Lega_Nord by zzzmarcus

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Lega Nord

Lega Nord
Lega Nord

Federal Secretary Federal President Founded Headquarters Newspaper Membership (2008) Ideology

Umberto Bossi Angelo Alessandri 8 February 1991 via Bellerio, 41 20161 Milan La Padania 150,000[1] Federalism, Regionalism, Padanism with PdL and MpA none EFA (1989–1994) ELDR (1994–1997) none (1997–...) Rainbow (1989–1994) ELDR (1994–1997) TGI (1999–2001) I/D (2004–2006) UEN (2007–...) http://www.leganord.org

regional parties of Northern and Central Italy, most of which had arisen and expanded their share of the electorate over the 1980s. Its political program advocates the transformation of Italy into a federal State, fiscal federalism and greater regional autonomy, especially for the Northern regions, which they call Padania; at times it has advocated secession. Prior to the party’s adoption of the term, Padania was infrequently used to name the Padan-Venetian Plain and was promoted since 1963 by well-known Italian sport journalist Gianni Brera as a modern name for Cisalpine Gaul. The founding parties of Lega Nord were Lega Lombarda, Liga Veneta, Piemont Autonomista, Uniun Ligure, Lega Emiliano-Romagnola, Alleanza Toscana, plus the newly formed regional/provincial parties in Friuli, Province of Trieste, Province of Trento, Province of Bolzano, Aosta Valley, Marche and Umbria. The long-standing leader of the party is Umberto Bossi.

History
Precursors and foundation

Coalition International European party

European Parliament Group

Website

Lega Nord (North League, LN), whose complete name is Lega Nord per l’Indipendenza della Padania (North League for Independence of Padania), is a political party in Italy founded in 1991 as a federation of several

Umberto Bossi In the 1983 general election one of Lega Nord’s main precursors (and, later, sections),

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Liga Veneta, based in Veneto, elected a deputy, Achille Tramarin, and a senator, Graziano Girardi. In the Four years later another regional party, Lega Lombarda, based in Lombardy, attained national significance when its leader Umberto Bossi was elected to the Senate. Since then he has commonly been referred to as the Senatür, the word for "senator" in a number of Northern Italian languages – a nickname maintained even when he was no longer a senator. The party was formed in 1991 through the merger of various regional parties, notably including Lega Lombarda and Liga Veneta. These parties continue to exist as "national sections" of the federal party, which presents itself in regional and local contests as Lega Lombarda–Lega Nord, Liga Veneta–Lega Nord, and so on. Support for the party skyrocketed in the early 1990s because of the huge political corruption scandal known as Tangentopoli and the subsequent Mani pulite investigations.[2][3][4]

Lega Nord
Between 1995 and 1998 the party joined centre-left governing coalitions in many local contexts, from the Province of Padua to Udine.

The independentist years
After its success in the 1996 general election (10.1%, 59 deputies and 27 senators), Lega Nord announced that its aim was the secession of Northern Italy under the name Padania, an expression previously referring to the Po River valley, but to which Lega Nord gave a geographically broader usage that has steadily gained currency, at least among its followers. The party even organized a referendum on independence as well as elections for a "Padanian Parliament" (with no international recognition). In later years the League have deemphasised demands for independence and focused rather on devolution, while remaining within the framework of Italy, as in its original goal: not to secede from Italy but to transform it into a federal state in order to let Padania keep more tax revenues collected there (fiscal federalism).

First government participation
After the 1994 general election, to which the party took part within the Pole of Freedoms coalition, Lega Nord, along with National Alliance and Christian Democratic Centre, joined Forza Italia to form a coalition under the leadership of Silvio Berlusconi. This government (in which the League controlled 5 ministries, Interior with Roberto Maroni, Budget with Giancarlo Pagliarini, Industry with Vito Gnutti, European Affairs with Domenico Comino and Institutional Reforms with Francesco Speroni) was short-lived: it collapsed before the end of the year, with the League being instrumental in its demise. In January 1995, the League gave a vote of confidence to the new formed cabinet of Lamberto Dini, alongside with the Italian People’s Party and the Democratic Party of the Left. This caused many splinter groups to leave the party, including the Federalist Party (which was actually founded in June 1994) of Gianfranco Miglio, the Federalists and Liberal Democrats of Franco Rocchetta, Lucio Malan and Furio Gubetti and the Federalist Italian League of Luigi Negri and Sergio Cappelli. All these groups later merged into Forza Italia. Also Roberto Maroni opposed the new course of the party, but after some months of coldness with Bossi, he returned to active politics in June.

The House of Freedoms
In 2000 the party re-joined forces with Berlusconi’s coalition, previous disagreements notwithstanding, leading the centre-right to the huge victory in that year regional elections and to the triumph in the 2001 general election. In 2001-2006 Lega Nord controlled three ministries: Justice with Roberto Castelli, Labour and Social Affairs with Roberto Maroni, and Institutional Reforms and Devolution with Umberto Bossi (replaced by Roberto Calderoli in June 2004). During the five years in government with the centre-right, the Parliament voted an important constitutional reform, which included federalism and more powers for the Prime Minister. The alliance that Lega Nord forged with the Movement for Autonomy and the Sardinian Action Party for the 2006 general election was not successful in convincing Southern voters to approve the reform, which was rejected by voters in the 2006 constitutional referendum.

2008 general election
In the aftermath of the fall of Romano Prodi’s government on 24 January 2008, which led President Giorgio Napolitano to call an early

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Lega Nord
regionalism, supporting the traditional culture of Northern Italy. The historical goal of the party is to transform Italy into a federal State, letting Padania to keep more tax revenues collected there under a regime of fiscal federalism. Thus, through Lega Nord, federalism has become an important political issue in the country since the 1990s. This is the main difference between the League and other European regionalist parties, which focus on special rights for their own regions[5][6][7] (see the Basque Nationalist Party, the Republican Left of Catalonia, Plaid Cymru, the Scottish National Party, the Vlaams Belang, or the South Tyrolean People’s Party[8]). Sometimes it seemed possible that the League might also unite with similar leagues in Central and Southern Italy, but this did not succeed, notwithstanding the presence of the Federalist Alliance. The party continues to dialogue with regionalist parties throughout Italy, including the Valdotanian Union, the South Tyrolean People’s Party, the Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party, the Movement for Autonomy and the Sardinian Action Party, and it always had some figures from the South in its parliamentary ranks. Notably, Angela Maraventano, Deputy-Mayor of Lampedusa, is a senator of Lega Nord. The political culture of Lega Nord is a mix of pride in the heritage of Northern Italy (particularly with historical references to the anti-imperial Lega Lombarda; the warrior on the party emblems represents Alberto da Giussano, a mythical figure of wars against Barbarossa[9], from which they inherited anti-monopolism and anti-centralism), distrust of some Southern Italian habits and Roman authorities, distrust of Italy and especially its flag, some support for free market, anti-statism, independentism, and claims of a Celtic heritage. Despite being officially founded on federalism – the party’s constitution says that the party will end its political activity when federalism is obtained – Lega Nord is no longer a single-issue party. It is difficult to define it in the left-right spectrum because it is variously conservative, centrist and left-wing with regard to different issues. For example, the party supports both liberal ideas, such as deregulation, and social-democratic ones, such as the defense of wages and pensions. This is because Lega Nord, as a "people’s party" representing the North as a whole, includes both liberal-conservative and social-

