Transbundary air pollution in Asia: towards prevention / mitigation CONTENTS • Male’ Declaration • EANET • Atmospheric Brown Clouds • Towards Prevention/mitigation Male’ Declaration Development • March 1998: Policy Dialogue • April 1998: Adoption of the Declaration Implementation • Phase I: Awareness and preparation of the baseline information • Phase II: Local capacity development for monitoring and analysis Member states Iran Bhutan Pakistan Nepal India Bangladesh Maldives Sri Lanka Phase III Objectives • Strengthen the regional cooperation and stakeholders participation under the Malé Declaration; • Strengthen the capacity building programmes initiated during Phase II; • Enhance the capacity of NIAs on emission inventory development and Integrated Assessment Modeling IG 6; October 2004, Tehran, Iran • Enhance the analytical and impact assessment capability at the national level through integration of findings from local pollution studies and conducting assessment studies; • Provide decision support information for policy formulation and air pollution prevention ; and • Raise awareness for action through targeted dissemination Regional Cooperation • Intergovernmental meeting, stakeholders meeting cum coordination meeting • Participating countries have initiated the process of understanding issues arising IG 7; October 2005, Delhi, India from transboundary air pollution • Coordination meeting need to be continued • Air pollution related initiatives in South Asia need to be encouraged to participate • National Advisory Committee and National Stakeholders meetings could coordinate the air pollution related activities at the IG 8; September 2006, Thimphu, Bhutan national level • Evaluation with a focus on ownership • Capacity building • Organizational structure • Financial sustainability Monitoring: monitoring sites Narowal Abadan Chitwan Geliphu Port Canning Suntharban Anuradaphura Hanimaadu Introduced Ozone monitoring Capacity Building on Monitoring • National Training programmes • Four technical personnel from the Department of Meteorology and eight technical personnel from Pak-EPA were trained on sampling and analysis of air pollutants. In-country Training; December 2005, Islamabad, Pakistan • Nine technical personnel from DoE, Bangladesh were trained on operating AAS In-country February 2006; Kulna, Bangladesh Capacity Building on Monitoring … • Regional Training Programme • Fourth Regional training programme: - introduced the QA/QC; - Provided recommendations for the review of monitoring methods Regional Training Programme; March 2006, RRCAP, Bangkok Parameter Reference Group-1 Group-2 Group-3 Total Hardness (mg/L as CaCO3) 100.00 94.00 92.00 94.00 Ca Hardness (mg/L as CaCO3) 72.00 67.00 64.00 76.00 Ca Hardness (mg/L as Ca++) 28.80 26.80 25.60 30.40 Mg Hardness (mg/L as CaCO3) 28.00 27.00 28.00 18.00 Mg Hardness (mg/L as Mg++) 6.80 6.80 6.80 4.37 Sulfate (mg/L) 19.00 18.61 18.00 17.81 Emission inventory and modeling • Training workshop on emission inventory, scenario development, and Integrated modeling • Emissions inventory manual accompanied Training workshop; July 2006, RRCAP by a workbook (Excel) for compilation • Input for the development of a comprehensive manual for the development of emission scenarios • Introduction of MATCH model for atmospheric transport/transformation and deposition, and HYSPLIT model for air mass trajectory computation • An integrated information and assessment system (IIAS) and Users’ Manual Integrated Information and Assessment • Trained personnel from all the System (IIAS) participating countries on emission Newsgroups: inventory and integrated assessment MD_IIAS@rrcap.unep.org model Impact Assessment Dissemination FOCUS AREAS Regional level discussion of the results • Develop urban integrated assessment capacity • Strengthen knowledge on human Case studies in selected countries health impact assessment • Strengthen knowledge on crop impact assessment • Strengthen knowledge on corrosion Regional Level Training impact assessment, model Methodology EANET East Asia Network on Acid Deposition (EANET) Four experts meetings were held in East Asia from 1993 to 1997 to discuss the issue of acid deposition. The First Intergovernmental Meeting (IG1) was held in 1998 and agreed to establish EANET. Ten countries, which include: China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam