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					                                            Unit 5
Vocabulary and Structure




2.If this kind of animal becomes ____, our future generation won’t even

A) little B) sc




A) adoptin



5.Cultural exchanges between the two countries help to ____ understanding and friendship




A)



7.I think you should go to see a doctor, who may ____ to you proper medicine so that you can




8.It pains us to see that our envi
10.After finishing the paper, he ____ himself to have a go



1.【答案】
【译文】我本不想告诉他真相,是他强迫我那样做的。
【试题分析】测试词义辨析。
【详细解答】A) expect 期望,期盼;B) suppose 想象,设想;C) hope
希望;D) mean 意欲,打算;根据句义,选项 D 正确。
2.【答案】
【译文】如果这种动物的数量少了,那我们的后代连看到它的机会都没有了。
【试题分析】义近词词义辨析
【详细解答】A) little 少,不多的,与 much 相对,倾向于否定;B) scar
ce “稀有的,稀少的”;常指物质的缺少,含有从前多,现在变为稀少之义;C) rare “
稀少的,罕有的”指不常见、稀有难得的东西,常含有珍贵的意味;D) short 短缺,不足
的。根据句义,选项 B 正确。
3.【答案】
【译文】小孩子多数时候还算听话,但有时候还真令人生厌。
【试题分析】测试词义辨析。
【详细解答】A) difficulty 困境,困难;B) nuisance 讨厌的(事、物、
人…);C) worry 担忧,烦恼;D)anxiety 焦虑,担心。根据句义,选项 B 正确。
4.【答案】
【译文】这块陆地的早期居民发现很难适应这里的极其恶劣的生活条件。

【试题分析】单词辨义及习惯用法。
【详细解答】adopt “采用,采取”,及物动词;fit (使)适合,(使)适
应,作及物动词用时,后跟名词;settle 安家,安居,不及物动词;adapt 常与“to”连
用,固定短语“适应”;故选项 D 正确。
5.【答案】
【译文】两国的文化交流有助于两国人民增进理解、加强友谊。
【试题分析】单词辨义。
【详细解答】A) increase 增加,增长;增殖;B) raise 提升,提拔,
提高;C) promote 促进;发扬,引起,通常 promote growth (prosperity, understanding
) 促进生长(繁荣、谅解);D)quicken 加快;刺激。根据句义,选项 C 正确。
6.【答案】
【译文】他的垮台可归咎于除这以外的其它几个因素。
【试题分析】单词词义辨析。
【详细解答】A) contributable 值得奉献的;B) attributable 可归属的
,常有 be~to 可归因于…;C) deducible 可推断的;D) responsible 负责任的,常有 be~for
sth. 对…负责任。根据句义,选项 B 正确。

7.【答案】
【译文】我认为你该去看看医生,他可能给你开一些有用的药方,你会康
复得快些。
【试题分析】单词词义辨析。
【详细解答】 prescribe 开处方,
           A)                    开药方; subscribe 签署;
                                     B)            订阅 ;subscribe to an opinion
同意某一意见;C) submit 使服从,使受到,呈送,提交;subject to…甘受,屈服;D) prohibit
禁止 prohibit sb. from doing sth. 禁止某人做某事,根据句义,选项 A 正确。
8.【答案】
【译文】看到我们的环境在恶化,我们很是痛心。
【试题分析】形近、义近词辨析。
【详细解答】A) degenerate 堕落,蜕化,退化(into); B) deteriorate
恶化;变质;C) decline 衰退,衰落;下降;D) depress 使萧条,使沮丧。根据句子,选
项 B 正确。
9.【答案】
【译文】这班学生的年龄在 18 岁到 20 岁之间。
【试题分析】单词词义辨析。
【详细解答】A) change (发生)变化,改变;B) alter 变样,改变;C)range (在一定范围内)变
动,变化,常有 range from…to…;D) limit 限制,限定,根据句子,选项 C 正确。
10.【答案】
【译文】完成卷子后,他伸伸懒腰,甜甜地睡着了。
【试题分析】义近词辨析。
【详细解答】stretch oneself,固定搭配,意为“伸直身子,伸懒腰”;故为正确答案。


11. We __ so as not to




12

A) furtive B) fertile C) frank

13.

A) fa

14.




15.

A) retire B) w

16.




17.
A) accuracy B) membership C) pro

18.




19.

A) Pr

20.