2008 general election poster of Lega Nord in Tuscany election, the centre-right was re-organized by Berlusconi as The People of Freedom (PdL), without the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC). Lega Nord ran in the election in coalition with PdL and the Movement for Autonomy, gaining a stunning 8.3% of the national vote. This result (a gain of 4.2% in two years) showed renewed popularity for the party with the election of 60 deputies (+37) and 26 senators (+13). Following this result, since May Lega Nord has been represented in Berlusconi IV Cabinet by four ministers (Roberto Maroni, Interior; Luca Zaia, Agriculture; Umberto Bossi, Reforms and Federalism; Roberto Calderoli, Legislative simplification) and five under-secretaries (Roberto Castelli, Infrastructures; Michelino Davico, Interior; Daniele Molgora, Economy and Finances; Francesca Martini, Health; Maurizio Balocchi, Legislative simplification).

Ideology
The party’s ideology is a combination of political federalism, fiscal federalism and

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democratic factions. In general, it supports the social market economy and many others goals typical of Christian-democratic parties. In fact the party has often varied its tone and its policies, replacing its original libertarianism and social liberalism with a more socially conservative approach, alterning anti-clericalism with a pro-Catholic Church stance, Europeanism with a marked Euroscepticism[10], and abandoning its original pacifism and uncompromising ecologism.[11] Umberto Bossi recently explained in an interview that Lega Nord is "libertarian, but also socialist" and that the right-wing he likes is anti-statist and with a "libertarian idea of a State which does not weigh on citizens". When asked to tell his most preferred politician of the 20th Century he said Giacomo Matteotti, a Socialist MP who was killed by Fascists in 1925, and remembered his antifascist and left-wing roots. He also praised the "courage" of Walter Veltroni, leader of the Democratic Party and did not exclude a future alliance with him, as also the possibility that Lega Nord could be dissolved when Italy would have become a federal State.[12] Regarding this, Affari Italiani, a well-known online newspaper, hinted that by 2013 Lega Nord would merge into The People of Freedom and that Lega Nord’s leading members would obtain important roles in the party and, maybe, one of them (Roberto Maroni, Giancarlo Giorgetti or Marco Reguzzoni) would be the candidate for Prime Minister in 2018.[13] Lega Nord is populist in the sense that it is an anti-monopolist and anti-elitist popular and participative party (it is one of the few Italian political parties to not permit free-masons to join), fighting against the "vested interests", once identified by Bossi as "Agnelli, the Pope and the Mafia". The party is also libertarian-populist in its promotion of small ownership, small and medium-sized enterprise, small government as opposed to governmental bureaucracy, waste of public funds, pork barrel spending and corruption.[14] These are the main reasons why the party is strong in the North, despite being obscured (especially at the beginning of its history) and badly-presented by national media, television and newspapers.[15]

Lega Nord

The Sun of the Alps, the proposed flag for Padania by Lega Nord The exact program of Lega Nord was not clear in the early years: some opponents claimed it wanted secession of Padania, while at other times they appeared to be simply requesting more autonomy for Northern regions. The League eventually settled on federalism, which rapidly became a buzzword and a popular issue in most Italian political parties.[16][17] In 1996, the party switched to open separatism, calling for the division of Italy in three entities, named by Lega Nord "ideologue" and well-known political scientist Gianfranco Miglio: "Padania", "Etruria" and the "South".[6][7] As a symbolic act of birth of the new nation, on 13-15 September Umberto Bossi took a bottle of water from the springs of Po River (Latin: Padus, hence Padania), which was poured in the sea of Venice by a little girl a few days later. A voluntary group of militants, the so-called "green shirts" (green being the colour of Padania), was also established. The renewed alliance with Berlusconi in 2001 forced the party to tone down, and Padania became the name of a proposed "macro-region", going back to the original idea of Gianfranco Miglio: an Italian federal republic, divided into three "macro-regions". The new buzzword devolution (often used in English) was also introduced, but with less success than "federalism". The choice to tone down and settle just for devolution instead of separatism caused criticism from the party base and led to the formation of some minor breakaway factions.[18] As observed above, the peculiarity of Lega Nord among European regionalist parties is that its main goal is the transformation of Italy into a federal state instead of simply demanding special rights and autonomy for Northern regions.[5][6][7][8]

Federalism or secession?

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Lega Nord
according to party officials, should be based on "Judeo-Christian heritage").[25][27] In foreign policy, the League often criticizes the European Union (it was the only party other than the Communist Refoundation Party in the Italian Parliament to vote against the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, but voted in favour of the Treaty of Lisbon[28] and opposes what it calls the idea of an "European Super-State", favoring instead a "Europe of Regions"[29][30][31], as the Christian Social Union of Bavaria and the European Free Alliance do. The party has never had a particularly pro-United States stance, although it admires the American federal political system. Its MPs opposed both the Gulf War in 1991 and the NATO intervention in Kosovo in 1999 in the name of pacifism, and Umberto Bossi personally met Slobodan Milosević during that war.[32][33] However, after the September 11 attacks and the emergence of Islamist terrorism, the League became a supporter of the American efforts in the War on terror[34][35][36][37], while expressing several reservations about American policy on Iraq.[38][39][40]

Campervan of Lega Nord for the 2005 Tuscanian regional election in Florence

Platform and policies
The party takes a social-conservative stance on social issues, such as abortion, euthanasia, medical embryonic stem-cell research, artificial insemination, same-sex marriage (though there is an association called Los Padania, where "Los" stands for "free sexual orientation", linked to the party and Lega Nord was once in favour of same-sex marriage[19]) and drug use (though it did once support the legalization of marijuana), despite some notable exceptions: Giancarlo Pagliarini, Rossana Boldi, Giovanna Bianchi Clerici[20] and, to some extent, Roberto Castelli has represented the social-liberal wing within the party ranks. Lega Nord opposes statism[7], supports lower taxes, especially for families and small enterprises[21], and an end to public money to help big businesses facing crisis, as for FIAT[22] and for Alitalia.[23][24] The party, in its political program, is committed to the environment, supporting public green areas, the establishment of natural parks, recycling, and the end (or regulation) of the construction of sheds in country areas, especially in Veneto.[25][26] Lega Nord also supports the protection of traditional foods and also called for a revision of the quota system of the Common Agricultural [27][25] Policy. The party has a tough stance on crime, illegal immigration, especially from Muslim countries, and terrorism. It supports the promotion of immigration from non-Muslim countries in order to protect the "Christian Identity" of Italy and Europe, which,

Reasons for initial success
Especially in the early years, the League exploited resentment against Rome (with the famous slogan Roma ladrona, Italian for "Rome big thief") and the Italian government, common in Northern Italy, because some Northern Italians felt that the governments in Rome wasted resources collected mostly from Northern Italians’ taxes.[41] Unpopularity of Southern Italians and resentment against illegal immigrants were also exploited. The electoral successes of the party began roughly at a time when public disillusionment with old political parties was high. The scandals of Tangentopoli were unveiled from 1992 on.[3][4] However, contrary to what many pundits observed at the beginning of the 1990s, Lega Nord became a stable political force in Italian politics.

