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Communist Party USA

Communist Party USA
Communist Party USA

Party Chairman Senate Leader House Leader Founded Headquarters Political ideology Political position International affiliation Website

Sam Webb N/A N/A 1919 235 W. 23rd Street New York, NY 10011 Marxism-Leninism; Communism Fiscal: Left-wing Social: Left-wing Formerly Comintern; today, none

The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a MarxistLeninist political party in the United States. For approximately the first half of the 20th century it was the largest and most widely influential communist party in the country, and played a prominent role in the U.S. labor movement from the 1920s through the 1940s, founding most of the country’s major industrial unions (which would later implement the Smith Act) and pursuing intense anti-racist activity in workplaces and city communities throughout this first part of its existence. Simultaneously the CPUSA survived the Palmer Raids, the first Red Scare, and many similar attempts at suppression of communist activity by the Government of the United States through the end of World War II. By August 1919, only months after its founding, the CPUSA had 60,000 members, including anarchists and other radical leftists, while the more moderate Socialist Party of America had only 40,000. The sections of

its International Workers Order meanwhile organized for communism around linguistic and ethnic lines providing mutual aid and tailored cultural activities to an IWO membership that peaked at 200,000 at its height. By the 1950s, however, the combined effects of the second Red Scare, McCarthyism, the Secret Speech, and the Cold War began to break apart the Communist Party’s internal structure and confidence. U.S. Government prosecution efforts were aided by the party’s membership in the Comintern because it cast the Party not only as subversive, but also as a "foreign" agent. Members who did not end up in prison for party activities tended either to disappear quietly from its ranks or to adopt more moderate political positions that were at odds with the CPUSA’s party line. By 1957, membership had dwindled to less than 10,000, of which some 1500 were FBI informants.[1] Thus eliminated as a revolutionary opposition force, the party transformed its militant revolutionary line into a more evolutionary one, participating with more vigor in the U.S. electoral system and advocating "peaceful coexistence", shifts which by the early 1960s led to dozens of angry breakaways by more militant CP members who saw them as conciliatory "sellout" moves. That New Left continued to follow the idea of armed class war and generally turned to Mao Zedong, the Black Panther Party, the Cuban revolutionaries or similar figures for inspiration. The Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 led to further disillusionment and defections. Meanwhile, the major leaders of the American Civil Rights Movement were very careful to keep communists at arm’s length for fear of also being branded communist, policies that isolated the CPUSA even further. With continued erosion of what little mass support remained for the party, and very little if any continued influence in mainstream politics, in the late 1980s the party finally became estranged even from the leadership of the Soviet Union itself. Its opposition to Mikhail Gorbachev’s perestroika meant the Communist Party of the Soviet Union cut off its financial and material


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support of the CPUSA in 1989. The party languished without the state support from such a major entity. And in 1991, the party held its convention and tried to resolve the issue of whether the collapse of the Soviet Union should mean that the Party reject Leninism. A Party majority reasserted its classic Marxist-Leninist line, and the faction urging social democracy left and established itself as the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism. The CPUSA has never regained the influence it wielded before the McCarthy period, and no longer espouses the ideology of its earlier days. Unlike similar groups in most parts of Europe, the CPUSA exercises no power within the U.S. government. Although still proclaiming themselves advocates of a socialist revolution, the party today calls for a "peaceful transition to socialism" in the U.S. "wherever possible" and its constitution makes "advocacy of … force and violence or terrorism" a reason for expulsion from the party.[2] However, despite this notable loss of influence and the fact that the CPUSA exercises no political influence within or upon the Government of the United States, it does continue to exist as an organization, today under the leadership of Sam Webb, who asserts that the number of registered members has climbed to over 15,000.[1] This membership number however has been disputed. The CPUSA is based in New York City, its newspaper, originally The Daily Worker, is today the People’s Weekly World, and its monthly magazine is Political Affairs Magazine. The Party’s stated goal is to achieve a free, prosperous, and peaceful society free of racism, sexism, homophobia, and exploitation, in which all people have the opportunity to develop to their fullest potential. This approximates the goals of many social welfare-oriented leftists such as US-based social democrats and Progressive Democrats of America, despite the CPUSA’s self-proclaimed communist label. Members from Gus Hall’s period still remain within the party’s ranks.

Communist Party USA
quadrennial National Convention. Article VI, Section 3 of the 2001 Constitution lays out certain positions as non-negotiable: "struggle for the unity of the working class, against all forms of national oppression, national chauvinism, discrimination and segregation, against all racist ideologies and practices… against all manifestations of male supremacy and discrimination against women… against homophobia and all manifestations of discrimination against gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgender people…"[3] Among the points in the party’s "Immediate Program" are a $12/hour minimum wage for all workers, national universal health care, and opposition to privatization of United States Social Security. Economic measures such as increased taxes on "the rich and corporations," "strong regulation" of the financial industry, "regulation and public ownership of utilities," and increased federal aid to cities and states; opposition to the Iraq War and other military interventions; opposition to free trade treaties such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); nuclear disarmament and a reduced military budget; various civil rights provisions; campaign finance reform including public financing of campaigns; and election law reform, including Instant Runoff Voting.[4]

Bill of Rights socialism
The Communist Party USA emphasizes a vision of socialism as an extension of American democracy. Seeking to "build socialism in the United States based on the revolutionary traditions and struggles" of American history, the CPUSA promotes a conception of "Bill of Rights Socialism" that will "guarantee all the freedoms we have won over centuries of struggle, and also extend the Bill of Rights to include freedom from unemployment" – as well as freedom "from poverty, from illiteracy, and from discrimination and oppression."[5] Reiterating the idea of property rights in socialist society as it is outlined in Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto[6], the Communist Party emphasizes that

The CPUSA constitution and program
According to its 2001 Constitution, the party operates on the principle of democratic centralism, its highest authority being the


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"Many myths have been propagated about socialism. Contrary to rightwing claims, socialism would not take away the personal private property of workers," but "the private ownership of major industries, financial institutions, and other large corporations, and the excessive luxuries of the super-rich."[5] Rather than making all wages entirely equal, the Communist Party USA holds that building socialism would entail "eliminating private wealth from stock speculation, from private ownership of large corporations, from the export of capital and jobs, and from the exploitation of large numbers of workers."[5]

Communist Party USA
The Communist Party believes that "class struggle starts with the fight for wages, hours, benefits, working conditions, job security, and jobs. But it also includes an endless variety of other forms for fighting specific battles: resisting speed-up, picketing, contract negotiations, strikes, demonstrations, lobbying for pro-labor legislation, elections, and even general strikes."[5] The Communist Party’s national programs understands that workers who struggle "against the capitalist class or any part of it on any issue with the aim of improving or defending their lives" are part of the class struggle.[5]

Imperialism & war
The Communists maintain that developments within the foreign policy of the United States – as reflected in the rise of neoconservatives and other groups associated with right-wing politics – have developed in tandem with the interests of large-scale capital such as the multinational corporations. The state thereby becomes thrust into a proxy role that is essentially inclined to help facilitate "control by one section of the capitalist class over all others and over the whole of society."[5] Accordingly, the Communist Party holds that right-wing policymakers such as the neoconservatives, steering the state away from working-class interests on behalf of a disproportionately powerful capitalist class, have "...demonized foreign opponents of the U.S., covertly funded the rightwing-initiated civil war in Nicaragua, and gave weapons to the Saddam Hussein dictatorship in Iraq. They picked small countries to invade, including Panama and Grenada, testing new military equipment and strategy, and breaking down resistance at home and abroad to U.S. military invasion as a policy option."[5] From its ideological framework, the Communist Party understands imperialism as the pinnacle of capitalist development: the state, working on behalf of the few who wield disproportionate power, assumes the role of proffering "phony rationalizations" for economically-driven imperial ambition as a means to promote the sectional economic interests of big business.[5]

Living standards
Among the primary concerns of the Communist Party are the problems of unemployment, underemployment and job insecurity, which Communism understands as the natural result of the profit-driven incentives of the capitalist economy. "Millions of workers are unemployed, underemployed, or insecure in their jobs, even during economic upswings and periods of ’recovery’ from recessions. Most workers experience long years of stagnant and declining real wages, while health and education costs soar. Many workers are forced to work second and third jobs to make ends meet. Most workers now average four different occupations during their lifetime, many involuntarily moved from job to job and career to career. Often, retirement-age workers are forced to continue working just to provide health care for themselves and their families. Millions of people continuously live below the poverty level; many suffer homelessness and hunger. Public and private programs to alleviate poverty and hunger do not reach everyone, and are inadequate even for those they do reach. With capitalist globalization, jobs move from place to place as capitalists export factories and even entire industries to other countries in a relentless search for the lowest wages."[5]


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In opposition to what it considers the ultimate agenda of the conservative wing of U.S. politics, the Communist Party rejects such foreign policy proposals as the Bush Doctrine, rejecting the right of the American government to attack "any country it wants, to conduct war without end until it succeeds everywhere, and even to use ’tactical’ nuclear weapons and militarize space. Whoever does not support the U.S. policy is condemned as an opponent. Whenever international organizations, such as the United Nations, do not support U.S. government policies, they are reluctantly tolerated until the U.S. government is able to subordinate or ignore them."[5] Juxtaposing the support from the Republicans and the right wing of the Democratic Party for the Bush administration-led invasion of Iraq with the many millions of Americans who opposed the invasion of Iraq from its beginning, the Communist Party notes the spirit of opposition towards the war coming from the American public: "Thousands of grassroots peace committees [were] organized by ordinary Americans...neighborhoods, small towns and universities expressing opposition in countless creative ways. Thousands of actions, vigils, teach-ins and newspaper advertisements were organized. The largest demonstrations were held since the Vietnam War. 500,000 marched in New York after the war started. Students at over 500 universities conducted a Day of Action for ’Books not Bombs.’ "Over 150 anti-war resolutions were passed by city councils. Resolutions were passed by thousands of local unions and community organizations. Local and national actions were organized on the Internet, including the ’Virtual March on Washington DC’...officials were flooded with millions of calls, emails and letters.