11.答案 A。句意:我们轻声说话以免吵醒室友。whisper 意为 “低语”,“轻声说话”。因此
选 A。

12.答案 B。句意: 虽然他只有五岁,他的想象力却十分丰富。fertile (imagination) 意为 “丰
富的(想象力)”。因此选 B。

13.答案 D。句意:现在有很多人买人造的圣诞树而不买真的。artificial 意为 “人造的”,“人
工创造的”;false 意为“错误的”,“虚伪的”讲; fake, sham 的意思则分别为本“伪造的”,
                           而                         “伪
劣的”。因此选 D。

14.答案 B。句意:你可不可以在不泄露答案的情况下给我一些提示。giving away 意为 “泄
露” 。因此选 B。

15.答案 D。句意:由于与委员会存在许多分歧,主席决定辞职。(be determined to) resign 意
为 “(决定)辞职”,切合题意。因此选 D。

16.答案 B。句意:我们都不明白她为什么嫁给那样一个男人。figure out 表“理解”之意,而
reason out 作“分析”,“推断”解;take in 作“领会”解。因此选 B。

17.答案 D。句意:玛丽和她妹妹由于长得相像经常会被认错。A 项 accuracy 决为“精确;准
确”;B 项 membership 意为“资格;会员的身份”;C 项 probability 意为“可能性;可能的结
果”;D 项 resemblance 意为“相似;相像”。根据题意,故选 D。

18.答案 D。句意:汤姆为什么昨晚没来参加晚会?他不想见我。might (not)have wanted to ...
表示对过去发生的动作的猜测。因此选 D。

19.答案 B。句意:至于点心和饮料,我认为柠檬和三明治就足够了。as to (=with regard to 至
于,关于) 是短语动词。因此选 B。
20.答案 C。句意:因为没有什么再讨论的了,这位首席执行官站起来,说声再见然后离开
会议室。本题的前半句是分词独立结构。There being(There be 的分词形式)引导的分词短语
在句中做原因状语。因此选 C。


Reading Comprehension


Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is fol

lowed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choice

s marked A),B),C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the

corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

Questions 1 to

American Indians played a central role in the war known as the American Revolution. To

 them, however, the dispute between the colonists and England was peripheral. For Ameri

can Indians the conflict was a war for American Indian independence, and whichever side

 they chose, they lost it. Mary Brant was a powerful influence among the Iroquois. She

was a Mohawk, the leader of the society of all Iroquois matrons, and the widow of Sir

William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Her brother, Joseph Brant, is the best

known American Indian warrior of the Revolution, yet she may have exerted even more i

nfluence in the confederacy than he did. She used her influence to keep the western tribe

s of Iroquois loyal to the English king, George Ⅲ. When the colonists won the war, she

and her tribe had to abandon their lands and retreat to Canada. On the other side, Nancy

 Ward held positions of authority in the Cherokee nation. She had fought as a warrior in

 the war against the Creeks and as a reward for her heroism was made “Beloved Woma

n” of the tribe. This office made her chief of the women’s council and a member of the

council of chiefs. She was friendly with the white settlers and supported the Patriots durin

g the Revolution. Yet the Cherokees too lost their land.

 1.What is the main point the author makes in the passage?
       Siding with the English in the Revolution helped American Indians regain their land.

       At the time of the Revolution the Superintendent of Indian Affairs had

little power.

       Regardless of whom they supported in the Revolution, American Indians lost their la

nd.

       The outcome of the Revolution was largely determined by American Indian

women.

 2.The word “it” in line 5 refers to ____.

       side B. revolution      C. dispute   D. independence

      How did Ward gain her position of authority?

       By bravery in battle.

  B. By marriage to a chief.

       By joining the confederacy.

  D. By being born into a powerful family.

 4.To which tribe did Nancy Ward belong?

       Mohawk. B. Iroquois. C. Cherokee. D. Creek.

 5.According to the passage, what did Mary Brant and Nancy Ward had in co

mmon?

       Each was called “Beloved Woman” by her tribe.

       Each influenced her tribe’s role in the American Revolution.

       Each lost a brother in the American Revolution.

 D. Each went to England after the American Revolution.




Questions 6 to 1
Born in 1830 in rural Amherst, Massachusetts, Emily Dickinson spent her entire

life in the household of her parents. Between 1858 and 1862, it was later discovered, she

 wrote like a person possessed, often producing a poem a day. It was also during this pe

riod that her life was transformed into the myth of Amherst. Withdrawing more and more,

 keeping to her room, sometimes even refusing to see visitors who called, she began to d

ress only in white—a habit that added to her reputation as an eccentric.




ographers have missed the unique pattern of her life—her struggle to create a female life

not yet imagined by the culture in which she lived. Dickinson was not the innocent, lovel

orn and emotionally fragile girl sentimentalized by the Dickinson myth and popularized by

 William Luce’s 1976 play, the Belle of Amherst. Her decision to shut the door on Amh

erst society in the 1850’s transformed her house into a kind of magical realm in which s

he was free to engage her poetic genius. Her seclusion was not the result of a failed love

 affair, but rather a part of a more general pattern of renunciation through which she, in

her quest for self-sovereignty, carried on an argument with the puritan fathers, attacking w

ith wit and irony their cheerless Calvinist doctrine, their stern patriarchal God, and their ri

gid notions of “true womanhood”.