International affiliation
Lega Nord was originally a member of the European Free Alliance and its first two MEPs, Francesco Speroni and Luigi Moretti, joined the Rainbow Group in the European Parliament during the IV parliamentary term (1989–1994). Between 1994 and 1997 it was a member of the European Liberal Democrat

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and Reform Party, altghough one MEP, Raimondo Fassa, continued to sit in that group until 1999. During the VI parliamentary term (1999–2004), it was briefly a component of the Technical Group of Independents along with Italian Radicals and then returned to the Non-Inscrits.[42][43][44][45] Following the 2004 election Lega Nord joined the Independence/Democracy group and later the Union for Europe of the Nations, a someway awkward affiliation for a party which proposes the "Europe of Regions". The party was affiliated to the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe until 2006, when its members joined the European Democrat Group.[46]

Lega Nord
immigrant".[53][54] Umberto Bossi himself, described African immigrants as Bingobongos, in an interview suggested opening fire on the boats of illegal immigrants who would disembark in Italy[55] However, Lega Nord was recently praised for its tough stance on illegal immigration, especially when dealing with immigrants coming from the sea[56], and while the UN and the Vatican expressed some concerns over the handling of asylum seekers,[57] 75% of all polled Italians approve Lega Nord’s measures.[58] In 2002 Erminio Boso, a Lega Nord politician from the Province of Trento, proposed a separate train for immigrants and Italians.[59] In 2003 he former Mayor of Treviso, Giancarlo Gentilini, while in office, spoke about those he called "immigrant slackers", saying, "We should dress them up like hares and bang-bang-bang"[60] However, after more than 15 years of government by Lega Nord, the Province of Treviso is widely considered the place in Italy where immigrants are best integrated.[61][62] Lega Nord rejectes all these charges of xenophobia (while considering the North being victim of discrminiation and racism)[63][64] and, through the Associazione Umanitaria Padana (Padanian Humanitarian Association), it participates in social and economic humanitarian projects which are intended to respect local cultures, traditions, and identities. The campaigns are carried out in underdeveloped countries or in those that have suffered from war or from natural catastrophes. Locations of recent missions include Darfur, Iraq and Afghanistan.[65] The association is led by Sara Fumagalli, wife of Roberto Castelli and born-again Catholic after a piligrimage in Međugorje.[66][67] Florian Abrahamowicz, a priest of the Society of St. Pius X, was seen as unofficial chaplain of the party.[68] In 2007 Umberto Bossi attended to his celebration of a Tridentine Mass and said there were affinities between his party and the followers of Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre.[69] In 2009, after that he had denied the Holocaust, Abrahamowicz was immediately expelled from the Society[70] and also Lega Nord distanced from him: notably Flavio Tosi described the priest’s words as "unconceivable, unacceptable and monstrous"[71], while Luca Zaia told the press that "no revisionism is possible".[72] However, Abrahamowicz had already been a

Controversies

A political poster of the League for regional elections in Piedmont, 2005. It reads "Guess who is last in line for housing, employment and health care?", and pictures (from right) a Chinese, Roma, African, and Arab person all in front of a Piedmontese in a social services queue. The party has often been described as "xenophobic"[47][48][49][50][51][52] and "anti-

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longtime defender of the Italian Social Republic [73] and supported Erich Priebke, a German SS officer convicted of war crimes for a 1944 massacre in Rome.[74] The party was also criticised by Dario Franceschini, leader of the Democratic Party (PD), and Gianfranco Fini, speaker of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, for causing the deferral of the 2009 electoral law referendum, widely believed to be an attempt to prevent it from reaching the quorum, threatening a political crisis if its coalition partner, The People of Freedom (PdL), did not bend.[75] The referendum, that could have been scheduled to be alongside with the European Parliament election on 7 June, would have cost taxpayers an extra 300-400 million euros if held on 14 June[76] (173 million according to Lega Nord minister Roberto Maroni).[77] Finally there was an agreement between PdL, PD, Lega Nord and UDC on 21 June, when the second rounds of provincial and municipal elections will be held where necessary.[78] After Berlusconi announced his support for the referendum (thus causing outcry by Lega Nord leaders), Rocco Buttiglione (UDC) even proposed an alliance against the referedum and "for electoral reform" between PD, UDC and Lega Nord, an alliance that could even coalesce against Berlusconi if the referendum is to pass.[79]

Lega Nord
wing of the party, while that from Bergamo (notably Roberto Calderoli) tends to be more conservative. In fact both Bossi and Maroni come from the far left of the political spectrum, having been active in the Italian Communist Party, Proletarian Democracy and the Greens before starting Lega Lombarda[82], and conceived Lega Nord as a centre-left (and, to some extent, social-democratic) political force.[83][84] On the left of the party there is also Rosi Mauro, leader of the "Padanian Trade Union" (SinPa). Since its foundation Liga Veneta was characterized more as liberal and centrist party and has always proposed a more libertarian political line. Between Maroni and Calderoli, there is a liberal-centrist wing composed of people like Roberto Castelli, a conspicuous group of former Liberals (including Manuela Dal Lago, Daniele Molgora and Francesco Speroni) and a new generation of politicians (including Roberto Cota, Giancarlo Giorgetti, Marco Reguzzoni, Luca Zaia and Angelo Alessandri). The followers of Calderoli are the most keen supporters of the alliance with The People of Freedom and Silvio Berlusconi, while Maroni (who is anyway a moderate, despite his far left roots), Giorgetti, Reguzzoni and others tend to be more critical and "movimentist".[85][86][87] The differences in the regional composition of the party reflected also the positions in the different regional contexts: for instance, in the early 1990s, while in Eastern and Central Lombardy the League stole votes especially from the Communists and the Italian Socialist Party, in Eastern Lombardy and Veneto the party basically replaced Christian Democracy as dominant political force.[88][89] In fact also Lega Lombarda included moderate-conservative figures, such as Gianfranco Miglio and Vito Gnutti, both former Christian Democrats, while Giovanni Meo Zilio, a Socialist partisan during the Italian Resistance, was one of the founding fathers of Liga Veneta. Besides these main groups there are some smallers groups, which tend to be better organized. First, there is a strong group of Christian-democrats, most of whom are affiliated by "Padanian Catholics", founded by late Roberto Ronchi and currently led by Giuseppe Leoni. In fact many Leghisti are committed Catholic social teaching and the social market economy, and several party members were originally members or voters of

Factions
Lega Nord is aimed to unite all those Northern Italians who support autonomy and federalism for their land. For this reason it tends to be a multi-ideological catch-all party, following what Umberto Bossi stated in 1982 to his early followers: "It does not matter how old are you, what your job is and what your political tendency: what matters is that you and we are all Lombard".[80] The electorate of the party is very diverse on a left-right scale: in the 1992 general election, for instance, the party’s support was composed of a 25.4% of former Christian Democrats, 18.5% Communists, 12.5% Socialists and 6.6% Missini.[81] Although there are almost no organized factions within the party, it is possible to distinguish several tendencies or wings. The wing from Varese and generally the bulk of original Lega Lombarda (including Umberto Bossi, Roberto Maroni and until his exit Marco Formentini) tend to be the left-

