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Christianity and slavery

Christianity and slavery
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Slavery in different forms existed within Christianity for over 18 centuries. In the early years of Christianity slavery was a normal feature of the economy and society in the Roman Empire, and well into the Middle Ages and beyond. Centuries later, as the abolition movement took shape across the globe, groups who advocated slavery’s abolition worked to harness Christian teachings in support of their positions, using both the ’spirit of Christianity’ and textual argumentation.[1] On the other hand, those opposed to abolition and equal rights were able to quote numerous Biblical passages that permitted and regulated the practice of slavery.[2]

Biblical references
The Genesis narrative about the Curse of Ham has often been held to be an aetiological story, giving a reason for the enslavement of the Canaanites. The word ham is very similar to the Hebrew word for black/hot, which is cognate with an Egyptian word (khem, meaning black) used to refer to Egypt itself, in reference to the fertile black soil along the Nile valley. Although many scholars therefore view Ham as an eponym used to represent Egypt in the Table of Nations[3], a number of Christians throughout history, including Origen[4] and the Cave of Treasures[5], have argued for the alternate proposition that Ham represents all black people, his name symbolizing their dark skin color[6]; pro-slavery advocates, from Eutychius of Alexandria[7] and John Philoponus[8], to American pro-slavery apologists[9], have therefore occasionally interpreted the narrative as a condemnation of all black people to slavery[10]. A few Christians, like Jerome, even took up the racist notion that black people inherently had a soul as black as [their] body[11]. Slavery was customary in antiquity, and it is condoned by the Torah, which occasionally compels it[12][13]. The Bible uses the Hebrew term ebed to refer to slavery; however, ebed has a much wider meaning than the English term slavery, and in several circumstances it is more accurately translated into English as servant[14]. It was seen as legitimate to

The issue of Christianity and slavery is one that has seen intense conflict. While Christian abolitionists were a principal force in the abolition of slavery, the Bible sanctioned the use of regulated slavery in the Old Testament, while the New Testament does not explicitly condemn slavery in all its forms. Numerous passages in the Bible have historically been used by pro slavery advocates to support the practice as valid for their societies.


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enslave captives obtained through warfare[15], but not through kidnapping[16][17] for the purpose of enslaving them. Children could also be sold into debt bondage[18], which was sometimes ordered by a court of law[19][20][21]. As with the Hittite Laws and the Code of Hammurabi[22], the bible does set minimum rules for the conditions under which slaves were to be kept. Slaves were to be treated as part of an extended family[23]; they were allowed to celebrate the Sukkot festival[24], and expected to honor Shabbat[25]. Israelite slaves could not to be compelled to work with rigor[26][27], and debtors who sold themselves as slaves to their creditors had to be treated the same as a hired servant[28]. If a master harmed a slave in one of the ways covered by the lex talionis, the slave was to be compensated by manumission[29]; if the slave died within 24 to 48 hours, it was to be avenged[30] (whether this refers to the death penalty[31][32] or not[33] is uncertain). Israelite slaves were automatically manumitted after six years of work, and/or at the next Jubilee (occurring either every 49 or every 50 years, depending on interpretation), although the latter would not apply if the slave was owned by an Israelite and wasn’t in debt bondage[34]. Slaves released automatically in their 7th year of service, which did not include female slaves[35], or[36][37] did[38], were to be given livestock, grain, and wine, as a parting gift[39] (possibly hung round their necks[40]). This 7th-year manumission could be voluntarily renounced, which would be signified, as in other Ancient Near Eastern nations[41], by the slave gaining a ritual ear piercing[42]; after such renunciation, the individual was enslaved forever (and not released at the Jubilee)[43]. Non-Israelite slaves were always to be enslaved forever, and treated as inheritable property[44]. In several Pauline epistles, and the First Epistle of Peter, slaves are admonished to obey their masters, as to the Lord, and not to men[45][46][47][48][49]; however these particular Pauline epistles are also those whose Pauline authorship is doubted by a majority of scholars[50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61]. By contrast, the First Epistle to the Corinthians, one of the undisputed epistles[62], describes lawfully obtained manumission as the ideal for slaves[63]. Another undisputed epistle is that to Philemon, which has become

Christianity and slavery
an important text in regard to slavery, being used by pro-slavery advocates as well as by abolitionists[64][65]; in the epistle, Paul returns Onesimus, a fugitive slave, back to his master Philemon, but Paul also entreats Philemon to regard Onesimus as a beloved brother, rather than as a slave[66].

