Invasion_of_Yugoslavia by zzzmarcus

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Invasion of Yugoslavia

Invasion of Yugoslavia
Invasion of Yugoslavia (Unternehmen 25) Part of the Balkans Campaign of World War II Italians, 49 aircraft downed, 103 pilots and aircrew killed, 211 aircraft captured, 3 destroyers and 3 submarines captured. and over 70 aircrew killed or missing Italy: 3,324 killed or wounded, 10+ aircraft downed

Map of the Axis attack
Date Location Result 6 April 1941 – 17 April 1941 Kingdom of Yugoslavia Decisive Axis victory • Dissolution of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia • Creation of pro-Axis puppet regimes • Beginning of the Yugoslav Front of World War II

The Invasion of Yugoslavia (code-name Directive n. 25), also known as the April War (Croatian: Travanjski rat, Serbian/Bosnian: Aprilski rat, Slovene: aprilska vojna), was the Axis Powers’ attack on Kingdom of Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941 during World War II. The invasion ended with the unconditional surrender of the Royal Yugoslav Army on April 17, 1941, the occupation of the region by the Axis and the creation of the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, or NDH).

Belligerents Allied Powers: Kingdom of Yugoslavia Axis Powers: Germany Italy Bulgaria Romania Hungary Croatian rebels Commanders Milorad Petrović Milan Nedić Dušan Trifunović Maximilian von Weichs Wilhelm List Vittorio Ambrosio Ante Pavelić Strength 850,000 Casualties and losses Thousands of civilians and soldiers killed 254,000-345,000 captured by Germans, 30,000 by Germany (Official German WW2 figures): 151 killed 392 wounded 15 missing. 60+ aircraft downed 700,000

Background
In October 1940, Fascist Italy had attacked Greece only to be forced back into Albania. German dictator Adolf Hitler recognised the need to go to the aid of his ally, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Hitler did this not only to restore diminished Axis prestige, but also to prevent Great Britain from being able to bomb the Romanian oilfields from which Germany obtained most of her oil. Following agreements with Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria that they would join the Axis, Hitler put pressure on Yugoslavia to join the Tripartite Pact. The Regent, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia, succumbed to this pressure on March 25, 1941. However, this move was deeply unpopular amongst the anti-Axis Serbian public and military. A coup d’etat was launched on March 27, 1941 by antiPrince Paul Serbian military officers, and the Regent was replaced on the throne by King Peter II of Yugoslavia[1]. This unexpected turn of events enraged Hitler, leading to his decision to punish Yugoslavia for its defiance[2], despite the apparent readiness of the new Yugoslav rulers not to renounce Yugoslavia’s involvement in the Tripartite Pact[3].

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Invasion of Yugoslavia
Army Group with the 1st and 2nd Armies, defended the region between the Iron Gates and the Drava River. The 1st Army Group with the 4th and 7th Armies, composed mainly of Croatian troops, was in Croatia and Slovenia defending the Italian, German (Austrian) and Hungarian frontiers.[5][8]. The strength of each "Army" amounted to little more than a corps, with the 3 Army Groups consisting of the units deployed as follows; The 3rd Army Group’s 3rd Army consisted of 4 infantry divisions and one cavalry odred; the 3rd Territorial Army with 3 infantry divisions and one independent motorized artillery regiment; the 5th Army with 4 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division, 2 odred and one independent motorized artillery regiment and the 6th Army with 3 infantry divisions, the 2 Royal Guards brigades (odred) and 3 infantry odred. The 2nd Army Group’s 1st Army had 1 infantry and 1 cavalry divisions, 3 odred and 6 frontier defence regiments; the 2nd Army had 3 infantry divisions and 1 frontier defence regiment. Finally, the 1st Army Group consisted of the 4th Army, with 3 infantry divisions and one odred, whilst the 7th Army had 2 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division, 3 mountain odred, 2 infantry odred and 9 frontier defence regiments. The Strategic, "Supreme Command" Reserve in Bosnia comprised 4 infantry divisions, 4 independent infantry regiments, 1 tank battalion, 2 motorized engineer battalions, 2 motorized heavy artillery regiments, 15 independent artillery battalions and 2 independent anti-aircraft artillery battalions. The Coastal Defence Force, on the Adriatic opposite Zadar comprised 1 infantry division and 2 odred, in addition to fortress brigades and anti-aircraft units at Sibenik and Kotor[9]. Beyond the problems of inadequate equipment and incomplete mobilization, the Royal Yugoslav Army suffered badly from the Serbo-Croat schism in Yugoslav politics. "Yugoslav" resistance to the invasion collapsed overnight. The main reason was that none of the subordinate national groups; Slovenes, Croats, or Macedonians, were prepared to fight in defence of a Serbian Yugoslavia. The only effective opposition to the invasion was from wholly Serbian units within the borders of Serbia itself.[10] In its worst expression, Yugoslavia’s defenses were badly compromised on April 10, 1941, when some of the units in the Croatian-manned 4th