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Christian Democracy. Then there is a rightwing which is represented mainly by Mario Borghezio, a former Monarchist who is leader of "Christian Padania", whose members are linked to the Society of St. Pius X and are characherized by a strong social conservatism. The party has always included also a group of libertarians, whose leading members were Gilberto Oneto and Giancarlo Pagliarini, who recently left the party, and the "Independentist Unit"[90], which gathers the more secessionist figures of the party. This group crosses all the other factions and tendencies and in fact includes, among others Borghezio and Speroni. Also Oneto and Pagliarini were considered to be part of this group.[91][92] In fact many libertarians and independentists left the party during the years. Finally, within the party there is an agricultural wing, which is particularly strong in Southern Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna and is represented by such groups as the Cobas del latte, a farmers’ trade union, and the "Land Movement", whose leader is Giovanni Robusti, and politicians such as Luca Zaia, Minister of Agriculture.[93][94]

Lega Nord
• Leopoldo Siegel and Marco Pottino launched Libertarian and Liberal Padania (12 seats); • Erminio Boso led the agrarianconservative Padanian Union–Agriculture, Environment, Hunting, Fishing (5 seats); • Enzo Flego and Walter Gherardini formed the national-conservative Padanian Right (27 seats); • Benedetto Della Vedova, a Radical politician, was elected at the head of an anti-prohibitionist and free-market libertarian list, while Nando Dalla Chiesa, a Green MP, was an unsuccessful candidate in Milan.[93][95][96]

Alliances and coalitions
In Lega Nord there have always been different perspectives about national alliances. In 1994, some days before the announcement of the Bossi-Berlusconi pact which led to the formation of the Pole of Freedoms, Roberto Maroni, a moderate, signed a pact with Mario Segni’s Pact for Italy, which was later cancelled.[97][98] When Bossi decided to stop supporting the first Berlusconi government at the end of the same year, Maroni, who was the Minister of the Interior, and many other members of the League distanced themselves from their leader. Many left the party (40 deputies out of 117 and 17 senators out of 60) and some, including Luigi Negri and Lucio Malan, switched to Forza Italia.[99] Others, including the floor leader in the Chamber of Deputies Pierluigi Petrini, joined the centre-left. Maroni, after some months of coldness with Bossi, returned to be an active member of the League.[100][101] After the 1996 general election, which Lega Nord fought outside the big two coalitions, those who supported an alliance with Berlusconi (Vito Gnutti, Domenico Comino, Fabrizio Comencini and others) and those who preferred to enter into Romano Prodi’s alliance (Marco Formentini, Irene Pivetti and others) did not disappear. Some of them (15 deputies out of 59 and 9 senators out of 27) left the party to switch to the centre-right or the centre-left. The group of Gnutti and Comino was expelled in 1999, after which they formed an alliance with the centre-right at the local level, while Comencini had left the party in 1998 to launch his Liga Veneta Repubblica with the mid-term objective of

1997 Padanian elections
In 1997, Lega Nord organized what it called "the first elections to the Padanian Parliament". Roughly 4 million Northern Italians (6 million according to the party) went to the "polls" and chose between a number of Padanian parties: • Matteo Salvini was candidate for the Padanian Communists (5 seats out of 210); • Roberto Maroni, Marco Formentini, Giovanni Meo Zilio (an ex-Socialist partisan during the Italian Resistance), Franco Colleoni and Mariella Mazzetto launched the social-democratic European Democrats-Padanian Labour (52 seats); • a group of Venetian Leghisti formed the Venetist Padanian Lions (14 seats); • Giuseppe Leoni and Roberto Ronchi founded the Christian-democratic Padanian Catholics (20 seats); • Giancarlo Pagliarini, Vito Gnutti, Roberto Cota and Massimo Zanello led the liberalconservative Forza Italia-styled Liberal Democrats–Forza Padania, which supported alliance with Silvio Berlusconi’s party (50 seats);

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entering in coalition with Forza Italia in Veneto.[102][103][104][105][106][107] After the decline of Lega Nord in the 1999 European Parliament election, senior members of the party decided that it was not possible to attain the party’s goals if they continued to refuse an alliance with one of the two coalitions. Some, including Maroni, who had always been left-leaning at heart, despite his defense of Berlusconi in 1994, preferred an alliance with the centre-left. He reached an agreement, this time the centre-left, only to be refuted by Bossi, who had previously invited him to pursue direct talks with Massimo D’Alema, who once described Lega Nord as "a rib of the left", similarily to what happened with Segni in 1994. These talks were successful, so that in Lombardy the centre-left candidate in the 2000 regional elections would have been Maroni himself, but Bossi decided to return to the alliance with Berlusconi, who was the front-runner in the upcoming general election.[108][109] Lega Nord, within with the other House of Freedoms parties, won both the 2000 regional elections and the 2001 general election, and returned to national office. During the years in government in Rome (2001–2006), the party saw the emergence of two different political viewpoints about alliances: some, led by Roberto Calderoli and Roberto Castelli (with the backing of Umberto Bossi), vigorously supported participation with the centre-right, while others, represented by Roberto Maroni and Giancarlo Giorgetti, were less warm about it. Some of them spoke of possibly joining the centre-left some time after the 2006 general election, which they were certain to lose. This idea was ascribed to the fact that, without any support from the left, it seemed even more difficult to win the constitutional referendum, which would have turned Italy in a federal state.[110] The centre-left did not change its position and the referendum was lost, making the North angry with the new Prodi government and the Leghisti less keen on making an alliance with those who opposed constitutional reform.

Lega Nord
River). In that year, the League scored 29.3% of the vote in Veneto, 25.5% in Lombardy, 23.2% in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, 18.2% in Piedmont, 13.2% in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, 10.2% in Liguria, 7.2% in Emilia-Romagna, 1.8% in Tuscany, 1.5% in the Marche, and 1.0% in Umbria. The Leghisti were able to elect 59 deputies and 27 senators (of which 39 and 19 respectively were from single-seat constituencies), helping the centre-left to win, due to its successes in some Northern constituencies characterized by three-way races. The League won barely all the seats in the provinces of the so-called Pedemontana, the area at the feet of the Prealps, from Udine to Cuneo, passing through Friuli, Veneto, Trentino, Lombardy and Piedmont.[111][112][113] In the 2008 general election Lega Nord scored 8.3% at the national level, slightly below the result of 1996: 27.1% in Veneto, 21.6% in Lombardy, 13.0% in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, 12.6% in Piedmont, 9.4% in TrentinoAlto Adige, 7.8% in Emilia-Romagna, 6.8% in Liguria, 2.2% in the Marche, 2.0% in Tuscany and 1.7% in Umbria. Despite a slight decline in term of votes, the party remains particularly strong in the Pedemontana, especially in Lombardy and Veneto, and in mountain zones of Veneto, Lombardy and Piedmont.[114][115] Lega Nord currently controls six of the 110 Italian Provinces, including some of the most populous ones, namely Sondrio, Varese and Como in Lombardy, Treviso and Vicenza in Veneto, and Udine.[116] Yet Lega Nord is the largest party also in the Province of Bergamo, one of the most populated in Italy, and in two more provinces in Veneto, Verona and Belluno.[115] Mayors of Lega Nord govern some important cities, including Verona, Treviso, Lecco, Monza, Varese and Novara.[117]