History of institutional slavery
In the Roman Empire
Some estimate that the slave population in the First century constituted approximately one third of the total population[67]. An estimated one million slaves were owned by the richest five per cent of Roman citizens. Most slaves were employed in domestic service in households and likely had an easier life than slaves working the land, or in mines or on ships[68]. Slavery could be very cruel in the Roman Empire, and revolts severely punished, and professional slave-catchers were hired to hunt down runaways, with advertisements containing precise descriptions of fugitives being publicly posted and offering rewards.[69] The Book of Acts refers to a synagogue of Libertines (Λιβερτίνων), in Jerusalem[70]. As a Latin term this would refer to freedmen, and it is therefore occasionally suggested that the Jews captured by Pompey, in 63 BC, gathered into a distinct group after their individual manumissions[71]. However, the Book of Acts was written in Greek, and the name appears in a list of five synagogues, the other four being named after cities or countries; for these reasons, its now more often to suggest that this biblical reference is a typographical error for Libystines (Λιβυστίνων)[72], in reference to Libya (in other words, referring to Libyans)[73][74]. According to Philo, the Essenes denounced slavery as an abomination[75] (although Philo’s authorship of this comment is disputed); Philo also states that they argued slavery to represent a wicked violation of nature, which was opposed to the equality in which mankind was created[76]. The connection between Essenes and very early Christian groups, such as the Ebionites, has long been debated[77][78].


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Christianity and slavery
slaves in the plantation were branded on their chests, using the traditional red hot iron, with the word Society, to signify their ownership by the Christian organisation[86][87]. But today, nearly all modern Christians are united in the condemnation of slavery as wrong and contrary to God’s will. It is contended that as slavery fell into moral disfavor, some Biblical translations began to translate references to slavery using softer language, and often replacing the word ’slave’ with the word ’servant.’ Others point out that the word "slave" carried with it a different meaning at the time the Bible was written to how it is commonly used today,[88] And that while the key aspect of slavery is ownership by another, sometimes "servant" better conveys to a contemporary audience what the text originally meant than "slave."

Serfdom replaces slavery
The barbarian invasions in the early Middle Ages vastly increased the number of slaves, both through capture and through people accepting a servile state in return for protection.[79] As Europe emerged from the early Middle Ages, slavery in Europe was transformed into the institution of serfdom,[80] which, instead of bonding a serf to a particular owner, bonded them to the land, which they worked first for the owner and then for themselves. While slaves could be bought and sold by themselves, serfs could not be forced to leave their land, although if the landlord sold the land, the serfs would be sold with it. There were also other fine but significant differences between slavery and serfdom.[81]

Christianity’s changing view
Early Christian thought exhibited some signs of kindness towards slaves. Christianity recognised marriage of sorts among slaves[82], freeing slaves was regarded as an act of charity[83], and when slaves were buried in Christian cemeteries, the grave seldom included any indication that the person buried had been a slave. John Chrysostom (c. 347–407), archbishop of Constantinople, preaching on Acts 4:32,33 in a sermon entitled, "Should we not make it a heaven on earth?", stated, "I will not speak of slaves, since at that time there was no such thing, but doubtless such as were slaves they set at liberty... Nevertheless, early Christianity rarely criticised the actual institution of slavery. Though the Pentateuch gave protection to fugitive slaves[84], the Roman church often condemned with anathema slaves who fled from their masters, and refused them Eucharistic communion.[85] Since the Middle Ages, the Christian understanding of slavery has seen significant internal conflict and endured dramatic change. Nearly all Christian leaders before the late 17th century regarded slavery as consistent with Christian theology. For example, the evangelical Protestant Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts owned the Codrington Plantation, in Barbados, containing several hundred slaves; all

Pre-enlightenment views
Christians regularly kept non-Christian slaves up until the abolition of slavery in general. Views on slavery of non-Christians, however, varied from place to place and person to person. In 340 the Synod of Gangra condemned the Manicheans for their urging that slaves should liberate themselves; the canons of the Synod instead declared that anyone preaching abolitionism should be anathematised, and that slaves had a Christian obligation to submit to their masters. The later Council of Chalcedon, regarded as one of the most important doctrinal ecumenical councils, declared that the canons of the Synod of Gangra were ecumenical (in other words, they were viewed as conclusively representative of the wider church); the Oriental Orthodox reject the conclusions of the Council of Chalcedon, but the council’s declarations are supported most other current forms of Christianity. Several prominent early church fathers advocated slavery, either directly or indirectly. Augustine of Hippo, who renounced his former Manicheanism, argued that slavery was part of the mechanism to preserve the natural order of things[90][91]. John Chrysostom, regarded as a saint by Roman Catholicism, argued that slaves should be resigned to their fate, as by obeying his master he is obeying God[92]. By contrast, people of lesser importance had more benign attitudes. Saint