The Royal Yugoslav Armed Forces
Formed after World War I, the Royal Yugoslav Army was still largely equipped with weapons and material from that era, although some modernization with Czech equipment and vehicles had begun. Of about 7,000 artillery pieces, many were aged and horse-drawn, but about 4,000 were relatively modern, including 800 anti-tank guns. There were also about 1,900 modern mortars and 250 anti-aircraft guns. All of these arms were imported, from different sources, which meant that the various models often lacked proper repair and maintenance facilities.[4] The only mechanized units were 6 motorized infantry battalions in the 3 cavalry divisions, 6 motorized artillery regiments, two tank battalions equipped with 110 tanks, one of which had Renault FT-17s models of WW 1 origin and the other 54 modern French Renault R35 tanks, plus an independent tank company with 8 Czech SI-D tank destroyers. Some 1,000 trucks for military purposes had been imported from the United States of America in the months just preceding the invasion.[5] Fully mobilized, the Royal Yugoslav Army could have put 28 infantry divisions, 3 cavalry divisions, and 35 independent regiments in the field. An independent parachute unit, of company size, was formed in late 1939, but was not yet combat-ready.[6] Of the independent regiments, 16 were in frontier fortifications and 19 were organized as combined regiments, or "Odred", around the size of a reinforced brigade. Each Odred had one to three infantry regiments and one to three artillery battalions, with three organised as "alpine" units. The German attack, however, caught the army still mobilizing, and only some 11 divisions were in their planned defense positions at the start of the invasion. The units were filled to between 70 and 90 percent of their strength as mobilization was not completed. The strength of the Royal Yugoslav Army was about 1,200,000 as the German invasion got underway [7]. The Royal Yugoslav Army was organized into three army groups and the coastal defense troops. The 3rd Army Group was the strongest with the 3rd, 3rd Territorial, 5th and 6th Armies defending the borders with Romania, Bulgaria and Albania. The 2nd

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and 7th Armies mutinied, and a newly-formed Croatian government hailed the entry of the Germans into Zagreb the same day.[11] The Serbian General Staff were united on the question of Yugoslavia as a "Greater Serbia", ruled, in one way or another, by Serbia. On the eve of the invasion, there were 165 generals on the Yugoslav active list. Of these, all but four were Serbs. [12] The Royal Yugoslav Air Force had over 450 front-line aircraft of domestic (notably the IK-3), German, Italian, French, and British origin, of which more than half were modern types. Organized into 22 bomber squadrons and 19 fighter squadrons, the main aircraft types in operational use included 73 Messerschmitt Me-109E, 38 Hawker Hurricane I (with more being built under licence in Yugoslavia), 30 Hawker Fury II, 8 Ikarus IK-2 and 6 Rogozarski IK-3 fighters (+ more under construction), 63 Dornier Do 17K (including 40+ licence built), 60 Bristol Blenheim I (including some 40 licence built) and 40 Savoia Marchetti SM-79K bombers. The Naval Aviation units comprised 8 squadrons equipped with, amongst other auxiliary types, 12 Dornier Do 22K and 15 Rogozarski SIM XIVH locally designed and built maritime patrol float-planes. The aircraft of the Yugoslav airline Aeroput, consisting mainly of 6 Lockheed L-10 Electras, 3 Spartan Cruisers and one de Havilland Dragon were mobilised to provide transport services to the Air Force[13]. The Royal Yugoslav Navy was equipped with one elderly ex-German light cruiser (suitable only for training purposes), 1 large modern destroyer flotilla leader of British design, 3 modern destroyers of French design (2 built in Yugoslavia plus another still under construction), 1 seaplane tender, 4 modern submarines (2 older French-built and 2 British-built) and 10 modern motor torpedo boats (MTBs), of the older vessels, there were 6 ex-Austrian Navy medium torpedo boats, 6 mine-layers, 4 large armoured river monitors and various auxiliary craft [14].

Invasion of Yugoslavia

The invasion of Yugoslavia. days later. Tsar Boris III avoided committing Bulgarian troops to the invasion by claiming that all of his battle worthy troops were guarding the flank of Germany’s 12th Army against Turkey.[15] In a similar manner, while Romania was a staging area for German forces, no Romanian troops were committed to the invasion.

The bombing of Belgrade
Luftflotte 4 of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe), with a strength of seven Combat Formations (Kampfgruppen) had been committed to the campaign in the Balkans[16]. Hitler, infuriated at Yugoslavia’s defiance, ordered the implementation of Operation Punishment (Unternehmen Strafgericht). At 7 am on 6 April the Luftwaffe opened the assault on Yugoslavia by conducting a saturation-type bombing raid on the capital. Flying in relays from airfields in Austria and Romania, 300 aircraft, of which a quarter were Junkers Ju 87 Stukas, protected by a heavy fighter escort began the attack[17]. The dive-bombers were to silence the Yugoslav anti-aircraft defences while the medium bombers consisting mainly Dornier Do 17 and Junkers Ju 88 attacked the city. The initial raid was carried out at fifteen-minute intervals in three distinct waves, each lasting for approximately twenty minutes. Thus, the city was subjected to a rain of bombs for almost one and a half hours. The German bombers directed their main effort against the center of the city, where the principal government buildings were located. The medium bomber Kampfgruppen continued their attack on the city for several days while the Stuka dive

