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Joseph M. Arpaio (born June 14, 1932 in Springfield, Massachusetts, United States) is a law enforcement officer, and the sheriff of Maricopa County, Arizona. Arpaio, who promotes himself as "America’s Toughest Sheriff," is controversial for his approach to operating the Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office. He has a large number of vocal supporters as well as detractors. His practices have been criticized by organizations such as Amnesty International, the American Civil Liberties Union, the Arizona Ecumenical Council, the American Jewish Committee, and the Arizona chapter of the Anti-Defamation League.
Actions as Maricopa County Sheriff
During his tenure as Maricopa County Sheriff, Arpaio has instituted or strengthened several of the following crime prevention programs: • bicycle registration • block watches • child identification and fingerprinting • Operation Identification (for marking valuables) • Operation Notification (which identifies business owners to be notified during times of emergency) • Project Lifeline (which provides free cellular phones to domestic violence victims) • S.T.A.R.S. (Sheriffs Teaching Abuse Resistance to Students) • an annual summer camp for kids near Payson. Beginning December 27, 2008 Arpaio will appear in Smile... you’re under Arrest!, a Fox Reality Channel show in which persons with outstanding warrants are tricked into presenting themselves for arrest.
History and law-enforcement background
Arpaio is of Italian heritage. His mother died while giving birth to him, and Arpaio was raised by his father, a grocery store owner. He completed high school and worked in his father’s business until age 18 when he enlisted in the United States Army. Arpaio served in the Army from 1950-1954 in the Medical Detachment Division and was stationed in France for part of the time as a military policeman. Following his discharge from the Army in 1954 he moved to Washington, D.C. and became a policeman, moving in 1957 to Las Vegas, Nevada. He would serve in Nevada only six months before obtaining a job as a Special Agent with the Drug Enforcement Administration. During his 25-year tenure with DEA, he was stationed in both Turkey and Mexico, and advanced to the position of head of the DEA’s Arizona branch. In 1992, Arpaio successfully campaigned for the office of Maricopa County Sheriff. He was re-elected in 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2008 with considerable support of the county voters. He married Ava Arpaio in 1958. The couple currently has two children and four grandchildren.
Changes to jail operations
Arpaio began to serve inmates surplus food including outdated and oxidized green bologna and limited meals to twice daily. Arpaio banned inmates from possessing "sexually explicit material" including Playboy magazine after female officers complained that inmates openly masturbated while viewing them, or harassed the officers by comparing their anatomy to the nude photos in the publications. The ban was challenged on First Amendment grounds but upheld by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. In February 2007, Arpaio instituted an inhouse radio station he calls KJOE. Arpaio’s radio station broadcasts classical music, opera, Frank Sinatra hits, patriotic music and educational programming. It operates from the basement of the county jail for five days a week, four hours each day.
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In March 2007, the Maricopa County Jail hosted "Inmate Idol", a takeoff on the popular TV show American Idol.
One of Arpaio’s most visible public relations successes was the introduction of pink underwear, which the Maricopa County Sheriff’s website cites as being "world famous." Arpaio subsequently started to sell customized pink boxers (with the Maricopa County Sheriff’s logo and "Go Joe") as a fundraiser for Sheriff’s Posse Association. Despite allegations of misuse of funds received from these sales, Arpaio declined to provide an accounting for the money . Arpaio’s success in gaining press coverage with the pink underwear resulted in him extending the use of the color. He introduced pink handcuffs, using the event to promote his book, Sheriff Joe Arpaio, America’s Toughest Sheriff. .
Arpaio set up a "Tent City" as an extension of the Maricopa County Jail (33°25′40″N 112°07′26″W / 33.42778°N 112.12389°W / 33.42778; -112.12389 (Maricopa County Jail)), in an effort to tackle over-crowding without building a new jail, saving taxpayers circa $70m. Many prisons and jails throughout the United States have used, and continue to use, tents to house inmates. Tent City is located in a yard next to a more permanent structure containing toilets, showers, an area for meals, and a day room. It has become notable particularly because of Phoenix’s extreme temperatures. Daytime temperatures inside the tents have been reported as high as 150 °F (65 °C) in the top bunks. During the summer, fans and water are supplied in the tents. According to former Sheriff’s Office employees, Arpaio emptied an entire floor of one jail to help fill the tent city when it was opened.  During the summer of 2003, when outside temperatures exceeded 110 °F (43 °C), which is higher than average, Arpaio said to complaining inmates, "It’s 120 degrees in Iraq and the soldiers are living in tents, have to wear full body armor, and they didn’t commit any crimes, so shut your mouths." Inmates were given permission to wear only their pink underwear. Tent City has been criticized by groups contending these are violations of human and constitutional rights, as well as by Erwin James, a journalist for The Guardian currently on parole from a life sentence in Britain..
