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John Quincy Adams

John Quincy Adams
John Q. Adams Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts’s 8th, 11th, and 12th district In office March 4, 1831 – February 23, 1848 United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom In office 1815 – 1817 President Preceded by Succeeded by James Madison Jonathan Russell As Chargé
d’affaires

Richard Russell

United States Ambassador to Russia In office 1809 – 1814 President Preceded by Succeeded by
Daguerreotype of John Quincy Adams in 1847 or 1848, by Brady

James Madison William Short James A. Bayard

United States Ambassador to Prussia In office 1797 – 1801 President Preceded by Succeeded by John Adams New Office Henry Wheaton (after 34 years)

6th President of the United States In office March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829 Vice President Preceded by Succeeded by John C. Calhoun James Monroe Andrew Jackson

United States Ambassador to the Netherlands In office 1794 – 1797 President Preceded by Succeeded by George Washington William Short William Vans Murray

United States Senator from Massachusetts In office 1803 – June 8, 1808 Preceded by Succeeded by Jonathan Mason James Lloyd

Member of the Massachusetts State Senate In office 1802 – 1803 Born Died July 11, 1767 Braintree, Massachusetts February 23, 1848 (aged 80) Washington, D.C.

8th United States Secretary of State In office September 22, 1817 – March 3, 1825 President Preceded by Succeeded by James Monroe James Monroe Henry Clay

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Resting place United First Parish Church, Quincy, Massachusetts 42°15′04″N 71°00′13″W / 42.25111°N 71.00361°W / 42.25111; -71.00361Coordinates: 42°15′04″N 71°00′13″W / 42.25111°N 71.00361°W / 42.25111; -71.00361 Federalist Democratic-Republican National Republican Anti-Masonic Whig Louisa Catherine Johnson Louisa Adams George Washington Adams John Adams Charles Francis Adams Leiden University Harvard University Unitarianism

John Quincy Adams
partially did during the American Civil War in the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation.

Early life
Adams was born to John Adams, Jr. and Abigail Adams in what is now Quincy, Massachusetts (then the "north precinct" of Braintree, Quincy later separated and was named after John Quincy, just as John Quincy Adams had been). The John Quincy Adams birthplace is now part of Adams National Historical Park and open to the public. It is near Abigail Adams Cairn, marking the site from which Adams witnessed the Battle of Bunker Hill at age seven. In 1779 Adams began a diary that he kept until just before his death in 1848.[2] Adams first learned of the Declaration of Independence from the letters his father wrote his mother from the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Much of Adams’ youth was spent accompanying his father overseas. John Adams served as an American envoy to France from 1778 until 1779 and to the Netherlands from 1780 until 1782, and the younger Adams accompanied his father on these journeys. Adams acquired an education at institutions such as Leiden University. For nearly three years, at the age of 14, he accompanied Francis Dana as a secretary on a mission to St. Petersburg, Russia, to obtain recognition of the new United States. He spent time in Finland, Sweden, and Denmark and, in 1804, published a travel report of Silesia.[3] During these years overseas, Adams gained a mastery of French and Dutch and a familiarity with German and other European languages. He entered Harvard College and graduated in 1788. (Adams House at Harvard College is named in honor of Adams and his father.) He apprenticed as a lawyer with Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport, Massachusetts, from 1787 to 1789. He was admitted to the bar in 1791 and began practicing law in Boston.

Political party

Spouse Children

Alma mater Religion Signature

John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American diplomat and politician who served as the sixth President of the United States from March 4, 1825 to March 4, 1829. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. Adams was the son of the second President John Adams and his wife Abigail Adams, the name "Quincy" having come from Abigail’s maternal grandfather, Colonel John Quincy, after whom Quincy, Massachusetts is also named.[1] He was a diplomat, involved in many international negotiations, and helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine as Secretary of State. As president he proposed a program of modernization and educational advancement, but was stymied by Congress. Adams lost his 1828 bid for re-election to Andrew Jackson. Adams was elected a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts after leaving office, the only president ever to do so, serving for the last 17 years of his life. In the House he became a leading opponent of the Slave Power and argued that if a civil war ever broke out the president could abolish slavery by using his war powers, which Abraham Lincoln

Early political career
George Washington appointed Adams minister to the Netherlands (at the age of 26) in 1794 and to Portugal in 1796. He then was promoted to the Berlin Legation.

