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George_Patton

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									From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

George S. Patton

George S. Patton
George Smith Patton III November 11, 1885 (1885-11-11) – December 21, 1945 (1945-12-22) (aged 60) 3/3rd Cavalry Regiment 5th Cavalry Regiment 3rd Cavalry Regiment 2/2nd Armored Division 2nd Armored Division US 1st Armored Corps Desert Training Center US 1st Armored Corps U.S. II Corps US 1st Armored Corps U.S. Seventh Army U.S. Third Army U.S. Fifteenth Army Battles/ wars Awards Mexican Expedition World War I World War II Distinguished Service Cross (2) Distinguished Service Medal (3) Silver Star (2) Legion of Merit Bronze Star Purple Heart Order of the Bath Order of the British Empire Major General George Patton IV (son)

Relations

Then Lieutenant General George S. Patton Nickname Place of birth Place of death Allegiance Service/ branch Years of service Rank Commands held Old Blood and Guts San Gabriel, California Heidelberg, Germany United States of America United States Army 1909–1945 General Machinegun Platoon/3/15th Cavalry Regiment K/3/15th Cavalry Regiment A/1/7th Cavalry Regiment HQs Troop/American Expeditionary Force 302nd Tank Center 1st Light Tank Battalion 1st Light Tank Regiment 1st Tank Brigade 304th Tank Brigade

George Smith Patton, Jr. (also George Smith Patton III) (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a distinguished though controversial United States Army officer. Commissioned in the army in 1909, Patton participated in the unsuccessful attempt to capture Pancho Villa in 1916-17. In World War I, he was the first officer assigned to the new United States Tank Corps[1][2] and saw action in France. After the war he was a strong advocate of armored warfare. It was in World War II that he made his mark, commanding both corps and armies as a general in North Africa, Sicily, and the European Theater of Operations. Near the end of the Sicilian campaign, Patton jeopardized his career by slapping a soldier recuperating from "battle fatigue" at a hospital; Patton considered him a coward. The well-publicized incident caused General Eisenhower to relieve him of command. Thus, instead of playing a major part in the invasion of Normandy, he was relegated to being a decoy. However, he was later given command of the

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U.S. Third Army and ably led it in breaking out of the hedgerows of Normandy and across France. When a surprise major German offensive resulted in American units being surrounded in Bastogne, Patton rapidly disengaged his army from fighting in another sector and moved it over 100 miles in 48 hours to relieve the siege. Patton often got into trouble with his outspokenness and strong opinions. In addition to the slapping incident, towards the end of the war, he voiced his detestation and mistrust of the Soviets and his desire to fight them. He has also been criticized for sending an ill-fated rescue mission for his son-in-law, held in a prison camp deep behind enemy lines.

George S. Patton
George Washington. Gregory married Francis Thornton III, a first cousin twice removed from James Madison and three times removed from Zachary Taylor. Patton’s paternal grandparents were Colonel George Smith Patton and Susan Thornton Glassell. Patton’s grandfather, born in Fredericksburg, graduated from Virginia Military Institute (VMI), Class of 1852, second in a class of 24. After graduation, George Smith Patton studied law and practiced in Charleston. When the American Civil War broke out, he served in the 22nd Virginia Infantry of the Confederate States of America. Dying at the Battle of Opequon (the Third Battle of Winchester), Patton’s grandfather left behind a namesake son, born in Charleston, Virginia (now West Virginia). The second George Smith Patton (born George William Patton in 1856, changing his name to honor his late father in 1868) was one of four children. Graduating from the Virginia Military Institute in 1877, Patton’s father served as L.A. County District Attorney and the first City Attorney for the city of Pasadena, California and the first mayor of San Marino, California. He was a Wilsonian Democrat.

Family
George Smith Patton was born in San Gabriel Township, California (in what is now the city of San Marino), to George Smith Patton, Sr. (1856 – 1927) and Ruth Wilson (1861 – 1928). Although he was technically the third George Smith Patton, he was given the name Junior. The Pattons were an affluent family of Scottish descent. As a boy, Patton read widely in classics and military history. Patton’s father was an acquaintance of John Singleton Mosby, a noted cavalry leader of the Confederate Army in the American Civil War who served first under J.E.B. Stuart and then as a guerrilla fighter. The younger Patton grew up hearing Mosby’s stories of military glory. From an early age, the young Patton sought to become a general and hero in his own right. Patton came from a long line of soldiers, including General Hugh Mercer of the American Revolution.[3] His great grandfather John M. Patton was a governor of Virginia. His grandfather, Col. George S. Patton was killed during the Battle of Opequon. A greatuncle, Waller T. Patton, died of wounds received in Pickett’s Charge during the Battle of Gettysburg. Two other great-uncles, John M. Patton and Isaac Patton, served as colonels in the Confederate States Army. Another relative, Hugh Weedon Mercer, was a Confederate general. His seventh great-grandfather was Louis Dubois, a French Huguenot immigrant, who with 11 others founded the town of New Paltz, New York. Another of Patton’s ancestors was Francis Gregory, a first cousin of

A younger Benjamin Davis Wilson ca. 1850. His maternal grandparents were Benjamin Davis Wilson, (December 1, 1811 to March 11, 1878), the namesake of Southern California’s Mount Wilson, and his second wife, Margaret Hereford. Wilson was a self-made

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man who was orphaned in Nashville, Tennessee, and made his fortune as a fur trapper and adventurer during the Indian Wars and the war against Mexico, before marrying the daughter of a Mexican land baron and settling in what would become California’s San Gabriel Valley. He married Beatrice Banning Ayer (January 12, 1886 - September 30, 1953), the daughter of wealthy textile baron Frederick Ayer, on May 26, 1910. They had three children, Beatrice Smith (March 19, 1911–October 24, 1952), Ruth Ellen (February 28, 1915–November 25, 1993) and George Patton IV (December 24, 1923–June 27, 2004), who rose to the rank of major general.

George S. Patton
eventually graduating in 1909 instead of 1908 and receiving his commission as a cavalry officer.[4]

Fifth Olympiad
Patton participated in the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm in the first-ever modern pentathlon. He placed sixth out of 37 contestants in 300 meter freestyle swimming. Patton was third out of 29 fencers. In the equestrian cross-country steeplechase, he was among the three riders who turned in perfect performances, but he placed third because of his time. Patton hit the wall 50 yards (46 m) from the finish line of the four kilometer cross-country footrace, then fainted after crossing the line at a walk. He finished third out of 15 contestants. He finished fifth overall.

Education

Pistol shooting controversy
In pistol shooting, Patton placed 20th out of 32 contestants. He used a .38 caliber pistol, while most the other competitors chose .22 caliber firearms. He claimed that the holes in the paper from early shots were so large that some of his later bullets passed through them, but the judges decided he missed the target completely once. Modern competitions on this level frequently now employ a moving background to specifically track multiple shots through the same hole.[5] There was much controversy, but the judges’ ruling was upheld. Patton neither complained, nor made excuses. Patton’s only comment was ...the high spirit of sportsmanship and generosity manifested throughout speaks volumes for the character of the officers of the present day. There was not a single incident of a protest or any unsportsmanlike quibbling or fighting for points which I regret to say marred some of the other civilian competitions at the Olympic Games. Each man did his best and took what fortune sent like a true soldier, and at the end we all felt more like good friends and comrades than rivals in a severe competition, yet this spirit of friendship in no manner detracted from the zeal with which all strove for success.