  6.What’s the author’s main purpose in the passage?

        To interpret Emily Dickinson’s eccentric behavior.

        To promote the popular myth of Emily Dickinson.

        To discuss Emily Dickinson’s failed love affair.

        To describe the religious climate in Emily Dickinson’s time.

  7.Which of the following is not mentioned as being one of Emily Dickinson’s eccentrici

ties?

        Refusing to eat. B. Wearing only white.
     Avoiding visitors. D. Staying in her room.

 8.According to the passage, biographers of Emily Dickinson have traditionally ____.

     criticized most of her poems

     ignored her innocence and emotional fragility

     seen her life in romantic terms

     blaming her parents for restricting her activities

 9.The author implies that many people attribute Emily Dickinson’s seclusion to ____.

     physical illness B. a failed love affair

     religious fervor D. her dislike of people

   0.It can be inferred from the passage that Emily Dickinson lived in a society that was

 characterized by ____.

     strong Puritan beliefs

     equality of men and women

     the encouragement of nonconformity

     the appreciation of poetic creativity




Questions 11 to 1

The railroad industry could not have grown as large as it did without steel. The first rails

 were made of iron. But iron rails were not strong enough to support heavy trains runnin

g at high speeds. Railroad executives wanted to replace them with steel rails because steel

 was ten or fifteen times stronger and lasted twenty times longer. Before the 1870’s, how

ever, steel was too expensive to be widely used. It was made by a slow and expensive p

rocess of heating, stirring and reheating iron ore.




 in a furnace would burn out the impurities that made the iron brittle. As the air shot thr
ough the furnace, the bubbling metal would erupt in showers of sparks. When the fire co

oled, the metal had been changed, or converted to steel. The Bessemer converter made po

ssible the mass production of steel. Now three to five tons of iron could be changed into

 steel in a matter of minutes.


Just when the demand for more and more steel developed, prospectors discovered huge ne

w deposits of iron ore in the Mesabi Range, a 120

Superior. The Mesabi deposits were so near the surface that they could be mined with ste

am shovels.




n shores of Lake Michigan and Lake Erie. With dizzying speed Gary, Indiana, and Toled

o, Youngstown, and Cleveland, Ohio, became major steel-manufacturing centers. Pittsburgh

 was the greatest steel city of all.

                                                                              c

keted from seventy-seven thousand tons in 1870 to over eleven million tons in 1900.

  11.According to the passage, the railroad industry preferred steel to iron because steel w

as ____.

     cheaper and more plentiful

     lighter and easier to mold

     cleaner and easier to mine

     stronger and more durable

   2.According to the passage, how did Bessemer method make the mass production of st

eel possible?

     It directed air at melted iron in a furnace, removing all impurities.

     It slowly heated iron ore then stirred it and heated it again.
     It changed iron ore into iron which was a substitute for steel.

     It could quickly find deposits of iron ore under the ground.

   3.According to the passage, where were large deposits of iron uncovered?

     In Pi               In the Mesabi Range.

                                Near Lake Erie.

   4.The words “Barges and steamers” could best be replaced by which of the following?

     Trains. B.                           Trucks.

   5.It can be inferred from the passage that the mass production of steel

caused ____.

     a decline in the railroad industry

     a revolution in the industrial world

     an increase in the price of steel

     a feeling of discontent among steel workers


Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage:

There were two widely divergent influences on the early development of statistical method

s. Statistics had a mother who was dedicated to keeping orderly records of governmental

units (state and statistics come from the same Latin root, status) and a gentlemanly gambl

ing father who relied on mathematics to increase his skill at playing the odds in games o

f chance. The influence of the mother on the offspring, statistics, is represented by counti

ng, measuring, describing, tabulating, ordering, and the taking of censuses—all of which le

d to modern descriptive statistics. From the influence of the father came modern inferentia

l statistics, which is based squarely on theories of probability.

         tive statistics involves tabulating, depicting, and describing collections of data. Th

ese data may be either quantitative, such as measures of height, intelligence, or grand leve
l—variables that are characterized by an underlying continuum—or the data may represent

 qualitative variables, such as sex, college major, or personality type. Large masses of dat

a must generally undergo a process of summarization or reduction before they are compre

hensible. Descriptive statistics is a tool for describing or summarizing or reducing to comp

rehensible from the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data.




ms that present great difficulties for the unaided human mind. This

general class of problems characteristically involves attempts to make prediction using a sa

mple of observations. For example, a school superintendent wishes

to determine of the proportion of children in a large school system who come to school

without breakfast, have been vaccinated for flu, or whatever. Having a little knowledge of

 statistics, the superintendent would know that it is unnecessary

and inefficient to question each child; the proportion for the entire district could be estima

ted fairly accurately from a sample of as few as 100 children. Thus, the purpose of infere

ntial statistics is to predict or estimate characteristics of a population from a knowledge of

 the characteristics of only a sample of the population.