In 2005, nearly 700 maximum-security prisoners were marched the four blocks from Towers Jail to the newly opened Lower Buckeye Jail, wearing only their underwear and flip-flops, nominally to prevent the concealment of weapons. Prisoners were stripsearched when they left Towers Jail and again when they reached their destination. "It’s a security issue," Arpaio said. "If you let them wear their clothes, they can conceal the fake keys and everything else.
Webcasts of pretrial detainees
Starting in July 2000, the Maricopa County Sheriff’s website hosted Jail Cam, a 24-hour Internet webcast of images from cameras in the Madison Street Jail, a facility which processed and housed only pretrial detainees. The stated goals of the broadcasts were the deterrence of future crime and improved public scrutiny of jail procedures. The cameras showed arrestees being brought in handcuffed, fingerprinted, booked, and taken to holding cells; with the site receiving millions of hits per day. Twenty-four former detainees brought suit against the Sheriff’s office, arguing that their Fourteenth Amendment rights of due process had been violated. U.S. District Court Judge Earl H. Carroll held in favor of the former detainees, issuing an injunction ending the webcasts. By a 2 to 1 vote, a three-judge panel of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the injunction, with the majority opinion stating:
Volunteer chain gangs
In 1995, Arpaio reinstituted chain gangs. In 1996, Arpaio expanded the chain gang concept by instituting female volunteer chain gangs. Female inmates work seven hours a day (7 am to 2 pm), six days a week. He has also instituted the world’s first all-juvenile volunteer chain gang; volunteers earn high school credit toward a diploma.
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... Second, Sheriff Arpaio argues that the cameras are justified by the County’s interest in having its pretrial detention centers open to public scrutiny. We have given prison officials wide latitude in administering pretrial detention facilities, in guaranteeing detainees’ attendance at trial, and in promoting prison safety. But we fail to see how turning pretrial detainees into the unwilling objects of the latest reality show serves any of these legitimate goals. As the Supreme Court has recognized, "[i]nmates . . . are not like animals in a zoo to be filmed and photographed at will by the public or by media reporters, however ‘educational’ the process may be for others. In his dissenting opinion, Circuit Judge Carlos Bea wrote: ... What the majority avoids—perhaps because of the all-too-predictable result—is to ask the question basic to any review questioning the validity of governmental action under a rational basis analysis: were the webcasts reasonably related to the purpose of deterring public behavior that could result in pretrial detention? The answer clearly is Yes. ... Similarly unexamined is the Sheriff’s purpose of providing transparency of jail operations as a civic good. Sheriff Arpaio’s methods to achieve his purposes of public deterrence and governmental transparency may not suit the fine sensibilities of some group advocates and jurists. But absent a violation of the constitutional rights of Plaintiffs—and I see none—such differences of opinion must be vindicated, if at all, in the ballot box, not in the courtroom.
9,000 illegal aliens) have registered for selective service. The Sheriff also started the "Have a Heart" program in which inmates may volunteer to be organ donors.
Policy on illegal immigration
In 2005, Arizona passed a state law making it a felony, punishable by up to two years in jail, to smuggle illegal immigrants across the border. Smuggling illegal immigrants was already a federal crime, but Arizona passed its law, effectively authorizing local police to enforce immigration law, out of frustration that the federal government had not done enough to control illegal border crossings. Maricopa County Attorney Andrew P. Thomas issued a legal opinion that persons being smuggled can be considered co-conspirators to the smuggling and can be charged under the same law. In a court challenge to this interpretation, the law’s sponsor said it was never intended to target the immigrants themselves, only the smugglers. A judge upheld Thomas’s opinion, saying there was no evidence that legislators "intended to exclude any prosecution for conspiracy to commit human smuggling." Arpaio has instructed his sheriff’s deputies and members of his civilian posse to arrest illegal immigrants. Arpaio told the Washington Times, "My message is clear: if you come here and I catch you, you’re going straight to jail.... I’m not going to turn these people over to federal authorities so they can have a free ride back to Mexico. I’ll give them a free ride to my jail." As of August 2006, there had been 263 arrests and 121 convictions of smugglers under the state law, often known as the Coyote law. No court had convicted a smuggled person as a co-conspirator by that time. In April 2008, an editorial in The New York Times denounced a proposed expansion of the local enforcement of immigration law to all of Arizona, offering immigration sweeps by the Maricopa County posse as an example of abuse of the program. On March 3, 2009, the United States Department of Justice "notified Arpaio of the investigation in a letter saying his enforcement methods may unfairly target Hispanics and  Spanish-speaking people." Arpaio,
Selective Service registration and organ donors
In 2001, Arpaio required all inmates 18 years and older to register for the selective service system. Such registration is mandatory for all U.S. males between 18 and 26 years of age, as well as for male aliens of the same age regardless of their immigration status. Since 2001, a total of 28,000 inmates (including
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denying any wrongdoing and welcoming the investigation, says he’ll cooperate fully. On April 20, 2009, the East Valley Tribune won the Pulitzer Prize for local news reporting for its five part series on Arpaio’s efforts against illegal immigration. The Tribune detailed the decline in law enforcement services that has arisen due to the resources that Arpaio has shifted to immigration matters.