Operations
(See map for unit locations and movements.) Starting on April 6, 1941, Axis armies invaded from all sides and the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) bombed Belgrade. German armies were the first to cross the border with Hungarian and Italian armies following a few

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bomber wings (Stukageschwaders) were soon diverted to Yugoslav airfields. When the attack was over, some 4,000 inhabitants lay dead under the debris. This blow virtually destroyed all means of communication between the Yugoslav high command and the forces in the field. Although most of the elements of the general staff managed to escape to one of the suburbs. Having thus delivered the knockout blow to the enemy nerve center, the Luftwaffe was able to devote its maximum effort to military targets such as Yugoslav airfields, routes of communication, and troop concentrations, and to the close support of German ground operations. The Yugoslav Air Force put up its Belgrade defence interceptors from the six squadrons of the 32nd and 51st Fighter Groups to attack each wave of bombers, although as the day wore on the four squadrons from the 31st and 52nd Fighter Groups, based in central Serbia, also took part. The Messerschmitt 109E, Hawker Hurricane Is and Rogozarski IK-3 fighters scored at least twenty "kills" amongst the attacking bombers and their escorting fighters on 6 April and a further dozen shot down on 7 April. The desperate defence by the Yugoslav Air Force over Belgrade cost it some 20 fighters shot down and 15 damaged[18].

Invasion of Yugoslavia
As a result, the 11 day fight put up by the JKRV was nothing short of extraordinary. The bomber and maritime force hit targets in Italy, Germany (Austria), Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and Greece, as well as attacking German, Italian and Hungarian troops. Meanwhile the fighter eskadrilla inflicted not insignificant losses on escorted "Luftwaffe" bomber raids on Belgrade and Serbia, as well as upon "Regia Aeronautica" raids on Dalmatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina and Montenegro. The JKRV also provided direct air support to the hard pressed Yugoslav Army by strafing attacking troop and mechanized columns in Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia and Serbia (sometimes taking off and strafing the troops attacking the very base being evacuated) [20]. Little wonder then that after a combination of air combat losses, losses on the ground to enemy air attack on bases and the overrunning of airfields by enemy troops, that after 11 days the JKRV almost ceased to exist. It must, however, be noted that between 6 and 17 April 1941 the JKRV received an additional 8 Hawker Hurricane Is, 6 Dornier Do-17Ks, 4 Bristol Blenheim Is, 2 Ikarus IK 2s, 1 Rogozarski IK-3 and 1 Messerschmitt Bf 109 from the local aeronautical industry’s aircraft factories and work-shops [21]. The JKRV’s Dornier bomber force provides an illustrative case in point. At the beginning of the April war, the Royal Yugoslav Air Force was armed with some 60 German designed Dornier Do 17Ks, purchased by Yugoslavia in the autumn of 1938, together with a manufacturing licence. The sole operator was 3 vazduhoplovni puk (3rd bomber regiment) composed of two bomber groups; the 63rd Bomber Group stationed at Petrovac airfield near Skopje and the 64th Bomber Group stationed at Milesevo airfield near Pristina. Other auxiliary airfields had also been prepared to aid in dispersal.[20] During the course of hostilities, the State Aircraft Factory in Kraljevo managed to produce six more aircraft of this type. Of the final three, two were delivered to the JKRV on 10 April and one was delivered on 12 April 1941. On 6 April, Luftwaffe dive-bombers and ground-attack fighters destroyed 26 of the Yugoslav Dorniers in the initial assault on their airfields, but the remaining aircraft were able to effectively hit back with

The Air Battle
Following the Belgrade Coup on March 25 1941, the Yugoslav armed forces were put on alert, although the army was not fully mobilised for fear of provoking Hitler – to no avail. The Royal Yugoslav Air Force (JKRV) command decided to disperse its forces away from their main bases to a system of 50 auxiliary airfields that had previously been prepared. However many of these airfields lacked facilities and had inadequate drainage which prevented the continued operation of all but the very lightest aircraft in the adverse weather conditions encountered in April 1941 [19]. Despite having superior aircraft to some of the previously German-occupied eastern European nations such as Poland or Czechoslovakia, the JKRV could simply not match the overwhelming Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica superiority in terms of numbers, tactical deployment and combat experience.

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numerous multi-ship attacks on German mechanized columns and upon Bulgarian airfields[22]. By the end of the campaign total Yugoslav losses stood at four destroyed in aerial combat and 45 destroyed on the ground[23]. Between 14th and 15th of April, the seven remaining Do 17K flew to Niksic airfield in Montenegro and took part in the evacuation of King Petar II and members of the Yugoslav government to Greece. During this operation, Yugoslav gold reserves were also airlifted to Greece by the seven Do 17s[23], as well as by Savoia Marchetti SM-79Ks and Aeroput Lockheed L-10 Electras but after completing their mission, five Do 17K were destroyed on the ground when Italian aircraft attacked the Greek-held Paramitia airfield. Only two Do 17Ks escaped destruction in Greece and later joined the RAF in Egypt. At 16:00 on the 15 April the C-in-C of Luftflotte 4, Generaloberst Alexander Löhr received orders from Hermann Göring to wind down the air-offensive and transfer the bulk of the dive-bomber force to support the campaign in Greece[24]. A total of 18 bomber, transport and maritime patrol aircraft (2 Dornier Do 17K, 4 Savoia Marchetti SM-79K, 3 Aeroput Lockheed L-10 Electra, 8 Dornier Do-22K and 1 Rogozarski SIM-XIV-H) succeeded in escaping to the Allied base in Egypt at the end of the campaign[13].