started the preparatory phase activities from 1998-2000 4.2 EANET: Member countries Myanmar has joined the network Participation: 14 countries in East Asian region, which includes Northeast and Southeast Asia, that expressed at the Second Intergovernmental Meeting their intention to participate in the Network Started intensive monitoring on common standards with sharing of data and expertise 4.2 EANET: Institutional Arrangement 4.2 Monitoring Network under EANET Additional monitoring stations has been established in Cambodia and Lao SO2 NO, O3 HNO3, PM10 PMC NO2, HCl, NOx NH3 Banryu(Japan) China X X X Indonesia X Mondy(Russia) Japan X X X X Malaysia X X X X Mongolia X X X Los Banos(Philippines) Philippines X X X RoK X X Russia X X X Terelj(Mongolia) Hoa Binh(Viet Nam) Thailand X X X X X X Vietnam X X X Kosan(R.of Korea) Jakarta/EMC(Indonesia) Zhuhai(China) Bangkok/ERTC(Rhailand) Tanah(Malaysia) EANET: Future focus • Information for policy makers • Medium-term plan • Regional scientific seminar on acid deposition Aerosol Particulates Haze at 5km; up to 3km high Size of continental US Covering Indian Ocean, South Asia, Southeast Asia and China Source: V. Ramanathan Brown Cloud Chemical Composition Contribution to Aerosol Optical Depth Ash Black carbon 7% Dust 11% 12% MISS Organics 2% 17% - Sea-salt & NO3 11% 12% + K NH4+ 2% 26% = SO4 Ramanathan et al, 2001 Lelieveld et al, 2001 Project ABC C4 Science Team Chair Scientists from Scientist Asia, Europe and US ABC International Programme IPCC UNEP IGBP WHO WMO Major Components of Project ABC The project ABC comprised of 3 major programmes: Monitorin g Observation: establishment of a network of ground based monitoring stations across the Asia and Pacific region for data collection and capacity building. Assessment of impact on crop, Impact assessment: assessment of the health and water budget potential impacts of ABC on agriculture, water, and health using the data from the monitoring stations. Awareness and mitigation: provide science- Awareness & based information for policy makers to Mitigation mitigate atmospheric pollution. Observatories Established new observatories Upgraded existing observatories Source: V. Ramanathan Aerosol properties Precipitation chemistry Gaseous species Solar radiation Meteorological parameters Pioneer Effort - UAVs October – November 2004; February – March 2006 in Hanimadhoo, Maldives UAVs Dornier aircraft sampled air masses Successful flight with UAV for air sampling from almost all regions of Asia. Recent Field campaigns Maldives Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Campaign (MAC) in South Asia; March 2006 East Asian Regional Experiment (ABC-EAREX2005) in East Asia; Feb.-Apr. 2005 ABC-Post Monsoon Experiment (APMEX-2004) in South Asia; Oct.-Nov. 2004 Source: Prof. Ramanathan Impact Assessment PROCEDURE First Impact Assessment Science Team Chair and Vice Chair workshop, December 2005, Bangkok, Thailand Established an ABC Impact Lead Lead Lead Assessment Team Institution Institution Institution [Agriculture] [water] [Health] Network Network Network Assessment Assessment Assessment report report report ABC Training School 2006 Towards Prevention/mitigation SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REQUIRES MAJOR SHIFT Science and Policy: Parallel Process Common Goal Future Implementation with all the parties Prevention Impact Assessment (technical, fiscal, policy) Efforts Monitoring (common methodology) Today Agreement on regional Baseline Information Mitigation cooperation Prevention Rehabilitation Policy Science (Ministries) (Designated institutions) New vehicle excise tax structure in Thailand Old Tax New Tax (%) (%) Passenger Cars 0-2,000 cc 35 30 2,001-2,500 cc 35,41 35 2,501 – 3,000 cc 41 40 >3,000 cc or >220hp 48 50 Energy saving vehicles Hybrid electric/electric powered / fuel cell 35 to 48 10 powered Vehicles which use natural gas or fuel with 35 to 48 20 at least 20% Ethanol mixed Eco-housing (i) Case studies • Provided technical support for an eco- village demonstration project in Sri Lanka (ii) Good practices • Identify the areas for pollution control Eco village was opened by the President and abatement in each of the of Sri Lanka in March 2006 participating countries; • Collate success stories (for pollution control and abetment); • Dissemination of success stories in the participating countries.