Controversy and criticism
Amnesty International has issued a report critical of the treatment of inmates in Maricopa County facilities. Local newspapers also have been critics. From 2004 through November 2007, Arpaio was the target of 2,150 lawsuits in U.S. District Court and hundreds more in Maricopa County courts; 50 times as many prison-conditions lawsuits as the New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston jail systems combined. Arpaio is named in a class-action lawsuit, Hart v. Arpaio, brought by Phoenix attorney Debra Hill and the American Civil Liberties Union on behalf of jail inmates. The lawsuit centers on the treatment of pretrial detainees, who are legally innocent until proven guilty. The lawsuit claims that Arpaio is violating the constitutional rights of those detainees. The trial in the lawsuit began on August 12, 2008. By mid-2007, more than $50 million in claims had been filed against the sheriff’s office and Maricopa County. In her book on prison policy The Use of Force by Detention Officers, Arizona State University criminal justice professor Marie L. Griffin reported on a 1998 study commissioned by Arpaio to examine recidivism rates based on conditions of confinement. Comparing recidivism rates under Arpaio to those under his predecessor, the study found "there was no significant difference in recidivism observed between those offenders released in 1989-1990 and those released in 1994-1995." However, a study by the Grant Sawyer Center for Justice Studies at the University of Nevada, Reno of recidivism rates across the United States showed that Arizona has the nation’s lowest rate of recidivism, at only 24.5 percent, while states with higher rates were California (53.4 percent), Alaska (66 percent), and Utah (64 percent). One Nevada district attorney said the states with higher recidivism rates "may have pleasant prisons".
Alleged assassination conspiracy
James Saville was arrested in July 1999 for allegedly conspiring to murder Joe Arpaio with a pipe bomb. Saville had just completed an 18-month sentence for arson for attempting to blow up his high school by filling it with gas from 37 opened bunsen burners. While in prison, Saville had drawn crude bomb plans and expressed to a jailhouse snitch the desire to kill the prosecutor and judge in his arson case. He was arrested the day after his release while assembling a bomb in the presence of an undercover sheriff’s deputy. A jury decided that undercover officers from the Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office had entrapped Saville by turning his assassination plans toward Sheriff Arpaio, and found Saville not guilty.
Failed recall petition
In November 2007 a group called Arizonans for the U.S. Constitution and Recall of Joe Arpaio filed the paperwork to begin an effort to recall Arpaio and County Prosecutor Andrew P. Thomas from office for allegedly disobeying and violating the United States Constitution and abuse of power. Their petition to get a recall question for the two officials onto the next general election ballot failed when the group was unable to collect the more than 200,000 registered voter signatures required. In a survey taken by the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication while the petition was in circulation, nearly three out of four respondents opposed the recall, and 65 percent of the respondents held a positive opinion of Arpaio.
Inmate deaths and injuries
Family members of inmates who have died or been injured in jail custody have filed lawsuits against the sheriff’s office. Maricopa
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County has paid more than $43 million in settlement claims during Arpaio’s tenure. 
death, according to the Maricopa County medical examiner, was due to "positional asphyxia". Sheriff Arpaio investigated and subsequently cleared detention officers of any criminal wrongdoing. Norberg’s parents filed a lawsuit against Arpaio and his office. The lawsuit was settled for $8.25 million (USD).