Patton at Virginia Military Institute Patton attended Virginia Military Institute for one year, where he rushed VMI’s chapter of the Kappa Alpha Order. He then transferred to the United States Military Academy. The Academy compelled him to repeat his first "plebe" year after doing poorly in mathematics. He repeated his plebe year with honors, and was appointed Cadet Adjutant (the second highest position for a cadet)

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George S. Patton

Patton Saber
After the Olympics, Lieutenant Patton was made the Army’s youngest-ever "Master of the Sword" at the Mounted Service School at Fort Riley, Kansas. While Master of the Sword, Patton improved and modernized the Army’s cavalry saber fencing techniques and designed the Model 1913 Cavalry Saber. It had a large, basket-shaped hilt mounting a straight, double-edged, thrusting blade designed for use by light cavalry. Patton’s 1914 manual "Saber Exercise" outlined a system of training aimed at developing proficiency in the mounted use of the saber. Now known as the “Patton” Saber, it was heavily influenced by the 1908 and 1912 Pattern British Army Cavalry Swords. These weapons were never used as intended. At the beginning of U.S. involvement in World War I, several American cavalry units armed with sabers were brought to the front but they were held back; the nature of war had changed, making horse-mounted troops easy prey for enemy troops equipped with Gewehr 98 rifles and MG08 machine guns. The slashing and thrusting saber attacks had become obsolete.

World War I

Patton in France in 1918 At the outset of the U.S. entry into World War I, General Pershing promoted Patton to the rank of captain. While in France, Patton requested a combat command. Pershing assigned him to the newly formed United States Tank Corps. In November, 1917, Patton left Paris and reported to General Garrard of the French Army. At Champlieu, Patton drove a Renault char d’assault tank and tested its trench-crossing ability. Depending on the source, he either led the U.S. tanks or was an observer at the 1917 Battle of Cambrai, where tanks were first used in significant numbers. As the U.S. Tank Corps did not take part in this battle, the role of observer is the more likely. However, in The Patton Papers: 1885-1940, author Martin Blumenson makes no mention of Patton being at Cambrai, stating only that on 1 December, Patton went to Albert, not too far from Cambrai, to discuss the ongoing battle with the chief of staff of the British Tank Corps, Colonel J. F. C. Fuller.[8] Patton received his first ten tanks on 23 March, 1918 at the Tank School and Centre, which he commanded, at Langres, Haute-Marne department. The only one with tank driving experience, Patton himself backed seven of the light, two-man Renault FT-17 tanks off the train.[9] For his successes and his organization of the training school, Patton was promoted to major, lieutenant colonel and then colonel, U.S. National Army. In August, 1918, he was placed in charge of the 1st Provisional Tank Brigade, redesignated the 304th Tank Brigade on 6 November, 1918. Patton’s Light Tank Brigade was part of Colonel Samuel

Early military career
During the Mexican Expedition of 1916, Patton was assigned to the 8th Cavalry Regiment[6] in Fort Bliss, Texas. He accompanied then-Brigadier General John J. Pershing as his aide during the Punitive Expedition in his pursuit of Pancho Villa, after Villa’s forces had crossed into New Mexico, raided and looted the town of Columbus, and killed several Americans. During his service, Patton, accompanied by ten soldiers of the 6th Infantry Regiment, and using three armored cars, conducted the world’s first armored vehicle attack, and in the process killed two Mexican leaders, including "General" Julio Cardenas, commander of Villa’s personal bodyguard. The bodies were brought back to Pershing’s headquarters strapped to the hoods of the vehicles in a manner similar to game animals such as deer brought home by hunters. For this action, as well as Patton’s affinity for the Colt Peacemaker, Pershing titled Patton his "Bandito". Patton’s success in this regard gained him a level of fame in the United States, and he was featured in newspapers across the nation.[7]

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Rockenbach’s Tank Corps, which was in turn part of the American Expeditionary Force. (Patton was not in charge of the Tank Corps as has often been misreported.) The 304th Tank Brigade fought as part of the First United States Army. On 26 September, 1918, Patton was wounded in the left leg personally leading six men in an attack on German machine guns during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel. The only survivors were Patton and his orderly Private First Class Joe Angelo, who saved Patton and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.[10] While Patton was recuperating from his wounds, hostilities ended. For his service in the Meuse-Argonne Operations, Patton received the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal, and was given a battlefield promotion to a full colonel. For his combat wounds, he was presented the Purple Heart.

George S. Patton
for funding for armored units. During his time in Hawaii, Patton was responsible for the defense of the islands, and specifically wrote a defense plan anticipating an air raid against Pearl Harbor—10 years before a similar attack was carried out by aircraft carrier strike force of the Imperial Japanese Navy on December 7, 1941. In the late 1930s, Patton was assigned command of Fort Myer, Virginia. Shortly after Germany’s blitzkrieg attacks in Europe, Major General Adna Chaffee, the first Chief of the U.S. Army’s newly-created Armored Force was finally able to convince Congress of the need for armored divisions. This led to the activation of the 1st and 2nd Armored Divisions in 1940. Colonel Patton was given command of the 2nd Armored Brigade, US 2nd Armored Division in July 1940. He became the assistant division commander the following October, and was promoted to brigadier general on the second day of that month. Patton served as the acting division commander from November 1940 until April 1941. He was promoted to major general on 4 April and made commanding general of the 2nd Armored Division seven days later.

Interwar years
While on duty in Washington, D.C. in 1919, Captain (he reverted from his wartime temporary rank of colonel) Patton met Dwight D. Eisenhower, who would play an enormous role in Patton’s future career. During their assignment at Fort Riley, Kansas, Patton and Eisenhower developed the armored doctrine which would be used by the US Army in World War 2. In the early 1920s, Patton petitioned the U.S. Congress to appropriate funding for an armored force, but had little luck. Patton also wrote professional articles on tank and armored car tactics, suggesting new methods for their use. He also continued working on improvements to tanks, coming up with innovations in radio communication and tank mounts. However, the lack of interest in armor created a poor atmosphere for promotion and career advancement, so Patton transferred back to the horse cavalry. In July 1932, Patton served under Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur as a major commanding 600 troops, including the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment. On 28 July, MacArthur ordered these troops to advance on protesting veterans known as the "Bonus Army" in Washington, D.C. with tear gas and bayonets. Ironically, one of the veterans dispersed by the cavalry was Joe Angelo, who had saved Patton’s life in World War I. Patton served in Hawaii before returning to Washington to once again ask Congress

World War II
During the buildup of the United States Army prior to its entry into World War II, Patton commanded the 2nd Armored Division, which performed with mixed results in both the Louisiana Maneuvers and Carolina Maneuvers in 1941. The 2nd Armored was stationed at Fort Benning, Georgia, until the unit, along with its commander, was ordered to the newly established Desert Training Center in Indio, California by the Chief of the Armored Force, Major General Jacob L. Devers. Patton was subsequently appointed commander of the newly activated I Armored Corps by Devers, and was in this position when the corps was assigned to Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa. In preparation, Patton trained his troops in the Imperial Valley. He commenced these exercises in late 1941, and continued them well into the summer of 1942. Patton chose a 10,000-acre (40 km2) expanse of unforgiving desert known for its blistering temperatures, sandy arroyos and absolute desolation. It was a close match for the terrain Patton and his men would encounter during the campaigns in North Africa. To this day, history buffs can

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still find tank tracks, foxholes and spent shell casing in an area about 50 miles (80 km) southeast of Palm Springs.

George S. Patton
Blood and Guts," troops joked that it was "his guts and our blood". The discipline Patton instilled paid off quickly. By mid-March 1943, the counter-offensive of the U.S. II Corps, along with the rest of the British 1st Army, pushed the Germans and Italians eastwards. Meanwhile the British Eighth Army, commanded by General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery, simultaneously pushed them westwards, effectively squeezing the Germans and Italians into a smaller and smaller portion of Tunisia and out of North Africa altogether by mid-May.