Communist Party USA
"In an unprecedented development, large sections of the US labor movement officially opposed the war. In contrast, it took years to build labor opposition to the Vietnam War... Chicago labor leaders formed Labor United for Peace, Justice and Prosperity. They concluded that mass education of their members was essential to counter false propaganda, and that the fight for the peace, economic security and democratic rights was interrelated.[7] The Party has consistently opposed U.S. involvement in the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the First Gulf War, and the post-9/11 conflicts in both Iraq and Afghanistan. The CPUSA does not believe that the threat of terrorism can be resolved through war.[8]

Women and minorities
The Communist Party USA’s Constitution defines the working class as a class which is "multiracial, multinational, and unites men and women, young and old, employed and unemployed, organized and unorganized, gay and straight, native-born and immigrant, urban and rural, and composed of workers who perform a large range of physical and mental labor – the vast majority of our society."[9] The Communist Party seeks equal rights for women, equal pay for equal work, the protection of reproductive rights, together with putting an end to sexism.[10] The Party’s ranks include a Women’s Equality Commission, which recognizes the role of women as an asset in moving towards building socialism.[11] Historically significant in American history as an early fighter for African Americans’ rights and playing a leading role in protesting the lynchings of African Americans in the South, the Communist Party, in its national program today, calls racism the "classic divide-and-conquer tactic..."[12] From its New York City base, the Communist Party’s Ben Davis Club and other Communist Party organizations have been involved in local activism in Harlem and other African American and minority communities.[13] The Communist Party was instrumental in the founding of the progressive Black Radical Congress in 1998.


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Historically significant in Latino working class history as a successful organizer of the Mexican American working class in the Southwestern United States in the 1930s, the Communist Party regards working-class Latino people as another oppressed group targeted by overt racism as well as systemic discrimination in areas such as education, and sees the participation of Latino voters in a general mass movement in both partybased and nonpartisan work as an essential goal for major left-wing progress.[14] The Communist Party holds that racial and ethnic discrimination not only harms minorities, but is pernicious to working-class people of all backgrounds, as any discriminatory practices between demographic sections of the working class constitute an inherently divisive practice responsible for "obstructing the development of working-class consciousness, driving wedges in class unity to divert attention from class exploitation, and creating extra profits for the capitalist class."[15] The Communists support an end to racial profiling.[16] The party supports continued enforcement of civil rights laws as well as affirmative action.[16]

Communist Party USA
general are claimed to cause the problem. But consumers, workers, and poor people don’t have any say in energy plant construction, in decisions about trade or plant relocation or job export, in deciding on tax subsidies to polluting industries like the oil industry."[18] Supporting cooperation between economically advanced and less economically-developed nations in the area of environmental cooperation, the Communist Party USA stands in favor of promoting "transfer from developed countries to developing countries of sustainable technology, and funds for capital investment in sustainable agriculture, energy, and industry. We should support efforts to get the developed nations to make major contributions to a fund to protect the rainforests from devastation."[18] The Communist Party opposes drilling in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge[17], the use of nuclear power until (and unless) there is a safe way to dispose of its waste[17], and conceives of nuclear war as the greatest possible environmental threat[17].

The environment
The Communist Party notes its commitment to participating in environmental movements wherever possible, emphasizing the significance of building unity between the environmental movement and other progressive tendencies.[17] The Party’s most recently released environmental document – the CPUSA National Committee’s "2008 Global Warming Report" – takes note of the necessity of "major changes in how we live, move, produce, grow, and market." These changes, the Communists believe, cannot be effectively accomplished solely on the basis of profit considerations: "They require long-term planning, massive investment in redesigning and re-engineering, collective input, husbanding resources, social investment in research for long-term sustainability, and major conservation efforts...Various approaches blame the victims. Supposedly the only solution is to change individual consumer choices, since people in

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Communist Party USA

Related topics Communism (history) Marxism-Leninism Democratic centralism

Formation and early history (1919–1921)
The first US socialist political party was the Socialist Labor Party, formed in 1876 and for many years a viable force in the international socialist movement. By the mid 1890s, however, the SLP came under the influence of Daniel De Leon, and his anarcho-syndicalist views led to widespread discontent amongst the members, leading to the formation of the reformist-oriented Socialist Party of America around the turn of the century. A left wing gradually emerged within the SP, much to the consternation of many Party leaders. In January, 1919, Lenin invited the left wing of the Socialist Party of America to join Communist International (Comintern). During the spring of 1919 the Left Wing Caucus of the Socialist Party, buoyed by a large influx of new members from countries involved in the Russian Revolution, prepared to wrest control from the smaller controlling faction of moderate socialists. A referendum to join Comintern passed with 90% support, but the incumbent leadership suppressed the results. Elections for the party’s National Executive Committee resulted in 12 leftists being elected out of a total of 15. Calls were made to expel moderates from the party. The moderate incumbents struck back by expelling several state organizations, half a dozen language federations, and many locals, in all two-thirds of the membership. The Socialist Party then called an emergency convention to be held in Chicago on August 30, 1919. The party’s Left Wing Caucus made plans at a June conference of its own to regain control of the party, by sending delegations from the sections of the


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party that had been expelled to the convention to demand that they be seated. However, the language federations, eventually joined by C.E. Ruthenberg and Louis C. Fraina, turned away from that effort and formed their own party, the Communist Party of America, at a separate convention in Chicago on September 1, 1919. Meanwhile plans led by John Reed and Benjamin Gitlow to crash the Socialist Party convention went ahead. Tipped off, the incumbents called the police, who obligingly expelled the leftists from the hall. The remaining leftist delegates walked out and, meeting with the expelled delegates, formed the Communist Labor Party on August 30, 1919. The Comintern was not happy with two communist parties and in January, 1920 dispatched an order that the two parties, which consisted of about 12,000 members, merge under the name United Communist Party, and to follow the party line established in Moscow. Part of the Communist Party of America under the leadership of Charles Ruthenberg and Jay Lovestone did this but a faction under the leadership of Nicholas I. Hourwich and Alexander Bittelman continued to operate independently as the Communist Party of America. A more strongly worded directive from the Comintern eventually did the trick and the parties were merged in May, 1921. Only five percent of the members of the newly formed party were native English-speakers. Many of the members came from the ranks of the Industrial Workers of the World. See also: Communist Labor Party

Communist Party USA
pseudonyms and secret meetings in an effort to evade the authorities. The party apparatus was to a great extent underground. It re-emerged in in the last days of 1921 as a "Legal Political Party" called the Workers Party of America. As the red scare and deportations of the early 1920s ebbed, the party became bolder and more open. An element of the party, however, remained permanently underground and came to be known as the "CPUSA secret apparatus." It was through this underground party, often commanded by a Soviet official operating as an illegal in the United States, that Soviet intelligence was able to co-opt CPUSA members. During this time Jews whose backgrounds derived from Eastern Europe are said to have played a very prominent and disproportionate role in the CPUSA.[19] A majority of the members of the Socialist Party were immigrants and that an "overwhelming" percentage of the CPUSA consisted of recent immigrants, a substantial percentage of whom were Jews.[20] Fear of communist subversion and renewed isolationism in the United States aroused the immigration debates of the 1920s, which led to the restrictive Immigration Act of 1924. Anti-Semitic and anti-Communist literature become widespread (e.g., Henry Ford’s International Jew) in the same period.

The factional war (1923–1929)
Now that the above ground element, or "open party" as it was known, was legal the communists decided that their central task was to develop roots within the working class. This move away from hopes of revolution in the near future to a more nuanced approach was accelerated by the decisions of the Fifth World Congress of the Comintern held in 1925. The Fifth World Congress decided that the period between 1917 and 1924 had been one of revolutionary upsurge, but that the new period was marked by the stabilization of capitalism and that revolutionary attempts in the near future were to be spurned. The American communists embarked then on the arduous work of locating and winning allies. That work was, however, complicated by factional struggles within the CPUSA. The party quickly developed a number of more or less fixed factional groupings within its leadership: a faction around the party’s Executive

The Red Scare and the underground party (1919–1923)
From its inception, the Communist Party USA came under attack from state and federal governments and later the FBI. In 1919, after a series of unattributed bombings and attempted assassinations of government officials, and judges (later traced to militant Galleanist adherents of radical anarchist Luigi Galleani), the US Department of Justice headed by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, acting under the Sedition Act of 1918, began arresting thousands of foreignborn party members, many of whom the government deported. The Communist Party was forced underground and took to the use of


