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Terrorism Definitions History of terrorism International conventions Anti-terrorism legislation Counter-terrorism War on Terrorism By ideology Communist Eco-terrorism Narcoterrorism Nationalist Ethnic Religious
(Christian • Islamic • Jewish)
Types and tactics Agro-terrorism Bioterrorism Car bombing Environmental Aircraft hijacking Nuclear Piracy Propaganda of the deed Proxy bomb Suicide attack State involvement State terrorism State sponsorship United States and state terrorism Pakistan and state terrorism Russia and state terrorism Iran and state terrorism Sri Lanka and state terrorism Configurations Terrorist front organization Lone-wolf fighter Clandestine cell system Historical Red Terror White Terror Lists Designated organizations Incidents
Terrorism is a policy or ideology of violence  intended to intimidate or cause terror 
for the purpose of "exerting pressure on decision making by state bodies." The term "terror" is largely used to indicate clandestine, low-intensity violence that targets civilians and generates public fear. Thus "terror" is distinct from asymmetric warfare, and violates the concept of a common law of war in which civilian life is regarded. The term "ism" is used to indicate an ideology —typically one that claims its attacks are in the domain of a "just war" concept, though most condemn such as crimes against humanity. Terrorism is more commonly understood as an act which (1) is intended to create fear (terror), (2) is perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a materialistic goal or a lone attack), and (3) deliberately targets (or disregards the safety of) non-combatants. Some definitions also include acts of unlawful violence or unconventional warfare, but at present, there is no internationally agreed upon definition of terrorism. A person who practices terrorism is a terrorist. Acts of terrorism are criminal acts according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 and the domestic jurisprudence of almost all nations. The word “terrorism” is politically and emotionally charged, and this greatly compounds the difficulty of providing a precise definition. A 1988 study by the United States Army found that over 100 definitions of the word “terrorism” have been used. The concept of terrorism is itself controversial because it is often used by states to delegitimize political or foreign opponents, and potentially legitimize the state’s own use of terror against them. The history of terrorist organizations suggests that they do not practice terrorism only for its political effectiveness; individual terrorists are also motivated by a desire for social solidarity with other members. Terrorism has been practiced by a broad array of political organizations for furthering their objectives. It has been practiced by both right-wing and left-wing political parties, nationalistic groups, religious groups, revolutionaries, and ruling governments.
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recognizable by a following statement from the perpetrators. Violence – According to Walter Laqueur of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, "the only general characteristic of terrorism generally agreed upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence". However, the criterion of violence alone does not produce a useful definition, as it includes many acts not usually considered terrorism: war, riot, organized crime, or even a simple assault. Property destruction that does not endanger life is not usually considered a violent crime, but some have described property destruction by the Earth Liberation Front and Animal Liberation Front as violence and terrorism; see eco-terrorism. Psychological impact and fear – The attack was carried out in such a way as to maximize the severity and length of the psychological impact. Each act of terrorism is a “performance” devised to have an impact on many large audiences. Terrorists also attack national symbols, to show power and to attempt to shake the foundation of the country or society they are opposed to. This may negatively affect a government, while increasing the prestige of the given terrorist organization and/or ideology behind a terrorist act. Perpetrated for a political goal – Something that many acts of terrorism have in common is a political purpose. Terrorism is a political tactic, like letter-writing or protesting, which is used by activists when they believe that no other means will effect the kind of change they desire. The change is desired so badly that failure to achieve change is seen as a worse outcome than the deaths of civilians. This is often where the inter-relationship between terrorism and religion occurs. When a political struggle is integrated into the framework of a religious or "cosmic" struggle, such as over the control of an ancestral homeland or holy site such as Israel and Jerusalem, failing in the political goal (nationalism) becomes equated with spiritual failure, which, for the highly committed, is worse than their own death or the deaths of innocent civilians. One definition that that combines the key elements was developed at the George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies by Carsten Bockstette: "Terrorism is defined as political violence in an asymmetrical conflict that is designed to induce terror and psychic fear
Origin of term
See also: State terrorism "Terror" comes from a Latin word meaning "to frighten". The terror cimbricus was a panic and state of emergency in Rome in response to the approach of warriors of the Cimbri tribe in 105BC. The Jacobins cited this precedent when imposing a Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. After the Jacobins lost power, the word "terrorist" became a term of abuse. Although the Reign of Terror was imposed by a government, in modern times "terrorism" usually refers to the killing of innocent people by a private group in such a way as to create a media spectacle. This meaning can be traced back to Sergey Nechayev, who described himself as a "terrorist". Nechayev founded the Russian terrorist group "People’s Retribution" (Народная расправа) in 1869. In November 2004, a United Nations Security Council report described terrorism as any act "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act". (Note that this report does not constitute international law). In many countries, acts of terrorism are legally distinguished from criminal acts done for other purposes, and "terrorism" is defined by statute; see definition of terrorism for particular definitions. Common principles among legal definitions of terrorism provide an emerging consensus as to meaning and also foster cooperation between law enforcement personnel in different countries. Among these definitions there are several that do not recognize the possibility of legitimate use of violence by civilians against an invader in an occupied country and would, thus label all resistance movements as terrorist groups. Others make a distinction between lawful and unlawful use of violence. Ultimately, the distinction is a political judgment.