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John Quincy Adams
New President James Madison appointed Adams as the first ever United States Minister to Russia in 1809. Three years later Adams, still in Russia, reported back to the United States the news of Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812 and his disastrous retreat. In 1814, Adams was recalled from Russia to serve as chief negotiator of the U.S. commission for the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain. Finally, he was sent to be minister to the Court of St. James’s (Britain) from 1815 until 1817.[4]

Secretary of State
Adams served as Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President James Monroe from 1817 until 1825, a tenure during which he was instrumental in the acquisition of Florida. Typically, his views concurred with those espoused by Monroe. As Secretary of State, he negotiated the Adams-Onís Treaty and wrote the Monroe Doctrine, which warned European nations against meddling in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. Adams’ interpretation of neutrality was so strict that he refused to cooperate with Great Britain in suppressing the slave trade. On Independence Day 1821, in response to those who advocated American support for Latin America’s independence movement from Spain,[5] Adams gave a speech in which he said that American policy was moral support for but not armed intervention on behalf of independence movements, stating that America "goes not abroad in search of monsters to destroy."[6]

Louisa Catherine Adams When the elder Adams became president, he appointed his son in 1797 as Minister to Prussia at Washington’s urging. There Adams signed the renewal of the very liberal Prussian-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce after negotiations with Prussian Foreign Minister Count Karl-Wilhelm Finck von Finckenstein. He served at that post until 1801 and, serving abroad, he married Louisa Catherine Johnson, the daughter of an American merchant, in a ceremony at the church of All Hallows-by-the-Tower, London. Adams remains the only president to have a foreignborn First Lady. The Massachusetts General Court elected Adams as a Federalist to the U.S. Senate soon after, and he served from March 4, 1803, until 1808, when he broke with the Federalist Party. Adams, as a Senator, had supported the Louisiana Purchase and Jefferson’s Embargo Act, actions which made him very unpopular with Massachusetts Federalists. The Federalist-controlled Massachusetts Legislature chose a replacement for Adams on June 3, 1808, several months early. On June 8, Adams broke with the Federalists, resigned his Senate seat, and became a Democrat-Republican.[4]

1824–25 presidential election
Adams ran against four other candidates in the presidential election of 1824: Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky, Secretary of the Treasury William H. Crawford of Georgia, U.S. Senator Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, and Secretary of War John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. After Crawford suffered an incapacitating stroke, there was no clear favorite. In the election, no candidate had a majority of the electoral votes (or of the popular votes), although Jackson had been the winner of a plurality of both. Under the terms of the

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Twelfth Amendment, the presidential election was thrown to the House of Representatives to vote on the top three candidates: Jackson, Adams, and Crawford. Clay had come in fourth place and thus was ineligible, but he retained incredible power as Speaker of the House. Crawford was inviable due to the stroke. Clay’s personal dislike for Jackson and the similarity of his American System to Adams’ position on tariffs and internal improvements caused him to throw his support to Adams, who was elected by the House on February 9, 1825, on the first ballot. Adams’ victory shocked Jackson, who had gained the plurality of the electoral and popular votes and fully expected to be elected president. When Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State—the position that Adams and his three predecessors had held before becoming President—Jacksonian Democrats were outraged, and claimed that Adams and Clay had struck a "corrupt bargain." This contention shadowed over Adams’ term and greatly contributed to Adams’ loss to Jackson four years later, in the 1828 election.