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Communist Party USA
Ruthenberg died in 1927 and his ally, Lovestone, succeeded him as party secretary. Cannon attended the Sixth Congress of the Comintern in 1928, hoping to use his connections with leading circles within it to regain the advantage against the Lovestone faction. However Lovestone and Maurice Spector of the Communist Party of Canada were accidentally given a copy of Trotsky’s "Critique of the Draft Program of the Comintern," that they were instructed to read and return. Persuaded by its contents, they came to an agreement to return to America and campaign for the document’s positions. A copy of the document was then smuggled out of the country in a child’s toy. Back in America, Cannon and his close associates in the ILD such as Max Shachtman and Martin Abern, dubbed the "three generals without an army," began to organize support for Trotsky’s theses. However, as this attempt to develop a Left Opposition came to light, they and their supporters were expelled. Cannon and his followers organized the Communist League of America as a section of Trotsky’s International Left Opposition. At the same Congress, Lovestone had impressed the leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as a strong supporter of Nikolai Bukharin, the general secretary of the Comintern. This was to have unfortunate consequences for Lovestone when, in 1929, Bukharin was on the losing end of a struggle with Stalin and was purged from his position on the Politburo and removed as head of the Comintern. In a reversal of the events of 1925, a Comintern delegation sent to the United States demanded that Lovestone resign as party secretary, in favor of his archrival Foster, despite the fact that Lovestone enjoyed the support of the vast majority of the American party’s membership. Lovestone traveled to the Soviet Union and appealed directly to the Comintern. Stalin informed Lovestone that he "had a majority because the American Communist Party until now regarded you as the determined supporter of the Communist International. And it was only because the Party regarded you as friends of the Comintern that you had a majority in the ranks of the American Communist Party." When Lovestone returned to the United States, he and his ally Benjamin Gitlow were purged despite holding the leadership of the

C.E. Ruthenberg, 1924 Secretary C.E. Ruthenberg, which was largely organized by his supporter Jay Lovestone; and the Foster-Cannon faction, headed by William Z. Foster, who headed the Party’s Trade Union Educational League, and James P. Cannon, who led the International Labor Defense organization. Foster, who had been deeply involved in the Steel Strike of 1919 and had been a longtime syndicalist and a Wobbly, had strong bonds with the progressive leaders of the Chicago Federation of Labor and, through them, with the Progressive Party and nascent farmer-labor parties. Under pressure from the Comintern, however, the party broke off relations with both groups in 1924. In 1925 the Comintern, through its representative Sergei Gusev, ordered the majority Foster faction to surrender control to Ruthenberg’s faction; Foster complied. The factional infighting within the CPUSA did not end, however; the communist leadership of the New York locals of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union lost the 1926 strike of cloakmakers in New York City in large part because of intra-party factional rivalries.


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party. Ostensibly, this was not due to Lovestone’s insubordination in challenging a decision by Stalin, but for his support for American Exceptionalism, the thesis that socialism could be achieved peacefully in the USA. Lovestone and Gitlow formed their own group called the Communist Party (Opposition), a section of the pro-Bukharin International Communist Opposition, which was initially larger than the Trotskyists but failed to survive past 1941. Lovestone had initially called his faction the Communist Party (Majority Group) in the expectation that the majority of the CPUSA’s members would join him, but only a few hundred people joined his new organization. See also: [[:Stalin’s Speeches on the CPUSA|Stalin’s Speeches on the CPUSA]] See also: Socialist Workers Party (United States)

Communist Party USA
change, even though it contradicted the policies he had fought for previously. By 1930, the party adopted the title of Communist Party of the USA, with the slogan of "the united front from below". The Party devoted much of its energy in the Great Depression to organizing the unemployed, attempting to found "red" unions, championing the rights of African-Americans and fighting evictions of farmers and the working poor. At the same time, the Party attempted to weave its sectarian revolutionary politics into its day-to-day defense of workers, usually with only limited success. They recruited more disaffected members of the Socialist Party and an organization of African-American socialists called the African Blood Brotherhood, some of whose members, particularly Harry Haywood, would later play important roles in communist work among blacks. In 1932, the retiring head of the CPUSA, William Z. Foster, published a book entitled Toward Soviet America, which laid out the Communist Party’s plans for revolution and the building of a new socialist society based on the model of Soviet Russia. In that same year Earl Browder became General Secretary of the Party. At first Browder moved the party closer to Soviet interests, and helped to develop its secret apparatus or underground network. He also assisted in the recruitment of espionage sources and agents for the NKVD. Browder’s own younger sister Margerite was a Soviet NKVD operative in Europe until removed from those duties at Browder’s request.[21] It was at this point that the CPUSA’s foreign policy platform came under the complete control of Stalin, who enforced his directives through his secret police and foreign intelligence service, the NKVD. The NKVD controlled the secret apparatus of the CPSA, including responsibility for political murders, kidnappings, and assassinations[22][23].

Third Period (1928–1935)
The upheavals within the CPUSA in 1928 were an echo of a much more significant change: Stalin’s decision to break off any form of collaboration with western socialist parties, which were now condemned as "social fascists." This policy had particularly severe consequences in Germany, where the German Communist Party not only refused to work in alliance with the German Social Democratic Party, but attacked it and its members. The impact of this policy in the U.S. was counted in membership figures. In 1928 there were about 24,000 members. By 1932 the total had fallen to 6,000 members. Opposing Stalin’s Third Period policies in the Communist Party USA was James P. Cannon. For this action, he was expelled from the party. He then founded the Communist League of America with Max Shachtman and Martin Abern, and started publishing The Militant. It declared itself to be an external faction of the Communist Party until, as the Trotskyists saw it, Stalin’s policies in Germany helped Hitler take power. At that point they started working towards the founding of a new international, the Fourth International. In the United States the principal impact of the Third Period was to end the CPUSA’s efforts to organize within the AFL through the TUEL and to turn its efforts into organizing dual unions through the Trade Union Unity League. Foster went along with this

The Popular Front (1935–1939)
The ideological rigidity of the third period began to crack, however, with two events: the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 and Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in 1933. Roosevelt’s election and the passage of the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933 sparked a tremendous upsurge in union organizing in 1933 and 1934. While the party line still favored creation of autonomous


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Communist Party USA
Party members also rallied to the defense of the Spanish Republic during this period after a fascist military uprising moved to overthrow it, resulting in the Spanish Civil War (1936 to 1939). The CPUSA, along with leftists throughout the world, raised funds for medical relief while many of its members made their way to Spain with the aid of the party to join the Lincoln Brigade, one of the International Brigades. Among its other achievements, the Lincoln Brigade was the first American military force to include blacks and whites integrated on an equal basis. Intellectually, the Popular Front period saw the development of a strong communist influence in intellectual and artistic life. This was often through various organizations influenced or controlled by the Party or, as they were pejoratively known, "fronts." By 1937, Stalin’s purges had caused a further rift in Communist Party movements around the world. Many anti-Stalin members were recalled to the USSR, where nearly all were tortured, then imprisoned or shot. For those remaining abroad, the NKVD and OGPU used their intelligence networks and secret apparatus to enforce a pro-Stalin line. These operations extended to the U.S. with the kidnapping and probable murder of founding CPUSA member Juliet Poyntz. The CPUSA under Browder supported Stalin’s show trials in the Soviet Union, called the Moscow Trials.[24] Therein, between August 1936 and mid-1938 the Soviet government indicted, tried, and shot virtually all of the remaining Old Bolsheviks.[24] Beyond the show trials lay a broader purge, the Great Purge, that killed thousands.[24] Browder uncritically supported Stalin, likening Trotskyism to "cholera germs" and calling the purge "a signal service to the cause of progressive humanity."[25] He compared the show trial defendants to domestic traitors Benedict Arnold, Aaron Burr, disloyal War of 1812 Federalists, and Confederate secessionists, while likening persons who "smeared" Stalin’s name to those who had slandered Abraham Lincoln and Franklin Roosevelt.[25]

CPSU General Secretary Earl Browder revolutionary unions, party activists chose to fold up those organizations and follow the mass of workers into the AFL unions they had been attacking. The Seventh Congress of the Comintern made the change in line official in 1935, when it declared the need for a popular front of all groups opposed to fascism. The CPUSA abandoned its opposition to the New Deal and provided many of the organizers for the Congress of Industrial Organizations. The party also sought unity with forces to its right. Earl Russell Browder offered to run as Norman Thomas’ running mate on a joint Socialist Party-Communist Party ticket in the 1936 presidential election but Thomas rejected this overture. The gesture did not mean that much in practical terms, since the CPUSA was, by 1936, effectively supporting Roosevelt in much of his trade union work. While continuing to run its own candidates for office, the CPUSA pursued a policy of representing the Democratic Party as the lesser evil in elections.

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and World War II (1939–1945)
The CPUSA was adamantly opposed to fascism during the Popular Front period.


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Communist Party USA
ordered Stalinist Browder to change the CPUSA’s support for Roosevelt.[32] On October 23, the CPUSA began attacking Roosevelt.[33] The CPUSA dropped its boycott of Nazi goods, spread the slogans "The Yanks Are Not Coming" and "Hands Off", set up a "perpetual peace vigil" across the street from the White House and announced that Roosevelt was the head of the "war party of the American bourgeoisie."[33] By April 1940, the CPUSA Daily Worker’s line seemed not so much antiwar as simply pro-German.[34] A pamphlet stated the Jews had just as much to fear from Britain and France as they did Germany.[34] In August 1940, after NKVD agent Ramon del Rio Mercader killed Leon Trotsky with an icepick, Browder perpetuated Moscow’s fiction that the killer, who had been dating one of Trotsky’s secretaries, was a disillusioned follower.[35] In allegiance to the Soviet Union, the party changed this policy again after Hitler broke the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact by attacking the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. Throughout the rest of World War II, the CPUSA continued a policy of militant, if sometimes bureaucratic, trade unionism while opposing strike actions at all costs. The leadership of the CPUSA was among the most vocal pro-war voices in the United States, advocating unity against fascism, supporting the prosecution of leaders of the Socialist Workers Party under the newly enacted Smith Act,[36] and opposing A. Philip Randolph’s efforts to organize a march on Washington to dramatize black workers’ demands for equal treatment on the job. Prominent CPUSA members and supporters, such as Dalton Trumbo and Pete Seeger, recalled anti-war material they had previously released.