Invasion of Yugoslavia
committed its reserves, including the 2nd Cavalry Division, but these were harassed by the Luftwaffe on their way to the front.[25] Despite unfavorable weather, numerous road blocks, and tough resistance by the Yugoslav Fifth Army, as well as air attacks by the Royal Yugoslav Air Force, the 11th Panzer Division, effectively supported by strong artillery and Luftwaffe forces, quickly gained ground and broke through the enemy lines on the first day of the attack. The Yugoslav 3rd Army Group commander, General Milan Nedic was so greatly impressed by this initial German success that he ordered his forces to withdraw behind the Morava. This manoeuvre could not be executed in time because, as early as April 9, the German lead tanks rumbled into Niš and immediately continued their drive toward Belgrade. From Niš north westward the terrain became more favourable since the armoured columns could follow the Morava valley all the way to the Yugoslav capital. [26] South of Paraćin and southwest of Kragujevac Yugoslav Fifth Army units attempted to stem the tide of the advance but were quickly routed after some heavy fighting. More than 5,000 prisoners were taken in this one encounter.[27] Meanwhile, the 5th Panzer Division became temporarily stalled along the poor roads near Pirot. After the division got rolling again, it was ordered to turn southward just below Niš and cut off the enemy forces around Leskovac. When it became apparent that the Niš front was about to collapse, the 5th Panzer Division reverted to the direct control of Twelfth Army and joined the XL Panzer Corps for the Greek campaign.[28] On 10 April. the XIV Panzer Corps forces were swiftly advancing through the Morava Valley in close pursuit of enemy units retreating toward their capital. On the next day the German spearheads suddenly drove into the southern wing of the withdrawing Yugoslav Sixth Army, which they overran during the early hours of 12 April. By the evening of that day the First Panzer Group tanks stood less than forty miles southeast of Belgrade. The two Yugoslav armies they had encountered were in such a state of confusion that they were no longer able to make any serious attempt to delay the German thrust or cut the German lines of communications that extended over a distance of roughly 125 miles

The Three-Pronged Drive on the Yugoslav Capital
Three separate ground forces converged on Belgrade from different directions. They were launched as follows: 1. First Panzer Group (Twelfth Army): Early in the morning of April 8, the First Panzer Group of the German Twelfth Army jumped off from its assembly area northwest of Sofia. Crossing the frontier near Pirot, the XIV Panzer Corps, spearheaded by the 11th Panzer Division, followed by the 5th Panzer Division, 294th Infantry Division, and 4th Mountain Divisions, advanced in a north westerly direction toward Niš. The British, Greek and Yugoslav high commands intended to use Niš as the lynch-pin in their attempts to wear down German forces in the Balkans and it is for this reason that the locality was important. The Yugoslav Supreme Command

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from the point of entry into Yugoslav territory.[29] 2. XLI Panzer Corps (Independent Force): Timed to coincide with the armoured thrust of the XIV Panzer Corps from the south east, the XLI Panzer Corps drive led across the south eastern part of the Banat and toward the Yugoslav capital. This attack was spearheaded by the Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland closely followed by the 2nd SS Division Das Reich. After crossing the frontier north of Vršac, advance elements entered Pančevo on 11 April. Having meanwhile advanced to within about forty-five miles north of Belgrade, the main body of XLI Panzer Corps met with only isolated resistance on the following day as it raced toward the enemy capital.[30] 3. XLVI Panzer Corps (Second Army): When the Luftwaffe launched its attacks on 6 April, the German Second Army was just beginning to assemble its attack forces along the northern Yugoslav frontier preparatory to its projected jumped on 10 April. In an effort to improve their lines of departure, some of the Second Army units took advantage of the interim period by launching limited-objective attacks all along the frontier zone. The troop commanders had to keep their forces in check to prevent major engagements from developing prematurely, which might subsequently have impaired the army’s freedom of action and jeopardized the conduct of operations.[31] The Army High Command was determined to seize intact the principal bridges in the XLVI Panzer Corps zone. Therefore, as early as 1 April, corps elements were ordered to capture the bridge at Bares and the rail road bridge about ten miles north east of Koprivoica by a coup de main.[32]