North African campaign
In 1942, Major General Patton commanded the Western Task Force of the U.S. Army, which landed on the coast of Vichy Frenchheld Morocco in Operation Torch for the North African Campaign. Patton and his staff arrived in Morocco aboard the heavy cruiser USS Augusta, which came under fire from the Vichy French battleship Jean Bart while entering the harbor of Casablanca. Casablanca fell after four days of fighting. So impressed was the Sultan of Morocco that he presented Patton with the special Order of Ouissam Alaouite, with the citation: "Les Lions dans leurs tanières tremblent en le voyant approcher" (The lions in their dens tremble at his approach).[11] In 1943, following the defeat of the U.S. II Corps (then part of British 1st Army) by the German Afrika Korps, first at the Battle of Sidi Bou Zid and again at the Battle of the Kasserine Pass, General Dwight D. Eisenhower sent Major General Ernest Harmon to assess the II Corps. On March 6, 1943, as a result of Harmon’s report, Patton replaced Major General Lloyd Fredendall as commander of the II Corps. Patton was also promoted to lieutenant general. Soon thereafter, Patton had Omar Bradley reassigned to his corps as deputy commander. Thus began a long wartime association between the two different personalities. It is said that his troops preferred to serve with him rather than his predecessor since they thought their chances of survival were higher under Patton. For instance, Patton required all personnel to wear steel helmets (even physicians in the operating wards) and required his troops to wear the unpopular lace-up canvas leggings and neckties since the leggings prevented injury from scorpions, spiders and rats which would climb up under soldiers’ trousers. A system of fines was introduced to ensure all personnel shaved daily and observed other uniform requirements. While these measures may not have made Patton popular, they did tend to restore a sense of discipline and unit pride that may have been missing when Fredenfall was still in command. In a play on his nickname, "Old

Sicily campaign

Near Brolo, Sicily. 1943 As a result of his performance in North Africa, Patton received command of the Seventh Army in preparation for the 1943 invasion of Sicily. The Seventh Army’s mission was to protect the left (western) flank of the British Eighth Army as both advanced northwards towards Messina. Officers quoted General Patton’s speech to them before the invasion of Sicily, referring to Italians and Germans: When we land against the enemy, don’t forget to hit him and hit him hard. When we meet the enemy we will kill him. We will show him no mercy. He has killed thousands of your comrades and he must die. If your company officers in leading your men against the enemy find

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him shooting at you and when you get within two hundred yards of him he wishes to surrender – oh no! That bastard will die! You will kill him. Stick him between the third and fourth ribs. You will tell your men that. They must have the killer instinct. Tell them to stick him. Stick him in the liver. We will get the name of killers and killers are immortal. When word reaches him that he is being faced by a killer battalion he will fight less. We must build up that name as killers. – George S. Patton[12] The Seventh Army repulsed several German counterattacks in the beachhead area before beginning its push north. Meanwhile, the Eighth Army stalled south of Mount Etna in the face of strong German defenses. The Army Group commander, Harold Alexander, exercised only the loosest control over his two commanders. Montgomery therefore took the initiative to meet with Patton in an attempt to work out a coordinated campaign. Patton formed a provisional corps under his Chief of Staff, and quickly pushed through western Sicily, liberating the capital, Palermo, and then swiftly turned east towards Messina. American forces liberated the port city in accordance with the plan jointly devised by Montgomery and Patton. However, the Italians and Germans used their air and naval supremacy to evacuate all of their soldiers and much of their heavy equipment across the Strait of Messina to the Italian mainland.

George S. Patton
named Charles H. Kuhl, who was weeping. Patton asked "What’s the matter with you?" and the soldier replied, "It’s my nerves, I guess. I can’t stand shelling." Patton "thereupon burst into a rage" and "employing much profanity, he called the soldier a ’coward’" and ordered him back to the front. As a crowd gathered, including the hospital’s commanding officer, the doctor who had admitted the soldier, and a nurse, Patton then "struck the youth in the rear of the head with the back of his hand". Reportedly, the nurse "made a dive toward Patton, but was pulled back by a doctor" and the commander intervened. Patton went to other patients, then returned and berated the soldier again.[16] When General Eisenhower learned of the incident, he ordered Patton to make amends, after which, it was reported, "Patton’s conduct then became as generous as it had been furious," and he apologized to the soldier "and to all those present at the time,"[17] After the film Patton was released in 1970, Charles H. Kuhl recounted the story and said that Patton had slapped him across the face and then kicked him as he walked away. "After he left, they took me in and admitted me in the hospital, and found out I had malaria," Kuhl noted, adding that when Patton apologized personally (at Patton’s headquarters) "He said he didn’t know that I was as sick as I was." Kuhl, who later worked as a sweeper for Bendix Corporation in Mishawaka, Indiana, added that Patton was "a great general" and added that "I think at the time it happened, he was pretty well worn out himself."[18] Kuhl died on January 24, 1971.[19] Kuhl’s parents had avoided mention of the matter "because they did not wish to make trouble for General Patton."[20] Eisenhower thought of sending Patton home in disgrace, as many newspapers demanded, but after consulting with George Marshall, Eisenhower decided to keep Patton in the European theater, though without a major command. Eisenhower used Patton’s "furlough" as a trick to mislead the Germans as to where the next attack would be, since Patton was the general the German High Command believed would lead the attack. During the ten months Patton was relieved of duty, his prolonged stay in Sicily was interpreted by the Germans as an indication of an upcoming invasion of southern France. Later, a stay in Cairo was viewed as heralding an invasion through the

Slapping incident and removal from command
The "slapping incident", which occurred on August 3, 1943[13] nearly ended Patton’s career. The matter became known after newspaper columnist Drew Pearson revealed it on his November 21 radio program, reporting that General Patton had been "severely reprimanded" as a result.[14] Allied Headquarters denied that Patton had been reprimanded, but confirmed that Patton had slapped a soldier. In fact, two soldiers had been assaulted in separate incidents.[15] According to witnesses, General Patton was visiting patients at a military hospital in Sicily, and came upon a 24-year-old soldier

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Balkans. German intelligence misinterpreted what happened and made faulty plans as a result. In the months before the June 1944 Normandy invasion, Patton gave public talks as commander of the fictional First U.S. Army Group (FUSAG), which was supposedly intending to invade France by way of Calais. This was part of a sophisticated Allied campaign of military disinformation, Operation Fortitude. The Germans misallocated their forces as a result, and were slow to respond to the actual landings at Normandy. In a story recounted by Professor Richard Holmes, just three days before D-Day, during a reception in the London Ritz Hotel, Patton shouted across a crowded reception in the direction of Eisenhower "I’ll see you in Calais!", much to the consternation of all those around him. The ploy appears to have worked as reports of overnight troop movements north from Normandy were detected by Bletchley Park code decrypts.

George S. Patton
using the XIX Tactical Air Command of the Ninth Air Force to protect his right (southern) flank during his advance to the Seine. Rather than engage in set-piece slugging matches, Patton preferred to bypass centers of resistance and use the mobility of his units to the fullest, defeating German defensive positions through maneuver, rather than headon fighting whenever possible. He was able to do this in part because of his systematic exploitation of ULTRA, a highly classified system that was very successful in reading German Enigma machine ciphers. Patton was able to continue these tactics despite German radio silence during preparation for the Ardennes Offensive.

