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Google search

Google search
Google search

2 ); package tracking; patents; areas codes;[5] plus rudimentary language translation of displayed pages. A Google search-results page is ordered by a priority rank called "PageRank" which is kept secret to avoid spammers from forcing their pages to the top. Google Search provides many options for customized search (see below: Search options), such as: exclusion ("-xx"), inclusion ("+xx"), alternatives ("xx OR yy"), and wildcard matching ("*").

The Google homepage URL Commercial? Type of site Registration Available language(s) Owner Created by Launched Alexa rank Revenue Current status list of domain names Yes Search Engine Optional Multilingual (~100) Google Inc. Sergey Brin and Larry Page September 15, 1997[1] 1[2] From AdWords Active

The search engine
Google’s algorithm uses a patented system called PageRank to help rank web pages that match a given search string.[6] The PageRank algorithm computes a recursive score for web pages, based on the weighted sum of the PageRanks of the pages linking to them. The PageRank derives from human-generated links, and is thought to correlate well with human concepts of importance. The exact percentage of the total of web pages that Google indexes is not known, as it is very hard to actually calculate. Previous keywordbased methods of ranking search results, used by many search engines that were once more popular than Google, would rank pages by how often the search terms occurred in the page, or how strongly associated the search terms were within each resulting page. In addition to PageRank, Google also uses other secret criteria for determining the ranking of pages on result lists, reported to be a number over 200.[7]

Google search is a web search engine owned by Google, Inc., and is the most-used search engine on the Web. Google receives several hundred million queries each day through its various services.[3] Google search was originally developed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin in 1997.[4] Beyond the original word-search capability,[5] Google Search provides more than 22 special features, such as: weather forecasts, time zones, stock quotes, maps, earthquakes, movie showtimes, airports, home listings, sports scores, etc. (see below: Special features). There are special features for numbers: prices; money/unit conversions ("10.5 cm in inches"); calculations ( 3*4+sqrt(6)-pi/

Search results
Google not only indexes and caches web pages but also takes "snapshots" of other file types, which include PDF, Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, Flash SWF, plain text files, online videos such as YouTube and much more.[8] Except in the case of text and SWF files, the cached version is a conversion to (X)HTML, allowing those without the


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corresponding viewer application to read the file. Users can customize the search engine, by setting a default language, using the "SafeSearch" filtering technology and set the number of results shown on each page. Google has been criticized for placing longterm cookies on users’ machines to store these preferences, a tactic which also enables them to track a user’s search terms and retain the data for more than a year. For any query, up to the first 1000 results can be shown with a maximum of 100 displayed per page.

Google search
Google has published guidelines for website owners who would like to raise their rankings when using legitimate optimization consultants.[10]


Non-indexable data
Despite its immense index, there is also a considerable amount of data available in online databases which are accessible by means of queries but not by links. This so-called invisible or deep Web is minimally covered by Google and other search engines.[9] The deep Web contains library catalogs, official legislative documents of governments, phone books, and other content which is dynamically prepared to respond to a query. Image of definition link provided for many search terms. The Google search engine has many intuitive features making it more functional. This could have played a role in making it as popular as it is today. Google is one of the top ten most-visited websites today.[11] Some of its features include a definition link for most searches including dictionary words, a list of how many results you got on your search, links to other searches (e.g. you misspelled something, it gives you a link to the search results had you typed in the correct search), and many more. It is unknown whether functionality, speed, or luck brought it its peak status.

Google optimization
Since Google is the most popular search engine, many webmasters have become eager to influence their website’s Google rankings. An industry of consultants has arisen to help websites increase their rankings on Google and on other search engines. This field, called search engine optimization, attempts to discern patterns in search engine listings, and then develop a methodology for improving rankings to draw more searchers to their client’s sites. Search engine optimization encompasses both "on page" factors (like body copy, title elements, H1 heading elements and image alt attribute values) and Off Page Optimization factors (like anchor text and PageRank). The general idea is to affect Google’s relevance algorithm by incorporating the keywords being targeted in various places "on page", in particular the title element and the body copy (note: the higher up in the page, presumably the better its keyword prominence and thus the ranking). Too many occurrences of the keyword, however, cause the page to look suspect to Google’s spam checking algorithms.