Invasion of Yugoslavia
By early evening of 6 April, the lack of enemy resistance and the overall situation seemed to indicate that the Yugoslavs would not make a concerted stand along the border and the XLVI Panzer Corps was therefore ordered to establish bridgeheads across the Mura and Drava at Mursko Sredisce, Letenye, Zakany, and Barcs. The few local attacks carried out by the corps sufficed to create dissension in the enemy ranks. There was a high percentage of Croats in the Yugoslav Fourth Army units that were responsible for the defence of this area.[33] Croat soldiers mutinied at several points of the Drava salient, refusing to resist the Germans whom they considered as their liberators from Serbian oppression.[34] When strong German forces crossed the Drava bridge at Bares on the morning of 10 April and broke out of the previously established bridgeheads, the disintegration of the opposing Yugoslav forces had reached an advanced stage. Supported by strong air forces, the 8th Panzer Division, followed by the 16th Motorized infantry Division, launched the XLVI Panzer Corps thrust to Belgrade by driving southeastward between the Drava and Sava Rivers. By the evening of 10 April forward elements of the 8th Panzer Division, having met with virtually no resistance, reached Slating despite poor roads and unfavorable weather. Enemy pockets were quickly mopped up and the division drove on in the direction of the capital via Osijek, where the roads became even worse.[35] That the plight of the enemy was becoming more and more desperate could be gathered from the following appeal that General Dušan Simović broadcast to his troops: "All troops must engage the enemy wherever encountered and with every means at their disposal. Don’t wait for direct orders from above but act on your own and be guided by your judgment, initiative, and conscience."[36] On 11 April the 8th Panzer Division reached the Osijek region, while the 16th Motorized Infantry Division farther back was advancing beyond Našice. Numerous bridge demolitions and poor roads retarded the progress of both divisions, whose mission it was to attack the rear of the Yugoslav forces that faced XIV Panzer Corps, and to establish early contact with the First Panzer Group.[37] At 0230 on 12 April, the 8th Panzer Division entered Mitrovica after two vital bridges

Renault R35 of Royal Yugoslav Army 1941

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across the Sava had been captured intact. The division continued its thrust with the main body advancing toward Lazarevac, about twenty miles south of Belgrade, which was the designated link-up point with First Panzer Group.[38] On the afternoon of 12 April, the XLVI Panzer Corps received new orders. According to these, only elements of the 8th Panzer Division were to continue their eastward drive to seize and secure the Sava bridge near the western outskirts of Belgrade. At 1830 the main body of the division turned south eastward and moved in the direction of Valjevo to establish contact with the left wing of First Panzer Group south west of Belgrade. Simultaneously, the 16th Motorized Infantry Division, which had been trailing behind the 8th Panzer Division, turned southward, crossed the Sava, and advanced toward Zvornik. Thus both divisions were diverted from their original objective, Belgrade, in order to participate in the subsequent drive on Sarajevo.[39] Meanwhile, both the Second Army and the Army High Command were anxiously awaiting news of the fall of Belgrade. Of the three converging armoured forces, XLI Panzer Corps was last reported closest to the capital, having reached Pancevo on the east bank of the Danube about ten miles east of the city. South of Belgrade resistance stiffened as the 11th Panzer Division, spearheading the First Panzer Group forces, neared the capital.[40]

Invasion of Yugoslavia
outskirts of Belgrade, had been received for twenty-four hours. Finally, at 1152 on 13 April the following radio message came through from the operations officer of the division: During the night the 8th Panzer Division drove into Belgrade, occupied the center of the city, and hoisted the Swastika flag. However, since better communications had existed between Second Army and First Panzer Group, the following flash was received shortly before the 8th Panzer Division message came in: Panzer Group von Kleist has taken Belgrade from the south. Patrols of Motorized Infantry Regiment Gross Deutschland have entered the city from the north. With General von Kleist at the head, the 11th Panzer Division has been rolling into the capital since 0632. Thus the race for Belgrade ended in a close finish with all three forces reaching their objective almost simultaneously. With the fall of the city, the First Panzer Group was transferred from the Twelfth to the Second Army, while the XLVI Panzer Corps was placed under the direct command of the panzer group for the next phase of the operation - the pursuit and final destruction of the remnants of the Yugoslav Army.

The fall of Belgrade
Since three separate attack forces were converging on Belgrade simultaneously, the Army High Command was not immediately able to determine which force was the first to reach the enemy capital. Toward early evening of 12 April, SS-Obersturmfuehrer Klingenberg of the 2nd SS Division Das Reich, finding all Danube bridges destroyed, took an SS patrol across the river in captured pneumatic rafts. The patrol entered the city unmolested, and at 1700 hoisted a Swastika flag atop the German legation. About two hours later the mayor of Belgrade officially handed over the city to Klingenberg who was accompanied by a representative of the German Foreign Ministry, previously interned by the Yugoslavs. At Second Army headquarters, no word from the 8th Panzer Division elements, which were last reported approaching the western

Italian and Hungarian offensive actions
The Italian Second Army crossed the border soon after the Germans. The Second Army faced the Yugoslavian Seventh Army. The Italians encountered limited resistance and occupied parts of Slovenia, Croatia, and the coast of Dalmatia. In addition to the Second Army, Italy had four divisions of the Ninth Army on the Yugoslavian border with Albania. These units defended against a Yugoslav offensive on that front. On 12 April the Hungarian Third Army crossed the border. The Third Army faced the Yugoslavian First Army. By the time the Hungarians crossed the border, the Germans had been attacking Yugoslavia for over a week. As a result, the Yugoslavian forces confronting them put up little resistance, except for

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the units in the frontier fortifications, who had held up the Hungarian advance for some time.[41] Units of the Hungarian Third Army advanced into a triangular shaped area between the Danube River and the Drava River, and occupied the Bačka (Bácska) region in Vojvodina with Hungarian relative majority. The Hungarian forces occupied only those territories which were part of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon. Showing his disagreement with the Hungarian operations, prime minister Pál Teleki committed suicide.