   6.With what is the passage mainly concerned?

     The drawbacks of descriptive and inferential statistics.

     Applications of inferential statistics.

     The development and use of statistics.

     How to use descriptive statistics.

   7.Why does the author mention the “mother” and “father” in the first

paragraph?

     To point out that parents can teach their children statistics.

     To introduce inferential statistics.
      To explain that there are different kinds of variables.

       To present the background of statistics in a humorous and understandable way.

    8.Which of the following is NOT given as an example of qualitative variable?

       Gender. B. Height.

      College major. D. Type of personality.

    9.Which of the following statements about descriptive statistics is best

supported by the passage?

       It simplifies unwieldy masses of data.

     . It leads to increased variability.

      It solves all numerical problems.

       It changes qualitative variables to quantitative variables.

    0.According to the passage which is the purpose of examining a sample of

a population?

       To compare different groups.

      To predict characteristics of the entire population.

      To consider all the quantitative variables.

       To tabulate collections of data.




1

短文大意

文章主要描述了美国印第安人在美国革命中所面临的矛盾,无论印第安人支持哪一方——

殖民主义者还是英格兰,他们都将失去自己的领土与独立。本文进一步以 Mary Brant 和 Na

ncy Ward 为例阐述了该观点。

    1.答案 C。
 【试题分析】 此题考查对作者写作目的理解。

 【详细解答】 文章第 3 句就阐明了作者的观点:无论印第安

人支持哪一方——殖民主义者还是英格兰,他们都将失去自己的领土与独立。后面的部分都

是举例来证明观点,所以 C

正确。A 中印第安人与英格兰并肩作战而获得了他们的土地,与文章内容不符;B 和 D 都

不是文章的主要观点。

  答案 D。

 【试题分析】 此题考查学生根据上下文判断具体词义的能力。

【详细解答】 根据句子的意思,it 指前面提到的印第安人的独立,所以 D 项正确。A.方;

B.革命;C.分歧;D.独立。

 3.答案 A。

 【试题分析】 此题为根据上下文推理题。

 【详细解答】 文章倒数第四句指出,她在与 Creeks 人作战的过程中表现勇敢,做为报偿

,部落给了她很高的职位。B.通过嫁给部落首领,C.通过加入南部联邦,与文章内容不

符。D.通过出生于有影响的家庭,文中未提到,所以也不正确。

 4.答案 C。

 【试题分析】 此题为语义推理题。

 【详细解答】 文章倒数第三句指出 Nancy Ward 是 Cherokee 部落的当权者。据此可知,

她属于该部落。所以 C 项正确。而 A、B 和 D 都只在介绍 Mary Brant 中提到过。

 5.答案 B。

 【试题分析】 此题为根据上下文推理题。

 【详细解答】 A.两人都被她们的部落称为“Beloved Woman”,而文中只有 Nancy Ward

有此称号;B.两人对她们部落在美国革命中作用影响很大,根据上下文我们可知 B 正确,

而 C 和 D 文中都没有提到,所以 C 和 D 均不正确。
2

短文大意

本文是对美国著名女诗人 Emily Dickinson 的介绍。在 1858 到 1862 年间,Emily Dickinson

创作了大量的诗歌,与此同时她开始关门闭户,不与他人往来的生活。作者从另一个侧面

解释 Emily Dickinson 隐居的原因并非她传统和浪漫的一面,而是反对清教徒的清规戒律。

    6.答案 A。

    【试题分析】 此题考查对作者写与目的的理解。

    【详细解答】 作者在本文中解释了 Emily Dickinson 关门闭户,不与他人往来的原因,所

以 A 项正确。B 进一步宣扬 Emily Dickinson 生活之谜,与 A 相反。C 讨论 Emily Dickinso

n 失败婚恋的原因,不全面。D 描述了 Emily Dickinson 时代的宗教气候,也非作者意图。

    7.答案 A。

    【试题分析】 此题为语义辨析题,要求判断正误。

    【详细解答】 “keeping to her room, sometimes even refusing to see visitors who

called, she began to dress only in white…”此句表明拒绝吃东西不是她的怪僻之一。而 B、

C 和 D 在上句均有涉及,所以正确答案为 A。

    8.答案 C。

    【试题分析】 此题为特定信息查寻题。

    【详细解答】 文章指出,Dickinson 的自传作家只看到她传统和浪漫的一面(…in term

s of a traditional romantic plot)。所以 C 选项正确。A.批评她大部分的诗歌,与文章内容不

符。B.忽略了她的纯真和感情上的脆弱,正好相反。D.谴责其父母限制她的活动,文中未提

到。

    9.答案 B。

    【试题分析】 此题为语义推理题。

    【详细解答】 Her seclusion was not the result of a failed love affair. 此句暗
含许多人认为她独处的原因是失恋。所以 B 选项正确。A.身体疾病,文中未提到;B.失恋;