The Washington Commonwealth Federation newspaper after the signing of the MolotovRibbentrop pact (The Washington Commonwealth Federation was an alleged Communist front organisation) Although membership in the CPUSA rose to about 75,000[26] by 1938, many members left the party after the Soviet Union signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany on August 24, 1939.[27] While General Secretary Browder at first attacked Germany for its September 1, 1939 invasion of western Poland, on September 11, the CPUSA received a blunt directive from Moscow denouncing the Polish government.[28] Between September 14-16, CPUSA leaders bickered about the direction to take.[28] On September 17 the Soviet Union invaded eastern Poland and occupied the Polish territory assigned to it by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, followed by co-ordination with German forces in Poland.[29][30] The British, French, and German Communist parties, all originally war supporters, abandoned their antifascist crusades, demanded peace, and denounced Allied governments.[31] The CPUSA turned the focus of its public activities from anti-fascism to advocating peace, not only opposing military preparations but also condemning those opposed to Hitler. The CPUSA attacked British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French leader Edouard Daladier, but did not at first attack President Roosevelt, reasoning that this could devastate American Communism, blaiming instead Roosevelt’s advisors.[31] In October and November, after the Soviets invaded Finland and forced mutual assistance pats from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the CPUSA considered Russian security sufficient justification to support the actions.[32] Secret short wave radio broadcasts in October from Comintern leader Georgi Dimitrov

From World War II to the Cold War (1946-1950s)
Earl Browder expected the wartime coalition between the Soviet Union and the west to bring about a prolonged period of social harmony after the war. In order better to integrate the communist movement into American life the party was officially dissolved in 1944 and replaced by a Communist Political Association. That harmony proved elusive, however, and the international Communist movement swung to the left after the war ended.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Browder found himself isolated when a critical letter from the leader of the French Communist Party received wide circulation. As a result of this, in 1945 he was retired and replaced by William Z. Foster, who would remain the senior leader of the party until his own retirement in 1958. In line with other Communist parties worldwide, the CPUSA also swung to the left and, as a result, experienced a brief period in which a number of internal critics argued for a more leftist stance than the leadership was willing to countenance. The result was the expulsion of a handful of "premature antirevisionists". More important for the party was the renewal of state persecution of the CPUSA. The Truman administration’s loyalty oath program, introduced in 1947, drove some leftists out of federal employment and, more importantly, legitimized the notion of Communists as subversives, to be exposed and expelled from public and private employment. The House Committee on Un-American Activities, whose hearings were perceived as forums where current and former Communists and those sympathetic to Communism were compelled under the duress of the ruin of their careers to confess and name other Communists, made even brief affiliation with the CPUSA or any related groups grounds for public exposure and attack, inspiring local governments to adopt loyalty oaths and investigative commissions of their own. Private parties, such as the motion picture industry and self-appointed watchdog groups, extended the policy still further. This included the still controversial blacklist of actors, writers and directors in Hollywood who had been Communists or who had fallen in with Communist-controlled or influenced organizations in the pre-war and wartime years. The union movement purged party members as well. The CIO formally expelled a number of left-led unions in 1949 after internal disputes triggered by the party’s support for Henry Wallace’s candidacy for President and its opposition to the Marshall Plan, while other labor leaders sympathetic to the CPUSA either were driven out of their unions or dropped their alliances with the party. The widespread fear of Communism became even more acute after the Soviets’ explosion of an atomic bomb in 1949 and discovery of Soviet espionage.[37] Ambitious politicians, including Richard Nixon and

Communist Party USA
Joseph McCarthy, made names for themselves by exposing or threatening to expose Communists within the Truman administration or later, in McCarthy’s case, within the United States Army. Liberal groups, such as the Americans for Democratic Action, not only distanced themselves from communists and communist causes, but defined themselves as anti-communist. The U.S. government outlawed the CPUSA with the Communist Control Act in 1954. By the mid-1950s at the very height of the era of McCarthyism, thanks to unrelenting FBI pressure membership of the American Communist Party had slipped from its 1944 peak of around 80,000[38] to an active base of approximately 5,000.[39] Some 1,500 of these "members" were FBI informants.[40] To the extent that The ACP did survive, it was crippled by the penetration activities of these informants, who kept close surveillance on the few remaining legitimate members of the Party on behalf of FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover,[41][42] and the ACP dried up completely as a base for Soviet espionage.[43] "If it were not for me,’ Hoover told a State Department official in 1963, "there would not be a Communist Party of the United States. Because I’ve financed the Communist Party, in order to know what they are doing."[44] William Sullivan, chief of intelligence operations for the FBI in the 1950s, has also described Hoover’s continued zeal in pursuing action against the ACP as "insincere," as he was fully aware of the Party’s moribund condition.[45] Senator McCarthy had also kept up his attacks on the ACP during the 1950s despite also being aware of its impotency.[46]

The years of party crisis (1956-1959)
The 1956 Soviet invasion of Hungary and the Secret Speech of Nikita Khrushchev to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union criticizing Stalin had a cataclysmic effect on the previously Stalinist majority membership CPUSA.[47]Membership plummeted and the leadership briefly faced a challenge from a loose grouping led by Daily Worker editor John Gates, which wished to democratize the party. Perhaps the greatest single blow dealt to the party in this period was the loss of the Daily Worker, published since 1924, which was suspended in 1958 due to falling circulation.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Communist Party USA
"fascist". As part of the party’s current strategic line, as outlined in The Road to Socialism USA[2], the CPUSA strongly supports a Democratic Party victory against the Republicans, as they see the Republican Party as a menace to be defeated. The Communist Party still maintains that both parties are capitalist in nature, and only support the Democrats as a means to topple what they perceive as conservative domination in America. Many in the socialist movement disagree with this "lesser of two evils" strategy (some consider it a shocking shift to straightforward capitalism), and it has encouraged some defections from the CP to other leftist groups. There has been some increase in membership since the early 1990s once Communism became less of a threat after the Soviet collapse. Ideologically, much appears to be up for grabs. A recent article in Political Affairs voiced support for the Chinese Communist Party, including their heavy reliance on capitalism. The article stated, "The transition to capitalism may be more on order of decades than years, as Lenin had thought." Other articles published by Political Affairs have been critical of this process in China as well.[48] In a 2002 article in People’s Weekly World, CPUSA correspondents Marilyn Bechtel and Debbie Bell said of their trip to the People’s Republic of China: "...[W]e came away with a new respect for the thoughtfulness, thoroughness, energy and optimism with which the Communist Party of China and the Chinese people are going about the complex, long-term process of building socialism in a vast developing country, which is of necessity part of an increasingly globalized economy."[49] An overview of the Communist Party’s current ideology can be found in the near-definitive report, "Reflections on Socialism," by Sam Webb, the Party’s national chair. The article explains the Party’s support for a democratic, anti-racist, anti-sexist, immediate left-wing change for the United States. The report also covers the fall of the Socialist Bloc, claiming that democracy was not sufficiently developed in these countries. The report states that, "On the one hand, socialism transformed and modernized backward societies, secured important economic and social rights, assisted countries breaking free of colonialism, contributed decisively to the victory over Nazism, constituted by its mere presence a pressure on the ruling classes in

The years of the dueling superpowers (1960-1989)
Most of the critics would depart from the party demoralized, but others would remain active in progressive causes and would often end up working harmoniously with party members. This diaspora rapidly came to provide the audience for publications like the National Guardian and Monthly Review, which were to be important in the development of the New Left in the 1960s. The post-1956 upheavals in the CPUSA also saw the advent of a new leadership around former steel worker Gus Hall. Hall’s views were very much those of his mentor Foster, but the younger man was to be more rigorous in ensuring the party was completely orthodox than the older man in his last years. Therefore, while remaining critics who wished to liberalize the party were expelled, so too were anti-revisionist critics who took an anti-Khrushchev stance. Many of these critics were elements on both U.S. coasts who would come together to form the Progressive Labor Movement in 1961. Progressive Labor would come to play a role in many of the numerous Maoist organizations of the mid-1960s and early 1970s. Jack Shulman, Foster’s secretary, also played a role in these organizations; he was not expelled from the CP, but resigned. In the 1970s, the CPUSA managed to grow in membership to about 25,000 members, despite the exodus of numerous Anti-Revisionist and Maoist groups from its ranks. In 1984, because of the popularity of Ronald Reagan’s anti-Communist administration and decreased CPUSA membership, Gus Hall chose to end the CPUSA’s nation-wide electoral campaigns. See also: New Communist Movement and Progressive Labor Party

From glasnost to the 21st century (1990-2000s)
During the 1990s, the party recruited heavily in impoverished minority neighborhoods in the US, particularly in Black neighborhoods. As a result, there are many young Black and Hispanic members of the organization. The CPUSA still runs candidates for local office. In recent years, the party has strongly opposed the Republican Party in the U.S., who they term "ultra-right" and, at times,