John Quincy Adams
Adams served as the sixth President of the United States from March 4, 1825, to March 3, 1829. He took the oath of office on a book of laws, instead of the more traditional Bible, in order to preserve the separation of church and state.[7][8]

Domestic policies
During his term, he worked on developing the American System, consisting of a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building, and a national bank to encourage productive enterprise and form a national currency. In his first annual message to Congress, Adams presented an ambitious program for modernization that included roads, canals, a national university, an astronomical observatory, and other initiatives. The support for his proposals was limited, even from his own party. His critics accused him of unseemly arrogance because of his narrow victory. Most of his initiatives were opposed in Congress by Jackson’s supporters, who remained outraged over the 1824 election. Nonetheless, some of his proposals were adopted, specifically the extension of the Cumberland Road into Ohio with surveys for its continuation west to St. Louis; the beginning of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the construction of the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal and the Portland to Louisville Canal around the falls of the Ohio; the connection of the Great Lakes to the Ohio River system in Ohio and Indiana; and the enlargement and rebuilding of the Dismal Swamp Canal in North Carolina. One of the issues which divided the administration was protective tariffs. Henry Clay was a supporter, but Adams´ Vice President John C. Calhoun was an opponent. The position of Adams was unknown, because his constituency was divided. After Adams lost control of Congress in 1827, the situation became more complicated. By signing into law the Tariff of 1828 (also known as the Tariff of Abominations), extremely unpopular in the South, he limited his chances to achieve more during his presidency. Adams and Clay set up a new party, the National Republican Party, but it never took root in the states. In the elections of 1827, Adams and his supporters lost control of Congress. New York Senator Martin Van Buren,

Presidency 1825–1829

John Quincy Adams

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John Quincy Adams
independence of all. She is the champion and vindicator only of her own. [9] During his term as president, however, Adams achieved little of consequence in foreign affairs. A reason for this was the opposition he faced in Congress, where his rivals prevented him from succeeding. Among the few diplomatic achievements of his administration were treaties of reciprocity with a number of nations, including Denmark, Mexico, the Hanseatic League, the Scandinavian countries, Prussia and Austria. However, thanks to the successes of Adams’ diplomacy during his previous eight years as Secretary of State, most of the foreign policy issues he would have faced had been resolved by the time he became President.

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal at Swain’s Lock. a future president and follower of Jackson, became one of the leaders of the senate. Much of Adams’ political difficulties were due to his refusal, on principle, to replace members of his administration who supported Jackson (on the grounds that no one should be removed from office except for incompetence). For example, his Postmaster General, John McLean, continued in office through the Adams administration, despite the fact that he was using his powers of patronage to curry favor with Jacksonites. (In contrast, Andrew Jackson’s administration was the start of the spoils system.) Another blow to Adams’ presidency was his generous policy toward Native Americans. Settlers on the frontier, who were constantly seeking to move westward, cried for a more expansionist policy. When the federal government tried to assert authority on behalf of the Cherokees, the governor of Georgia took up arms. It was a sign of nullification that foreshadowed the secession of the Southern states during the Civil War. Adams defended his domestic agenda as continuing Monroe’s policies. In contrast, Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren instigated the policy of Indian removal to the west (i.e. the Trail of Tears).

Administration and Cabinet
The Adams Cabinet Office President Vice President Name John Quincy Adams John C. Calhoun Henry Clay Term 1825–1829 1825–1829

Secretary of State Secretary of Treasury Secretary of War

1825–1829

Richard Rush

1825–1829

James Barbour Peter B. Porter

1825–1828 1828–1829

Attorney General Secretary of the Navy

William Wirt

1825–1829

Foreign policies
Adams is regarded as one of the greatest diplomats in American history, and during his tenure as Secretary of State he was one of the designers of the Monroe Doctrine. On July 4, 1821, he gave an address to Congress: ...But she goes not abroad, in search of monsters to destroy. She is the well-wisher to the freedom and

Samuel L. Southard

1825–1829

Judicial appointments
Supreme Court
• – June 16, 1826 – August 25, 1828

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John Quincy Adams
attacked in the press. This reached a low point when the press accused Jackson’s wife Rachel of bigamy. She died a few weeks after the elections. Jackson said he would forgive those who insulted him, but he would never forgive the ones who attacked his wife. Adams lost the election by a decisive margin, 178-83 in the Electoral College. He won exactly the same states that his father had won in the election of 1800: the New England states, New Jersey, and Delaware. Jackson won everything else except for New York, which gave 16 of its electoral votes to Adams, and Maryland, which cast 6 of its votes for Adams.