Search syntax
Google’s search engine normally accepts queries as a simple text, and breaks up the user’s text into a sequence of search terms, which will usually be words that are to occur in the results, but may also be phrases, delimited by quotations marks ("), qualified terms, with a prefix such as "+", "-", or one of several advanced operators, such as "site:". The webpages of "Google Search Basics" describe each of these additional queries and options (see below: Search options). Google’s Advanced Search web form gives several additional fields which may be used to qualify searches by such criteria as date of first retrieval. All advanced queries transform to regular queries, usually with additional qualified terms.


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Google search

Query expansion
Google applies query expansion to the submitted search query, transforming it into the query that will actually be used to retrieve results. As with page ranking, the exact details of the algorithm Google uses are deliberately obscure, but certainly the following transformations are among those that occur: • Term reordering: in information retrieval this is a standard technique to reduce the work involved in retrieving results. This transformation is invisible to the user, since the results ordering uses the original query order to determine relevance. • Stemming is used to increase search quality by keeping small syntactic variants of search terms.[1] • There is a limited facility to fix possible misspellings in queries.

Error messages
Some searches will give a 403 Forbidden error with the text "We’re sorry... ... but your query looks similar to automated requests from a computer virus or spyware application. To protect our users, we can’t process your request right now. We’ll restore your access as quickly as possible, so try again soon. In the meantime, if you suspect that your computer or network has been infected, you might want to run a virus checker or spyware remover to make sure that your systems are free of viruses and other spurious software. We apologize for the inconvenience, and hope we’ll see you again on Google." sometimes followed by a CAPTCHA prompt.[16] The screen was first reported in 2005, and was a response to the heavy use of Google by search engine optimization companies to check on ranks of sites they were optimizing. The message may also be triggered by high volumes of different searches from a single IP address. Google apparently uses the Google cookie as part of its determination of refusing service.[17] The error usually occurs after the 11th page in your google search. The block is generally removed after a day.

"I’m Feeling Lucky"
Google’s homepage includes a button labeled "I’m Feeling Lucky". When a user clicks on the button the user will be taken directly to the first search result, bypassing the search engine results page. The thought is that, if a user is "feeling lucky", the search engine will return the perfect match the first time without having to page through the search results. According to a study by Tom Chavez of "Rapt", this feature costs Google $110 million a year as 1% of all searches use this feature and bypass all advertising.[12]

January 2009 malware bug

Rich Snippets
On 12 May 2009, Google announced that they would be parsing the hCard, hReview and hProduct microformats, and using them to populate search result pages with what they called "Rich Snippets"[13].

Special features and options
Besides the main search-engine feature of searching for text, Google Search has more than 22 "special features" which provide other informative results, including weather forecasts, stock quotes, calculations, currency conversions, package tracking, and flight statuses. [5][14][15]

A screenshot of the error of January 31, 2009 Google flags search results with the message "This site may harm your computer" if the site is known to install malicious software


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in the background or otherwise surreptitiously. Google does this to protect users against visiting sites that could harm their computers. For approximately 40 minutes on January 31, 2009, all search results were mistakenly classified as malware and could therefore not be clicked; instead a warning message was displayed and the user was required to enter the requested URL manually. The bug was caused by human error.[18][19] The URL of "/" (which expands to all URLs) was mistakenly checked in as a value to the file.[19]

Google search

Domain names
In addition to the main URL, Google owns 160 domain names for each of the countries/regions in which it has been localized.[20] As Google is an American company, the main domain name can be considered as the U.S. one, though the gTLD .com can be used by any company in the world (not only those from the United States). does exist but is only a redirection to because dot-US is by far less common than dot-com in the United States. An example is or List of domain names