Invasion of Yugoslavia
Raja-Puka. The Kosovska Division crossed the border in the Prizren area of Kosovo and was advancing through the Drin River valley. The Vardarska Division gained some local success at Debar, while the rest of the army’s units were still assembling. The next day, the 8th, found the Zetska Division steadily advancing along the Podgorica-Shkodër road. The Komski cavalry Odred successfully crossed the dangerous Prokletije mountains and reached the village of Koljegcava in the Valjbone River Valley. South of them the Kosovska Division broke through the Italian defences in the Drin River Valley, but due to the fall of Skopje to the attacks by the German Army, the Vardarska Division was forced to stop its operations in Albania[43]. The 9th of April 1941 saw little further progress for the Yugoslavs, because although the Zetska Division continued advancing towards Shkodër and the Komski Odred reached the Drin River, the Kosovska Division had to halt all combat activities on the Albanian Front due to the appearance of German troops in Prizren. On 10 April 1941 the Zetska Division was still steadily fighting its way towards Shkodër and had advanced 50 km in some places. These advances had been supported by aircraft of the Yugoslav Royal Air Force’s 66th and 81st Bomber Groups, who attacked airfields and Italian troop concentrations around Shkodër, as well as the port of Durrës[44]. The Komski Odred and the right column of the Kosovska Division advanced along the right bank of the Drin River towards Shkodër in order to link with Zetska Division, but the central and left column of the Kosovska Division were forced to take a defensive perimeter to hold off the increasing pressure by German troops. Between 11-13 April 1941, with German and Italian troops advancing on its rear areas, the Zetska Division was forced to retreat back to the Pronisat River by the Italian 131st Centauro Armoured Division, where it remained until the end of the campaign on the 16th of April. The Centauro Division then advanced upon the Yugoslav fleet base of Kotor in Montenegro[45].

Yugoslav Albanian offensive
In accordance with the Royal Yugoslav Army’s war plan, R-41, a strategy was formulated that, in the face of a massive Axis attack, a retreat on all fronts except in the south be performed. Here the 3rd Yugoslav Army, in cooperation with the Greek Army, was to launch an offensive against the Italian forces in Albania. This was in order to secure space to enable the withdrawal of the main Yugoslav Army to the south. This would be via Albanian territory in order to reach Greece and the Allied forces to be based there. The strategy was based on the premise that the Yugoslav Army would, together with the Greek and British Armies, form a new version of the Salonika Front of World War One[42]. The 3rd Yugoslav Army of the 3rd Army Group was tasked with conducting offensive operations against the Italian army in northern Albania. For this purpose the 3rd Army had concentrated four infantry divisions and one combined regiment (Odred) in the Montenegro and Kosovo regions: - 15th Infantry Division “Zetska” - 13th Infantry Division “Hercegovacka” - 31st Infantry Division “Kosovska” 25th Infantry Division “Vardarska” - “Komski” cavalry Odred. The strategic reserve of the 3rd Army Group, the 22nd Infantry Division “Ibarska”, was situated around Urosevac in the Kosovo region. In addition, offensive operations against the Italian enclave of Zara (Zadar) on the Dalmatian coast were to be undertaken by the 12th Infantry Division “Jadranska”. The first elements of the 3rd Army launched their offensive operations in North Albania on 7 April 1941, with the Komski Odred covering the Gusinje-Prokletije mountains area advancing towards the village of

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Invasion of Yugoslavia
and Sava rivers in the northern parts of Yugoslavia and its border with Hungary. These monitors, the “Drava”, “Sava”, “Morava” and “Vardar” had been inherited from the Austrian Navy at the end of World War One. All were of around 400-500t with a main armament of two 120 mm guns, two or three 66 mm guns, 120 mm mortars, 40 mm AA guns and machine guns. At the start of the campaign they had carried out offensive operations by shelling the airfield at Mohacs in Hungary on the 6th of April and again two days later, but had to begin withdrawing towards Novi Sad by the 11th of April after coming under repeated attack by German dive-bombers. Early in the morning of 12 April, a squadron of German Junkers Ju 87 dive-bombers attacked the Yugoslav monitors on the Danube. The “Drava” was hit by several of them but they were unable to penetrate the "Drava’s" 300 mm thick deck armour, until, by chance, one put a bomb straight down the funnel, killing 54 of the 67 man crew. During the attack anti-aircraft gunners on the monitors claimed 3 dive-bombers shot down. The remaining 3 monitors were scuttled by their crews later on 12 April as German and Hungarian forces had occupied the bases and the river systems upon which they operated[49].