In August 2001, Charles Agster, a 33-year-old mentally handicapped man, died in the county jail three days after being forced by sheriff’s officers into a restraint chair used for controlling combative arrestees. Agster’s parents had been taking him to a psychiatric hospital because he was exhibiting paranoia, then called police when he refused to leave a convenience store where they had stopped enroute. Officers took Agster to the Madison Street jail, placed a "spit hood" over his face and strapped him to the chair, where he had an apparent seizure and lost consciousness. He was declared brain dead three days later. A medical examiner later concluded that Agster died of complications of methamphetamine intoxication. In a subsequent lawsuit, an attorney for the sheriff’s office described the amount of methamphetamine in Agster’s system as 17 times the known lethal dose. The lawsuit resulted in a $9 million jury verdict against the county, the sheriff’s office, and Correctional Health Services.
Brian Crenshaw was a legally blind and mentally disabled inmate who suffered fatal injuries while being held in Maricopa County Jail. Crenshaw’s family filed a lawsuit against Arpaio and his office, which resulted in an award of $2 million. As in the Scott Norberg case, it was alleged that Arpaio’s office destroyed evidence in the case. In the Crenshaw case, the attorney who represented the case before a jury alleged digital video evidence was destroyed.
Richard Post was a paraplegic inmate arrested in 1996 for possession of marijuana and criminal trespass. Post was placed in a restraint chair by guards and his neck was broken in the process. The event, caught on video, shows guards smiling and laughing while Post is being injured. Because of his injuries, Post has lost much of the use of his arms. Post settled his claims against the Sheriff’s office for $800,000.
One major controversy includes the 1996 death of inmate Scott Norberg, a former Brigham Young University football wide receiver, who died while in custody of the Sheriff’s office. Norberg was arrested for assaulting a police officer in Mesa, Arizona, after neighbors in a residential area had reported a delirious man walking in their neighborhood. Arpaio’s office repeatedly claimed Norberg was also high on methamphetamine, but a blood toxicology performed post-mortem was inconclusive. Norberg did, however, have methamphetamine in his urine, proving that he had used the drug at some point fairly recently before his death. During his internment, evidence suggests detention officers shocked Norberg several times with a stun-gun. According to an investigation by Amnesty International, Norberg was already handcuffed and face down when officers dragged him from his cell and placed him in a restraint chair with a towel covering his face. After Norberg’s corpse was discovered, detention officers accused Norberg of attacking them as they were trying to restrain him. The cause of his
In 1996, Jeremy Flanders was attacked by inmates at Tent City who used rebar tent stakes, which were not concreted into the ground. Although these stakes had been used as weapons in a previous riot at the facility, the Sheriff’s office chose not to secure them properly. During the trial, the plaintiff "presented evidence that, among other things, the Sheriff and his deputies had actual knowledge that prisoners used rebar tent stakes and tent poles as weapons and did nothing to prevent it." Furthermore, "the Sheriff admitted knowing about, and in fact intentionally designing, some conditions at Tent City that created a substantial risk of inmate violence." After the attack: "another inmate entered the tent and found Flanders unconscious, gasping for air, and spewing blood out of his mouth, nose and ears. Flanders had been bloodied and beaten so badly that the other inmate initially did not recognize
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Flanders." Flanders suffered permanent brain damage as a result of the attack. On appeal, Flanders was awarded $635,532, of which Arpaio was personally responsible for thirty-five percent.
Deborah Braillard, 46, was documented as a diabetic in the jail’s health records. Her cellmates say a nurse did not give Braillard insulin, and then detention officers ignored her when she went into diabetic shock. Braillard died on January 23, 2005, ultimately from lack of insulin.
Ambria Renee Spencer
In 2006, inmate Ambrett Spencer, who was incarcerated for drunk driving and was nine months pregnant with a healthy girl, complained of severe stomach pains and asked for medical attention. The infirmary nurse, who had no prenatal training, believed the pain was not an emergency. It was two hours before an ambulance was called for Spencer, who in the meantime had passed out from severely low blood pressure and lost so much color that the EMT who arrived at the scene said he knew she was "not getting enough blood to [her] organs and skin." At the hospital—four hours after first reporting pain—Spencer gave birth to a dead daughter, Ambria Renee. It was determined that Spencer’s pain had been caused by placental abruption, internal bleeding resulting in loss of blood to the baby, which babies can usually survive if the mother is taken to the hospital and labor is quickly induced. Ambrett Spencer has filed a lawsuit against Maricopa County, which as of November 2008 has not yet gone to trial. The county claims that the ambulance service is at fault for not transporting Spencer to the hospital fast enough. Other female inmates have had miscarriages while incarcerated in Arpaio’s jail and have reported physical abuse or neglect which they believe contributed to the loss of their pregnancies. 