Lorraine
General Patton’s offensive, however, came to a screeching halt on August 31, 1944, as the Third Army literally ran out of gas near the Moselle River, just outside of Metz, France. Berragan (2003) argues it was due primarily to Patton’s ambitions and his refusal to recognize that he was engaged in a secondary line of attack. Others suggest that General John C.H. Lee, commander of the Zone of Communication, chose that time to move his headquarters to the more comfortable environs of Paris. Some 30 truck companies were diverted to that end, rather than providing support to the fighting armies. Patton expected that the Theater Commander would keep fuel and supplies flowing to support successful advances. However, Eisenhower favored a "broad front" approach to the ground-war effort, believing that a single thrust would have to drop off flank protection, and would quickly lose its punch. Still, within the constraints of a very large effort overall, Eisenhower gave Montgomery and his 21st Army Group a strong priority for supplies for Operation Market Garden. [21] The combination of Montgomery being given priority for supplies, and diversion of resources to moving the Communications Zone, resulted in the Third Army running out of gas in Alsace-Lorraine while exploiting German weakness. Patton’s experience suggested that a major US and Allied advantage was in mobility. This was the result of a greater number of US trucks, higher reliability of US tanks, better radio communications, all contributing to

Normandy
Following the Normandy invasion, Patton was placed in command of the U.S. Third Army, which was on the extreme right (west) of the Allied land forces. Beginning at noon on August 1, 1944, he led this army during the late stages of Operation Cobra, the breakout from earlier slow fighting in the Normandy hedgerows. The Third Army simultaneously attacked west (into Brittany), south, east towards the Seine, and north, assisting in trapping several hundred thousand German soldiers in the Chambois pocket, between Falaise and Argentan, Orne. Patton used Germany’s own blitzkrieg tactics against them, covering 60 miles (97 km) in just two weeks, from Avranches to Argentan. Patton’s forces were part of the Allied forces that freed northern France, bypassing Paris. The city itself was liberated by the French 2nd Armored Division under French General Leclerc, insurgents who were fighting in the city, and the US 4th Infantry Division. The French 2nd Armored Division had recently been transferred from the 3rd Army, and many of the unit’s soldiers thought they were still part of 3rd Army. These early 3rd Army offensives showed the characteristic high mobility and aggressiveness of Patton’s units. Patton demonstrated an understanding of the use of combined arms by

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superior ability to operate at a high tempo. Slow attacks were wasteful and resulted in high losses; they also permitted the Germans to prepare multiple defensive positions rather than withdraw from one defense to another after inflicting heavy casualties on US and Allied forces. He refused to operate that way. The time needed to resupply was just enough to allow the Germans to further fortify the fortress of Metz. In October and November, the Third Army was mired in a near-stalemate with the Germans, with heavy casualties on both sides. By November 23, however, Metz had finally fallen to the Americans, the first time the city had been taken since the Franco-Prussian War.

George S. Patton
and the rest of the allied high command. Thus, he was able to tell Eisenhower that his forces would be in position to counter-attack almost immediately. Needing just 24 hours of good weather, Patton ordered the Third Army Chaplain, Colonel James O’Neill, to come up with a prayer beseeching God to grant this. When the weather did clear soon after, Patton awarded O’Neill a Bronze Star on the spot.[22] Patton turned the Third Army abruptly north (a notable tactical and logistical achievement), disengaging from the front line to relieve the surrounded and besieged 101st Airborne Division pocketed in Bastogne. Military historians remark that this was Patton’s finest hour. By February, the Germans were in full retreat and Patton moved into the Saar Basin of Germany. Elements of 3rd Army crossed the Rhine at Oppenheim on March 22, 1945. Patton was planning to take Prague, Czechoslovakia, when Eisenhower, under extreme pressure from the Soviets, ordered American forces in Czechoslovakia to stop short of the city limits. Patton’s troops liberated Pilsen, on May 6, 1945, and most of western Bohemia.

Battle of the Bulge

Brief June 1945 visit to California

Bradley, Eisenhower, and Patton In late 1944, the German army launched a last-ditch offensive across Belgium, Luxembourg, and northeastern France, popularly known as the Battle of the Bulge, nominally led by German Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt. On December 16, 1944, the German army massed 29 divisions (totaling some 250,000 men) at a weak point in the Allied lines and made massive headway towards the Meuse River during one of the worst winters Europe had seen in years. Patton disengaged his forward attacking units when he became aware of the scope of the attack, and re-directed a corps-sized element toward the North before setting out for a strategic meeting with Eisenhower, Bradley

Patton during a parade in Los Angeles, California. Largely overlooked in history is the warm reception Patton received on June 9, 1945, when he and Army Air Force Lieutenant General Jimmy Doolittle were honored with a parade through Los Angeles and a reception at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum before

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a crowd of over 100,000 people that evening. The next day, Patton and Doolittle toured the metropolitan Los Angeles area. Patton spoke in front of the Burbank City Hall and at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena. He wore his helmet with a straight line of stars, chest full of medals, and two ivory[23] handle trademark pistols (not pearl, as is often incorrectly asserted). He punctuated his speech with some of the same profanity he had used with the troops. He spoke about conditions in Europe and the Russian allies to the adoring crowds. This may be the only time in America when civilians, en masse, heard and saw the famous warrior on the podium. This was also the time when he quietly turned over an original copy of the 1935 Nuremberg Laws, which he had smuggled out of Germany in violation of JCS 1067, to the Huntington Library, a world-class repository of historical original papers, books, and maps, near Pasadena. He instructed physicist Robert Millikan, then the chairman of the board of trustees of the Huntington Library to make no official record of the transaction, and not to make the materials available for public inspection during Patton’s lifetime. The Huntington Library retained the Nuremberg Laws in a basement vault in spite of a legal instruction in 1969 by the general’s family to turn over all of his papers to the Library of Congress. On June 26, 1999, Robert Skotheim, then the president of the Huntington Library, announced that the Library was to permanently loan the Nuremberg Laws to the Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles, where they are currently on display.

George S. Patton
crossing and the vehicles were just starting up, this means the crash was at no more than 20 miles per hour (32 km/h). At first the crash seemed minor, the vehicles were hardly damaged, no one in the truck was hurt, and Gay and Woodring were uninjured. However, Patton was leaning back with trouble breathing. The general had been thrown forward and his head struck a metal part of the partition between the front and back seats. Paralyzed from the neck down, he was rushed to the military hospital in Heidelberg. Patton died of an embolism on December 21, 1945.

Patton’s grave in Hamm, Luxembourg. Patton was buried at the Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial in Hamm, Luxembourg along with other members of the Third Army.[24] On March 19, 1947, his body was moved from the original grave site in the cemetery to its current prominent location at the head of his former troops. A cenotaph was placed at the Wilson-Patton family plot at the San Gabriel Cemetery in San Gabriel, California, adjacent to the Church of Our Saviour (Episcopal), where Patton was baptized and confirmed. In the narthex of the sanctuary of the church is a stained glass window honor which features, among other highlights of Patton’s career, a picture of him riding in a tank. A statue of General Patton was placed between the church and the family plot. Patton’s car was repaired and used by other officers. The car is now on display with other Patton artifacts at the General George Patton Museum at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

Accident and death
On December 9, 1945, Patton was severely injured in a road accident. He and his chief of staff, Major General Hobart R. "Hap" Gay, were on a day trip to hunt pheasants in the country outside Mannheim. Their 1938 Cadillac Model 75 was driven by Private First Class Horace Woodring (1926 - 2003), with Patton sitting in the back seat on the right side, with General Gay on his left, as per custom. At 11:45 near Neckarstadt (MannheimKäfertal), a 2½ ton GMC truck driven by Technical Sergeant Robert L. Thompson hit the car containing the general head-on. According to the book Unexplained Mysteries of World War II, as the crash was at a railway

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George S. Patton
Patton has a reputation today as a senior general who was very impatient with the officers under his command, compared to his most famous colleague, Omar Bradley, but the truth is far more complicated. Patton actually fired only one general during the entire war, Orlando Ward, and only after two warnings, whereas Bradley sacked numerous generals during the war with little provocation, sometimes for the slightest transgression. Patton deliberately cultivated a flashy, distinctive image in the belief that this would motivate his troops. He was usually seen wearing a highly polished helmet, riding pants, and high cavalry boots. He carried flashy ivory-handled, nickel-plated revolvers as his most famous sidearms (a Colt Single Action Army .45 "Peacemaker" and later also a S&W Model 27 .357). His vehicles carried oversized rank insignia and loud sirens. His speech was riddled with profanities. The toughness of his image and character appeared well-suited to the conditions of battle. Patton received many eulogies from the reporters who had followed him, including a tribute from a UPI writer who wrote, "Gen. George S. Patton believed he was the greatest soldier who ever lived. He made himself believe he would never falter through doubt. This absolute faith in himself as a strategist and master of daring infected his entire army, until the men of the second American corps in Africa, and later the third army in France, believed they could not be defeated under his leadership."[26]

Controversies and criticism
Patton more than once caused political irritations and was criticized for some controversial faux pas, such as the slapping incident in 1943. Patton, in several reports, insisted on the highest standard of order and grooming within his army’s area and imposed fines for anyone who violated his strict guidelines.