Official definitions determine counter-terrorism policy, and are often developed to serve it. Most government definitions outline the following key criteria: target, objective, motive, perpetrator, and legitimacy or legality of the act. Terrorism is also often
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(sometimes indiscriminate) through the violent victimization and destruction of noncombatant targets (sometimes iconic symbols). Such acts are meant to send a message from an illicit clandestine organization. The purpose of terrorism is to exploit the media in order to achieve maximum attainable publicity as an amplifying force multiplier in order to influence the targeted audience(s) in order to reach short- and midterm political goals and/or desired long-term end states."  Deliberate targeting of non-combatants – It is commonly held that the distinctive nature of terrorism lies in its intentional and specific selection of civilians as direct targets. Specifically, the criminal intent is shown when babies, children, mothers and the elderly are murdered, or injured and put in harm’s way. Much of the time, the victims of terrorism are targeted not because they are threats, but because they are specific "symbols, tools, animals or corrupt beings" that tie into a specific view of the world that the terrorists possess. Their suffering accomplishes the terrorists’ goals of instilling fear, getting their message out to an audience or otherwise satisfying the demands of their often radical religious and political agendas. Disguise – Some terrorists pretend to be non-combatants, hide among such non-combatants, fight from vantage points in the midst of non-combatants, and (when they can), strive to mislead and provoke the government soldiers into attacking other people, so that the government will be blamed. Unlawfulness or illegitimacy – Some official (notably government) definitions of terrorism add a criterion of illegitimacy or unlawfulness to distinguish between actions authorized by a government (and thus "lawful") and those of other actors, including individuals and small groups. Using this criterion, actions that would otherwise qualify as terrorism would not be considered terrorism if they were government sanctioned. For example, firebombing a city, which is designed to affect civilian support for a cause, would not be considered terrorism if it were authorized by a government. This criterion is inherently problematic and is not universally accepted, because: it denies the existence of state terrorism; the same act may or may not be classed as terrorism depending on whether its sponsorship is traced to a "legitimate" government; "legitimacy" and "lawfulness"
are subjective, depending on the perspective of one government or another; and it diverges from the historically accepted meaning and origin of the term. For these reasons, this criterion is not universally accepted; most dictionary definitions of the term do not include this criterion.
The terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" (someone who engages in terrorism) carry strong negative connotations. These terms are often used as political labels, to condemn violence or the threat of violence by certain actors as immoral, indiscriminate, unjustified or to condemn an entire segment of a population. Those labelled "terrorists" rarely identify themselves as such, and typically use other euphemistic terms or terms specific to their situation, such as separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel or any similar-meaning word in other languages and cultures. Jihadi, mujaheddin, and fedayeen are similar Arabic words which have entered the English lexicon. On the question of whether particular terrorist acts, such as murder, can be justified as the lesser evil in a particular circumstance, philosophers have expressed different views: while, according to David Rodin, utilitarian philosophers can (in theory) conceive of cases in which the evil of terrorism is outweighed by the good which could not be achieved in a less morally costly way, in practice, utilitarians often universally reject terrorism, because it is very dubious that acts of terrorism achieve significant good in a utilityefficient manner, or that the "harmful effects of undermining the convention of non-combatant immunity is thought to outweigh the goods that may be achieved by particular acts of terrorism". Among the non-utilitarian philosophers, Michael Walzer argued that terrorism is always morally wrong, but at the same time, those who engaged in terrorism can be morally justified in one specific case: when "a nation or community faces the extreme threat of complete destruction and the only way it can preserve itself is by intentionally targeting non-combatants, then it is morally entitled to do so". In his book "Inside Terrorism" Bruce Hoffman wrote in Chapter One: Defining Terrorism that
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"On one point, at least, everyone agrees: terrorism is a pejorative term. It is a word with intrinsically negative connotations that is generally applied to one’s enemies and opponents, or to those with whom one disagrees and would otherwise prefer to ignore. ’What is called terrorism,’ Brian Jenkins has written, `’thus seems to depend on one’s point of view. Use of the term implies a moral judgment; and if one party can successfully attach the label terrorist to its opponent, then it has indirectly persuaded others to adopt its moral viewpoint.’ Hence the decision to call someone or label some organization `terrorist’ becomes almost unavoidably subjective, depending largely on whether one sympathizes with or opposes the person/group/cause concerned. If one identifies with the victim of the violence, for example, then the act is terrorism. If, however, one identifies with the perpetrator, the violent act is regarded in a more sympathetic, if not positive (or, at the worst, an ambivalent) light; and it is not terrorism." The pejorative connotations of the word can be summed up in the aphorism, "One man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter". This is exemplified when a group using irregular military methods is an ally of a state against a mutual enemy, but later falls out with the state and starts to use those methods against its former ally. During World War II, the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army was allied with the British, but during the Malayan Emergency, members of its successor (the Malayan Races Liberation Army), were branded "terrorists" by the British. More recently, Ronald Reagan and others in the American administration frequently called the Afghan Mujahideen "freedom fighters" during their war against the Soviet Union, yet twenty years later, when a new generation of Afghan men are fighting against what they perceive to be a regime installed by foreign powers, their attacks are labelled "terrorism" by George W. Bush. Groups accused of terrorism understandably prefer terms reflecting legitimate military or ideological action. Leading terrorism researcher Professor Martin Rudner, director of the Canadian Centre of Intelligence and Security Studies at
Ottawa’s Carleton University, defines "terrorist acts" as attacks against civilians for political or other ideological goals, and goes on to say: "There is the famous statement: ’One man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.’ But that is grossly misleading. It assesses the validity of the cause when terrorism is an act. One can have a perfectly beautiful cause and yet if one commits terrorist acts, it is terrorism regardless." Some groups, when involved in a "liberation" struggle, have been called "terrorists" by the Western governments or media. Later, these same persons, as leaders of the liberated nations, are called "statesmen" by similar organizations. Two examples of this phenomenon are the Nobel Peace Prize laureates Menachem Begin and Nelson Man dela. Sometimes states which are close allies, for reasons of history, culture and politics, can disagree over whether or not members of a certain organization are terrorists. For instance, for many years, some branches of the United States government refused to label members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as terrorists while the IRA was using methods against one of the United States’ closest allies (Britain) which Britain branded as terrorism. This was highlighted by the Quinn v. Robinson case. For these and other reasons, media outlets wishing to preserve a reputation for impartiality are extremely careful in their use of the term.