Electoral results
The electoral results of Lega Nord in Northern and Central Italy are shown in the table below.[118][119][120]

Leadership
Federal level
• Federal Secretary: Umberto Bossi (1991–...) • Coordinator of Federal Secretariat: Roberto Ronchi (1991–1994), Roberto

Popular support
Support for Lega Nord is diverse even inside Padania and has varied over time, reaching a maximum of 10.1% of the vote in the 1996 general election (around 25% north of the Po

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Lega Nord

1990 1992 1994 1995 1996 1999 2000 2001 2004 200 regional general general regional general European regional general European reg Liguria 6.1 14.3 16.3 23.0 17.3 8.9 15.3 9.6 3.1 1.3 1.1 8.7 11.4 15.7 22.1 21.6 7.6 16.9 6.4 2.2 8.4 6.6 9.9 17.7 16.7 9.6
(1993)

10.2 18.2 25.5 29.3 13.2 23.2 7.2 1.8 1.5 1.1 10.1

3.7 7.8 13.1 10.7 2.4 10.1 3.0 0.6 0.4 0.3 4.5

4.3 7.6 15.5 12.0 4.7
(1998)

3.9 5.9 12.1 10.2 3.7 8.2 3.3 0.6 0.3 3.9

4.1 8.2 13.8 14.1 3.5 8.5 3.4 0.8 0.9 0.6 5.0

4.7 8.5

Piedmont 5.1 Lombardy 18.9 Veneto 7.2 Trentino- AA Friuli-VG 2.9 EmiliaRomagna Tuscany Marche Umbria ITALY 0.8 0.2 0.2 -

15.8 3.2 9.3 4.8 1.3 0.9 -

14.7

(200

26.7
(1993)

17.3
(1998)

(200

3.4 0.7 0.5 -

2.6 0.6 0.3 -

•

•

• •

•

•

Maroni (1994–2001), Francesco Speroni (2001–2005), Roberto Maroni (2005–...) • Coordinator of National Sections: Roberto Calderoli (2002–...) Federal President: Franco Rocchetta (1991–1994), Stefano Stefani (1995–2002), Luciano Gasperini (2002–2005), Angelo Alessandri (2005–...) Federal Administrative Secretary: Alessandro Patelli (1991–1993), Maurizio Balocchi (1993–...) Honorary President: Luigi Rossi (1991–1996) Party Leader in the Chamber of Deputies: Marco Formentini (1992–1994), Pierluigi Petrini (1994–1995), Vito Gnutti (1995–1996), Domenico Comino (1996–1999), Giancarlo Pagliarini (1999–2001), Alessandro Cè (2001–2005), Andrea Gibelli (2005–2006), Roberto Maroni (2006–2008), Roberto Cota (2008–...) Party Leader in the Senate: Francesco Speroni (1992–1994), Francesco Tabladini (1994–1996), Francesco Speroni (1996–1999), Luciano Gasperini (1999–2000), Roberto Castelli (2000–2001), Francesco Moro (2001–2004), Ettore Pirovano (2004–2006), Roberto Castelli (2006–2008), Federico Bricolo (2008–...) Party Leader in the European Parliament: Francesco Speroni (1989–1992), Luigi

Moretti (1992–1999), Francesco Speroni (1999–2004), Mario Borghezio (2004–...)

National level
Liga Veneta

• National Secretary: Achille Tramarin (1980−1983), Marilena Marin (1983−1994), Fabrizio Comencini (1994−1998), Gian Paolo Gobbo (1998−...) • National President: Franco Rocchetta (1983−1994), Gian Paolo Gobbo (1994−1998), Giuseppe Ceccato (1998–1999), Manuela Dal Lago (2001−2008), Flavio Tosi (2008−...) Lega Lombarda

• National Secretary: Umberto Bossi (1984–1993), Luigi Negri (1993–1995), Roberto Calderoli (1995–2002), Giancarlo Giorgetti (2002–...) • National President: Augusto Arizzi (1986–1987), Silvana Bazzan (1987–1989), Franco Castellazzi (1989–1991), Francesco Speroni (1991–1993), Roberto Calderoli (1993–1995), Giuseppe Leoni

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(1995–1999), Stefano Galli (1999–2002), Roberto Castelli (2002–...) Piemont Piemont Autonomista / Lega Nord

Lega Nord

• National Secretary: Gipo Farassino (1987–1996), Domenico Comino (1996–1999), Bernardino Bosio (1999–2001), Roberto Cota (2001–...) • National President: Angelo Colli (1991–1992), Domenico Comino (1993–1994), Bernardino Bosio (1996–1999), Silvano Straneo (2000–2001), Oreste Rossi (2001–2004), Mario Borghezio (2004–...) Lega Nord Friuli / Lega Nord FriuliVenezia Giulia

• National Secretary: Bruno Ravera (1987–1994), Giacomo Chiappori (1994–1998), Francesco Bruzzone (1998–...) • National President: Andrea Corrado (1992–...) Alleanza Toscana / Lega Nord Toscana

• National Secretary: Roberto Visentin (1990–1999), Eduard Ballaman (1999–2000), Giuseppe Zoppolato (2000–2003), Fulvio Follegot (2003–2005), Marco Pottino (2005–2007), Pietro Fontanini (2008–...) • National President: Rinaldo Bosco (1991–2003), Alessandra Guerra (2005–2008), Enzo Bortolotti (2008–...) Lega Emiliano-Romagnola / Lega Nord Emilia

• National Secretary: Mario Forconi (1987–1988), Tommaso Fragassi (1988–1994), Simone Gnaga (1994–1998), Vincenzo Soldati (1998–2006), Luca Rodolfo Paolini (2006–2008), Claudio Morganti (2008–...) • National President: Tommaso Fragassi (1987–1988), Guido Niccolini (1988–1992), Renzo Del Carrìa (1992–1994), Dario Locci (1994–1996), Emilio Paradiso (1996–1998), Walter Gherardini (1998–2001), Moreno Menconi (2001–2006), Antonio Gambetta Vianna (2008–...) Lega Nord Trentino

• National Secretary: Giorgio Conca (1989–1990), Fabio Dosi (1990–1995), Pierluigi Copercini (1995–1996), Maurizio Parma (1996–2002), Angelo Alessandri (2002–...) • National President: Pierluigi Copercini (1991–1995), Gianni Bettelli (1996–1999), Genesio Ferrari (1999–2002), Villiam Pellacani (2002–2006), Fabio Rainieri (2006–...) Uniun Ligure / Lega Nord Liguria

• National Secretary: Sergio Divina (1991–1995), Alessandro Savoi (1995–1999), Rolando Fontan (1999–2001), Denis Bertolini (2001–2003), Sergio Divina (2003–2005), Maurizio Fugatti (2005–...) • National President: Sergio Muraro (1992–1993), Gianbattista Sordo (1993–1995), Sergio Divina (1995–1999), Marco Tomasi (1999–2001), Lorenzo Conci (2001–2003), Alessandro Savoi (2005–...) Lega Nord Sud Tirolo