Patton’s problems with humor, his image, and the press
Unlike Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was popular with troops partly for his self-effacing humor, Patton disliked jokes aimed at himself, feeling that accepting such jokes would decrease the respect which he felt that troops should have toward their commanders. Soldiers stationed in the Pacific theater of war were not pleased with what was going on in the European continent and disliked him for his perceived disregard for the lives of his troops. Patton reportedly had the utmost respect for the men serving in his command but had no regard for men who had battle fatigue.[25] The cartoonist Bill Mauldin ridiculed Patton several times in his comics, prompting Patton to summon Sergeant Mauldin to his headquarters for a dressingdown. On the other hand, he was himself capable of the occasional blunt witticism: "The two most dangerous weapons the Germans have are our own armored halftrack and jeep. The halftrack because the boys in it go all heroic, thinking they are in a tank. The jeep because we have so many God-awful drivers." During the Battle of the Bulge, he famously remarked that the Allies should "let the sons-of-bitches [Germans] go all the way to Paris, then we’ll cut ’em off and round ’em up!" He also suggested that the German forces could attack towards the British and create "another Dunkirk". His remarks frequently ridiculed General Montgomery and at times the Soviet Red Army, contributing to inter-Allied discord. In the context of coalition warfare, these remarks were occasionally harmful. Eisenhower wisely used Patton’s high profile with the press to contribute to Operation Fortitude; he knew the press would report on his appearances in Britain and that the Germans would pick up these reports.

After the German surrender
After the surrender of May 8, 1945 eliminated the threat of Nazi Germany, Patton was quick to assert the Soviet Union would cease to be an ally of the United States. He was concerned that some 25,000 American POWs had been liberated from POW camps by the Soviets, but were never returned to the US. In fact, he urged his superiors to evict the Soviets from central and eastern Europe. Patton thought that the Red Army was weak, under-supplied, and vulnerable, and the United States should act on these weaknesses before the Soviets could consolidate their position. In this regard, he told then-Undersecretary of War Robert P. Patterson that the "point system" being used to demobilize Third Army troops was destroying it and creating a vacuum that the Soviets would

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exploit. "Mr. Secretary, for God’s sake, when you go home, stop this point system; stop breaking up these armies," pleaded the general. "Let’s keep our boots polished, bayonets sharpened, and present a picture of force and strength to these people, the Soviets. This is the only language they understand." Asked by Patterson — who would become Secretary of War a few months later — what he would do, Patton replied: "I would have you tell the Red Army where their border is, and give them a limited time to get back across. Warn them that if they fail to do so, we will push them back across it." On a personal level, Patton was disappointed by the Army’s refusal to give him a combat command in the Pacific Theater of Operations. Unhappy with his role as the military governor of Bavaria and depressed by his belief that he would never fight in another war, Patton’s behavior and statements became increasingly erratic. He also made many antiRussian statements in letters home. Various explanations beyond his disappointments have been proposed for Patton’s behavior at this point. Carlo D’Este, in Patton: A Genius for War, writes that "it seems virtually inevitable ... that Patton experienced some type of brain damage from too many head injuries" from a lifetime of numerous auto- and horserelated accidents, especially one suffered while playing polo in 1936. Many of the controversial opinions he expressed were common (if not exactly popular) at the time and his outspoken opposition to post-surrender denazification is still widely debated today. Many still laud his generous treatment of his former German enemies and his early recognition of the Soviet threat, while detractors say his protests reflect the views of a bigoted elitist. Whatever the cause, Patton found himself once again in trouble with his superiors and the American people. While speaking to a group of reporters, he compared the Nazis to losers in American political elections, and that being a Nazi in Germany was just being a member of a political party, "like being a Democrat in the States." Patton was soon relieved of command of Third Army and transferred to the Fifteenth Army, a paper command preparing a history of the war.

George S. Patton

Attitudes on race and nationality
The use of black troops during the push to the Siegfried Line offers some insight into Patton’s racial attitude. The first black tank unit, the 761st "Black Panther" Tank Battalion, was assigned to Patton in the fall of 1944, at his request. As the 761st was about to enter combat, Patton reviewed the battalion and addressed the men: Men, you’re the first Negro tankers to ever fight in the American Army. I would never have asked for you if you weren’t good. I have nothing but the best in my Army. I don’t care what color you are as long as you go up there and kill those Kraut sons of bitches. Everyone has their eyes on you and is expecting great things from you. Most of all your race is looking forward to you. Don’t let them down and damn you, don’t let me down![27] – George S. Patton, The 761st "Black Panther" Tank Battalion in World War II" Historian Hugh Cole points out that Patton was the first American military leader to integrate the rifle companies "when manpower got tight." Patton stated that performance was more important than race or religious affiliation:[28] "I don’t give a damn who the man is. He can be a nigger or a Jew, but if he has the stuff and does his duty, he can have anything I’ve got. By God! I love him."[28][29] Patton also insisted on the assignment of some black officers as judges in military tribunals involving black defendants,[28] and he spent more time with his African-American aide, Sergeant Meeks, than with nearly anyone else while in Europe,[28] developing a relationship of mutual respect that transcended that of a general with his valet. Patton disliked the British,[28] but appreciated Montgomery’s organizational abilities more than either Eisenhower or Bradley did.[28] Patton was horrified at what he found when his Third Army liberated Buchenwald concentration camp. Local German citizens claimed that they didn’t know what was going on, though at least a few admitted to knowing of the atrocities but insisted they’d been powerless to stop it. He ordered

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American troops to round up the approximately 2000 local Germans and march them through the camps. He wanted them to see the atrocities firsthand. Though many of his attitudes were common in his day, as with all of his opinions, he was often exceptionally blunt in his expression of them. He once wrote: The difficulty in understanding the Russian is that we do not take cognizance of the fact that he is not a European, but an Asiatic, and therefore thinks deviously. We can no more understand a Russian than a Chinese or a Japanese, and from what I have seen of them, I have no particular desire to understand them except to ascertain how much lead or iron it takes to kill them. In addition to his other amiable characteristics, the Russian has no regard for human life and they are all out sonsof-bitches, barbarians, and chronic drunks.[30] – George S. Patton After reading the Koran and observing North Africans, he wrote to his wife, "Just finished reading the Koran—a good book and interesting." Patton had a keen eye for native customs and methods, wrote knowingly of local architecture, even rated the progress of word-of-mouth rumor in Arab country at 40-60 miles a day. In spite of his regard for the Koran, he concluded, "To me it seems certain that the fatalistic teachings of Mohammad and the utter degradation of women is the outstanding cause for the arrested development of the Arab. . . . Here, I think, is a text for some eloquent sermon on the virtues of Christianity" (both Patton and Halsey were Episcopalians).[31][32]

George S. Patton
the camp. When Eisenhower learned of the secret mission, he was furious.