In December 2005, Clint Yarbrough suffocated in a jail restraint chair. On April 18, 2007, the Maricopa County Board of Supervisors approved an undisclosed settlement payout to Yarbrough’s family in excess of $1 million.
Thomas Bruce Cooley
Months before Thomas Bruce Cooley, 44, was found hanging by the bed sheets in his jail cell, a federal inspector had warned Arpaio that the jail psych ward was a suicide waiting to happen. A 1996 Department of Justice report specifically cautioned that inmates could use "overhanging structures" to hang themselves. Three more inmates died in the same way as Thomas Cooley while in Arpaio’s custody: Kevin Holschlag, Michael Sanderson, and Juan Vasquez.
Icelandic extradition refusal
An Icelandic court in 1997 refused to extradite Connie and Donald Hanes to Maricopa County after hearing evidence about the county jail.
Enforcement acts of deputies and posse
In 2004, the Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office SWAT team led a raid on an Ahwatukee home in a gated subdivision, looking for illegal weapons. No illegal weapons were found, but during the raid, the house burned down, SWAT officers forced a dog back into the building where it subsequently died, and an armored vehicle rolled into a neighbor’s parked car as a result of brake failure.
On March 26, 1996, Jose Rodriquez, 39, died in a pool of his own vomit on a jail floor. His cries for help went ignored by Arpaio’s jail employees. Rodriquez’s dehydration, fever and twitching ultimately led to his death, even while inmates shouted for help.
In 2003, Phillip Wilson was serving two months in Tent City for a nonviolent offense. Wilson was attacked by the Aryan Brotherhood prison gang and bludgeoned into a coma. He never recovered.
In an undercover sting operation in November, 2003, sheriff’s deputies arrested over 70 people for prostitution and solicitation of prostitution. The officers arrested alleged
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prostitutes and their alleged customers in more than thirty homes and ten massage parlors in the Phoenix area. Records indicated that several of the officers and civilian posse members disrobed, fondled the breasts and genitals of the alleged prostitutes, and allowed their penises to be touched during the operation in the hopes of convincing the women they were not law enforcement officers. The Maricopa County Attorney’s Office stated that the Sheriff’s office had gone too far in allowing this behavior, and sixty of the cases were thrown out. Several of the customers in the case were prosecuted successfully.
the grand jury. Baca’s justification was a statute that had been clarified by case law and by subsequent legislation to bar such subpoena authority, unless certain reporting requirements are met. The prosecutor had not met those reporting requirements. In April, 2008, the New Times editors filed suit against Arpaio, County Attorney Andrew Thomas and Special Prosecutor Dennis Wilenchik, alleging negligence, conspiracy and racketeering, and State and U.S. constitutional violations of free speech rights, false imprisonment, retaliation by law enforcement and abuse of process.
Conflicts with local news media
Arrest of Phoenix New Times executives
In October 2007, Arpaio’s deputies arrested Village Voice Media executives and Phoenix New Times editors Michael Lacey and Jim Larkin on charges of revealing grand jury secrets. In July 2004, the New Times had published Arpaio’s home address in the context of a story about his real estate dealings, which the county attorney’s office is investigating as a possible crime under Arizona state law. A special prosecutor served Village Voice Media with a subpoena ordering it to produce "all documents" related to the original real estate article, as well as "all Internet web site traffic information" to a number of articles that mentioned Arpaio. The prosecutor further ordered Village Voice Media to produce the IP addresses of all visitors to the Phoenix New Times website since January 1, 2004, as well as what websites those readers had been to prior to visiting. As an act of "civil disobedience," Lacey and Larkin published the contents of the subpoena on or around October 18, which resulted in their arrests the same day. On the following day, the county attorney dropped the case after declining to pursue charges against the two. The Attorney General’s office has since been ordered to appear before Judge Ana Baca due to missing documentation - including the original grand jury subpoenas - in the case file for the investigation of the New Times publication. On November 28, 2007, Judge Baca ruled that the subpoenas in this case were not validly issued. The special prosecutor filed the grand jury subpoenas without the consent of
Alleged harassment of New Times reporter
On June 11, 2008, Ray Stern, a reporter for the Phoenix New Times, was surrounded and intimidated by several deputies while trying to examine public records at the City of Phoenix public records counter. Stern called City Attorney Gary Verburg, who came down and instructed the deputies that Stern had the right to view the records. The deputies then threatened to simply arrest Stern on the spot. Later, a city "conflict resolution manager" walked up and laid down an Arizona law book. She pointed to the section of public records law that essentially says anyone can look at any public record during business hours. City Attorney Verburg told the deputies again that Stern had the right to look at any public record. Upon hearing that, the deputies warned Stern again that if he tried to look at the documents he would be arrested. The events reported by the New Times are substantively verified in a memo drafted by Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office Commander James Miller. In this memo, Miller states that the deputies did threaten to arrest Stern if he touched any of the records, and that he (Miller) held one of the records out in front of Stern, saying "take it", to create a pretense to arrest Stern. Miller also reported that the situation escalated into a standoff with the Phoenix Police, when they warned him not to attempt to arrest Stern.