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• National Secretary: Umberto Montefiori (1991–1998), Kurt Pancheri (1999–2008) • National President: unknown (1991–1999), Sergio Tamajo (1999–2008) Lega Nord Valle d’Aosta

Lega Nord

See also
• List of active autonomist and secessionist movements

References
• National Secretary: Paolo Linty (1991–1998), Giuseppe Henriet (1998–2001), Nicolao Negroni (2002–2005), Sergio Ferrero (2005–...) • National President: unknown (1991–1998), Aldo Meinardi (1998–...) Lega Nord Romagna [1] "La Lega si fa rete". Corriere della Sera. 2008-04-16. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2008/ aprile/16/ Lega_rete_co_9_080416149.shtml. [2] Piero Ignazi, Partiti politici in Italia, Il Mulino, Bologna 2008, p. 88 [3] ^ Paul Ginsborg, L’Italia del tempo presente, Einaudi, Turin 1996, pp. 336-337, 534-535 [4] ^ Giorgio Galli, I partiti politici italiani, BUR, Milan 2001, pp. 379-380, 384 [5] ^ Umberto Bossi; Daniele Vimercati, Vento dal Nord. La mia Lega, la mia vita, Sperling & Kupfer, Milan 1992, pp. 25-35, 194-205 [6] ^ Gianfranco Miglio, Come cambiare. Le mie riforme, Mondadori, Milan 1992, pp. 31-40 [7] ^ Elio Bonifazi; Alberto Pellegrino, Educazione civica e cultura costituzionale, Bulgarini, Florence 1996, pp. 79, 128-129 [8] ^ Palo Rumiz, La secessione leggera. Dove nasce la rabbia del profondo Nord, Feltrinelli, Milan 2001, p. 171 [9] David Parenzo; Davide Romano, Romanzo padano. Da Bossi a Bossi. Storia della Lega, Sperling & Kupfer, Milan 2009, pp. 23-24 [10] Piero Ignazi, Partiti politici in Italia, Il Mulino, Bologna 2008, p. 87 [11] Interview with Davide Romano, author of Romanzo Padano [12] "Ecco l’intervista integrale della Iena Enrico Lucci a Umberto Bossi.". Affari Italiani. 2008-09-30. http://www.affaritaliani.it/politica/ienebossi-intervista300908.html. [13] "Berlusconi vuole annettere la Lega nel Pdl. Bossi non lo esclude. Il progetto segreto del Cavaliere". Affari Italiani. 2008-10-01. http://www.affaritaliani.it/ politica/ berlusconibossiretroscena011009.html. [14] Piero Ignazi, Partiti politici in Italia, Il Mulino, Bologna 2008, pp. 86-87, 96

• National Secretary: Corrado Metri (1991–1996), Stefano Fantinelli (1996–1999), Gianluca Pini (1999–...) • National President: unknown (1991–...) Lega Nord Marche

• National Secretary: Luca Rodolfo Paolini (1991–...) • National President: unknown (1991–...) Lega Nord Umbria

• National Secretary: Alessandro Salvaneschi (1995–1999), Francesco Miroballo (1999–...) • National President: unknown (1995–...) Lega Nord Trieste • National Secretary: Fabrizio Belloni (1991–1994), Roberto Tanfani (1994–1996), Massimiliano Coos (1996–1997), Fabrizio Belloni (1997–2001) • National President: unknown (1991–1994), Fabrizio Belloni (1994–1997), Federica Seganti (1997–2001)

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[15] Aldo Bonomi, Prefazione in David [29] Umberto Bossi; Daniele Vimercati, Vento Parenzo; Davide Romano, Romanzo dal Nord. La mia Lega, la mia vita, padano. Da Bossi a Bossi. Storia della Sperling & Kupfer, Milan 1992, pp. Lega, Sperling & Kupfer, Milan 2009, p. 194-205 X [30] http://www.padaniaoffice.org/pdf/ [16] Ilvo Diamanti, Bianco, rosso, verde... e affari_istituz/doc_politici/ azzurro, Il Mulino, Bologna 2003, pp. Punti_LN_Europa.pdf 68-71 [31] http://www.giovanipadani.leganord.org/ [17] Maurizio Ridolfi, Storia dei partiti articoli.asp?ID=2846 politici. L’Italia dal Risorgimento alla [32] "Bossi: La Serbia inviterà Annan". Repubblica, Bruno Mondadori, Milan Corriere della Sera. 1999-04-24. 2008, pp. 219-220 http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1999/ [18] Piero Ignazi, Partiti politici in Italia, Il aprile/24/ Mulino, Bologna 2008, pp. 97-98 Bossi_Serbia_invitera_Annan__co_0_9904241451.shtm [19] "Il Carroccio: matrimoni gay nella [33] "L’Europa profonda che odia l’America". Repubblica Padana". Corriere della Sera. La Repubblica. 1999-04-11. 1998-04-05. http://www.repubblica.it/online/dossier/ http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1998/ rumi/rumi/rumi.html. aprile/05/ [34] "Lega, il partito filo Milosevic ora dà il Carroccio_matrimoni_gay_nella_Repubblica_co_0_9804052417.shtml. Corriere della via libera all’America". [20] "Fecondazione un fronte del sì tra le Sera. 2001-10-10. donne della Cdl". Corriere della Sera. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2001/ 2005-05-01. ottobre/10/ http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2005/ Lega_partito_filo_Milosevic_ora_co_0_0110104176.sh maggio/01/ [35] "I Poli trovano l’intesa, sì all’intervento Fecondazione_fronte_del_tra_donne_co_8_050501066.shtml. militare". Corriere della Sera. [21] "I confini della Lega". Corriere della 2001-11-08. Sera. 1993-06-15. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2001/ http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1993/ novembre/08/ giugno/15/ Poli_trovano_intesa_all_intervento_co_0_0111087026 confini_della_LEGA_co_0_93061516126.shtml. "Sì a maggioranza, via alla «missione [36] [22] http://banchedati.camera.it/ Afghanistan»". Corriere della Sera. sindacatoispettivo_16/ 2002-10-04. showXhtml.asp?highLight=0&idAtto=3250&stile=6 http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2002/ [23] Interview with Giacomo Stucchi, Lega ottobre/04/ Nord MP maggioranza_via_alla_missione_Afghanistan_co_0_02 [24] "Al diavolo Alitalia, che fallisca! La Lega [37] "Calderoli: Bush regali l’atomica ad boccia l’assistenzialismo". Italia Oggi. Ahmadinejad". Corriere della Sera. 2008-09-20. http://www.marcocastoro.it/ 2006-09-07. ?p=2080#more-2080. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2006/ [25] ^ http://www.leganord.org/elezioni/ settembre/07/ 2008/lega/default.asp Calderoli_Bush_regali_atomica_Ahmadinejad_co_9_06 [26] "«Basta capannoni, sono inutili» Il [38] "Lo strappo della Lega sulla missione Veneto e i 200 km di cemento". Corriere italiana". Corriere della Sera. della Sera. 2004-09-18. 2004-04-22. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2004/ http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2004/ settembre/18/ aprile/22/ Basta_capannoni_sono_inutili_Veneto_co_9_040918030.shtml. strappo_della_Lega_sulla_missione_co_9_040422002. [27] ^ http://banchedati.camera.it/ [39] "La Lega tende a smarcarsi. Inviti alla sindacatoispettivo_16/ cautela sugli ostaggi". Corriere della showXhtml.asp?highLight=0&idAtto=3250&stile=6 2004-04-22. Sera. [28] "Passa all’unanimità il Trattato europeo". http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2004/ Corriere della Sera. 2008-07-24. aprile/22/ http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2008/ Lega_tende_smarcarsi_Inviti_alla_co_9_040422006.sh luglio/24/ [40] "Calderoli: andiamocene. Il Polo lo frena Passa_all_unanimita_Trattato_europeo_co_9_080724090.shtml. Rifinanziamento, il centrosinistra diviso".