Relations with Eisenhower

Patton (seated, second from left) and Eisenhower (seated, middle) with other American military officials, 1945. The relationship between George S. Patton and Dwight Eisenhower has long been of interest to historians in that the onset of World War II completely reversed the roles of the two men in the space of just under two years. When Patton and Eisenhower met in the mid 1920s, Patton was six years Eisenhower’s senior in the Army and Eisenhower saw Patton as a leading mind in tank warfare. Between 1935 and 1940, Patton and Eisenhower developed a very close friendship to the level where the Patton and Eisenhower families were spending summer vacations together. In 1938, Patton was promoted to full colonel and Eisenhower, then still a lieutenant colonel, openly admitted that he saw Patton as a friend, superior officer, and mentor. Upon the outbreak of World War II, Patton’s expertise in mechanized warfare was recognized by the Army, and he was quickly made a brigadier general and, less than a year later, a major general. In 1940, Lt. Col. Eisenhower petitioned Brigadier General Patton, offering to serve under the tank corps commander. Patton accepted readily, stating that he would like nothing better than for Eisenhower to be placed under his command. George Marshall, recognizing that the coming conflict would require all available military talent, had other plans for Eisenhower. In 1941, after five years as a relatively unknown lieutenant colonel, Eisenhower was promoted to colonel and then

Task Force Baum
In March 1945, Patton sent Task Force Baum, consisting of 314 men, 16 tanks, and assorted other vehicles, 50 miles (80 km.) behind enemy lines to liberate a prisoner of war camp. One of the inmates was Patton’s sonin-law, Lieutenant Colonel John K. Waters. The raid was an utter fiasco. Only 35 men made it back; the rest were either killed or captured, and all 57 vehicles were lost. Waters himself was shot and had to be left at

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again to brigadier general in just 6 months time. Patton was still senior to Eisenhower in the Regular Army, but this was soon not the case in the growing conscript army (known as the Army of the United States). In 1942, Eisenhower was promoted to major general and, just a few months later, to lieutenant general — outranking Patton for the first time. When the Allies announced the invasion of North Africa, Major General Patton suddenly found himself under the command of his former subordinate, now one star his superior. In 1943, Patton became a lieutenant general one month after Eisenhower was promoted to full (four-star) general. Patton was unusually reserved in never publicly commenting on Eisenhower’s hasty rise. Patton also reassured Eisenhower that the two men’s professional relationship was unaffected. Privately however, Patton was often quick to remind Eisenhower that his permanent rank in the Regular Army, then still a one-star brigadier general, was lower than Patton’s Regular Army commission as a twostar major general. When Patton came under criticism for the "Sicily slapping incident" (see above), Eisenhower met privately with Patton and reprimanded him, but then reassured Patton that he would not be sent home to the United States for his conduct. Many historians have speculated that, had it been anybody other than Eisenhower, Patton would have been demoted and court-martialed. Eisenhower is also credited with giving Patton a command in France, after other powers in the Army had relegated Patton to various unimportant duties in England. It was in France that Patton found himself in the company of another former subordinate, Omar Bradley, who had also become his superior. As with Eisenhower, Patton behaved with professionalism and served under Bradley with distinction. After the close of World War II, Patton (now a full general) became the occupation commander of Bavaria, and made arrangements for saving the world-famous Lipizzaner stallions of Vienna. Patton was relieved of duty after openly revolting against the punitive occupation directive JCS 1067.[33] His view of the war was that with Hitler gone, the German army could be rebuilt into an ally in a potential war against the Russians, whom Patton notoriously despised and

George S. Patton
considered a greater menace than the Germans. During this period, he wrote that the Allied victory would be in vain if it led to a tyrant worse than Hitler and an army of "Mongolian savages" controlling half of Europe. Eisenhower had at last had enough, relieving Patton of all duties and ordering his return to the United States. When Patton openly accused Eisenhower of caring more about a political career than his military duties, their friendship effectively came to an end. In addition, Patton was highly critical of the victorious Allies use of German forced labor. He commented in his diary "I’m also opposed to sending PW’s to work as slaves in foreign lands (in particular, to France) where many will be starved to death." He also noted "It is amusing to recall that we fought the revolution in defence of the rights of man and the civil war to abolish slavery and have now gone back on both principles".[34] (See also Rheinwiesenlager). Near the end of the war (February 1945), Eisenhower ranked the capabilities of U.S. generals in Europe. Omar Bradley and Carl Spaatz he rated as the best. Walter Bedell Smith was ranked number 3, and Patton number 4, followed by Mark Clark, and Lucian Truscott. Bradley himself had been asked by Eisenhower to rank all the generals in December 1945, and he ranked them as follows: Bedell Smith #1, Spaatz #2, Courtney Hodges #3, Elwood Quesada #4, Truscott #5, and Patton #6 (others were also ranked)[35] However, Patton was a ground commander. Spaatz and Quesada had been air commanders since the 1920s, having spent their military careers through the end of World War II in the Army Air Force, the forerunner of today’s U.S. Air Force, which was not separated from the U.S. Army until 1947. It may be impossible today to make a fair comparison of commanders from two such different branches of the U.S. military. Eisenhower’s and Bradley’s rankings probably included factors other than Patton’s success as a battle leader. As to that, Alan Axelrod in his book Patton (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006) quotes German Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt as stating "Patton was your best" and, surprisingly, Joseph Stalin as stating that the Red Army could neither have planned nor executed Patton’s advance across France. D’Este reports that even

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Hitler begrudgingly respected Patton, once calling him "that crazy cowboy general."

George S. Patton

Patton, the film

Patton was the focus of the epic 1970 Rank comparison to Eisenhower Academy Award-winning film Patton, with the titular role played by George C. Scott in Rank Patton Eisenhower Component an iconic, Academy Award winning performance. As a result of the movie and its nowSecond June 11, June 12, United famous opening monologue in front of a giLieutenant 1909 1915 States Army gantic American flag, which is based on porFirst May 23, July 1, 1916 United tions of speeches he made at different times Lieutenant 1916 States Army (Patton’s Speech to the Third Army made to Captain May 15, May 15, United troops shortly before the Normandy inva1917 1917 States Army sion), Patton has come to symbolize a warriMajor January June 17, National or’s ferocity and aggressiveness. Although 26, 1918 Army the movie is based upon Ladislas Farago’s 1918 Patton: Ordeal and Triumph and Omar BradLieutenant March October 14, National ley’s A Soldier’s Story, historians have stated the movie’s accuracy could be tinged with Colonel 30, 1918 Army some bias, noting the heavy influence of 1918 Omar Bradley as senior military advisor and Colonel October N/A National writer. Bradley, played in the movie by Karl 17, Army Malden, had a tumultuous relationship with 1918 Patton and the movie’s treatment of him Captain June 30, June 30, Regular could be seen as hagiographic. Still, many (Peacetime 1920 1920 Army Patton contemporaries, including many who reversion) knew him personally or served with him, apMajor July 1, July 2, 1920 Regular plauded Scott’s portrayal as being extremely 1920 Army accurate in capturing the essence of the man. Other historians have praised the film for its Lieutenant March July 1, 1936 Regular generally accurate and balanced portrayal of Colonel 1, 1934 Army Patton as a complex and capable leader. Colonel July 1, March 11, Regular Another source used by these and other au1938 1941 Army thors is the "Button Box" manuscript written Brigadier October September Army of the Patton’s wife, Beatrice Ayer Patton.[38] by General 1, 1940 29, 1941 United States Major General April 4, 1941 March 27, 1942 July 7, 1942 Army of the • General George Patton Museum at Fort United Knox, Kentucky. States • A museum dedicated to Patton, and his Army of the efforts training thousands of soldiers for United African desert combat, is located at the States site of the Desert Training Center in Regular Chiriaco Summit, California. A statue of Army Patton can be seen from nearby Interstate 10. Regular • Two active United States Army Army installations are named in memory of General Patton. Patton Barracks in Army of the Heidelberg, Germany houses the headquarters for the United States Army United Garrison Heidelberg. Patton Army Air States Field, located on Camp Arifjan, Kuwait, Army of the provides rotary-wing aviation support for United Army units in southern Kuwait. States