In the spring of 1975, the Law Enforcement Assistant Administration in the United States formed the National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. One of the five volumes that the committee was entitled Disorders and Terrorism, produced by the Task Force on Disorders and Terrorism under the direction H.H.A. Cooper, Director of the Task Force staff. The Task Force classified terrorism into six categories. • – A form of collective violence interfering with the peace, security, and normal functioning of the community. • – Violent criminal behaviour designed primarily to generate fear in the
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community, or substantial segment of it, for political purposes. • – Terrorism that is not aimed at political purposes but which exhibits “conscious design to create and maintain high degree of fear for coercive purposes, but the end is individual or collective gain rather than the achievement of a political objective.” • – The activities incidental to the commission of crimes of violence that are similar in form and method to genuine terrorism but which nevertheless lack its essential ingredient. It is not the main purpose of the quasi-terrorists to induce terror in the immediate victim as in the case of genuine terrorism, but the quasiterrorist uses the modalities and techniques of the genuine terrorist and produces similar consequences and reaction. For example, the fleeing felon who takes hostages is a quasi-terrorist, whose methods are similar to those of the genuine terrorist but whose purposes are quite different. • – Genuine political terrorism is characterized by a revolutionary approach; limited political terrorism refers to “acts of terrorism which are committed for ideological or political motives but which are not part of a concerted campaign to capture control of the State. • –"referring to nations whose rule is based upon fear and oppression that reach similar to terrorism or such proportions.” It may also be referred to as Structural Terrorism defined broadly as terrorist acts carried out by governments in pursuit of political objectives, often as part of their foreign policy. In an analysis prepared for U.S. Intelligence four typologies are mentioned. • Nationalist-Separatist • Religious Fundamentalist • New Religious • Social Revolutionary
suggests that suicide terrorism may be an exception to this general rule. Evidence regarding this particular method of terrorism reveals that every modern suicide campaign has targeted a democracy- a state with a considerable degree of political freedom. The study suggests that concessions awarded to terrorists during the 1980s and 1990s for suicide attacks increased their frequency. Some examples of "terrorism" in nondemocracies include ETA in Spain under Francisco Franco, the Shining Path in Peru under Alberto Fujimori, the Kurdistan Workers Party when Turkey was ruled by military leaders and the ANC in South Africa. Democracies, such as the United States, Israel, and the Philippines, also have experienced domestic terrorism. While a democratic nation espousing civil liberties may claim a sense of higher moral ground than other regimes, an act of terrorism within such a state may cause a perceived dilemma: whether to maintain its civil liberties and thus risk being perceived as ineffective in dealing with the problem; or alternatively to restrict its civil liberties and thus risk delegitimizing its claim of supporting civil liberties. This dilemma, some social theorists would conclude, may very well play into the initial plans of the acting terrorist(s); namely, to delegitimize the state.
Islamic terrorism is religious terrorism by groups or individuals, the motivation of which is typically rooted in the Qur’an or other Islamic tenets of faith. Terrorist acts have included airline hijacking, kidnapping, assassination and suicide bombing. The hijacking of four passenger jets and the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11 2001, in the United States of America was a significant attack. The controversies surrounding the subject include whether the terrorist act is self-defense or aggression, national self-determination or Islamic supremacy; whether Islam can ever condone the targeting of noncombatants; whether some attacks described as Islamic terrorism are merely terrorist acts committed by Muslims or motivated by nationalism; whether Zionism and the Arab-Israeli Conflict is the root of Islamic terrorism, or simply one cause; how much support there is in the Muslim world for Islamic terrorism and
Democracy and domestic terrorism
The relationship between domestic terrorism and democracy is complex. Such terrorism is most common in nations with intermediate political freedom and that the nations with the least terrorism are the most democratic nations. However, one study
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whether support for terror is a temporary phenomenon, a "bubble", now fading away.