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Corriere della Sera. 2005-07-09. [55] "Bossi prende il cannone". Il Manifesto. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2005/ 2003-06-17. http://it.geocities.com/ luglio/09/ ilgruppodellatanadelgiaguaro/ Calderoli_andiamocene_Polo_frena_Rifinanziamento_co_8_050709028.shtml. forum_libero/messaggi/58.htm. [41] Palo Rumiz, La secessione leggera. Dove [56] Bossi: "La nostra linea fa proseliti" nasce la rabbia del profondo Nord, [57] L’Europa bacchetta l’Italia Stop ai Feltrinelli, Milan 2001, pp. 10-13 respingimenti [42] Your MEPs : Archives : Luigi MORETTI [58] Sull’immigrazione clandestina [43] Your MEPs : Archives : Francesco Enrico [59] "Sul "treno degli africani" Vagoni SPERONI separati? No, grazie". La Repubblica. [44] Your MEPs : Archives : Umberto BOSSI 2003-01-19. http://www.repubblica.it/ [45] Your MEPs : Archives : Raimondo FASSA online/politica/boso/reportage/ [46] M. Roberto MARONI reportage.html. [47] "Silvio Berlusconi: third time lucky?". [60] "Ramadan, sindaco nega lo spazio The Times. 2008-04-15. Benetton concede il palazzetto". La http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/ Repubblica. 2002-12-13. comment/leading_article/ http://www.repubblica.it/online/cronaca/ article3754151.ece. immitreviso/ramadan/ramadan.html. [48] "Italy: Statement On Immigrants [61] http://www.giovaniemissione.it/ Denied". The New York Times. index.php?option=content&task=view&id=780&Item 2003-06-17. http://www.nytimes.com/ [62] "Immigrati, ben integrati in Veneto ok 2003/06/17/world/world-briefing-europeanche Marche ed Emilia Romagna". La italy-statement-on-immigrantsRepubblica. 2006-03-22. denied.html. http://www.repubblica.it/2006/c/sezioni/ [49] "Italy’s Northern League resurgent". cronaca/caritas/caritas/ BBC News. 2008-04-17. caritas.html?ref=search. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/ [63] Umberto Bossi; Daniele Vimercati, Vento 7350691.stm. dal Nord. La mia Lega, la mia vita, [50] "Mussolini’s heirs bid farewell to party". Sperling & Kupfer, Milan 1992, pp. Financial Times. 2009-03-22. 141-150 http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/ [64] "Bossi si infuria: siete voi i razzisti". La 2fdb43d8-1705-11de-9a72-0000779fd2ac.html. Repubblica. 2000-11-22. [51] "Italian mayor fights terror threat with http://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/ ban on Muslim veils". The Daily archivio/repubblica/2000/11/22/bossi-siTelegraph. 2004-08-04. infuria-siete-voi-razzisti.html. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ [65] http://www.umanitariapadanaonlus.net worldnews/europe/italy/1468885/Italian[66] http://www.umanitariapadanaonlus.net/ mayor-fights-terror-threat-with-ban-onarticoli/Monzaclub%20n%2038.pdf Muslim-veils.html. [67] "Castelli va a Medjugorje. L’ex ministro: [52] "League allies may hinder Italy’s a piedi nudi per sciogliere un mio voto". Berlusconi: reports". The Washington Corriere della Sera. 2007-04-16. Post. 2008-04-15. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2007/ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ aprile/16/ content/article/2008/04/15/ Castelli_Medjugorje_ministro_piedi_nudi_co_9_07041 AR2008041500577_pf.html. [68] "Angela Merkel Attacks Pope Over [53] "Italy bans kebabs and foreign food from Holocaust Bishop". Huffington Post. cities". The Times. 2009-01-31. 2009-02-04. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/02/ life_and_style/food_and_drink/ 04/angela-merkel-attacksarticle5622156.ece. pop_n_163843.html. [54] "Italy Arrests Hundreds of Immigrants". [69] "Bossi a messa dai lefebvriani «Mi The New York Times. 2008-05-15. liberano con i loro canti»". Corriere della http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/16/ Sera. 2007-09-10. world/europe/ http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2007/ 16italy.html?scp=9&sq=northern%20league%20antisettembre/10/ immigrant&st=cse. Bossi_messa_dai_lefebvriani_liberano_co_9_07091002