Google is available in many languages and has been localized for many countries.[20]


Some domain names unregistered by Google are currently squatted: Languages • (Ukraine), the correct URL is • Afrikaans • Danish • Indonesian • Māori • • Turkish Serbian • Albanian • Dutch • Interlingua • Marathi • Serbo• Turkmen • (Cameroon), common mis-typing of • Amharic • English • Irish • Moldavian (there is no localized version Croatian • Twi • Arabic (United • Italian (Romanian) • which redirects Uighur • to the for Cameroon), Sesotho • Armenian States) • Japanese • Mongolian test". • Shona • Ukrainian "Official IQ • Azerbaijani • English • Javanese • Montenegrin • Sindhi • Urdu • Basque (United • Kannada • Nepali • Sinhalese • Uzbek • Belarusian Kingdom) • Kazakh • Norwegian • Slovak • Vietnamese • Bengali • Esperanto • Korean • Norwegian to• Slovene • In addition its tool for Welsh searching • Bihari • Estonian • Kurdish (Nynorsk) • also provides services for Somali • Xhosa webpages, Google • Bosnian • Faroese • Kyrgyz • Occitan images, Usenet newsgroups, news • Spanish • Yiddish searching • Breton • Filipino • Laothian • Oriya videos,•searching by locality, maps, Sundanese • Yoruba websites, • Bulgarian • Finnish • Latin • Pashto for sale online. In 2006, Zulu • Swahili • Google has and items • Cambodian • French • Latvian • Persian • billion web pages,[23] 400 Swedish indexed over 25 (Khmer) • Frisian • Lingala • Polishqueries • Tagalog million per day,[23] 1.3 billion im• Catalan (West) • Lithuanian • Portuguese oneTajik ages, and over • billion Usenet messages. • Chinese • Galician • Macedonian It also caches much of the content that it in(Brazil) • Tamil (Simplified) • Georgian • Malay • Portuguese operates other tools and serdexes. Google • Tatar • Chinese • German • Malayalam vices including• Telugu (Portugal) Google News, Google (Traditional) • Greek • Maltese • Punjabi Google Product Search, Google • Thai Suggest, • Corsican • Guarani • Quechua • Tigrinya Maps, Google Co-op and Google Desktop • Croatian • Gujarati • Romanian • Tonga Search. • Czech • Hebrew • Romansh There are also products available from • Hindi • Russian Google that are not directly search-related. • Hungarian • Scots Gaelic Gmail, for example, is a webmail application, • Icelandic but still includes search features; Google The interface has also been made available in Browser Sync does not offer any search facilsome languages for humorous purpose: ities, although it aims to organize your • Klingon browsing time. • Bork, bork, bork! • Elmer Fudd • Hacker (actually leetspeak) Google claims that a search query requires • Pig Latin altogether about 1 kJ or 0.0003 kW·h. [24] • Pirate

Search products

Energy consumption


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Region Andorra United Arab Emirates Afghanistan Antigua and Barbuda Anguilla Armenia Angola Argentina American Samoa Austria Australia Azerbaijan Bosnia and Herzegovina Bangladesh Belgium Bulgaria Bahrain Burundi Brunei Bolivia Brazil Bahamas Botswana Belarus Belize Canada Democratic Republic of the Congo Switzerland Côte d’Ivoire Cook Islands Chile China ISO URL .AD .AE .AF .AI .AM .AO Date[21] ? ? ? ? ? ?

Google search
Rank[22] ? 163sm=n ? ? ? ? ? 046 ? ? 164 ? ? ? 116 229 388 ? ? 323 024 ? ? ? ? 065 ? ? 406 ? ? 021 081

.AG ?

.AR 01999-06-08 June 08, 1999 .AS .AT .AZ .BA ? ? ? ?

.AU ?

.BD ? .BE .BG .BI ? ? ?

.BH ? .BN ? .BO ? .BR 01999-05-18 May 18, 1999 .BS .BW ? ?