often unarticulated hierarchy. Violence done by those higher on the hierarchy to those lower is nearly always invisible, that is, unnoticed. When it is noticed, it is fully rationalized. Violence done by those lower on the hierarchy to those higher is unthinkable, and when it does occur is regarded with shock, horror, and the fetishization of the victims. — Derrick Jensen  The concept of state terrorism is controversial. Military actions by states during war are usually not considered terrorism, even when they involve significant civilian casualties. The Chairman of the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee has stated that the Committee was conscious of the 12 international Conventions on the subject, and none of them referred to State terrorism, which was not an international legal concept. If States abused their power, they should be judged against international conventions dealing with war crimes, international human rights and international humanitarian law. Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan has said that it is "time to set aside debates on so-called ’state terrorism’. The use of force by states is already thoroughly regulated under international law" However, he also made clear that, "...regardless of the differences between governments on the question of definition of terrorism, what is clear and what we can all agree on is any deliberate attack on innocent civilians, regardless of one’s cause, is unacceptable and fits into the definition of terrorism." State terrorism has been used to refer to terrorist acts by governmental agents or forces. This involve the use of state resources employed by a state’s foreign policies, such as the using its military to directly perform acts of considered to be state terrorism. Professor of Political Science, Michael Stohl cites the examples that include Germany’s bombing of London and the U.S. atomic destruction of Hiroshima during World War II. He argues that “the use of terror tactics is common in international relations and the state has been and remains a more likely employer of terrorism within the international system than insurgents." They also cite the First strike option as an example of the "terror of coercive dipolomacy" as a form of this, which holds the world "hostage,’ with the
Acts of terrorism can be carried out by individuals, groups, or states. According to some definitions, clandestine or semi-clandestine state actors may also carry out terrorist acts outside the framework of a state of war. However, the most common image of terrorism is that it is carried out by small and secretive cells, highly motivated to serve a particular cause and many of the most deadly operations in recent times, such as 9/11, the London underground bombing, and the 2002 Bali bombing were planned and carried out by a close clique, composed of close friends, family members and other strong social networks. These groups benefited from the free flow of information and efficient Telecommunications to succeed where others had failed. Over the years, many people have attempted to come up with a terrorist profile to attempt to explain these individuals’ actions through their psychology and social circumstances. Others, like Roderick Hindery, have sought to discern profiles in the propaganda tactics used by terrorists. Some security organizations designate these groups as violent non-state actors.  It has been found that a "terrorist" will look, dress, and behave like a normal person, until he or she executes the assigned mission. Terrorist profiling based on personality, physical, or sociological traits would not appear to be particularly useful. The physical and behavioral description of the terrorist could describe almost any normal person.
Terrorist groups State sponsors
A state can sponsor terrorism by funding or harboring a terrorist organization. Opinions as to which acts of violence by states consist of state-sponsored terrorism or not vary widely. When states provide funding for groups considered by some to be terrorist, they rarely acknowledge them as such.
“ Civilization is based on a clearly defined and widely accepted yet ”
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implied threat of using nuclear weapons in "crisis management." They argue that the institutionalized form of terrorism has occurred as a result of changes that took place following World War ll. In this analysis, state terrorism exhibited as a form of foreign policy was shaped by the presence and use of weapons of mass destruction, and that the legitimizing of such violent behavior led to an increasingly accepted form of this state behavior. (Michael Stohl, “The Superpowers and International Terror” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Atlanta, March 27-April 1, 1984;"Terrible beyond Endurance? The Foreign Policy of State Terrorism." 1988;The State as Terrorist: The Dynamics of Governmental Violence and Repression, 1984 P49). State terrorism has also been used to describe peace time actions by governmental agents or forces, such as the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 flight. Charles Stewart Parnell described William Gladstone’s Irish Coercion Act as terrorism in his "no-Rent manifesto" in 1881, during the Irish Land War. The concept is also used to describe political repressions by governments against their own civilian population with the purpose to incite fear. For example, taking and executing civilian hostages or extrajuducial elimination campaigns are commonly considered "terror" or terrorism, for example during Red Terror or Great Terror. Such actions are often also described as democide which has been argued to be equivalent to state terrorism. Empirical studies on this have found that democracies have little democide.
• Opposition to a domestic government or occupying army Terrorist attacks are often targeted to maximize fear and publicity, usually using explosives or poison. There is concern about terrorist attacks employing weapons of mass destruction. Terrorist organizations usually methodically plan attacks in advance, and may train participants, plant "undercover" agents, and raise money from supporters or through organized crime. Communication may occur through modern telecommunications, or through old-fashioned methods such as couriers.
Responses to terrorism are broad in scope. They can include re-alignments of the political spectrum and reassessments of fundamental values. The term counter-terrorism has a narrower connotation, implying that it is directed at terrorist actors. Specific types of responses include: • Targeted laws, criminal procedures, deportations, and enhanced police powers • Target hardening, such as locking doors or adding traffic barriers • Pre-emptive or reactive military action • Increased intelligence and surveillance activities • Pre-emptive humanitarian activities • More permissive interrogation and detention policies • Official acceptance of torture as a valid tool
Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare, and is more common when direct conventional warfare either cannot be (due to differentials in available forces) or is not being used to resolve the underlying conflict. The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include: • Secession of a territory to form a new sovereign state • Dominance of territory or resources by various ethnic groups • Imposition of a particular form of government • Economic deprivation of a population
Media exposure may be a primary goal of those carrying out terrorism, to expose issues that would otherwise be ignored by the media. Some consider this to be manipulation and exploitation of the media. Others consider terrorism itself to be a symptom of a highly controlled mass media, which does not otherwise give voice to alternative viewpoints, a view expressed by Paul Watson who has stated that controlled media is responsible for terrorism, because "you cannot get your information across any other way". Paul Watson’s organization Sea Shepherd has itself been branded "eco-terrorist", although it claims to have not caused any casualties. The mass media will often censor organizations involved in terrorism (through self-
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restraint or regulation) to discourage further terrorism. However, this may encourage organisations to perform more extreme acts of terrorism to be shown in the mass media. There is always a point at which the terrorist ceases to manipulate the media gestalt. A point at which the violence may well escalate, but beyond which the terrorist has become symptomatic of the media gestalt itself. Terrorism as we ordinarily understand it is innately media-related. —Novelist William Gibson
• Christian Terrorism • Communist Terrorism • Counterterrorism • Cyber-terrorism • Domestic terrorist (United States) • Eco-terrorism • Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism • Islamic Terrorism • Jewish Terrorism • List of designated terrorist organizations • List of terrorist incidents • • • • • • Narcoterrorism Patriot Act PDD-62 Propaganda by deed Strategy of tension Terrorism Information Awareness Program Unconventional warfare VNSA
Number of terrorist incidents 2008 The term "terrorism" was originally used to describe the actions of the Jacobin Club during the "Reign of Terror" in the French Revolution. "Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible," said Jacobin leader Maximilien Robespierre. In 1795, Edmund Burke denounced the Jacobins for letting "thousands of those hell hounds called terrorists" loose upon the people of France. In January 1858, Italian patriot Felice Orsini threw three bombs in an attempt to assassinate French Emperor Napoleon III. Eight bystanders were killed and 142 injured. The incident played a crucial role as an inspiration for the development of the early Russian terrorist groups. Russian Sergey Nechayev, who founded People’s Retribution in 1869, described himself as a "terrorist", an early example of the term being employed in its modern meaning. Nechayev’s story is told in fictionalized form by Fyodor Dostoevsky in the novel The Possessed. German anarchist writer Johann Most dispensed "advice for terrorists" in the 1880s.
