of movement also came to realize the ineffectiveness of the peaceful movement, taking into consideration La Sol’s six years of existence with not so satisfactory output. [15] [30] Turning Points I (Philippine History) p. 182 [31] Rene O. Villanueva The Penniless Propagandist, Campaigning for reforms


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
from cockpits to banquet halls. (p. 374) accessed 2 April 2009 [32] In November 1895, Mabini wrote to del Pilar to stop sending the newspaper to the Philippines because the funds to support the publication of the paper were running out and still, the colonial authorities in the Philippines did not favor these reforms even if they were more openly endorsed by Spanish intellectuals like Morayta, Becerra, Unamuno, Margall, and others. The Philippine review (Revista filipina) (Vol. 1, no. 5) [16] accessed April 15, 2009

Marcelo H. del Pilar
• Carlos, Quirino (1995). Who’s who in Philippine History. Manila: Tahanan Books. • Villarroel, Fidel, (1997). Marcelo H. del Pilar, his religious conversions. Manila : University of Santo Tomas Pub. House. • A.M. Batubalani (1997). Simplified Biographies: The Great Filipino Heroes. Loacan Publishing House Inc. • UXL Encyclopedia of World Biography (2003). Marcelo H. del Pilar. • Ann Arbor, Michigan (2005). The Philippine review (Revista filipina) [Vol. 1, no. 5]. University of Michigan Library. • Antonio, Eleanor D. (2007). Turning Points I (Philippine History) - Marcelo H. del Pilar p. 183. Rex Bookstore Inc.

Further reading
• An important source of information about del Pilar is Magno S. Gatmaitan, Marcelo H. del Pilar, 1850-1896: A Documented Biography (1966).

External links
• • • • • • • • Philippine History – Plaridel Biography of Marcelo Hilario del Pilar Marcelo H. del Pilar at Project Gutenberg Marcelo H. del Pilar The Conflict Between Del Pilar and Rizal Dasalan at Tocsohan – Marcelo H. del Pilar (aka Philippines) Marcelo H. del Pilar (Manunulat)…Panitikang Filipino Bulacan, Philippines: General Info: Philippine Heroes and Patriots: Marcelo Hilario del Pilar Famous Filipino Mason – Marcelo Hilario del Pilar Marcelo H. del Pilar (Plaridel; Hero of RP Journalism) Honored Araling Pilipino ng Pilipinas: Marcelo H. del Pilar: Pinakamagaling na manunulat ng Lahing Pilipino Bulacan, Philippines: Marcelo H. del Pilar Shrine, Bulacan, Bulacan More photos and information about Marcelo H. del Pilar on Flickr Entravel Pilipinas – Marcelo Hilario del Pilar Letran Hall of Fame: Marcelo Hilario del Pilar Marcelo H. del Pilar(Author)...Filipino Literature First Filipino: Marcelo Hilario del Pilar The Propaganda Movement, 1880-1895 Veritas Nunquam Perit: Truth Never Dies

• Manila: Government Printing Press (1955). A Collection of Letters of Marcelo Hilario del Pilar Volume I • Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1969). History of the Filipino People. Quezon City: Malaya Books Inc. • Constantino, Renato (1975). A Past Revisited. Quezon City: Tala Publications Inc. • Joaquin, Nick (1977). A Question of Heroes: Essays and criticisms on ten key figures of Philippine History. Manila: Ayala Museum. • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press. • Gatmaitan, Magno S. (1987). The life and writings of Marcelo Hilario del Pilar. Historical Conservation Society; Los Angeles, California; Philippine Expressions Corporation. • Villanueva, Rene O. (1991). Filway’s Philippine Almanac First Edition - Marcelo H. del Pilar: The Penniless Propagandist Campaigning for reforms from cockpits to banquet halls. Filway Marketing Inc. • Villanueva, Rene O. (1994). Filway’s Philippine Almanac Second Edition Marcelo H. del Pilar: The Penniless Propagandist - Campaigning for reforms from cockpits to banquet halls. Filway Marketing Inc.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marcelo H. del Pilar

Retrieved from "" Categories: Filipino politician stubs, Filipino writer stubs, 1850 births, 1896 deaths, Deaths from tuberculosis, Philippine Revolution people, Colegio de San Juan de Letran alumni, University of Santo Tomas alumni, Filipino expatriates in Spain, Filipino journalists, Filipino lawyers, Filipino politicians, Filipinos of Spanish descent, Filipino Roman Catholics, Filipino revolutionaries, Filipino writers, Infectious disease deaths in Spain, Nonviolence advocates, People from Bulacan, People excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church, Political analysts, Satirists, Spanish-language poets, Spanish-language writers, Tagalog-language writers This page was last modified on 25 May 2009, at 08:20 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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