.BY ? .BZ ? .CA .CD 02000-10-03 October 03, 2000 ? ? ? ? ? 02006-08-24 August 24, 2006 02003-03-17 March 17, 2003

Republic of the Congo .CG .CH .CI .CK .CL .CN (


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Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Czech Republic Germany Djibouti Denmark Dominica Dominican Republic Algeria Ecuador Estonia Egypt Spain Ethiopia Finland Fiji Federated States of Micronesia France Georgia Guernsey Ghana Gibraltar Greenland Gambia Guadeloupe Greece Guatemala Guyana Hong Kong Honduras Croatia Haiti Hungary Indonesia Ireland

Google search
054 ? ? 157 042 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 103 025 ? ? ? ? 015 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 205 226 ? 447 ? ? ? 137 ? ?

.CO 02003-06-23 June 23, 2003 .CR .CZ .DE .DJ .DK .DM .DZ .EE .ES .ET .FI .FJ .FM .FR .GE .GG .GI .GL .GM .GP .GR .GY .HN .HR .HT .HU .ID .IE ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? .CU ?

.DO ? .EC ? .EG ? 02003-09-16 September 16, 2003 ? ? ? ? 02000-07-27 July 27, 2000 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

.GH ?

.GT ? .HK ?


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Israel Isle of Man India Iceland Italy Jersey Jamaica Jordan Japan Kenya Cambodia Kiribati Kyrgyzstan South Korea Kazakhstan Laos Liechtenstein Sri Lanka Lesotho Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Libya Morocco Moldova Montenegro Mongolia Montserrat Malta Mauritius Maldives Malawi Mexico Malaysia Mozambique Namibia Norfolk Island .IL .IM .IN .IS .IT .JE .JO .JP .KE .KI .KG .KR .KZ .LA .LI .LK .LS .LT .LU .LV .LY .MA .MD .ME .MN .MS .MU .MV .MW ? ? ? ?

Google search
263 ? 063 ? 077 ? ? ? 099 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 465 ? 219 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

01999-12-10 December 10, 1999 ? ? 02001-03-22 March 22, 2001 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

.JM ?

.KH ?

.MT ?

.MX 02003-02-24 February 028 24, 2003 .MY ? .MZ .NF ? ? .NA ? 165 ? ? ?


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Nigeria Nicaragua Netherlands Norway Nepal Nauru Niue New Zealand Oman Panama Peru Philippines Pakistan Poland Pitcairn Islands Puerto Rico Portugal Paraguay Qatar Romania Russia Rwanda Saudi Arabia Solomon Islands Seychelles Sweden Singapore Saint Helena Slovenia Slovakia Senegal San Marino São Tomé and Príncipe El Salvador Thailand Tajikistan .NG ? .NI .NL .NO .NR .NU .NZ ? ? ? ? ? ?

Google search
? ? 159 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 055 ? ? 032 ? 217 313 ? ?

.NP ?

.OM ? .PA ? .PE ? .PH ? .PK ? .PL .PN .PT 02002-09-19 September 19, 2002 ? ?

.PR ? .PY ? .QA ? .RO .RU .RW

02004-02-12 February 152 12, 2004 ? ? 139 ? 158 ? ? 448 ? ? 367 067 ? ? ? ? 084 ?

.SA 02004-01-11 January 11, 2004 .SB ? .SC .SE .SH .SI .SK .SN .SM .ST ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

.SG ?

.SV ? .TH .TJ ? ?


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Tokelau Timor-Leste Turkmenistan Tonga Turkey Trinidad and Tobago Taiwan Tanzania Ukraine Uganda United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Venezuela British Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands Vietnam Vanuatu Samoa Serbia South Africa Zambia Zimbabwe .TK .TL .TM .TO .TR .TT .TZ .UG .UK .US ? ? ? ?

Google search
? ? ? ? 089 ? 346 346 269 ?

02001-08-23 August 23, 2001 ? ? ?

.TW ? .UA ?