State terrorism: • Pakistani state terrorism • State terrorism by Iran • State terrorism and Russia • State terrorism and the United States
• Bockstette, Carsten: "Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques" George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies Occasional Paper Series, Volume 20, Dezember 2008, ISSN 1863-6039, pp. 1-28 • Christian Buder, "Die Todesstrafe, Tabu und Terror", VDM-Verlag, Saarbrücken, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8364-5163-5 • Köchler, Hans (ed.), Terrorism and National Liberation. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Question of Terrorism. Frankfurt a. M./Bern/New York: Peter Lang, 1988, ISBN 3-8204-1217-4 • Köchler, Hans. Manila Lectures 2002. Terrorism and the Quest for a Just World Order. Quezon City (Manila): FSJ Book World, 2002, ISBN 0-9710791-2-9
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• Laqueur, Walter. No End to War Terrorism in the 21st century, New York, 2003, ISBN 0-8264-1435-4 • Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner, eds. Terrorism : essential primary sources. Thomson Gale, 2006. ISBN 9781414406213 Library of Congress. Jefferson or Adams Bldg General or Area Studies Reading Rms LC Control Number: 2005024002. • Lewis, Jeff, Language Wars: The Role of Media and Culture in Global Terror and Political Violence, Pluto Books, London, 2005. • Lieberman, David M. Sorting the revolutionary from the terrorist: The delicate application of the "Political Offense" exception in U.S. extradition case, Stanford Law Review, Volume 59, Issue 1, 2006, pp. 181-211 • Sunga, Lyal S., US Anti-Terrorism Policy and Asia’s Options, in Johannen, Smith and Gomez, (eds.) September 11 & Political Freedoms: Asian Perspectives (Select) (2002) 242-264. • Arno Tausch ’Against Islamophobia. Quantitative analyses of global terrorism, world political cycles and center periphery structures’ Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers (for info: https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/), 2007 Sean K. Anderson and Stephen Sloan. Historical Dictionary of Terrorism, Second Edition. Scarecrow 2002. I • Charles Tilly, Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists in Sociological Theory (2004) 22, 5-13 online
News monitoring websites specializing on articles on terrorism
• Insurgency Research Group - Multi-expert blog dedicated to the study of terrorism, insurgency and the development of counter-insurgency policy. • A reliable and daily updated Open Sources Center that includes a "Terrorism" section. by ISRIA. • Diplomacy Monitor - Terrorism • Jihad Monitor • Combating Terrorism Center at Westpoint
Papers and articles on global terrorism
• "Al Qaeda Today: The New Face of the Global Jihad," by Marlena Telvick, PBS Frontline, January 2005. Former CIA caseworker Dr. Marc Sageman explains how Al Qaeda has evolved from an operational organization into a larger social movement, and the implications for U.S. counterterror efforts. • Bockstette, Carsten: "Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques" George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies Occasional Paper Series, Volume 20, Dezember 2008, ISSN 1863-6039, pp. 1-28 • Audrey Kurth Cronin, "Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism," International Security, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Winter 2002/03), pp. 30-58. • "European Union’s Security With Regard to the International Situation After September 2001". Archived from the original on 2007-05-14. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20070514163519/ http://www.analyzingeu.eu/konrad/2007/ european-union-security-afterseptember-2001/. - Special Report on Terrorism in the European Union on ’Analyzing EU’ • Stathis N. Kalyvas, The Paradox of Terrorism in Civil Wars (2004) in Journal of Ethics 8:1, 97-138. • Prof. Troy Duster "From Theatre of War to Terrorism" • Syed Ubaidur Rahman "Thousands of Muslims gather to denounce terrorism" • Hans Köchler, The United Nations, the International Rule of Law and Terrorism.
• United Nations:Conventions on Terrorism • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: "Conventions against terrorism". Archived from the original on 2007-08-05. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20070805001945/http://www.unodc.org/ unodc/terrorism_conventions.html. "There are 12 major multilateral conventions and protocols related to states’ responsibilities for combating terrorism. But many states are not yet party to these legal instruments, or are not yet implementing them."