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
the capitalist world to make concessions to their working classes and democratic movements, and acted as a counterweight to the aggressive ambitions of U.S. imperialism for nearly fifty years." The report stresses its dedication to revolutionary struggle, but states that Americans should look for peaceful revolutionary change. Webb says that capitalism cannot solve problems such as economic stagnation, racism, gender discrimination, or poverty. The report explains that there will be many transitory stages from capitalism, to socialism, and finally to communism. On the issue of markets in a socialist society, Webb states, "Admittedly, market mechanisms in a socialist society can generate inequality, disproportions and imbalances, destructive competition, downward pressure on wages, and monopoly cornering of commodity markets – even the danger of capitalist restoration. But this is not sufficient reason for concluding that markets have no place in a socialist economy." The CPUSA recognizes the right of independence-seeking groups, many of whom have been led by communist and communistoriented partisans, to defend themselves from imperialism, but rejects the use of violence in any United States uprising. The CPUSA argues that most violence throughout modern history is the result of capitalist ruling class violently trying to stop social change.[50] “ While some governments run by ” people calling themselves Communists have been responsible for horrible acts of violence and repression, notably the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia, much if not most of the violence often blamed on revolutionary governments and parties is actually the responsibility of the conservative, reactionary, capitalist governments and parties. ... Many revolutions have been relatively peaceful, including the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Vietnamese Revolution of 1945 . The bloodshed comes when those formerly in power initiate a civil war, or foreign armies invade, trying to reestablish capitalist, feudal, or colonial power. …While we think that an objective, detailed analysis of most situations over the last century would conclude that

Communist Party USA
capitalist and reactionary governments and parties are responsible for most of the violence, it is true that Communists have engaged in armed struggle, are not pacifists, and that some who called themselves Communists have engaged in repressive tactics. In order to make room for the rental of 4 floors in the CPUSA national building. The CPUSA had to move its extensive archives . The archives of the Communist Party USA were donated in March, 2007 to the Tamiment Library at New York University. The massive donation, in 12,000 cartons, included history from the founding of the party, 20,000 books and pamphlets, and a million photographs from the archives of the Daily Worker. The Tamiment Library also holds a copy of the microfilmed archive of Communist Party documents from Soviet Archives held by the Library of Congress as well as other materials which documents radical and Left history.[51]

Thematic Topics
The Communist Party and the U.S. labor movement
The Communist Party has sought to play an active role in the US labor movement since its origins as part of its effort to build a mass movement of American workers to bring about their own liberation through socialist revolution. As the prospects for such a social cataclysm have faded over time, the party has increasingly emphasized the ameliorative value of trade unions in capitalist society.

The Communist Party, Soviet funding, and espionage
From 1959 until 1989, when Gus Hall attacked the initiatives taken by Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union, the CPUSA received a substantial subsidy from the Soviet Union. There is at least one receipt signed by Gus Hall in the KGB archives.[52] Starting with $75,000 in 1959 this was increased gradually to $3 million in 1987. This substantial amount reflected the Party’s subservience to the Moscow line, in contrast to


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
the Italian and later Spanish and British Communist parties, whose Eurocommunism deviated from the orthodox line in the late 1970s. Releases from the Soviet archives show that all national Communist parties that conformed to the Soviet line were funded in the same fashion. From the Communist point of view this international funding arose from the internationalist nature of Communism itself; fraternal assistance was considered the duty of Communists in any one country to give aid to their comrades in other countries. From the anti-communist point of view, this funding represented an unwarranted interference by one country in the affairs of another. The cutoff of funds in 1989 resulted in a financial crisis, which forced the CPUSA to cut back publication in 1990 of the Party newspaper, the People’s Daily World, to weekly publication, the People’s Weekly World. (references for this section are provided below) Much more controversial than mere funding, however, is the alleged involvement of CPUSA members in espionage for the Soviet Union. Whittaker Chambers has alleged that Sandor Goldberger—also known as "Josef Peters", who commonly wrote under the name J. Peters—headed the CPUSA’s underground secret apparatus from 1932 to 1938 and pioneered its rôle as an auxiliary to Soviet intelligence activities. Bernard Schuster, Organizational Secretary of the New York District of the CPUSA, is claimed to have been the operational recruiter and conduit for members of the CPUSA into the ranks of the secret apparatus, or "Group A line". Stalin publicly disbanded the Comintern in 1943. A Moscow NKVD message to all stations on 12 September 1943 detailed instructions for handling intelligence sources within the CPUSA after the disestablishment of the Comintern. There are a number of decrypted World War II Soviet messages between NKVD offices in the United States and Moscow, also known as the Venona cables. The Venona cables and other published sources appear to confirm that Julius Rosenberg was guilty of espionage. Theodore Hall, a Harvard-trained physicist who did not join the CPUSA until 1952, began passing information on the atomic bomb to the Soviets soon after he was hired at Los Alamos at age 19. Hall, who was

Communist Party USA
known as Mlad by his KGB handlers, escaped prosecution. Hall’s wife, aware of his espionage, claims that their NKVD handler had advised them to plead innocent, as the Rosenbergs did, if formally charged. It was the belief of opponents of the CPUSA such as J. Edgar Hoover, long-time director of the FBI, and Joseph McCarthy, for whom McCarthyism is named, and other anticommunists that the CPUSA constituted an active conspiracy, was secretive, loyal to a foreign power, and whose members assisted Soviet intelligence in the clandestine infiltration of American government . This is the "traditionalist" view of some in the field of Communist studies such as Harvey Klehr and John Earl Haynes, since supported by several memoirs of ex-Soviet KGB officers and information obtained from VENONA and Soviet archives.[53][54][55] At one time this view was shared by the majority of the United States Congress. In the "Findings and declarations of fact" section of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. Chap. 23 Sub. IV Sec. 841), it stated, "although purportedly a political party, is in fact an instrumentality of a conspiracy... prescribed for it by the foreign leaders... to carry into action slavishly the assignments given...acknowledges no constitutional or statutory limitations...its dedication to the proposition that the present constitutional Government of the United States ultimately must be brought to ruin by any available means, including resort to force and the agency of a hostile foreign power renders its existence a clear present and continuing danger[56] In 1993, experts from the Library of Congress traveled to Moscow to copy previously secret archives of Communist Party USA (CPUSA) records, sent to the Soviet Union for safekeeping by party organizers. The records provided an irrefutable link between Soviet intelligence and information obtained by the CPUSA and its contacts in the U.S. government from the 1920s through the 1940s. Some documents revealed that the CPUSA was actively involved in secretly recruiting party members from African-American groups and rural farm workers. Other CPUSA records contained further evidence that


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Soviet sympathizers had indeed infiltrated the State Department, beginning in the 1930s. Included in CPUSA archival records were confidential letters from two U.S. ambassadors in Europe to Roosevelt and a senior State Department official. Thanks to an official in the State department sympathetic to the Party, the confidential correspondence, concerning political and economic matters in Europe, ended up in the hands of Soviet intelligence.[53][57][58]

Communist Party USA
Panicked by these arrests and the fear that it was compromised by informants, Dennis and other party leaders decided to go underground and to disband many affiliated groups. The move only heightened the political isolation of the leadership, while making it nearly impossible for the Party to function. The widespread persecution of communists and their associates began to abate somewhat after Senator Joseph McCarthy overreached himself in the Army-McCarthy Hearings, producing a backlash. The Supreme Court brought a halt to the Smith Act prosecutions in 1957 in its decision in Yates v. United States, 354 U.S. 298 (1957), which required that the government prove that the defendant had actually taken concrete steps toward the forcible overthrow of the government, rather than merely advocating it in theory.

Criminal prosecutions of the Communist Party
When the Communist Party was formed in 1919 the United States government was engaged in prosecution of socialists who had opposed World War I and military service. This prosecution was continued in 1919 and January, 1920 in the Palmer Raids or the red scare. Rank and file foreign-born members of the Party were targeted and as many as possible were arrested and deported; leaders were prosecuted and in some cases sentenced to prison terms. In the late 1930s, with the authorization of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) began investigating both domestic Nazis and Communists. Congress passed the Smith Act, which made it illegal to advocate, abet, or teach the desirability of overthrowing the government, in 1940. In 1949, the federal government put Eugene Dennis, William Z. Foster and ten other CPUSA leaders on trial for advocating the violent overthrow of the government. Because the prosecution could not show that any of the defendants had openly called for violence or been involved in accumulating weapons for a proposed revolution, it relied on the testimony of former members of the party that the defendants had privately advocated the overthrow of the government and on quotations from the work of Karl Marx, Lenin and other revolutionary figures of the past. During the course of the trial the judge held several of the defendants and all of their counsel in contempt of court. All of the remaining eleven defendants were found guilty. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of their convictions by a 6-2 vote in United States v. Dennis, 341 U.S. 494 (1951). The government then proceeded with the prosecutions of more than 100 "second string" members of the party.

The Communist Party and African Americans
The Communist Party USA played a significant role in defending the rights of AfricanAmericans during its heyday in the 1930s and 1940s. At the direction of the Comintern in 1928 the party advocated for many years a separate black nation,citing the second class citizen status of blacks, to be founded in the heavily black populated areas of the Southern part of the United States. Throughout its history many of the Party’s leaders and political thinkers have been African Americans. James Ford, Charlene Mitchell, Angela Davis, and Jarvis Tyner, the current executive vice chair of the Party, all ran as presidential or vice presidential candidates on the Party ticket. Others like Benjamin J. Davis, William L. Patterson, Harry Haywood, James Jackson, Henry Winston, Claude Lightfoot, Alphaeus Hunton, Doxey Wilkerson, Claudia Jones, and John Pittman contributed in important ways to the Party’s approaches to major issues from human and civil rights, peace, women’s equality, the national question, working class unity, Marxist thought, cultural struggle and more. Their contributions have had a lasting impact on not only the Party but the general public as well. Noted African American thinkers, artists, and writers such as Claude McKay, Richard Wright, Ann Petry, W. E. B. Du Bois, Shirley Graham Du Bois, Lloyd Brown, Charles White, Elizabeth Catlett, Paul Robeson, Frank Marshall Davis, Gwendolyn


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brooks, and many more were one-time members or supporters of the Party, and the Communists also had a close alliance with Harlem Congressman Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.[59] The party’s work to appeal to African-Americans continues to this day. It was instrumental in the founding of the Black Radical Congress in 1998.