Legacy

Lieutenant March General 12, 1943 Brigadier General Major General General

August N/A 16, 1944[36] August N/A 16, 1944[37] April 14, 1945 N/A February 11, 1943 December 20, 1944

General of the Army

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George S. Patton
glass window depicting Patton as a version of Saint George. He is shown in a tank fighting a dragon festooned with swastikas. The lettering in the window reads "I fought a good fight." Hamilton, Massachusetts, where Patton’s summer home was located, dedicated its central park to Patton, boasting a World War II-era tank in the center of town, and the town’s school sports teams play under the name "Generals". In addition, the French government gave two statues to the town commemorating Patton’s service to their nation. They were improved in 2003 and sit at the entrance to Patton Park. Patton was named the class exemplar for the United States Air Force Academy’s class of 2005, the only non-aviator to receive this honor. A street in Arlon in the province of Luxembourg, Belgium, is named for General Patton, and a street in the comune of Ixelles, in Brussels. Patton wrote much material, including speeches, lectures, and poetry. Incorporating the biblical phrase "Through a Glass, Darkly" he composed a poem imbued with his personal interpretations of reincarnation:[42][43] Through the travail of the ages, Midst the pomp and toil of war, Have I fought and strove and perished Countless times upon this star ... So as through a glass, and darkly The age long strife I see Where I fought in many guises, Many names, but always me.

•

•

•

•

General George S. Patton statue Ettelbruck / Luxembourg 2007 • Patton United States Army Reserve Center, in Bell, California is named for General Patton. • Patton Junior High School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas is named for him.[39] • The Patton series of tanks are named for him.[40] • A chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution is named for Patton.[41] • At the Episcopal Church of Our Savior in San Gabriel, California, there is a stained

... So forever in the future, Shall I battle as of yore, Dying to be born a fighter, But to die again, once more

Awards and decorations
At the time of General Patton’s death, he was authorized the following awards and decorations.

United States awards
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George S. Patton

Foreign and international awards
• • • General Patton’s Ribbons as they would appear today Distinguished Service Cross with one oak leaf cluster Distinguished Service Medal with two oak leaf clusters • • • • • • Silver Star with one oak leaf cluster Legion of Merit Bronze Star Purple Heart Silver Lifesaving Medal [44] Mexican Service Medal World War I Victory Medal with five battle clasps American Defense Service Medal European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with one silver and two bronze service stars American Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal In 1955, the U.S. Army posthumously presented General Patton with the Army of Occupation Medal for service as the first occupation commander of Bavaria. • • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Officer of the Order of the British Empire Belgian Order of Leopold Belgian Croix de Guerre French Legion of Honor French Croix de Guerre Luxemburg War Cross Grand Luxemburg Cross of the Order of Adolphe of Nassau Grand Cross of Ouissam Alaouite of Morocco Order of the White Lion of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian War Cross

Dates of rank

See also
• Patton tank

References
Bibliography
Primary sources
• George S. Patton, Jr., War As I Knew It; Houghton Mifflin ISBN 0-395-73529-7;(1947/1975); (Soft Cover) ISBN 0-395-08704-6 (1947/1975); (Hard Cover) • George S. Patton, Jr., The poems of General George S. Patton, Jr.: Lines of fire, edited by Carmine A. Prioli. Edwin Mellen Press, 1991. • Patton’s photographs: War as he saw it, edited by Kevin Hymel. Potomac Books, ISBN 1-57488-871-4 (2006) (Hard Cover); ISBN 1-57488-872-2 (2006) (Soft Cover; Alkali Paper). • Blumenson, Martin, The Patton Papers. Vol. 1, 1885-1940, ISBN 0-395-12706-8 (Hard Cover)

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No pin insignia for 2nd Lts. in 1909

George S. Patton

Second Lieutenant, Regular Army: June 11, 1909 First Lieutenant, Regular Army: May 23, 1916 Captain, Regular Army: May 15, 1917 Major, National Army: January 26, 1918 Lieutenant Colonel, National Army: March 30, 1918 Colonel, National Army: October 17, 1918 Reverted to permanent rank of Captain, Regular Army: June 30, 1920 Major, Regular Army: July 1, 1920 Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: March 1, 1934 Colonel, Regular Army: July 1, 1938 Brigadier General, Army of the United States: October 2, 1940 Major General, Army of the United States: April 4, 1941 Lieutenant General, Army of the United States: March 12, 1943 Brigadier General, Regular Army: August 16, 1944[36] Major General, Regular Army: August 16, 1944[37] General, Army of the United States: April 14, 1945

Houghton Mifflin Co., 1972. 996 pp. ISBN 0-306-80717-3 (Soft Cover; Alkali Paper) Da Capo Press; 1998; 996 pp. • Blumenson, Martin, The Patton Papers: Vol. 2, 1940-1945, ISBN 0-395-18498-3 (Hard Cover); Houghton Mifflin, 1974. 889 pp. ISBN 0-306-80717-3 (Soft Cover; Alkali Paper); Da Capo Press, 1996. 889 pp. • Patton, Robert H., The Pattons: A Personal History of An American Family, ISBN 1-57488-127-2 (Soft Cover); Crown Publishers (1994); Brassey’s (1996) 320 pp. • Platt, Anthony M. with O’Leary, Cecilia E., Bloodlines: Recovering Hitler’s Nuremberg Laws, From Patton’s Trophy To Public Memorial, ISBN 1-59451-140-3 (paperback); Paradigm Publishers, 2006. 268 pp.

Secondary sources
• Sobel, Brian, The Fighting Pattons, ISBN 0-440-23572-2 (Soft Cover) Dell Publishing, 1997; Praeger Publishers Reprint, July, 2000. • Axelrod, Alan, Patton: A Biography, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. 205 pp. • Berragan, G. W., "Who Should Bear Primary Responsibility for the Culmination of Patton’s U.S. Third Army on the Moselle in 1944? Are There Lessons for Contemporary Campaign Planning?", Defence Studies 2003 3(3): 161-172. Issn: 1470-2436 Fulltext in Ingenta and Ebsco. • Martin Blumenson, Patton: The Man Behind the Legend, 1885-1945 ISBN 0-688-06082-X; 1985 • Blumenson, Martin, The Battle of the Generals: The Untold Story of the Falaise Pocket — the Campaign That Should Have Won World War II; 1993. 288 pp.

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• Carlo D’Este, Patton: A Genius for War, HarperCollins, (1995). 978 pp. ISBN 0-06-016455-7 • Dietrich, Steve E., "The Professional Reading of General George S. Patton, Jr.", Journal of Military History 1989 53(4): 387-418. Issn: 0899-3718 Fulltext in Jstor • Essame, H., Patton: A Study in Command; 1974. 280 pp. • Farago, Ladislas, Patton: Ordeal and Triumph ISBN 1-59416-011-2 • Hirshman, Stanley P., General Patton: A Soldier’s Life (2002) ISBN 0-06-000982-9 • Nye, Roger H., The Patton Mind: The Professional Development of an Extraordinary Leader, Avery; 1993. 224 pp. • Pullen, John J. "’You Will Be Afraid.’", American Heritage 2005 56(3): 26-29. Issn: 0002-8738 Fulltext in Ebsco. Patton’s March 1945 was made famous by the movie, which sanitized it. Patton used harsh and foul language and castigated cowards, or "psychoneurotics," and those who used self-inflicted wounds to get out of combat. The basic message was "shoot and keep shooting." • Rickard, John Nelson, Patton at Bay: The Lorraine Campaign, September to December 1944, Praeger, 1999. 295 pp. • Dennis Showalter, Patton and Rommel: Men of War in the Twentieth Century (2005). ISBN 978-0-425-20663-8. • Smith, David Andrew, George S. Patton: A Biography, Greenwood, 2003. 130 pp. • Spires, David N., Patton’s Air Force: Forging a Legendary Air-Ground Team, Smithsonian Inst. Pr., 2002. 377 pp. • Brenton G. Wallace, Patton & His Third Army ISBN 0-8117-2896-X • Russell F. Weigley, Eisenhower’s Lieutenants: The Campaign of France and Germany 1944-1945, (1990) • Wilson, Dale Eldred, ’Treat ’Em Rough’! The United States Army Tank Corps in the First World War; Temple U. Press (1990). 352 pp.