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Supreme Court of the Philippines, Centenary Lecture (2002) Hans Köchler, The United Nations and International Terrorism. Challenges to Collective Security (2002) GTD, successor to the Terrorism Knowledge Base Global War on Terrorism / Strategic Studies Institute Terrorism Research Center - Terrorism research site started in 1996. Terror Finance Blog - Multi-expert website dealing with terrorism finance issues. Terrorism Research - International Terrorism and Security Research Scale invariance in global terrorism Security News Line: Global Terrorism and Counter-terrorism www.debriefed.org The Evolution of Terrorism in 2005. A statistical assessment An article by Rik Coolsaet and Teun Van de Voorde, University of Ghent Terrorism/Anti-terrorism - An analysis on the causes and uses of terrorism  "Al Qaeda’s New Front," PBS "Frontline" January 2005. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, the locus of the investigation quickly shifted to Europe and the network of radical Islamic jihadis who are part of "Eurabia," the continent’s expanding Muslim communities. Since 9/11 America has been spared what authorities feared and expected: a second wave of attacks. Instead Europe, once a logistical base for Islamic radicals and a safe haven, has itself become the target. Teaching Terrorism and Counterterrorism with lesson plans, bibliographies, resources; from US Military Academy Germany’s contribution to the fight against global terrorism Quantitative World System Studies Contradict Current Islamophobia: World Political Cycles, Global Terrorism, and World Development. Arno Tausch, Innsbruck University - Faculty of Political Science and Sociology - Department of Political Science, Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 6, No. 1 & 2, Spring-Summer 2007, available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/ papers.cfm?abstract_id=976864 The Intelligence & Terrorism Information Center
Papers and articles on terrorism and the United States
• Library of Congress – Federal Research Division The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism. by Robert L. Worden, Ph.D. • Leonard Peikoff on Terrorism This article was published in the New York Times on October 2, 2001. • Ivan Arreguín-Toft, "Tunnel at the End of the Light: A Critique of U.S. Counterterrorist Grand Strategy,"Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Vol. 15, No. 3 (2002), pp. 549-563. • The Terrorism Index - Terrorism "scorecard" from Foreign Policy Magazine and the Center for American Progress • The reality show: the Watch, the Fight • Most Wanted Terrorists- Rewards for Justice • Law, Terrorism and Homeland Security. A collection of articles. • "The Security Constitution," UCLA Law Review, Vol. 53, No. 29, 2005 • The Enemy Within, PBS Frontline October 2006 • "The Man Turned Away" by Charlotte Buchen and Marlena Telvick, PBS Frontline, October 2006. To his family in Jordan, Raed Mansour al-Banna was a beloved son who wanted to make it in America. To his American friends, he was a sweet guy with a charming smile who loved to party. To the families of the 166 people he killed in Hilla, Iraq, he was a murderer.
• • • • • • • •
Papers and articles on terrorism and Israel
• Ariel Merari, "Terrorism as a Strategy in Insurgency," Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Winter 1993), pp. 213-251. • Israel Global Terror desk • Victims of Palestinian Violence and Terrorism since September 2000
• The European Union counterterrorism policy before and after the 9/11 attacks • Profile of Terrorist • of Terrorist Analysis of Terrorist • Video: Dr Adam Dolnik: What makes a terrorist? A Lowy Institute lecture on SlowTV, August 2008
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• About the Qassam-sderot media center • Paradise Poisoned: Learning About Conflict, Development and Terrorism from Sri Lanka’s Civil Wars by John Richardson • Ontologies of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism • The Supreme Court of India adopted Alex P. Schmid’s definition of terrorism in a 2003 ruling (Madan Singh vs. State of Bihar), "defin[ing] acts of terrorism veritably as ’peacetime equivalents of war crimes." • Jack Goody What is a terrorist? Published in: journal History and Anthropology, Volume 13, Issue 2 2002 , pages 139 - 142 DOI: 10.1080/0275720022000001219 • Schmid and Jongman (1988): "Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-)clandestine individual, group, or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal, or political reasons, whereby — in contrast to assassination — the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. Threat- and violence-based communication processes between terrorist (organization), (imperiled) victims, and main targets are use to manipulate the main target (audience(s), turning it into a target of terror, a target of demands, or a target of attention, depending on whether intimidation, coercion, or propaganda is primarily sought". • Staff. U.S. Terrorism in the Americas an Encyclopedia "on violence promoted, supported and carried out by both the U.S. government and its servants in Latin America • "Terror on the Streets of New York, Take One" by David Wallace-Wells, Newsweek, February 16 2009