Communist Party USA

Presidential tickets
• 1924 - William Z. Foster & Benjamin Gitlow • 1928 - William Z. Foster & Benjamin Gitlow • 1932 - William Z. Foster & James W. Ford • 1936 - Earl Browder & James W. Ford • 1940 - Earl Browder & James W. Ford • 1948 - no candidates, but supported Henry Wallace, the Progressive candidate • 1952 - no candidates, but supported Vincent Hallinan, the Progressive candidate • 1968 - Charlene Mitchell & Michael Zagarell • 1972 - Gus Hall & Jarvis Tyner • 1976 - Gus Hall & Jarvis Tyner • 1980 - Gus Hall & Angela Davis • 1984 - Gus Hall & Angela Davis

The Communist Party and the gay liberation movement
One of America’s most prominent sexual radicals, Harry Hay, developed his political views as an active member of the CPUSA, but his founding in the early 1950s of the Mattachine Society, America’s first gay rights group, was not seen as something Communists, who feared even further political prosecution, should associate with organizationally, despite their personal support. In 2004, the editors of Political Affairs published articles detailing their self-criticism of the Party’s early views of gay and lesbian rights[60] and praised Hay’s work.

Party leaders
• Charles Ruthenberg, Executive Secretary of old CPA (1919–1920); Executive Secretary of WPA/W(C)P (May 1922-1927) • Alfred Wagenknecht, Executive Secretary of CLP (1919-1920); of UCP (1920-1921) • Charles Dirba, Executive Secretary of old CPA (1920-1921); of unified CPA (May 30, 1921-July 27, 1921) • Louis Shapiro, Executive Secretary of old CPA (briefly, late 1920) • L.E. Katterfeld, Executive Secretary of unified CPA (July 27-1921-October 15, 1921) • William Weinstone, Executive Secretary of unified CPA (October 15, 1921-February 22, 1922) • Jay Lovestone Executive Secretary of unified CPA (February 22, 1922-August 22, 1922); of W(C)P/CPUSA (1927–1929) • James P. Cannon, National Chairman of WPA (Dec. 1921-1922) • Caleb Harrison, Executive Secretary of WPA (Dec. 1921-May 1922) • Abram Jakira, Executive Secretary of unified CPA (Aug. 22, 1922-dissolution of underground party in 1923) • William Z. Foster (1929–1934) • Earl Browder (1934–1945) • Eugene Dennis, General Secretary (1945–1959) and William Z. Foster, Party Chairman (1945–1957) • Gus Hall (1959–2000)

The Communist Party and the U.S. peace movement
The Communist Party opposed the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, the invasion of Grenada, and U.S. support for anti-communist military dictatorships and movements in Central America. During the Vietnam War, as a tactical move, the CPUSA did not call for an immediate end to the war, but instead for negotiations between the North Vietnamese leadership and the U.S. While some on the left have criticized the CPUSA for this position, it was in fact in line with that of the Vietnamese Communist leadership. Meanwhile, some in the peace movement and the New Left rejected the CPUSA for what it saw as the party’s bureaucratic rigidity and for its steadfastly close association with Soviet Union. The CPUSA has been consistently opposed to the U.S.’s current war in Iraq.[61] United for Peace and Justice, currently the largest peace and justice coalition in the U.S., includes the CPUSA as a member group, with Judith LeBlanc, who chairs the CPUSA’s Peace and Solidarity Commission, being a member of the Steering Committee of UFPJ.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Jarvis Tyner, [Executive Vice Chair] (since 1993) • Sam Webb (since 2000)

Communist Party USA
[9] CPUSA Constitution Amended July 8, 2001 at the 27th National Convention, Milwaukee, WI. Accessed online 29 August 2006. [10] Myles, Dee. "Remarks on the Fight for Women’s Equality". Speech given at the 27th National Convention of the CPUSA. Communist Party USA. CPUSA Online. 7 July 2001. Retrieved 7 Apr. 2009. 91/1/58/ [11] Trowbdrige, Carolyn. "Communist Party Salutes Women". CPUSA Online. 8 Mar. 2009. Retrieved 7 Apr. 2009. 1029/1/58/ [12] Section 3d: "The Working Class, Class Struggle, Democratic Struggle, and Forces for Progress: The Working Class and Trade Union Movement Democratic Struggle and its Relation to Class Struggle Special Oppression and Exploitation. Multiracial, Multinational Unity for Full Equality and Against Racism". Program of the Communist Party USA. 19 May 2006. Communist Party USA. CPUSA Online. Retrieved 7 Apr. 2009. view/758. See also The Communist Party and African-Americans and the article on the Scottsboro Boys for the Communist Party’s work in promoting minority rights and involvement in the historically significant case of the Scottsboro Boys in the 1930s. [13] "CPUSA Members Mark 5th Anniversary of the War: Ben Davis Club Remembers Those Lost". 20 Mar. 2008. Party eBuilders. CPUSA Online. Retrieved 7 Apr. 2009. view/906/ [14] García, Mario T. Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology, and Identity, 1930-1960. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1991. ISBN 0300049846, ISBN 9780300049848. [15] CPUSA Constitution Amended July 8, 2001 at the 27th National Convention, Milwaukee, WI. Accessed online 29 August 2006. See also Executive Vice Chair Jarvis Tyner’s ideological essay, "The National Question". Communist Party USA. CPUSA Online. 1 Aug. 2003. Accessed online 7 April 2009.

See also
• Progressive Labor Party (United States) • Socialist Workers Party (United States) • History of Soviet espionage in the United States • Jencks Act • Jencks v. United States

[1] Gentry, Kurt, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets. W. W. Norton & Company 1991. P. 442. ISBN 0393024040. [2] Constitution of the Communist Party of the United States of America, amended July 8, 2001 at the 27th National Convention, Milwaukee, WI. Article VII, Section 2: "…any member shall be expelled from the Party who is a strikebreaker, a provocateur, engaged in espionage, an informer, or who advocates force and violence or terrorism, or who participates in the activities of any group which acts to undermine or overthrow any democratic institutions through which the majority of the American people can express their right to determine their destiny." Accessed online 28 November 2006. [3] CPUSA Constitution Amended July 8, 2001 at the 27th National Convention, Milwaukee, WI. Accessed online 29 August 2006. [4] Communist Party Immediate Program for the Crisis, CPUSA FAQ. Accessed online 29 August 2006. [5] ^ Program of the Communist Party [6] See Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto, Chapter 2. [7] Bachtell, John. "The Movements Against War and Capitalist Globalization". CPUSA Online. 17 July 2003. Retrieved 15 Apr. 2009. article/articleview/565/0/ [8] "War Will Not End Terrorism". Press release of the CPUSA National Board. 8 Oct. 2001. Press Releases. CPUSA Online. view/226/ Retrieved 6 Apr. 2009


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[16] ^ Communist Party Immediate Program for the Crisis, CPUSA FAQ. Accessed online 29 August 2006. [17] ^ "What are the CPUSA views on the environment?". Frequently Asked Questions. 1 July 2003. CPUSA Online. Retrieved 5 Apr. 2009. [18] ^ Brodine, Marc. "Global Warming Report to March 2008 NC". National Committee Meeting – March 29-30, 2008. CPUSAOnline. article/articleprint/931/ [19] Klehr, Harvey. Communist cadre: The social background of the American Communist party élite. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press. [20] Glazer, Nathan The Social Basis of American Communism. [21] Ryan 1997, p. 172 [22] Ryan, James G., Socialist Triumph as a Family Value: Earl Browder and Soviet Espionage, American Communist History 1, no. 2 (December 2002) [23] Haynes, John E., Klehr, Harvey, and Igorevich, Fridrikh I., The Secret World of American Communism, Yale University Press (1995) [24] ^ Ryan 1997, p. 154 [25] ^ Ryan 1997, p. 155 [26] Soviet and American Communist Parties in Revelations from the Russian Archives, Library of Congress, January 4, 1996. Accessed online 29 August 2006. [27] Text of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, executed August 23, 1939 [28] ^ Ryan 1997, p. 162 [29] Roberts 2006, p. 43 [30] Sanford, George (2005). Katyn and the Soviet Massacre Of 1940: Truth, Justice And Memory. London, New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415338735. [31] ^ Ryan 1997, p. 164-5 [32] ^ Ryan 1997, p. 166 [33] ^ Ryan 1997, p. 168 [34] ^ Ryan 1997, p. 186 [35] Ryan 1997, p. 189 [36] Haynes, James Earl. Red Scare or Red Menace?: American Communism and Anticommunism in the Cold War Era 30 (Ivan R. Dee 1996) ISBN 1566630908. [37] History of the FBI: Postwar America: 1945–1960s, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), undated. Accessed online 29 August 2006. [38] Summers, Anthony, Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J. Edgar