FOIA requests to mayor and other officials
In situations where government officials have been at odds with Arpaio, his office has used the Freedom of Information Act to make
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broad requests for records of their email and correspondence. The requests have been targeted against Arizona Attorney General Terry Goddard, Maricopa County Court Administrator Marcus Reinkensmeyer, and most recently, Phoenix Mayor Phil Gordon. Starting in March, 2008, Gordon spoke out, in a number of high-profile speeches, against racial profiling by Arpaio. On April 24, Arpaio’s deputies issued a public-records request seeking the mayor’s e-mails, cell phone records, and meeting calendar, as well as e-mail correspondence for Phoenix Police Chief Jack Harris, City Manager Frank Fairbanks, and all of Gordon’s administrative staff. The request covered every e-mail written by more than a dozen Phoenix staffers, from November to the date of the sheriff’s demand. Party Republican Democratic Candidate
Votes % ±%
Joe Arpaio 572,063 66.49 n/a (incumbent) Robert Ayala 227,055 26.39 n/a 60,401 825 7.02 0.1 n/a n/a n/a
Independent Tom Bearup n/a Majority Turnout Republican hold Write-in candidate
345,008 40.1 860,344 Swing
• Joe Arpaio and Len Sherman, America’s Toughest Sheriff: How We Can Win the War Against Crime, (1996). Summit Publishing Group, ISBN 1-56530-202-8 • Joe Arpaio and Len Sherman, Joe’s Law: America’s Toughest Sheriff Takes on Illegal Immigration, Drugs, and Everything Else that Threatens America, (2008). AMACOM, ISBN 0-81440-199-6
2008 election results
2008 Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office election, Arizona  Party Candidate Votes % ±% Republican Joe Arpaio 730,426 55.2 (incumbent) Democratic Dan Saban 558,176 42.2
 "Another Plot Against Tough Sheriff, With a Twist". New York Times. 2002-05-16. http://query.nytimes.com/ Libertarian Chris A.H. 35,425 2.7 gst/ Will fullpage.html?res=9806EED71039F935A25756C0A9 Republican hold Swing  The original source for the sobriquet "America’s Toughest Sheriff" is 2004 election results unknown, however both Arpaio and his 2004 Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office election,press relations staff aggressively Arizona  promote its use. Note Arpaio’s book, Party Candidate Votes % ±% titled "America’s Toughest Sheriff."  ^ Ill-treatment of inmates in Maricopa Republican Joe Arpaio 642,923 56.74 -9.75 County jails, Arizona, Amnesty (incumbent) International, 1 August 1997, Democratic Robert 347,981 30.71 +4.32 http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/ Ayala engAMR510511997?open&of=eng-2am  n/a Steven W. 142,296 12.56 n/a Phoenix Mayor Gordon calls for FBI investigation of Arpaio, The Arizona Martin Republic, 13 April 2008, 294,942 26.03 -14.07 Majority http://www.azcentral.com/ 1,133,200 +131.71 Turnout arizonarepublic/news/articles/ Republican hold Swing 0413gordonarpaio0413.html  "Growing up." Joe Arpaio. Accessed October 29, 2008. 2000 election results  "Joining the Army." Joe Arpaio. Accessed 2000 Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office elecOctober 29, 2008. tion, Arizona 
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• Official Election Website • "Overthrow Arpaio" (criticism site) • Local News Coverage of Arpaio from KPHO.com and CBS 5 News (KPHO-TV) • Local News Coverage of Arpaio from azfamily.com and KTVK-3TV • -NOW on PBS • Sheriff Joe Arpaio interview with Beverly Kidd - 6/23 at YouTube • What Happened to Joe Arpaio? Phoenix Magazine • Why Does America’s Scariest Sheriff Have a Reality Show?
• Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office • Official Bio