page 28, "the Russian counterterrorism law defines terrorism as "the ideology of violence and practice of exerting pressure on decision making by state bodies""  Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition 1989. Second general definition of terrorism: "A policy intended to strike with terror those against whom it is adopted; the employment of methods of intimidation; the fact of terrorizing or condition of being terrorized."  Angus Martyn, The Right of Self-Defence under International Law-the Response to the Terrorist Attacks of 11 September, Australian Law and Bills Digest Group, Parliament of Australia Web Site, 12 February 2002  Thalif Deen. Politics: U.N. Member States Struggle to Define Terrorism, Inter Press Service, 25 July 2005  ^ Hoffman, Bruce "Inside Terrorism" Columbia University Press 1998 ISBN 0-231-11468-0. Page 32. See review in The New York TimesInside Terrorism  Dr. Jeffrey Record, Bounding the Global War on Terrorism(PDF)  Abrahms, Max (March 2008). "What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counterterrorism Strategy" (PDF 1933 KB). International Security (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) 32 (4): 86–89. ISSN 0162-2889. http://maxabrahms.com/pdfs/ DC_250-1846.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-11-04.  "Terrorism". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. http://www.britannica.com/eb/ article-9071797. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.  ^ Crenshaw, Martha, Terrorism in Context, p. 77.  "UN Reform". United Nations. 2005-03-21. Archived from the original on 2007-04-27. http://web.archive.org/ web/20070427012107/ http://www.un.org/unifeed/ script.asp?scriptId=73. Retrieved on 2008-07-11. "The second part of the report, entitled "Freedom from Fear backs the definition of terrorism - an issue so divisive agreement on it has long eluded the world community - as any action "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or noncombatants with the purpose of
 ^ Terrorism in asymmetrical conflict: ideological and structural aspects, By Ekaterina Stepanova, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press US, 2008 ISBN 0199533555, 9780199533558 186 pages,
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intimidating a population or compelling a remembering1942/malaya/index.htm. , government or an international 16 June 2003 organization to do or abstain from doing  Ronald Reagan, speech to National any act."" Conservative Political Action Conference  Khan, Ali (1987). "A Theory of 8 March, 1985. On the Spartacus International Terrorism" (PDF). Social Educational web site Science Research Network.  President Meets with Afghan Interim http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/ Authority Chairman papers.cfm?abstract_id=935347.  President Discusses Progress in War on Retrieved on 2008-07-11. Terrorism to National Guard White  Juergensmeyer, Mark (2000). Terror in House web site February 9, 2006 the Mind of God. University of California  Sudha Ramachandran Death behind the Press. pp. 125–135. wheel in Iraq Asian Times, November 12,  Juergensmeyer, Mark (2000). Terror in 2004, "Insurgent groups that use suicide the Mind of God. University of California attacks therefore do not like their Press. attacks to be described as suicide  Bockstette, Carsten (2008). "Jihadist terrorism. They prefer to use terms like Terrorist Use of Strategic "martyrdom ..." Communication Management  Alex Perry How Much to Tip the Techniques" (PDF). George C. Marshall Terrorist? Time Magazine, September Center Occasional Paper Series (20). 26, 2005. "The Tamil Tigers would ISSN 1863-6039. dispute that tag, of course. Like other http://www.marshallcenter.org/ guerrillas and suicide bombers, they mcpublicweb/MCDocs/files/College/ prefer the term “freedom fighters.” F_ResearchProgram/occPapers/occ Terrorism: concepts, causes, and conflict paper_20-en.pdf. Retrieved on resolution George Mason University 2009-01-01. Institute for Conflict Analysis and  Juergensmeyer, Mark (2000). Terror in Resolution, Printed by the Defense the Mind of God. University of California Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Press. pp. 127–128. Virginia, January 2003  "Terrorism in the United States 1999"  Humphreys, Adrian. "One official’s (PDF). Federal Bureau of Investigation. ’refugee’ is another’s ’terrorist’", http://www.fbi.gov/publications/terror/ National Post, January 17, 2006. terror99.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-07-11.  Theodore P. Seto The Morality of  "AskOxford Search Results - terrorist". Terrorism Includes a list in the Times AskOxford. AskOxford. published on July 23, 1946 which were http://www.askoxford.com/results/ described as Jewish terrorist actions, ?view=dev_dict&field-12668446=terrorism&branch=13842570&textsearchtype=exact&sortorder=sc including those launched by Irgun which Retrieved on 2008-07-11. Begin was a leading member  Cambridge International Dictionary of  BBC News: Profiles: Menachem Begin English BBC website "Under Begin’s command,  Dictionary.com the underground terrorist group Irgun  Online Etymology Dictionary carried out numerous acts of violence."  B’Tselem Head of ISA defines a terrorist  Eqbal Ahmad "Straight talk on terrorism" as any Palestinian killed by Israel Monthly Review, January, 2002.  ^ Rodin, David (2006). Terrorism. In E. "including Menachem Begin, appearing Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of in "Wanted" posters saying, "Terrorists, Philosophy. London: Routledge reward this much." The highest reward I  Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army have seen offered was 100,000 British Britannica Concise pounds for the head of Menachem Begin"  Dr Chris Clark "Malayan Emergency, 16  NEWS: World: Middle East: Sharon’s June 1948". Archived from the original legacy does not include peaceBBC on 2007-06-08. http://web.archive.org/ website "Ariel Sharon will be compared web/20070608150502/ to Menachem Begin, another warrior http://awm.gov.au/atwar/ turned statesman, who gave up the Sinai and made peace with Egypt."