Communist Party USA
Hoover. G P Putnam 1993. P. 191. ASIN: B000LAXNFS. [39] Gentry, Kurt, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets. W. W. Norton & Company 1991. P. 442. ISBN 0393024040. [40] Gentry, P. 442. [41] Oshinsky, David, M., A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press, USA 2005. P. 257. ISBN 019515424X. [42] Talbot, David, Brothers: The Hidden History of the Kennedy Years. Free Press 2007. p142. ISBN 0743269187. [43] Historian John Haynes: "The CPUSA dried up as a base for Soviet espionage once the administration got serious about internal security and authorized the FBI and other security agencies to vigorously pursue Communists." Haynes, John, Joint Herman and Haynes Book Talk, February, 2000, Borders Book Store, Washington, D.C. [44] Summers, p. 191. [45] Summers, p. 191. [46] Summers, p. 191. [47] Howard Fast, "On Leaving the Communist party", The Saturday Review, November 16, 1957. Reproduced at, accessed online 29 August 2006. [48] For instance, Thomas Riggins, "Capitalism, Communism, and Cat Food", Political Affairs, 9 May 2007 (accessed 9 November 2007). [49] Marilyn Bechtel and Debbie Bell, China 2002: Building socialism with Chinese characteristics, People’s Weekly World, Mar 30, 2002. Accessed online 29 August 2006. [50] Does the CPUSA advocate the violent overthrow of the government? Don’t all communists advocate violence?, CPUSA FAQ. Accessed online 29 August 2006. [51] "Communist Party USA Gives Its History to N.Y.U.", article by Patricia Cohen in the New York Times, March 20, 2007 [52] This claim is made on the personal site of Joseph T Major, accessed online 30 August 2006. He cites it to Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Kyrill M. Anderson, The Soviet World of American Communism, Yale University Press (1998); ISBN 0-300-07150-7; Document 45, p. 155. The text of a $3 million


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
receipt dated 19.03.88 is given on the site, but the receipt is not reproduced. [53] ^ Haynes, John Earl, and Klehr, Harvey, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, Yale University Press (2000) [54] Schecter, Jerrold and Leona, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History, Potomac Books (2002) [55] Sudoplatov, Pavel Anatoli, Schecter, Jerrold L., and Schecter, Leona P., Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness - A Soviet Spymaster, Little Brown, Boston (1994) [56] Title 50 > Chapter 23 > Subchapter IV > § 841. Findings and declarations of fact. US Code collection, on the site of Cornell University. Accessed 30 August 2006. [57] Retrieved Papers Shed Light On Communist Activities In U.S., Associated Press, January 31, 2001 [58] Weinstein, Allen, and Vassiliev, Alexander, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America - the Stalin Era (New York: Random House, 1999) [59] Mink, Gwendolyn, and Alice O’Connor. Poverty in the United States: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, and Policy. ABC-CLIO, 2004. ISBN 1576075974, ISBN 9781576075975. P. 194. [60] In this issue..., Political Affairs, April 2004. Accessed online 29 August 2006. [61] No to Bush’s War!, CPUSA Online, archived on the Internet Archive April 7, 2003.

Communist Party USA

General histories
• Buhle, Paul, Marxism in the USA: Remapping the History of the American Left. London: Verso, 1987. • Cannon, James P., The First Ten Years of American Communism: Report of a Participant. New York: Lyle Stuart, 1962. • Dobbs, Farrell, Marxist Leadership in the U.S.: Revolutionary Continuity: Birth of the Communist Movement, 1918-1922. New York: Monad Press, 1983. • Draper, Theodore, The Roots of American Communism. New York: Viking, 1957. • Draper, Theodore, American Communism and Soviet Russia: The Formative Period. New York: Viking, 1960. • Foster, William Z., History of the Communist Party of the United States. New York: International Publishers, 1952. • Howe, Irving and Lewis Coser, The American Communist Party: A Critical History. Boston: Beacon Press, 1957. • Isserman, Maurice, Which Side Were You On?: The American Communist Party During the Second World War. Wesleyan University Press, 1982 and 1987. • Jaffe, Philip J., Rise and Fall of American Communism. Horizon Press, 1975. ISBN 0-8180-0817-2 • Klehr, Harvey. The Heyday of American Communism:The Depression Decade, Basic Books, 1984, hardcover, ISBN 0-465-02945-0, trade paper, 1985, ISBN 0-465-02946-9 • Klehr, Harvey and Haynes, John Earl, The American Communist Movement: Storming Heaven Itself, Twayne Publishers (Macmillan), 1992. ISBN 0-8057-3855-X • Lewy, Guenter, The Cause That Failed: Communism in American Political Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-19-505748-1 • Oneal, James, American Communism: A Critical Analysis of Its Origins, Development, and Programs. New York: Rand Book Store, 1927. Revised ed. 1948. • Ottanelli, Fraser M., The Communist Party of the United States: From the Depression to World War II. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991. • Palmer, Bryan, James P. Cannon and the Origins of the American Revolutionary Left, 1890-1928. Urbana, IL: Illinois

Further reading
General articles
• Bittelman, Alexander. Outline for a History of the Communist Party in America. (circa 1923)PDF (126 KiB). Published as “Hynes Exhibit No. 4” in Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Communist Activities. (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1930), pp. 435–448. Published on line by Retrieved June 11, 2006. • Nash, Michael. Communist History at the Tamiment LibraryPDF (4.22 MiB). American Communist History, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2004. Retrieved April 3, 2006.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-252-03109-0 Richmond, Al, A Long View from the Left: Memoirs of an American Revolutionary. 447 pages, Houghton Mifflin, 1973. ISBN 0-395-14005-6. Shannon, David A., The Decline of American Communism: A History of the Communist Party of the United States since 1945. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1959. Starobin, Joseph R., American Communism in Crisis, 1943-1957. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972, hardcover, ISBN 0-674-02275-0 Stevenson, Archibald (ed.), Revolutionary Radicalism: Its History, Purpose and Tactics...Being the Report of the Joint Legislative Committee Investigating Seditious Activities, Filed April 24, 1920, in the Senate of the State of New York: Part 1: Revolutionary and Subversive Movements Abroad and at Home. In Two Volumes. (AKA the "Lusk Report.") Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon, 1920.

Communist Party USA
• Klehr, Harvey E., Communist Cadre: The Social Background of the American Communist Party, Hoover Institution Press, 1960, ISBN 0-685-67279-4 • Kraditor, Aileen S., Jimmy Higgins: The Mental World of the American Rank-AndFile Communist, 1930-1958. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Company, 1988. ISBN 0-313-26246-2



Participant memoirs
• Eastman, Max, Love and Revolution: My Journey Through an Epoch. New York: Random House, 1964. • Foster, William Z., From Bryan to Stalin. New York: International Publishers, 1937. • Foster, William Z., Pages from a Worker’s Life. New York: International Publishers, 1939. • Freeman, Joseph, An American Testament: A Narrative of Rebels and Romantics. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1936. • Gates, John, The Story of An American Communist. New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1958. • Gitlow, Benjamin, I Confess: The Truth About American Communism. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1940. • Gitlow, Benjamin, Witness. New York: Random House, 1952. • Gornick, Vivian, The Romance of American Communism., New York: Basic Books, 1977. • Healey, Dorothy and Isserman, Maurice, Dorothy Healey Remembers: A Life in the American Communist Party. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. • Nelson, Steve, Barrett, James R., and Ruck, Rob, Steve Nelson: American Radical. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1981. • Shipman, Charles, It Had to Be Revolution: Memoirs of an American Radical. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993. • Richmond, Al, A Long View from the Left: Memoirs of an American Revolutionary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973. • Schrank, Robert, Wasn’t That a Time? Growing Up Radical and Red in America. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998. • Williamson, John, Dangerous Scot: The Life and Work of an American "Undesirable." New York: International Publishers, 1969.



Regional and local histories
• Holmes, T. Michael, The Specter of Communism in Hawaii. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8248-1550-5 • Kelley, Robin D. G., Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists During the Great Depression. University of North Carolina Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8078-4288-5 • Lyons, Paul, Philadelphia Communists, 1936-1956. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-87722-259-2 • Pedersen, Vernon L., The Communist Party in Maryland. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2001. ISBN 0-252-02321-8 • Storch, Randi, Red Chicago: American Communism at Its Grassroots, 1928-35. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-252-03206-6

Social composition of the Communist movement
• Glazer, Nathan, The Social Basis of American Communism. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1961.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Wolfe, Bertram D., A Life in Two Centuries: An Autobiography. New York: Stein and Day, 1981. • Wolfe, Bertram D., Strange Communists I Have Known. New York: Stein and Day, 1965.

Communist Party USA

The Communist Party and the trade unions
• Bimba, Anthony, History of the American Working Class. New York: International Publishers, 1927. • Cochran, Bert, Labor and Communism: The Conflict That Shaped American Unions, Princeton University Press, 1977, ISBN 0-691-04644-1 • Foner, Philip S., History of the Labor Movement in the United States. (In 10 Volumes) New York: International Publishers, 1948-1994. • Freeman, Joshua B. In Transit: The Transport Workers Union in New York City, 1933-1966. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001. ISBN 1-56639-922-X • Kampelman, Max M., Communist Party vs the CIO: A Study in Power Politics. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1957. • Keeran, Roger, Communist Party and the Auto Workers Unions. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-253-15754-4 • Levenstein, Harvey, Communism, Anticommunism, and the CIO. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981. ISBN 0-313-22072-7 • Salmond, John A., Gastonia 1929: The Story of the Loray Mill Strike. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. ISBN 0-0878-2237-X • Saposs, David J., Left Wing Unionism: A Study of Radical Policies and Tactics. New York: International Publishers, 1926. • Schatz, Ronald W. Electrical Workers: A History of Labor at General Electric and Westinghouse, 1923-60. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1983. ISBN 0-252-01031-0 • Schneider, David M., The Workers’ (Communist) Party and American Trade Unions. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1928.