C.宗教上的虔诚,而 Emily Dickinson 反对清教的清规戒律;D.她讨厌别人也不正确。

     0.答案 A。

    【试题分析】 此题为语义推理题。

    【详细解答】 文章最后指出她隐居的原因之一是反对清教徒的清规戒律。据此可判断,A

.为正确答案。B.男女平等正与清教徒的教义相背。C.鼓励人们不要顺从传统也与清教徒的

教义相背。D.欣赏诗歌创作,文中未提到。




3

短文大意

本文简介了钢的发展史,最初的车轨是铁制的,为了支持重型高速列车的运行,人们发展

了强度更大的钢来取代铁。后来 Henry Bessemer 发明了转炉炼钢法,使钢的生产向大规模

化发展。同时丰富铁矿的发现,使钢产业迅速发展,也形成了许多钢生产中心,钢也成为了

工业时代的一种基本材料。

     1.答案 D。

    【试题分析】 此题为语义测试题。

    【详细解答】 “because steel was ten or fifteen times stronger and lasted twenty times l

onger”。此句表明人们以钢代铁的理由是钢的强度大些,更耐用,所以 D 选项正

确。A.更便宜更丰富;B.更轻且易于铸造;C.干净易于开采;D.强度更大,更耐用。

     2.答案 A。

    【试题分析】 此题为语义推理题。

    【详细解答】 文中第二段开头提到 Henry Bessemer 在炼铁时发现给熔炉鼓入空气,除去

杂质,铁就会变成钢。这使钢的生产向大规模化发展。所以正确答案为 A。B.缓慢加热铁矿,

搅拌后再次加热,文中未提到。C.该方法将铁矿转变为可替代钢的铁,与文章含义不符。D.
该方法能迅速发现地下铁矿,这与 Bessemer 的发明无关。

     3.答案 B。

    【试题分析】 此题为特定信息查寻题。

    【详细解答】 根据第三段中的 Prospectors discovered huge new deposits of iron ore in t

he Mesabi Range.,勘探者在 Meabi Range 发现了丰富的铁矿,所以正确答案为 B。

     4.答案 C。

    【试题分析】 此题为语义测试题。

    【详细解答】 barge 意为“驳船”,steamer 意为“轮船”,因为 boat 是船的总称,所以

两者均可称为 boat,所以正确答案为 C。A.火车,B.飞机,D.卡车

     5.答案 B。


    【试题分析】 此题为语义推理题。

    【详细解答】 文章最后指出,钢是工业时代的基本建筑材料,据此可以推断,钢的大量

生产将会带来一场工业革命,所以正确答案为 B。A.铁路产业的下降,B.工业界的革命,C.