01999-02-14 February 036 14, 1999 01997-09-15 September 15, 1997 ? 004 ? ? ? 045 ? ? 072 ? ? ? 400 ? ?

.UY ? .UZ .VC ? .VE .VG .VI 02003-03-06 March 06, 2003 ? ?

.VN 02003-04-24 April 24, 2003 .VU .WS .RS .ZA .ZM .ZW ? ? ? ? ? ?

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • elgooG Google guidelines Google Image Labeler Googlefight Googlewhack History of Google List of Google products List of search engines Peter Norvig Scroogle Blackle

[1] "WHOIS -". whois? Retrieved on 2009-01-27. [2] traffic_details/ [3] Almost 12 Billion U.S. Searches Conducted in July, SearchEngineWatch on 2008-09-02 [4] "WHOIS -".


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Google search

whois? Retrieved on 2009-01-27. securityfix/2009/01/ [5] ^ "Search Features",, May google_this_internet_will_harm.html?hpid=news2009, webpage: GFeat. col-blog. Retrieved on 2009-01-31. [6] Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page. The [19] ^ Mayer, Marissa (2009-01-31). ""This Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual site may harm your computer" on every Web Search Engine. Stanford University. search result?!?!". The Official Google 1998. Blog. Google. [7] Corporate Information: Technology Overview this-site-may-harm-your-computer[8] "Google Frequently Asked Questions on.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-31. File Types". [20] ^ Language Tools faq_filetypes.html#what. Retrieved on [21] Launch date 2008-01-29. [22] Word ranking according to Alexa [9] Sherman, Chris and Price, Gary. The Internet, see Alexa Global Top 500 Invisible Web: Uncovering Sources Traffic Rank] Accessed 31-March-2008 Search Engines Can’t See, In: Library [23] ^ Google, Web Crawling and Distributed Trends 52 (2) 2003: Organizing the Synchronization p. 11. Internet: 282-298. [24] Powering a Google search 2142/8528 [10] Google Webmaster Guidelines [11] "Top 500". Alexa. • Google Hacks from O’Reilly is a book site/ds/ containing tips about using Google top_sites?ts_mode=global&lang=none. effectively. Now in its third edition. ISBN Retrieved on 2008-04-15. 0-596-52706-3. [12] """I’m feeling lucky" button costs Google • Google: The Missing Manual by Sarah $110 million per year"". Valleywag. Milstein and Rael Dornfest (O’Reilly, 2007. 2004). ISBN 0-596-00613-6 im-feeling-lucky-button-costs• How to Do Everything with Google by google-110-million-per-year-324927.php. Fritz Schneider, Nancy Blachman, and Retrieved on 2008-01-19. Eric Fredricksen (McGraw-Hill Osborne [13] Goel, Kavi; Ramanathan V. Guha, Othar Media, 2003). ISBN 0-07-223174-2 Hansson (2009-05-12). "Introducing Rich • Google Power by Chris Sherman Snippets". Google Webmaster Central (McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 2005). Blog. Google. ISBN 0-07-225787-3 • SEO for Google by Paul Bliss - an eBook 2009/05/introducing-rich-snippets.html. that describes in precise detail the Retrieved on 2009-05-25. methods needed to get your site top [14] "Google and Search Engines", Emory rankings in Google for your keywords. University Law School, 2006, web: • Barroso, Luiz Andre; Dean, Jeffrey; Hölzle, EmUniv-Gfind. Urs (2003). "Web Search for a Planet: The [15] "Google Help Center - Alternate query Google Cluster Architecture". IEEE micro types", 2009, webpage: G-help. 23 (2): 22–28. doi:10.1109/ [16] "Google error page". MM.2003.1196112. Retrieved on 2008-12-31. [17] "Google error page". • • Evolution of Google Home Page from 1998 Retrieved on to 2008 2008-12-31. • A Cached page of Google from 1998 [18] Krebs, Brian (2009-01-31). "Google: This

Further reading

External links

Internet May Harm Your Computer". The Washington Post. Retrieved from ""


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Google search

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