Biographies of leading participants
• Barrett, James R., William Z. Foster and the Tragedy of American Radicalism. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1999. • Buhle, Paul M., A Dreamer’s Paradise Lost: Louis C. Fraina/Lewis Corey (1892-1953) and the Decline of Radicalism in the United States. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International, 1995. • Camp, Helen C., Iron in Her Soul: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn and the American Left. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Press, 1995. • Johanningsmeier, Edward P., Forging American Communism: The Life of William Z. Foster. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994. • Johnson, Oakley C., The Day is Coming: Life and Work of Charles E. Ruthenberg. New York: International Publishers, 1957. • Morgan, Ted, A Covert Life: Jay Lovestone: Communist, Anti-Communist, and Spymaster. New York: Random House, 1999. • O’Neill, William L., The Last Romantic: A Life of Max Eastman. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. • Hicks, Granville with Stuart, John, John Reed: The Making of a Revolutionary. New York: Macmillan, 1936. • Ryan, James G. (1997), Earl Browder: The Failure of American Communism., University of Alabama Press, ISBN 0-8173-0843-1 • Shields, Art, On the Battle Lines, 1919-1939. New York: International Publishers, 1986. • Strong, Tracy B. and Keyssar, Helene, Right in Her Soul: The Life of Anna Louise Strong. New York: Random House, 1983. • Young, Art, Art Young -- His Life and Times. New York: Sheridan House, 1939. • Zipser, Arthur and Zipser, Pearl, Fire and Grace: The Life of Rose Pastor Stokes. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1989.

The Communist Party and agriculture
• Daniel, Cletus E. Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farmworkers, 1870-1941. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981; paper: Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Dyson, Lowell K., Red Harvest: The Communist Party and American Farmers, University of Nebraska Press, 1982. ISBN 0-8032-1659-9 • Kelley, Robin D.G. Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists During the Great Depression. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8078-4288-5

Communist Party USA
• DuBois, W.E.B., The Autobiography of W.E.B. Du Bois. New York: International Publishers. ISBN 0-7178-0234-5 • Foner, Philip S., Organized Labor and the Black Worker. New York: International Publishers. ISBN 0-7178-0594-8 • Foner, Philip S. and Allen, James S. (eds.), American Communism and Black Americans: A Documentary History, 1919-1929. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987. • Foner, Philip S. and Shapiro, Herbert (eds.), American Communism and Black Americans: A Documentary History, 1930-1934. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991. • Haywood, Harry, Black Bolshevik: Autobiography of an Afro-American Communist. Chicago: Liberator Press, 1978. ISBN 0-930720-53-9 • Martin, Charles H. The Angelo Herndon Case and Southern Justice. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1976. ISBN 0-8071-0174-5 • Naison, Mark, Communists in Harlem During the Depression. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1983. ISBN 0-252-00644-5 • Pintzuk, Edward C. Reds, Racial Justice, and Civil Liberties: Michigan Communists During the Cold War. MEP Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-930656-71-7 • Record, Wilson, The Negro and the Communist Party. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1951. • Solomon, Mark, The Cry Was Unity: Communists and African Americans, 1917-1936. Jackson, MS: University of Mississippi Press, 1998. ISBN 1-57806-095-8 • Yates, James, Mississippi to Madrid: Memoir of a Black American in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Open Hand Publishing, 1989. ISBN 0-940880-20-2

The Communist Party and youth
• Cohen, Robert, When the Old Left Was Young: Student Radicals and America’s First Mass Student Movement, 1929-1941. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. • Mishler, Paul C., Raising Reds: The Young Pioneers, Radical Summer Camps, and Communist Political Culture in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

The Communist Party and women
• Weigand, Kate, Red Feminism: American Communism and the Making of Women’s Liberation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

The Communist Party and intellectuals
• Aaron, Daniel, Writers on the Left: Episodes in American Literary Communism. New York: Harcourt Brace & World, 1959. • Horne, Gerald, Class Struggle in Hollywood, 1930-1950. Austin: University of Texas, 0292731388 • Schwartz, Lawrence H. Marxism and Culture: The CPUSA and Aesthetics in the 1930s, Authors Choice Press, 2000. ISBN 0-595-12751-7 • Wald, Alan Exiles from a Future Time: The Forging of the Mid-Twentieth Century Literary Left. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8078-5349-6

The Communist Party and ethnic radicalism
• Bengston, Henry, On the Left in America: Memoirs of the Scandinavian-American Labor Movement. [1955] Kermit B. Westerbrook, trans. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999. • Buhle, Paul, and Georgakas, Dan (eds.), The Immigrant Left in the United States.

The Communist Party and Black Americans
• Carter, Dan T. Scottsboro a Tragedy of the American South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972; paper: Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1996. Epstein, Melech, The Jew and Communism, 1919-1941. New York: Trade Union Sponsoring Committee, n.d. [1959]. Karni, Michael G. and Ollila Jr., Douglas J., For the Common Good: Finnish Immigrants and hithe United States: The Case of Finns and the Left. Rutherford, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1984. Kostiainen, Auvo, The Forging of FinnishAmerican Communism, 1917-1924: A Study in Ethnic Radicalism. Turku, Finland: University of Turku, Turku, Finland, 1978. Rosenblum, Gerald, Immigrant Workers: Their Impact on American Labor Radicalism. New York: Basic Books, 1973. Sherman, John W., A Communist Front at Mid-Century: The American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, 1933-1959. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001. Szajkowski, Zosa, Jews, Wars and Communism: Vol. 1: The Attitude of American Jews to World War I, the Russian Revolutions of 1917, and Communism (1914-1945). New York: Ktav, 1972.

Communist Party USA
Participant. New York: Pioneer Publishers, 1944. • Myers, Constance Ashton, The Prophet’s Army: Trotskyists in America, 1928-1941. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977. ISBN 0-8371-9030-4



Organized anti-communism and McCarthyism
• Ceplair, Larry and Englund, Steven, Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930-1960. New York: Doubleday, 1980. paper: Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2003. • Fried, Richard M., Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. • Hoover, J. Edgar, Masters of Deceit: The Story of Communism in America and How to Fight It. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1958. • Jaffe, Julian F., Crusade Against Radicalism: New York During the Red Scare, 1914-1924. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1972. • Kornweibel Jr., Theodore, "Seeing Red": Federal Campaigns Against Black Militancy, 1919-1925. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-253-33337-7 • McCormick, Charles H., Seeing Reds: Federal Surveillance of Radicals in the Pittsburgh Mill District, 1917-1921. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995. • Murray, Robert K., Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria, 1919-1920. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1955. • Oshinsky, David M. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985. • Preston Jr., William, Aliens and Dissenters: Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903-1933. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963. • Reeves, Thomas C., Life and Times of Joe McCarthy. New York: Stein & Day, 1983. ISBN 0-8128-2337-0 • Spolansky, Jacob, The Communist Trail in America. New York: Macmillan, 1951.





Miscellaneous monographs related to the CPUSA
• Morray, J.P., Project Kuzbas: American Workers in Siberia (1921-1926). New York: International Publishers, 1983. • Mullen, Bill V., Popular Fronts. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1999. ISBN 0-252-06748-7 • Rosenstone, Robert, Crusade on the Left: The Lincoln Battalion in the Spanish Civil War. Pegasus, 1969. • Saxton, Alexander, The Great Midland. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Intra-party opposition movements
• Alexander, Robert J., The Right Opposition: The Lovestoneites and the International Communist Opposition of the 1930s. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981. ISBN 0-313-22070-0 • Cannon, James P., The History of American Trotskyism: Report of a


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Communist Party USA
• Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive. American Revolution into the New Millennium: A Counterintelligence Reader: Cold War CounterintelligencePDF. Volume 3, Chapter 1. U.S. Government on line publication. No date. Retrieved May 25, 2005.

Espionage, infiltration, and Soviet funding
• Andrew, Christopher and Mitrokhin, Vasili, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, New York: Basic Books, 1999. ISBN 0-465-00310-9. • John Barron, Operation Solo: The FBI’s Man in the Kremlin. Chicago: Regnery Publishing, 1996; 2nd ed.: 2001, ISBN 0-7091-6061-5. • Haynes, John Earl, and Klehr, Harvey, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000. • Meeropol, Robert, An Execution in the Family. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2003. • Latham, Earl, Communist Controversy in Washington: From the New Deal to McCarthy, Holiday House, 1972. • Radosh, Ronald and Joyce Milton, The Rosenberg File: A Search for the Truth. New York: Henry Holt, 1983. 2nd edition: New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1997. • Schecter, Jerrold and Leona, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History, Potomac Books, 2002. • Sudoplatov, Pavel Anatoli, Schecter, Jerrold L., and Schecter, Leona P., Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness -- A Soviet Spymaster. Boston: Little Brown, 1994. • Weinstein, Allen, Perjury: The HissChambers Case. New York: Knopf, 1978. • Weinstein, Allen, and Vassiliev, Alexander, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America - the Stalin Era. New York: Random House, 1999. • Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy Report, Appendix A, 4. The Encounter with Communism (1997)

• John Earl Haynes, Communism and AntiCommunism in the United States: An Annotated Guide to Historical Writings. New York: Garland, 1987. ISBN 0-8240-8520-5 • American Communist History semi-annual journal of the Historians of American Communism

• Isserman, Maurice, "The New History of American Communism Revisited." , 20. 1992. 536 - 542. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Other References
• Roberts, Geoffrey (2006), Stalin’s Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939–1953, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300112041

External links
• CPUSA website, including a collection of FAQs • Young Communist League USA youth group • People’s Weekly World weekly newspaper • Political Affairs monthly theoretical publication • Early American Marxism collection of primary source documents (1919-1946) • Communism in Washington State History and Memory Project. Retrieved August 19, 2006.

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