Presidential Dollar of John Quincy Adams

Other courts
Adams was able to make eleven other appointments, all to United States district courts.

States admitted to the Union
None

Departure from office
John Quincy Adams left office on March 4, 1829 after losing the election of 1828 to Andrew Jackson. Adams did not attend the inauguration of his successor, Andrew Jackson, who had openly snubbed him by refusing to pay the traditional "courtesy call" to the outgoing President during the weeks before his own inauguration. He was one of only three Presidents who chose not to attend their respective successor’s inauguration, the others were his father and Andrew Johnson.

Election of 1828
After the inauguration of Adams in 1825,[10][11] Jackson resigned from his senate seat. For four years he worked hard, with help from his supporters in Congress, to defeat Adams in the Presidential election of 1828. The campaign was very much a personal one. As was the tradition of the day and age in American presidential politics, neither candidate personally campaigned, but their political followers organized many campaign events. Both candidates were rhetorically

Congressman Adams, from a Daguerreotype taken in 1848 by Southworth & Hawes shortly before his death.

Congressman
Adams did not retire after leaving office. Instead he ran for and was elected to the House of Representatives in the 1830 elections as a National Republican. He was the first president to serve in Congress after his term of office, and one of only two former presidents to do so; Andrew Johnson later served in the Senate. He was elected to eight terms, serving as a Representative for 17

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years, from 1831 until his death. Through redistricting Adams represented three districts in succession: Massachusetts’s 11th congressional district (1831-1833), 12th congressional district (1833-1837), and 8th congressional district (1837-1843), serving from the 22nd to the 30th Congresses. He became a Whig in 1834. In Congress, he was chairman of the Committee on Manufactures (23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th, 28th and 29th), the Committee on Indian Affairs (for the 27th Congress) and the Committee on Foreign Affairs (also for the 27th Congress). He became an important antislavery voice in the Congress. During the years 1836-37 Adams presented many petitions for the abolition of slavery and the slave trade in the District of Columbia and elsewhere to Congress. The Gag rule prevented discussion of slavery from 1836 to 1844, but he frequently managed to evade it by parliamentary skill.

John Quincy Adams
of the United States. He successfully argued that the Africans, who had seized control of a Spanish ship on which they were being transported illegally as slaves, should not be extradited or deported to Cuba (still under Spanish control) but should be considered free. Under Andrew Jackson’s successor Martin Van Buren, the United States Department of Justice argued the Africans should be deported for having mutinied and killed officers on the ship. Adams won their freedom, with the chance to stay in the United States or return to Africa. Adams made the argument on the grounds that the U.S. had prohibited the international slave trade, although it allowed internal slavery. He never billed for his services in the Amistad case.[13] Although there is no indication that the two were close, Adams met Abraham Lincoln during the latter’s sole term as a member of the House of Representatives, from 1847 until Adams’ death. Thus, it has been suggested that Adams is the only major figure in American history who knew both the Founding Fathers and Abraham Lincoln.

Death and burial
On the February 21, 1848, the House of Representatives was discussing the matter of honoring US Army officers who served in the Mexican-American War. Adams firmly opposed this idea, so when the rest of the house erupted into ’ayes’, he cried out, ’No!’ At that precise moment, Adams collapsed, having suffered a massive cerebral hemorrhage. Two days later, on February 23, he died with his wife and son at his side in the Speaker’s Room inside the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. His last words were reported to have been, "This is the last of Earth. I am content." His interment was in the family burial ground in Quincy at the First Unitarian Church. After his wife’s death, his son had him reinterred with his wife in a family crypt in the United First Parish Church across the street. His parents are also interred there and both tombs can be viewed.