钢价格的上扬,D.钢铁工人的不满情绪。




4

短文大意

本文是关于统计学发展与应用的介绍。两种不同的用途产生了统计学的两个不同分支:描

述统计学和推理统计学。描述统计学包括数据集合的制表、描述和形容。它可以将宏大的数

据简化成一种可以理解的形式。推理统计学则是通过抽样分析对事物进行预测。

     6.答案 C。

    【试题分析】 此题考查对作者写作目的的理解。

    【详细解答】 本文介绍了统计学的发展与应用,并分类进行具体说明,所以答案 C 正确。

A.描述统计学和推理统计学的缺陷,文中未提及;B.推理统计学的应用,不全面;C.统计学
的发展与应用,正确;C.如何运用描述统计学也不全面。

  7.答案 D。

 【试题分析】 此题为语义推理题。

 【详细解答】 第一段中的 mother 和 father 说明了统计学的起源,同时表现出作者的幽默,

所以正确答案为 D。A.指出父母可以教孩子统计学,完全不合文意。B.介绍推理统计,不完

全。C.说明有两种不同变量,不确切。

  8.答案 B。

 【试题分析】 此题为语义辨析题,要求判断正误。

 【详细解答】 第二段提及了 qualitative variables such as sex, college major, or personali

ty types 可见性质变量不包括 height,所以正确答案为 B。

  9.答案 A。

 【试题分析】 此题为语义测试题。

 【详细解答】 第二段末指出,描述统计学可以将宏大的数据

简化成一种可以理解的形式(reducing to comprehensible from the properties of an otherwis

e unwieldy mass of data)。A.简化大量数据,B.导致变量的增加;C.解决所有数字的问题,

太绝对。D.将性质变量变为数量变量,文中未提到。所以正确答案为 A。

  0.答案 B。

 【试题分析】 此题为语义测试题。

 【详细解答】 文章最后一句指出,对人进行抽样统计的目的在于通过抽样调查所获得的

结果来预测,估计人的总体特点(…to predict or estimate characteristics of a population fro

m a knowledge of the characteristics of only a sample of the population)。所以正确的答案

为 B。



Cloze
From childhood to old age, we all use language as a means of broadening our knowledge of

ourselves and the world about us. When humans first 1 , they were like newborn children, unable

to use this 2 tool. Yet once language developed, the possibilities for human kinds future 3 and

cultural growth increased.


     Many linguists believe that evolution is 4 for our ability to produce and use language. They 5

that our highly evolved brain provides us 6 an innate language ability not found in lower 7 .

Proponents of this innateness theory say that our 8 for language is inborn, but that language itself

develops gradually, 9 a function of the growth of the brain during childhood. Therefore there are

critical 10 times for language development.


     Current 11 of innateness theory are mixed, however, evidence supporting the existence of

some innate abilities is undeniable. 12 , more and more schools are discovering that foreign

languages are best taught in 13 grades. Young children often can learn several languages by being

14 to them, while adults have a much harder time learning another language once the 15 of their

first language have become firmly fixed.


     16 some aspects of language are undeniably innate, language does not develop automatically

in a vacuum. Children who have been 17 from other human beings do not possess language. This

demonstrates that 18 with other human beings is necessary for proper language development.

Some linguists believe that this is even more basic to human language 19 than any innate

capacities. These theorists view language as imitative, learned behavior. 20 , children learn

language from their parents by imitating them. Parents gradually shape their child's language skills

by positively reinforcing precise imitations and negatively reinforcing imprecise ones.


     1.A.generated B. evolved C. born D. originated


     2.A.valuable B. appropriate C. convenient D. favorite


     3.A.attainments B. feasibility C. entertainments D. evolution


     4.A.essential B. available C. reliable D. responsible
 5.A.confirm B. inform C. claim D. convince


 6.A.for B. from C. of D. with


 7.A.organizations B. organisms C. humans D. children


 8.A.potential B. performance C. preference D. passion


 9.A.as B. just as C. like D. unlike


 10.A.ideological B. biological C. social D. psychological


 11.A.reviews B .reference C. reaction D. recommendation


 12.A.In a word B. In a sense C. Indeed D. In other words


 13.A.various B. different C. the higher D. the lower


 14.A.revealed B. exposed C. engaged D. involved


 15.A.regulations B. formations C. rules D. constitutions


 16.A.Although B. Whether C. Since D. When


 17.A.distinguished B. different C. protected D. isolated


 18.A.exposition B. comparison C. contrast D. interaction


 19.A.acquisition B. appreciation C. requirement D. alternative


 20.A.As a result B. After all C. In other words D. Above all


答案


 1.【答案】B


 【解析】此处意为:当人类刚刚开始进化,他们如同新生儿一样不会运用语言这种工具。
   evolved 逐渐发展,进化符合题意。generated 生殖,发展;born (bear 的过去分词)不能

作谓语动词;originated 起源,不能用 first 修饰。


   2.【答案】A


   【解析】根据语法分析,答案应用来修饰语言的。valuable 珍贵的;appropriate 合适的,

适当的;convenient 方便的,便利的;favorite 最喜欢的。语言并不是人类选择的结果,而是

人类在进化过程中慢慢发展起来的,对人类来说,应当是珍贵的。


   3.【答案】A


   【解析】此处意思是:语言的发展增加了人类未来的成就和文化进步的可能性。

attainments 成就;feasibility 可行性;entertainments 娱乐;evolution 进化。


   4.【答案】D


   【解析】此处意为:许多语言学家认为进化使人们产生和具备了语言的能力。固定短语

be responsible for 对……负责,是……的原由。其它选项不与 for 搭配。


   5.【答案】C


   【解析】根据语法分析,空格后应是一个宾语从句,而 A,B,D 三项后都不能接从句做

直接宾语。confirm(确认)+名词;inform(通知)sb.of sth.;convince(使某人确信) sb.of sth.