George S. Patton

[2] Biography of General George S. Patton, Jr.. generalpatton.com. http://www.generalpatton.com/ biography.html. Retrieved on April 9, 2009. p. 2 [3] Biography of General Hugh Mercer [4] D’Este, Carlo (1995). Patton: A Genius for War. New York: Harper Perennial. pp. 58, 131. ISBN 0060927623. [5] Blumenson, Martin (1972). The Patton Papers: 1885-1940. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 231–234. ISBN 0-395-12706-8. [6] 8th Cavalry Regiment - Early History [7] CARDENAS’S FAMILY SAW HIM DIE AT BAY; Shot Four Times, Villa Captain Fought Before Mother, Wife, and Daughter, New York Times, 1916-05-23 at 5. [8] Blumenson, Martin (1972). The Patton Papers: 1885-1940. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 480–483. ISBN 0-395-12706-8. [9] Blumenson, Martin (1972). The Patton Papers: 1885-1940. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 552-553. ISBN 0-395-12706-8. [10] Blumenson, Martin (1972). The Patton Papers: 1885-1940. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 661–670, 706-708,764-766. ISBN 0-395-12706-8. [11] "Man Under a Star," Time. March 29, 2943. [12] Botting p. 355 [13] "Private Wrote Family About Being Cuffed," The Port Arthur News, November 24, 1943, p6 [14] "Reprimand for Patton is Denied," The Fresno Bee, November 22, 1943, p1 [15] Farago, Ladislas Patton: Ordeal and Triumph [16] "Patton Regrets Slapping Soldier," San Antonio Light, November 23, 1943, p1 [17] Id. at p.8 [18] "Gen. Patton Slap Haunts Former GI," Charleston Daily Mail, March 25, 1970, p12 [19] "GI Slapped by Gen. Patton in Sicily Is Notes Dead," The Cedar Rapids Gazette, [1] Wilson, Dale. The American February 2, 1971, p7. Expeditionary Forces Tank Corps in [20] Port Arthur News, 11/24/43, Id. World War I: From Creation to Combat. [21] Eisenhower. Stephen Ambrose, pg. http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/ 162-164 GetTRDoc?AD=A192722&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf. [22] Carlo D’Este. Patton : A Genius for War p. 19 HarperCollins, (1995).

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

George S. Patton

[23] Province, Charles M. The Unknown [39] http://www.ftlvn.com/patton/htdocs/ Patton. CMP Publications, 2002. p16. about.htm [24] American Battle Monuments Commission [40] Hunnicutt [25] "The Day of Battle" Rick Atkinson pp. [41] Gen. George S. Patton, Jr. Chapter 148 Atkinson’s citation from "The Patton website Accessed 28 December 2008 Story: He Slapped, He Raged, He Sobbed [42] Patton, George S.. "Through a Glass, in Anger," Cincinnati Post, February 28, Darkly". CMG Worldwide and the Estate 1947, 26, from McCormick Research of General George S. Patton, Jr. Center, First Division Museum, Cantigny, http://www.generalpatton.com/ Ill. poem.html. [26] Virgil Pinkley, "Gen. George Patton [43] "A Register of His Papers in the Library Believed Himself Greatest Soldier’; of Congress". LOC. Box 74 Poetry. Entire Army Felt Same Way," reprinted http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/ in Nevada State Journal, December 23, h?faid/faid:@field(DOCID+ms000001). 1945, p15. [44] http://www.uscg.mil/history/faqs/ [27] Wilson, Joe W. The 761st "Black Panther" generalpatton.asp Tank Battalion in World War II". Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 1999. p53. • The Patton Society Homepage [28] ^ Victor Davis Hanson (2004-03-29). • Patton Society Page on the slapping "The Claremont Institute — Footnotes to incidents Greatness". Claremont Review of Books • Patton’s Speech on June 5, 1944 (Spring 2004). • On Spartacus Schoolnet http://www.claremont.org/publications/ • General George Patton Museum crb/id.935/article_detail.asp. Retrieved • Patton: Ordeal and Triumph by Ladislas on 2008-09-23. Farago [29] Stanley P. Hirshson (2003). "General • archived version of Patton Uncovered Patton: A Soldier’s Life". 864 pages. • Lost Victory - Strasbourg, November 1944 http://books.google.com/ • National Museum of Military History books?id=xOLMGBKbjGUC&pg=PA412&lpg=PA412&dq=%22He+can+be+a+nigger+or+a+Jew%22 • Letter by Eisenhower where he comments r47GDvG5jag0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result. on Patton’s "unpredictable" behavior. Retrieved on 2008-09-23. • Cyd Upson; Michael Weiss (December 18, [30] The Unknown Patton Chapter Ten (The 2008). "Conspiracy Theories: The Patton Philosophy) Mysterious Death Of General Patton". Fox [31] "The General and the Admiral". Time News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/ magazine. November 10, 1947. 0,2933,469688,00.html. Retrieved on http://www.time.com/time/magazine/ 2009-01-10. "Was General George S. article/0,9171,793941-2,00.html. Patton murdered?" [32] Patton. War As I Knew It. p.49 • George S. Patton at Find A Grave [33] Walter L. Dorn "The Debate Over Retrieved on 2008-07-26 American Occupation Policy in Germany in 1944-1945" Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 72, No. 4. (December, 1957), pp. 481-501. Persondata [34] John Dietrich. The Morgenthau Plan: NAME Patton, George S. Soviet Influence on American Postwar ALTERNATIVE Policy (2002) pg. 127 NAMES [35] from the Papers of David Eisenhower SHORT United States Army and Omar Bradley as quoted by Russell DESCRIPTION general F. Weigley in his book Eisenhower’s Lieutenants, 1981. p758. DATE OF BIRTH November 11, 1885 [36] ^ Official Date Of Rank of 1943-09-01 PLACE OF BIRTH San Gabriel, California [37] ^ Official Date Of Rank of 1943-09-02 DATE OF DEATH December 21, 1945 [38] Washington Times - Gen. Patton’s wife, a

External links

New York citizen

PLACE OF DEATH

Heidelberg, Germany

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Military offices Preceded by Courtney Hodges Preceded by First Commanding General of the Third United States Army 1944 – 1945 Commanding General of the Seventh United States Army 10 July 1943 – 1 January 1944

George S. Patton

Succeeded by Lucian K. Truscott Succeeded by Mark Wayne Clark

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_S._Patton" Categories: American anti-communists, American military personnel of World War I, American military personnel of World War II, American modern pentathletes, Dutch Americans, English Americans, French Americans, German-Americans, Scots-Irish Americans, Scottish-Americans, California military personnel, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Officers of the Order of the British Empire, Légion d'honneur recipients, Modern pentathletes at the 1912 Summer Olympics, Olympic modern pentathletes of the United States, Order of Léopold recipients, People from the San Gabriel Valley, Recipients of the Distinguished Service Medal, Recipients of the Legion of Merit, Recipients of the Purple Heart medal, Recipients of the Silver Star medal, Recipients of US Distinguished Service Cross, Recipients of the Bronze Star Medal, Road accident deaths in Germany, United States Army generals, United States military governors, United States Military Academy alumni, Burials in Luxembourg, 1885 births, 1945 deaths, Croix de guerre (Belgium) recipients, Croix de guerre (France) recipients This page was last modified on 25 May 2009, at 17:22 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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