United First Parish Church In 1834 he unsuccessfully ran as the AntiMasonic candidate[12] for Governor of Massachusetts, losing to John Davis. Adams then continued his legal career. In 1841, he had the case of a lifetime, representing the defendants in United States v. The Amistad Africans in the Supreme Court

Family
John Quincy Adams and Louisa Catherine (Johnson) Adams had three sons and a daughter. Louisa was born in 1811 but died in 1812 while the family was in Russia. They named

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John Quincy Adams

Notes

Tombs of Presidents John Adams (left) and John Quincy Adams (right) and their wives, in a family crypt beneath the United First Parish Church. their first son George Washington Adams (1801-1829) after the first president. Both George and their second son, John (1803-1834), led troubled lives and died in early adulthood.[14][15] (George committed suicide and John was expelled from Harvard prior to his 1823 graduation.) Adams’ youngest son, Charles Francis Adams (who named his own son John Quincy), also pursued a career in diplomacy and politics. In 1870 Charles Francis built the first memorial presidential library in the United States, to honor his father. The Stone Library includes over 14,000 books written in twelve languages. The library is located in the "Old House" at Adams National Historical Park in Quincy, Massachusetts. The actress Mary Kay Adams is a descendant of John Quincy Adams. John Adams and John Quincy Adams were the first father and son to each serve as president (the others being George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush). In addition, each Adams served only one term as President.

See also
• • • • • • • • • Adams political family Adams-Onís Treaty Mount Quincy Adams Treaty of Ghent Mendi Bible U.S. presidential election, 1820 U.S. presidential election, 1824 U.S. presidential election, 1828 List of United States political appointments that crossed party lines

[1] Herring, James; Longacre, James Barton (1853). The National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans. D. Rice & A.N. Hart. pp. 1. http://books.google.com/ books?id=gVMYAAAAIAAJ&pg=PT50&dq=%22moun Retrieved on 2008-10-22. [2] The text of his 50-volume diary (plus a supplemental volume) at the Massachusetts Historical Society can be found at [1] [3] John Quincy Adams: Letters on Silesia: Written During a Tour Through that Country in the Years 1800,1801 [2] [4] ^ NPS bio of JQA [5] Francis Sempa essay [6] Adams speech July 4, 1821 [7] "Presidential Inaugurations Past and Present: A Look at the History Behind the Pomp and Circumstance". Fpc.state.gov. http://web.archive.org/ web/*/http://fpc.state.gov/fpc/40871.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-16. [8] Romero, Frances (15 January 2009). "A Brief History Of: Swearing In". TIME Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/ magazine/article/ 0,9171,1871905,00.html. Retrieved on 18 January 2009. [9] Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia [10] [3] [11] "Wednesday, February 9, 1825". Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/cgibin/query/r?ammem/ hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(hj01849)). Retrieved on 2008-09-16. [12] Richards, Leonard L. (1986). The Life and Times of Congressman John Quincy Adams. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. pp. 48. ISBN 0-19-504026-0. [13] Miller, William Lee, pg 402 [14] "Brief Biographies of Jackson Era Characters (A)". Jmisc.net. http://www.jmisc.net/BIOG-A.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-16. [15] Shepherd, Jack, Cannibals of the Heart: A Personal Biography of Louisa Catherine and John Quincy Adams, New York, McGraw-Hill 1980

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John Quincy Adams
Battle in the United States Congress. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-3945-6922-9. Nagel, Paul C. John Quincy Adams: A Public Life, a Private Life (1999) Parsons, Lynn Hudson (2003). "In Which the Political Becomes Personal, and Vice Versa: the Last Ten Years of John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson". Journal of the Early Republic 23 (3): 421–443. doi:10.2307/3595046. ISSN 0275-1275. Portolano, Marlana (2000). "John Quincy Adams’s Rhetorical Crusade for Astronomy". Isis 91 (3): 480–503. doi:10.1086/384852. ISSN 0021-1753. Fulltext online at Jstor and Ebsco. He tried and failed to create a national observatory. Potkay, Adam S. (1999). "Theorizing Civic Eloquence in the Early Republic: the Road from David Hume to John Quincy Adams". Early American Literature 34 (2): 147–170. ISSN 0012-8163. Fulltext online at Swetswise and Ebsco. Adams adapted classical republican ideals of public oratory to America, viewing the multilevel political structure as ripe for "the renaissance of Demosthenic eloquence." Adams’s Lectures on Rhetoric and Oratory (1810) looks at the fate of ancient oratory, the necessity of liberty for it to flourish, and its importance as a unifying element for a new nation of diverse cultures and beliefs. Just as civic eloquence failed to gain popularity in Britain, in the United States interest faded in the second decade of the 18th century as the "public spheres of heated oratory" disappeared in favor of the private sphere. Rathbun, Lyon (2000). "The Ciceronian Rhetoric of John Quincy Adams". Rhetorica 18 (2): 175–215. doi:10.1525/ rh.2000.18.2.175. ISSN 0734-8584. Shows how the classical tradition in general, and Ciceronian rhetoric in particular, influenced his political career and his response to public issues. Adams remained inspired by classical rhetorical ideals long after the neo-classicalism and deferential politics of the founding generation had been eclipsed by the commercial ethos and mass democracy of the Jacksonian Era. Many of Adams’s idiosyncratic positions were rooted in his abiding devotion to the Ciceronian ideal of the citizen-orator "speaking well" to promote the welfare of the polis.