   6.【答案】D


   【解析】固定搭配 provide sb.with sth.意为“向(人)提供(物)”


   7.【答案】B


   【解析】此处意为:我们高度发达的大脑是我们具备了其它低等动物所不具备的语言能

力。显然,这里是把人和低等动物相比较。因此选 organisms 有机体,生物体。


   8.【答案】A
   【解析】此句意思是:人类的语言能力是与生俱来的,但语言本身也在逐渐发展,所以

这种能力应该是潜在的。potential 潜力;performance 履行;preference 偏爱;passion 激情。


    9.【答案】A


    【解析】此句句义是:语言本身作为童年时期大脑生长的一种功能,其发展是缓慢的。

as (作为,当作)合乎题意。Like 作为介词的意思是“像……一样”。


    10.【答案】B


   【解析】此句意为:语言的发展有一个关键期,人体的成长是生物变化的过程。biological

生物的;ideological 思想上的;social 社会的;psychological 心理的。


    11.【答案】A


   【解析】此处意为:目前人们对“先天论”评论观点不一,但是支持某些天生能力的证据

却是确凿无疑的。reviews 评论;reference 参考;reaction 反应;recommendation 推荐。


    12.【答案】C


   【解析】从 11 题可看出,作者是倾向于先天论的,为了进一步证明先天论是有道理的,

作者选择了以学校为例加以说明,因此这里应填一个表示递进关系的词 Indeed(甚至)。


    13.【答案】D


    【解析】此处意思是:越来越多的学校发现在什么年级学外语较容易,根据常识(低年

级学外语较容易)以及后文的 Young children often can learn several languages by being 14 to

them, while adults…可以选定答案。


    14.【答案】B


   【解析】此处意为:通过接触多种语言,孩子们可以学会好几种语言。be exposed to 是

固定搭配,接触到。reveal(显露)sth.to sb,不合题意,因本题中的 them 指 languages。其余

选项不与 to 搭配。engage in 从事;be involved in 参与。
    15.【答案】C


    【解析】此句意思是:一旦母语的规则被深深印入脑海中,成年人就很难再学好另一种

语言。rules 规则,规律;regulations 规定;formations 构成,构造;constitutions 宪法,章程。


    16.【答案】A


    【解析】分析上下文的逻辑关系,从句意思是:语言的某些方面肯定是先天的。主句意

思是:语言不会在与人隔绝的状况下自行发展。前后应为转折关系。


    17.【答案】D


    【解析】此句意为:与人隔绝的儿童不能掌握好一门语言。isolated 孤立的,与人隔绝

的;distinguished 区别的,杰出的;different 不同的;protected 受到保护的。


    18.【答案】D


    【解析】此句总结前几句,意为:必须通过与他人交往,语言才能够发展。interaction

相互作用;exposition 暴露;comparison 比较;contrast 对比。


    19.【答案】A


    【解析】根据分析,本句中的“this”和“even more basic”分别指代上句的“interaction with

other human beings”和“necessary”,此处所填词对应上文中的 language development。也就是

说,language acquisition 语言习得。appreciation 欣赏,感激;requirement 要求;alternative 转

移,转变,转换。


    20.【答案】C


    【解析】本句功能是以另一种方式解释前文中的“imitative, learned behavior.(模仿性的后

天行为)”。In other words 换言之,换句话说;As a result 结果是;After all 毕竟;Above all

首先。



Short Answer Questions
There are a number of stars whose brightness continually varies. Some of these variable stars
show wholly irregular fluctuations, but the greater number repeat a fairly definite cycle of change.
A typical variable grows brighter for a time, then fainter, then brighter once more, with irregular
minor fluctuations during the cycle. Periods separating times of maximum brightness for some
variables is only slightly greater than minimum brightness, but for others it's several hundred
times as great. Since the sun's radiation changes slightly during the sunspot cycle, we may
consider it a variable star with an extremely small range in brightness (a few per cent at moment)
and a long period (about 11 years).
The light changes in a few variable stars are simply explained; the stars are actually double stars
whose orbits we see edgewise, so that one component periodically eclipses the other. But the
fluctuations in most variables cannot be accounted for so easily. In some the appearance of
numberous spots at regular intervals may dim their light; others might be pulsating, expanding and
contracting so that their surface areas change periodically.

Question:

             1. Do most variable stars fluctuate regularlyor irregularly? ______
             2. Times for the cycle of different variable stars range from ______ to ______ .
             3. The sun's brightness varies ______ in view of the percentage.
             4. The star is eclipsed by its satellites is one explanation of the ______ .
             5. What is the passage mainly about ______ .