Naval Operations
When Germany and Italy attacked Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941, The Yugoslav Royal Navy had available 3 destroyers, 2 submarines and 10 MTBs as the most effective units of the fleet. One other destroyer, the "Ljubljana" was in dry-dock at the time of the invasion and she and her anti-aircraft guns were used in defence of the fleet base at Kotor. The remainder of the fleet was useful only for coastal defence and local escort and patrol work. Kotor was close to the Albanian border and the Italo-Greek front there, but Zara (Zadar), an Italian enclave, was to the northwest of the coast and to prevent a bridgehead being established, the destroyer "Beograd", 4 of the old torpedo boats and 6 MTBs were despatched to Sibenik, 80 km to the south of Zara, in preparation for an attack. The attack was to be co-ordinated with the 12th "Jadranska" Infantry Division and two "Odred" (combined regiments) of the Royal Yugoslav Army attacking from the Benkovac area, supported by air attacks by the 81st Bomber Group of the Royal Yugoslav Air Force. The Yugoslav forces launched their attack on April 9, but by April 13 the Italian forces had counter-attacked and were in Benkovac by April 14 [46]. The naval prong to this attack faltered when the destroyer "Beograd" was damaged by near misses from Italian aircraft off Sibenik when her starboard engine was put out of action, after which she limped to Kotor, escorted by the remainder of the force, for repair.[47]. The maritime patrol float-planes of the Royal Yugoslav Air Force flew reconnaissance and attack missions during the campaign, as well as providing air cover for minelaying operations off Zara (Zadar). Some of their successes included an Italian tanker being damaged by a near miss off the Italian coast near Bari, attacks on the Albanian port of Durrës, as well as strikes against Italian re-supply convoys to Albania. On 9 April, one Dornier Do 22K floatplane notably took on an Italian convoy of 12 steamers with an escort of 8 destroyers crossing the Adriatic during the day, attacking single-handed in the face of intense AA fire[48]. The Royal Yugoslav Navy also had at its disposal four large, heavily armed and armoured river monitors in its riverine flotilla. They were used to patrol the Danube, Drava

Losses

A destroyed Yugoslav Renault FT-17 or NC-27 tank The losses sustained by the German attack forces were unexpectedly light. During the twelve days of combat the total casualty figures came to 558 men: 151 were listed as killed, 392 as wounded, and 15 as missing in action. During the XLI Panzer Corps drive on Belgrade, for example, the only officer killed

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in action fell victim to a civilian sniper’s bullet. The Luftwaffe lost approximately 60 aircraft shot down over Yugoslavia, costing the lives of at least 70 aircrew. The Italian Army took heavy casualties in northern Albania from the Yugoslav offensive there[50], whilst the Italian Air Force lost approximately 10 aircraft shot down, with a further 22 damaged. The Hungarian Army suffered losses from the shelling by Yugoslav riverine forces of its frontier installations and in its attacks upon the Yugoslav frontier forces in Vojvodina, with one quarter of a Hungarian parachute ’battalion’ becoming casualties when a transport aircraft filled with 30 troops went down during an abortive drop on 12 April[51]. The Germans took between 254,000 and 345,000 Yugoslav prisoners, excluding a considerable number of ethnic Croat, German, Hungarian and Macedonians who had been conscripted into the Yugoslav Army and who were quickly released after screening, and Italians took 30,000 more.[52][53]. Approximately 1,000 army and several hundred air force personnel (including one mobile-workshop unit of six vehicles) escaped via Greece to Egypt[54]. In their brief fight, the Royal Yugoslav Air Force suffered the loss of 49 aircraft to Axis fighters and anti-aircraft fire, with many more damaged beyond repair. These losses had cost the lives of 27 fighter pilots and 76 bomber aircrew. 85 more aircraft had been destroyed on the ground by air attack, while many others had been destroyed or disabled by their own crews, or had crashed during operations, or in evacuation flights. Despite these losses, more than 70 Yugoslav aircraft aircraft escaped to Allied territory. Mostly to Greece, but 8 Dornier and Savoia Marchetti bombers set course for the USSR, with 4 making it safely. Several dozen of the escapee aircraft were destroyed in a devastating strafing attack by the Italian air force on Paramitia airfield in Greece, with 9 bombers and transports making it to Egypt. More than 300 operational, auxiliary and training aircraft were captured and passed on to the newly created Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia[55], Finland, Romania and Bulgaria. The Italians captured most of the Yugoslav Navy (one of its 4 destroyers, the "Ljubljana", had spent the campaign in dry-dock)[47]. However, another destroyer, the "Zagreb", was blown up at Kotor by two of its officers

Invasion of Yugoslavia
to prevent capture and one of the Britishbuilt submarines and 2 MTBs succeeded in escaping to Alexandria in Egypt to continue to serve with the Allied cause [14]. It should also be noted that a fourth destroyer was captured while under construction in the Cattaro shipyard, the "Split", but the Regia Marina was not able to finish her before the armistice in 1943. Eventually, she was recovered after the war by the Yugoslavians and completed under the original name[56]. 10 Yugoslav Navy maritime patrol floatplanes escaped to Greece, with 9 making it to Egypt, where they formed a squadron under RAF command.

Aftermath
The Axis victory was swift. On April 17, 1941, Yugoslavia surrendered after only eleven days. The insistence of the Yugoslav Army on trying to defend all the borders did not help matters. Yugoslavia was subsequently divided amongst Germany, Hungary, Italy and Bulgaria, with most of Serbia being occupied by Germany. The Italian-backed Croatian fascist leader Ante Pavelić declared an Independent State of Croatia [57] before the invasion was even over.