References
• Allgor, Catherine (1997). "’A Republican in a Monarchy’: Louisa Catherine Adams in Russia". Diplomatic History 21 (1): 15–43. doi:10.1111/1467-7709.00049. ISSN 0145-2096. Fulltext in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco. Louisa Adams was with JQA in St. Petersburg almost the entire time. While not officially a diplomat, Louisa Adams did serve an invaluable role as wife-of-diplomat, becoming a favorite of the tsar and making up for her husband’s utter lack of charm. She was an indispensable part of the American mission. • Bathroom Readers’ Institute. Uncle John’s Ahh-Inspiring Bathroom Reader. Information on death of Adams. ISBN 1-57145-873-5. • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy. vol 1 (1949), John Quincy Adams and the Union (1956), vol 2. Pulitzer prize biography. • Crofts, Daniel W. (1997). "Congressmen, Heroic and Otherwise". Reviews in American History 25 (2): 243–247. ISSN 0048-7511. Fulltext in Project Muse. Adams role in antislavery petitions debate 1835-44. • Holt, Michael F. The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. 1999. • Lewis, James E., Jr. John Quincy Adams: Policymaker for the Union. Scholarly Resources, 2001. 164 pp. • Mattie, Sean (2003). "John Quincy Adams and American Conservatism". Modern Age 45 (4): 305–314. ISSN 0026-7457. Fulltext online at Ebsco • McMillan, Richard (2001). "Election of 1824: Corrupt Bargain or the Birth of Modern Politics?". New England Journal of History 58 (2): 24–37. • Miller, Chandra (2000). "’Title Page to a Great Tragic Volume’: the Impact of the Missouri Crisis on Slavery, Race, and Republicanism in the Thought of John C. Calhoun and John Quincy Adams". Missouri Historical Review 94 (4): 365–388. ISSN 0026-6582. Shows that both men considered splitting the country as a solution. • Miller, William Lee (1995). Arguing About Slavery. John Quincy Adams and the Great • •

•

•

•

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• Remini, Robert V. (2002). John Quincy Adams. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0805069399. • Wood, Gary V. (2004). Heir to the Fathers: John Quincy Adams and the Spirit of Constitutional Government. Ladham, MD: Lexington. ISBN 0739106015. • Brinkley, Alan; Dyer, Davis (2004). The American Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0618382739.

John Quincy Adams
• Poems of religion and society.: With notices of his life and character by John Davis and T. H. Benton • Encyclopedia Britannica: Adams, John Quincy • Collection of John Quincy Adams Letters • Nagel, Paul. Descent from Glory: Four Generations of the John Adams Family. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999. • Adams, John Quincy. Life in a New England Town, 1787, 1788: Diary of John Quincy Adams. Published in 1903. Diary of J.Q.Adams while he apprenticed as a lawyer in Newburyport, Massachusetts under Theophilus Parsons. • Index entry for John Quincy Adams at Poets’ Corner Persondata NAME ALTERNATIVE NAMES SHORT DESCRIPTION DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH American politician July 11, 1767 Braintree, Massachusetts February 23, 1848 Washington, D.C. Adams, John Quincy

Primary sources
• Butterfield, L. H. et al., eds., The Adams Papers (1961- ). Multivolume letterpress edition of all letters to and from major members of the Adams family, plus their diaries; still incomplete.[4] • Adams, John Quincy, Lectures on Rhetoric and Oratory, 1810 (facsimile ed., 1997, Scholars’ Facsimiles & Reprints, ISSN 9780820115078).