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 Lord Desai Hansard, House of Lords 3 http://ksghome.harvard.edu/ September 1998 : Column 72, "However, ~.aabadie.academic.ksg/povterr.pdf. Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela and Retrieved on 2008-12-28. Menachem Begin — to give just three  "Unemployment, Inequality and examples — were all denounced as Terrorism: Another Look at the terrorists but all proved to be successful Relationship between Economics and political leaders of their countries and Terrorism" (PDF). 2005. good friends of the United Kingdom." http://titan.iwu.edu/~econ/uer/articles/  BBC NEWS:World: Americas: UN kevin_goldstein.pdf. Retrieved on reforms receive mixed response BBC 2008-12-28. website "Of all groups active in recent  Pape, Robert A. "The Strategic Logic of times, the ANC perhaps represents best Suicide Terrorism," American Political the traditional dichotomous view of Science Review, 2003. 97 (3): pp. 1-19. armed struggle. Once regarded by  shabad, goldie and francisco jose llera western governments as a terrorist ramo. "Political Violence in a Democratic group, it now forms the legitimate, State," Terrorism in Context. Ed. Martha elected government of South Africa, with Crenshaw. University Park: Pennsylvania Nelson Mandela one of the world’s State University, 1995. pp467. genuinely iconic figures."  Captured Iraqi Terrorist Ramzi Hashem  BBC NEWS: World: Africa: Profile: Abed: Zarqawi Participated in the Plot to Nelson Mandela BBC website "Nelson Assassinate Baqer Al-Hakim. We Bombed Mandela remains one of the world’s most Jalal Talabani’s Headquarters, the revered statesman" Turkish Embassy, and the Red Cross,  Quinn v. Robinson (pdf), 783 F2d. 776 Took Drugs, Raped University Students (9th Cir. 1986)(PDF), web site of the Who "Collaborated with the Americans" Syracuse University College of Law  Human Rights Watch - Afghanistan  Page 17, Northern Ireland: TP , T , S 11 ABDUCTIONS OF AND ASSAULTS ON (PDF) Queen’s University Belfast School WOMEN of Law  Algeria to Permit Abortions for Rape  "Guardian Unlimited style guide". Victims http://www.guardian.co.uk/styleguide/  Tony Blair, "Speech to the Los Angeles page/0,5817,184833,00.html. World Affairs Council",  "BBC editorial guidelines on the use of http://www.number10.gov.uk/output/ language when reporting terrorism" Page9948.asp (DOC). http://www.bbc.co.uk/guidelines/  The Third Bubble. THOMAS L. editorialguidelines/assets/advice/ FRIEDMAN. April 20, 2003 guidanceontheuseoflanguagewhenreportingterrorism.doc. Mark. 2004. "Social Networks  Sageman,  Disorders and Terrorism, National and the Jihad". Philadelphia: University Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice of Pennsylvania Press. Ch. 5 pp. 166-167 Standards and Goals (Washington  Williams, Phil (2008). "Violent Non-State D.C.:1976) Actors and National and International  Hudson, Rex A. Who Becomes a Terrorist Security". http://se2.isn.ch/ and Why: The 1999 Government Report serviceengine/ on Profiling Terrorists, Federal Research FileContent?serviceID=ISFPub&fileid=8EEBA9FE-47 Division, The Lyons Press,2002 EA2C-AA15-32FC9A59434A&lng=en.  "Freedom squelches terrorist violence: Retrieved on 2009-02-14. Harvard Gazette Archives".  Library of Congress – Federal Research http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/ Division The Sociology and Psychology of 2004/11.04/05-terror.html. Terrorism  "Freedom squelches terrorist violence:  Endgame: Resistance, by Derrick Jensen, Harvard Gazette Archives" (PDF). Seven Stories Press, 2006, ISBN http://ksghome.harvard.edu/ 158322730X, pg IX ~.aabadie.academic.ksg/povterr.pdf.  Pds Sso Retrieved on 2008-12-28.  The Legal Debate is Over: Terrorism is a  "Poverty, Political Freedom, and the War Crime | The New America Roots of Terrorism" (PDF). 2004. Foundation
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 Press conference with Kofi Annan & FM Kamal Kharrazi  Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, JeanLouis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7  Kisangani, E. (2007). "The Political Economy Of State Terror" (PDF). Defence and Peace Economics 18 (5): 405–414. doi:10.1080/ 10242690701455433. http://www.informaworld.com/index/ 781318312.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-04-02.  Death by Government By R.J. Rummel New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1994. Online links:   No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust?, Barbara Harff, 2003.  Suicide bombings are the most effective terrorist act in this regard. See the following works:  Hoffman, Bruce (June 2003). "The Logic of Suicide Terrorism". Atlantic Monthly 291 (5): pp. 40-47. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/ 200306/hoffman.  Pape, Robert A.. "The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism" (reprint). American Political Science Review 97 (3): 343–361. http://www.danieldrezner.com/ research/guest/Pape1.pdf.  Ricolfi, Luca (2005), "Palestinians 1981-2003", in Gambetta, Diego,
Making Sense of Suicide Missions (1st ed.), Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 76–130, ISBN 9780199276998 Cited in Richardson, Louise (2006). What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Terrorist Threat. London, UK: John Murray. p. 33. ISBN 0719563062.  The Media and Terrorism: A Reassessment Paul Wilkinson. Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol.9, No.2 (Summer 1997), pp.51-64 Published by Frank Cass, London.  his blog William Gibson’s blog, October 31, 2004, retrieved April 26, 2007.  ^ Crenshaw, Martha, Terrorism in Context, p. 38  Crenshaw, p. 44.  frontline: al qaeda’s new front: al qaeda today | PBS  frontline: al qaeda’s new front | PBS  Frontline: the enemy within: new reality: the man turned away | PBS  http://www.sacw.net/hrights/ judgementjehanabad.doc  "Academic Consensus Definition of "Terrorism," Schmid 1988, United Nations website". Archived from the original on 2007-06-27. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20070627231104/http://www.unodc.org/ unodc/terrorism_definitions.html. . For more detailed information, see: Schmid, Jongman et al. Political terrorism: a new guide to actors, authors, concepts, data bases, theories, and literature. Amsterdam: North Holland, Transaction Books, 1988. ISBN 1412804698