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[70] "«Ebrei disinfettati» Espulso il [83] "Maroni: solo, ma vado al congresso". lefebvriano". Corriere della Sera. Corriere della Sera. 1995-01-28. 2009-02-07. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1995/ http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2009/ gennaio/28/ febbraio/07/ Maroni_solo_vado_congresso_co_0_9501287416.shtm Ebrei_disinfettati_Espulso_lefebvriano_co_8_090207025.shtml. [84] "Bossi riaccoglie Maroni e torna alle [71] "Tosi «scarica» il prete dei raduni origini". Corriere della Sera. 1995-05-08. leghisti". L’Arena. 2009-02-01. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1995/ http://www.agerecontra.it/lasvolta/ maggio/08/ tosi_spara_a_zero_su_don_floriano.html. Bossi_riaccoglie_Maroni_torna_alle_co_0_950508705 [72] "Zaia: bestialità ho molti amici ebrei so [85] Adalberto Signore; Alessandro Trocino, cos’ è stata la Shoah". Corriere della Razza padana, BUR, Milan 2008, pp. Sera. 2009-01-30. 152-153, 158-159, 168 http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2009/ [86] "Maroni contro Calderoli, l’enigma è gennaio/30/ Giorgetti". La Repubblica. 2004-05-14. Zaia_bestialita_molti_amici_ebrei_co_9_090130048.shtml. http://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/ [73] "Nonno marò rimpiange Salò". La archivio/repubblica/2004/05/14/maroniRepubblica. 2001-03-25. contro-calderoli-enigmahttp://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/ giorgetti.mi_020maroni.html. archivio/repubblica/2001/03/25/nonno[87] "Un’ ora di cammino al giorno, Bossi maro-rimpiange-salo.htm. prepara il rientro". Corriere della Sera. [74] "La Lega: «Il Cardinale Tettamanzi è un 2004-10-21. infiltrato»". L’Unità. 2008-12-08. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2004/ http://www.unita.it/ ottobre/21/ index.php?section=news&idNotizia=74029. ora_cammino_giorno_Bossi_prepara_co_9_041021057 [75] "Referendum elettorale, spunta il rinvio". [88] "Analisi dello scontro tra la Lega La Repubblica. 2009-04-16. Lombarda e la Liga Veneta La strategia http://www.repubblica.it/2009/04/sezioni/ di Bossi del blocco padano". Radio politica/referendum-elettorale/ Radicale. 1998-09-17. berlusconi-lega/berlusconi-lega.html. http://www.radioradicale.it/scheda/ [76] "Election Day senza Referendum: 400 104709/105181-analisi-dello-scontro-tramilioni". Corriere della Sera. 2009-02-25. la-lega-lombarda-e-la-liga-veneta-lahttp://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2009/ strategia-di-bossi-del-blocco-padano. febbraio/25/ [89] Ilvo Diamanti, Bianco, rosso, verde... e Election_Day_senza_Referendum_400_co_9_090225003.shtml. azzurro, Il Mulino, Bologna 2003, pp. [77] "Referendum, la Lega ribadisce il no". Il 55-83 Messaggero. 2009-04-10. [90] "Bossi multato dai suoi". Corriere della http://www.ilmessaggero.it/ Sera. 1995-11-21. articolo.php?id=54114&sez=HOME_INITALIA. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1995/ [78] "Referendum, urne aperte il 21 giugno". novembre/21/ Corriere della Sera. 2009-04-23. Bossi_multato_dai_suoi_co_2_951121488.shtml. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2009/ [91] "La Lega delusa punta tutto sul aprile/23/ referendum". Corriere della Sera. Referendum_urne_aperte_giugno_co_9_090423017.shtml. 2006-04-11. [79] "Referendum, suggestioni di nuove http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2006/ maggioranze. L’ipotesi "Mattarellum"". Il aprile/11/ Messaggero. 2009-05-05. Lega_delusa_punta_tutto_sul_co_9_060411103.shtml http://www.ilmessaggero.it/ [92] "La mozione della Lega: pronti a correre articolo.php?id=56971&sez=HOME_INITALIA. da soli". Corriere della Sera. 2007-02-10. [80] Adalberto Signore; Alessandro Trocino, http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2007/ Razza padana, BUR, Milan 2008, p. 39 febbraio/10/ [81] Piero Ignazi, Partiti politici in Italia, Il mozione_della_Lega_pronti_correre_co_9_070210114 Mulino, Bologna 2008, pp. 87-88 [93] ^ http://www.leganord.org/ilmovimento/ [82] Adalberto Signore; Alessandro Trocino, storia/03_lega_nord_storia96_98.pdf Razza padana, BUR, Milan 2008, pp. [94] http://www.lapadania.it/pages/ 22-23, 57 la%20storia.htm

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Lega Nord

[95] Adalberto Signore; Alessandro Trocino, settembre/25/ Razza padana, BUR, Milan 2008, pp. Formentini_Bossi_sbaglia_Lega_addio_co_0_9909256 111-112 [107] dalberto Signore; Alessandro Trocino, A [96] "Lista Dalla Chiesa alle elezioni padane". Razza padana, BUR, Milan 2008, pp. Corriere della Sera. 1997-09-20. 120-121 http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1997/ [108] iorgio Galli, I partiti politici italiani, G settembre/20/ BUR, Milan 2001, pp. 432-433 Lista_Dalla_Chiesa_alle_elezioni_co_0_97092014632.shtml. Signore; Alessandro Trocino, [109] dalberto A [97] Giorgio Galli, I partiti politici italiani, Razza padana, BUR, Milan 2008, pp. BUR, Milan 2001, pp. 394-395 122-127, 307-312 [98] Adalberto Signore; Alessandro Trocino, [110] dalberto Signore; Alessandro Trocino, A Razza padana, BUR, Milan 2008, pp. Razza padana, BUR, Milan 2008, pp. 79-82 312-313 [99] "Maroni e Bossi vanno alla conta". [111] iergiorgio Corbetta; Maria Serena P Corriere della Sera. 1995-01-09. Piretti, Atlante storico-elettorale d’Italia, http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1995/ Zanichelli, Bologna 2009, pp. 182-187 gennaio/09/ [112] ttp://elezionistorico.interno.it/ h Maroni_Bossi_vanno_alla_conta_co_0_9501094060.shtml. area.php?tp=C&dt=21/04/1996 [100]Bossi riaccoglie Maroni e torna alle " [113] ttp://elezionistorico.interno.it/ h origini". Corriere della Sera. 1995-05-08. area.php?tp=S&dt=21/04/1996 http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1995/ [114] iergiorgio Corbetta; Maria Serena P maggio/08/ Piretti, Atlante storico-elettorale d’Italia, Bossi_riaccoglie_Maroni_torna_alle_co_0_9505087057.shtml. Zanichelli, Bologna 2009, pp. 200-205 [101] dalberto Signore; Alessandro Trocino, A [115] http://politiche.interno.it/politiche/ ^ Razza padana, BUR, Milan 2008, pp. camera080413/seleentC.htm 94-99, 120 [116] ttp://www.leganord.org/ilmovimento/ h [102]Lega, la "polveriera" puo’ esplodere". " Provinciali.pdf Corriere della Sera. 1999-07-18. [117] ttp://www.leganord.org/ilmovimento/ h http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1999/ comuni_indirizzi.pdf luglio/18/ [118] ttp://elezionistorico.interno.it/index.php h Lega_polveriera_puo_esplodere_co_0_9907184550.shtml. [119] iergiorgio Corbetta; Maria Serena P [103]Gnutti: sì, lavoro a un nuovo Carroccio " Piretti, Atlante storico-elettorale d’Italia, che punti al federalismo". Corriere della Zanichelli, Bologna 2009, pp. 170-205 Sera. 1999-07-26. [120] ario Corte (edited by), 1946-2006 M http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1999/ Sessant’anni di elezioni in Italia, Reality luglio/28/ Book, Rome 2007, pp. 91-154, 171-184 Gnutti_lavoro_nuovo_Carroccio_che_co_0_9907285615.shtml. [104]Formentini: Umberto ha sbagliato". " Corriere della Sera. 1999-07-26. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1999/ • Media related to Lega Nord at luglio/26/ Wikimedia Commons Formentini_Umberto_sbagliato_co_0_9907265286.shtml. • Official website [105]Patto Liga - Forza Italia: "Sovranita’ ai " • La Padania veneti"". Corriere della Sera. • Movimento Giovani Padani 1999-08-04. • Associazione Umanitaria Padana http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1999/ • Palgrave Palgrave Anna Bull & Mark agosto/04/ Gilbert, The Lega Nord and the Northern Patto_Liga_Forza_Italia_Sovranita_co_0_9908042271.shtml.Italian Politics, 2001 Question in [106]Formentini: Bossi sbaglia, Lega addio". " Corriere della Sera. 1999-09-25. http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1999/

External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lega_Nord" Categories: Political parties in Italy, Regionalist parties in Italy, Political parties established in 1991

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lega Nord

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