External links
• Official NPS website: Adams National Historical Park • White House Biography • John Quincy Adams Biography and Fact File • Biography of John Quincy Adams • Biography of John Quincy Adams by Appleton’s and Stanley L. Klos • Inaugural Address • State of the Union Addresses: 1825, 1826, 1827, 1828 • July 4, 1821 Independence Day Speech • Works by John Quincy Adams at Project Gutenberg • John Quincy Adams at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress • Medical and Health history of John Quincy Adams • Armigerous American Presidents Series • The Jubilee of the Constitution: A Discourse • Dermot MacMorrogh,: or, The conquest of Ireland. An historical tale of the twelfth century. In four cantos./ By John Quincy Adams • Essay on John Quincy Adams and essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs

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Diplomatic posts Preceded by William Short New title Preceded by William Short Preceded by Jonathan Russell
as Chargé d’affaires

John Quincy Adams

United States Minister to the Netherlands 1794 – 1797 United States Minister to Prussia 1797 – 1801 United States Minister to Russia 1809 – 1814 United States Minister to the United Kingdom 1815 – 1817 United States Senator (Class 1) from Massachusetts 1803 – 1808
Served alongside: Timothy Pickering

Succeeded by William Vans Murray Succeeded by Henry Wheaton¹ Succeeded by James A. Bayard Succeeded by Richard Rush

United States Senate Preceded by Jonathan Mason Succeeded by James Lloyd

Political offices Preceded by James Monroe United States Secretary of State March 5, 1817 – March 4, 1825 President of the United States March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829 United States House of Representatives Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives Succeeded by Joseph Richardson from Massachusetts’s 11th congressional John Reed, Jr. (Redistricted) district 1831 – 1833 Preceded by James L. Hodges Member of the U.S. House of Representatives Succeeded by District abolished from Massachusetts’s 12th congressional district 1833 – 1843 Member of the U.S. House of Representatives Succeeded by from Massachusetts’s 8th congressional dis- Horace Mann trict 1843 – 1848 Democratic-Republican Party presidential candidate² 1824 National Republican Party presidential candidate 1828 Oldest U.S. President still living June 8, 1845 – February 23, 1848 Party Disbanded Succeeded by Henry Clay Succeeded by Andrew Jackson

Preceded by William B. Calhoun

Party political offices Preceded by James Monroe New political party Honorary titles Preceded by Andrew Jackson
Notes and references

Succeeded by Henry Clay

Succeeded by Martin Van Buren

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1. There was over a thirty-four year period between Adams’s and Wheaton’s terms.

John Quincy Adams

2. The Democratic-Republican Party split in 1824, fielding four separate candidates: Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and William Harris Crawford.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Quincy_Adams" Categories: Monroe administration cabinet members, John Quincy Adams administration cabinet members, 1767 births, 1848 deaths, Presidents of the United States, United States presidential candidates, 1820, United States presidential candidates, 1824, United States presidential candidates, 1828, United States Secretaries of State, United States Senators from Massachusetts, United States ambassadors to the Netherlands, United States ambassadors to Russia, United States ambassadors to the United Kingdom, United States ambassadors to Prussia, Members of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts, Massachusetts lawyers, Massachusetts State Senators, Harvard University alumni, Leiden University alumni, Adams family, John Quincy Adams, Presidency of John Quincy Adams, Children of Presidents of the United States, People from Quincy, Massachusetts, People from Boston, Massachusetts, People from Norfolk County, Massachusetts, American Unitarians, English Americans, Deaths from cerebral hemorrhage, People from Braintree, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Whigs, Quincy family This page was last modified on 25 May 2009, at 21:55 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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