Note
This article incorporates whole sections of text from the U.S. Government work The German Campaign in the Balkans (Spring 1941), U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986.

See also
• • • • • • • • • Bombing of Belgrade in World War II Independent State of Croatia Yugoslav Partisans Royal Yugoslav Army Royal Yugoslav Air Force Nedić’s Serbia River Flotilla of Serbian Armed Forces Greco-Italian War Yugoslav Royal Navy

References
• History (US Govt) • Ciglic, B. and Savic, D., , Jeroplan, Belgrade, 2007. ISBN 978-86-909727-0-8

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• , - Conway Maritime Press, London,1980. ISBN 0 85177 146 7 • Fatutta, F. and Covelli, L. 1941: , in The International Magazine of Armies & Weapons, Year IV - Nos. 15 and 17, January and May 1975, Lugano, Switzerland. • Vol. 3, A. A. Gretschko, Berlin: Militärverlag der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, 1977. • Goss, Chris. , Surrey, UK: Red Kite Books, 2005. ISBN 0-9546201-4-3. • Novak, J. and Spencer, D., Hrvatski Orlovi: Paratroopers of the Independent State of Croatia 1942-1945 Axis Europa Books, Bayside NY, 1998. ISBN 1 891227 13 0 • Shaw, L., , Harp Books, Canberra, 1973. ISBN 0-909432-00-7 • Shores, C., Cull, B. and Malizia, N., , Grub Street, London, 1987. ISBN 0-948817-07-0 • , John Keegan (ed.), New York: Harper and Row, 1989. • Thomas, N., and Mikulan, K., , Osprey Publications, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-473-3 • Tomasevich, Jozo. , Stanford, Cal., London, Oxford University Press, 1975. • Tomasevich, Jozo. , Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 • U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4 , , 1986. • Weal, John (1998). , Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 1-85532-722-8 • Whitely, M.J., , US Naval Institute Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0870213267 [1] Williams, Heather; Parachutes, Patriots and Partisans: The Special Operations Executive and Yugoslavia, 1941-1945, pp 28-36; C. Hurst & Co., 2003; ISBN 1850655928 [2] Williams, Heather; Parachutes, Patriots and Partisans: The Special Operations Executive and Yugoslavia, 1941-1945, p 36; C. Hurst & Co., 2003; ISBN 1850655928 [3] Williams, Heather; Parachutes, Patriots and Partisans: The Special Operations Executive and Yugoslavia, 1941-1945, p 33; C. Hurst & Co., 2003; ISBN 1850655928 [4] Tomasevich, 1975, p. 58. [5] ^ Tomasevich, 1975, p. 59. [6] Novak et al., 1998, p. 15. [7] Fatutta, et al., 1975. [8] Geschichte, pp. 317-318 [9] Fatutta, et al., 1975. p.52.

Invasion of Yugoslavia
[10] Shaw, 1973, p.92 [11] Times Atlas, p.54 [12] Shaw, 1973, p.89 [13] ^ Shores, et al., 1987, p. 260. [14] ^ Conways, 1980. [15] Thomas, 1995, p. 24. [16] Goss 2005, p. 89. [17] Weal, 1998 p. 25. [18] Shores, et al., 1987, p. 200. [19] Shores, et al., 1987, p. 174. [20] ^ Shores, et al., 1987. [21] Savic, et al., 2002, p. 8. [22] Ciglic, et al., 2007. pp. 32-38. [23] ^ Goss 2005, p. 10. [24] Weal, 1998 p. 29. [25] Fatutta, et al., 1975. [26] Fatutta, et al., 1975. [27] Fatutta, et al., 1975. [28] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [29] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [30] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [31] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [32] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [33] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [34] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [35] U.S. Army Centre of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [36] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [37] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [38] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [39] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [40] U.S. Army Center of Military History Publication 104-4, 1986. [41] Fatutta, et al., 1975. [42] Tomasevich, 1975, p. 57. [43] Fatutta, et al., 1975. [44] Shores, et al., 1987, p. 213. [45] Fatutta, et al., 1975. [46] Fatutta, et al., 1975. [47] ^ Whitely, 2001, p. 312. [48] Shores, et al., 1987, p. 218. [49] Shores, et al., 1987, p. 224. [50] Fatutta, et al., 1975. [51] Shores, et al., 1987, p. 222. [52] US Govt History, p. 64

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[53] Geschichte, p. 325 [54] Ciglic, et al., 2007, p. 32. [55] Shores, et al., 1987, p. 310. [56] Whitely, 2001, p. 313. [57] Tomasevich, 2001, pp. 52-53. • • • • • •

Invasion of Yugoslavia
Yugoslav Army, April 1941 Yugoslav Royal Army (Serbian) March 27, 1941 (Serbian) Invasion of Yugoslavia (Serbian) The bombing of Belgrade (Serbian) Invasion of Yugoslavia:Kosovo war 1941 (Serbian) • (Italian) ANPI Archives photos

External links
• History (US Govt)

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