     1.regularly

     2.a few hour ... several years

     3.slightly

     4.light changes

     5.The light changes in stars / Change in brightness in stars



Each of the following sentences contains an error. Point it out and correct it.
1. A person who is able to sense the change in others’ feelings and
             A               B
respond according is said to be thoughtful and understanding.
            C          D
2. I have never handled any case of divorce before, but I judge by the
                                                     A          B
appeals made by both sides that their relationship has come to an end.
        C                    D
3. Gradually, in the course of teaching, I became aware that I made for
                                                             A      B
the job, that in fact, it was a part of my life, and I would like to see it as
                       C                                            D
my life career.
4. In the face of his girlfriend’s Dear John email, he felt the sky was about
         A
to fall and hear his innermost being mock him as the most foolish one in
   B         C                     D
the world.
C: heard
4. There is a swell of esteem by me for this disabled Chinese who is the
                                 A       B                         C
first in the world to swim across the English Channel
                      D
5. The local people can foretell a storm when the clouds are all on the
           A                  B              C                       D
mountain.
6. He always covers his mouth when coughed in order that he won’t
           A                               B                 C
spread germs.
   D
7. Not until the managers finish their two-day meeting would all the
       A                        B                             C
employees know the result of their performance evaluation.
              D
8. In the final phase of his journey, the traveler in the desert depended in
     A                                                                B
chewing tree leaves to ease his thirst.
   C                    D
9. When decorating the room, you should see it that the carpets match the
              A                    B           C                      D
curtains.
10. Not until he saw his mother lying in bed, dying, he realized how
        A                           B                        C       D
much he loved her.
1. C: accordingly
2. B: from
3. B: was made
4. A: within
5. D: around
6. B: coughing
7. C: will
8. B: depended on
9. C: see to it that
10. C: did he realize

Translate the following into English.
1.医生给了他一些止疼片以减缓疼痛。
2.她试着做这顿饭。
3.这只狗感觉到我害怕了。
4.他做了那件事使你免去麻烦。
5.面对这样的势力,我们无能为力。

1. The doctor gave him some painkillers to ease the pain.
2. She made an attempt to cook the dinner.
3. The dog sensed that I was afraid.
4. He did the work to spareyou the trouble.
5. We are powerless in the face of such forces.



Writing


Directions:In this section you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition entitled “Lay

       下岗

sition should be no less than 100 words. Remember that the contents of the outline shoul

d be included in your composition. You should write your composition on the Answer Sh

eet.




        下岗是改革的需要;


       2. 下岗会带来的问题;


       3. 如何对待下岗所带来的问题;


写作指导
 本文是关于国有企业职工下岗的问题。本文要求考生用全面的观点来看待下岗这一现象,




还要求考生能就此现象发表一些自己的看法及可能的解决方案。这里必须注意


这一词组的用法“ lay sb. off”意思是“stop employing sb. esp. for a period in which there

is little work”,       是名词,意思是“the stopping of a worker's employment at a time

 when there is little work”所以“laid         才


是指“下岗工人”,在范文中,第一段根据要求,写下岗是改革的需要,为了深化国有企业


的改革越来越多的工人下岗。注意,如果不仔细理解此段要求的话,很容易接下来就写下岗

工人的“不幸”、因难的处境。但紧扣题纲,这一段必须写下岗的积极方面,可以就深化国企

改革的需要方面进行展开,如使多余的工人下岗有利于提高国有企业的效率,帮助国企渡过

难关,加速国家经济的发展,以便最终实现共同富裕。


 第二段写下岗会带来的问题:给公众带来工作压力,很多人生活水平下降,犯罪率上升,




造成社会不安定,这一段需要注意的是,考生绝对不可以在此对下岗现象表现出不满或是太




偏激认为下岗是活该,应持中立态度,客观地分析下岗带来的问题。


 第三段谈解决方案:政府应采取措施保障下岗工人的利益,提供再就业机会,下岗工人自




身也当提高自己的意识,以适应形势的需要。
Lay-offs in State-owned Enterprises




In order to deepen the reform of state-owned enterprises, more and more workers are laid

 off. It is indeed necessary. Laying off redundant workers can help the enterprises overco

me their difficulties and raise their efficiency and productivity. It also adds impetus to Ch

ina's economic growth and thus help to lay a solid foundation for the common prosperity

of the entire population, including the laid-off workers.




However, carrying out lay-offs places too much employment pressure on society and arous

es many social problems, such as the decline of many people's living


standard, the increase of crime rate and social instability. So it's very important for the lai

d-off workers to be re-employed.




To solve these problems, the government should show concern for the workers


and take effective measures to protect their interests. The enterprises laying off


workers should set up re-employment service centers to ensure their basic living standards,

 conduct professional training and help them get new jobs. The laid-off workers themselve

s should keep in mind that it's no use complaining and sighing.
As long as they stand up to being laid off, update their concepts about employment


and adapt to new situations, they are sure to overcome the difficulty.

				
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