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Patrick (415-493), himself a former slave, argued for the abolition of slavery. The seventh century Saint Eloi used his vast wealth to purchase British and Saxon slaves in groups of 50 and 100 in order to set them free.[93] By the Middle Ages, the most powerful and influential Christian voices were in favour of slavery. During the Reconquista, captured Muslims were enslaved; in the 12th century, the Muslim slaves carried out the grand reconstruction of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) believed that slavery was "morally justifiable". It is said the Teutonic Order opposed strongly the conversion of Lithuania into Christianity in the 14th century, since it meant the end of lucrative slave trading of captured Lithuanians to Tatars.

Christianity and slavery
Renaissance had begun, and abolitionist attitudes sporadically emerged, with growing frequency, in the Papacy. In 1435 Pope Eugene IV condemned slavery, of other Christians, in Sicut Dudum [2]; furthermore, he explicitly forbade the enslavement of the indigenous inhabitants of the Canary Islands. In 1462 Pope Pius II declared slavery to be a "great crime" (magnum scelus);[99].In 1537 Pope Paul III condemned it in Sublimus Dei[100] Some theories have been offered to explain the ethics of the Catholic Church regarding slavery throughout the Middle Ages[83]

Christian abolitionism
Although many abolitionists opposed slavery on purely philosophical reasons, anti-slavery movements attracted strong religious elements. Throughout Europe and the United States, Christians, usually from ’un-institutional’ Christian faith movements, not directly connected with traditional state churches, or "non-conformist" believers within established churches, were to be found at the forefront of the abolitionist movements.[101] In particular, the effects of the Second Great Awakening with freedom of speech were principal causes in many evangelicals working to see the theoretical Christian view, that all people are equal, made a practical reality. Prominent among these in England was Parliamentarian William Wilberforce, who wrote in his diary when he was 28 that “God Almighty has set before me two great objects, the suppression of the Slave Trade and Reformation of Morals.”[102] With others he labored, against much determined opposition, to finally abolish the British slave trade. The famous English preacher Charles Spurgeon had some of his sermons burned in America due to his censure of slavery, calling it "the foulest blot" and which "may have to be washed out in blood."[103] Methodist founder John Wesley denounced human bondage as "the sum of all villainies," and detailed its abuses.[104] In Georgia, primitive Methodists united with brethren elsewhere in condemning slavery. Many evangelical leaders in the United States such as Presbyterian Charles Finney and Theodore Weld, and women such as Harriet Beecher Stowe (daughter of abolitionist Lyman Beecher) and

The papacy
The papacy itself increasingly hardened its attitude. The 7th century Pope Martin I condemned unjust slavery, but in doing so implicitly suggested that he believed a just slavery to exist. In the early thirteenth century, official support for slavery and the slave trade was incorporated into Canon Law, by Pope Gregory IX[94][95], who had also introduced the Inquisition, trials for witchcraft, and the judicial presumption of guilt (rather than presumption of innocence). Roughly a century later, Gregory’s namesake, Pope Gregory XI, excommunicated the Florentines and ordered them to be enslaved if captured[96] In 1452 Pope Nicholas V, in his Dum Diversas, instituted the hereditary enslavement of nonbelievers. Approximately 40 years later, this was reiterated by the new pope Alexander VI, in the bull Eximiae Devotionis, which instructs that all non-Christians, wherever they are located, should be found, captured, and reduced to perpetual slavery. The 1510 Requerimiento, in relation to the Spanish invasion of South America, demanded that the local populations convert to Roman Catholicism, on pain of slavery or death. In 1488, Pope Innocent VIII accepted the gift of 100 slaves from Ferdinand II of Aragon, and distributed those slaves to his cardinals and the Roman nobility;[97]. In 1639 Pope Urban VIII forbade the slavery of the Indians of Brazil, Paraguay, and the West Indies, yet he purchased non-Indian slaves for himself from the Knights of Malta;[98] Despite frequent Papal support for slavery during the 15th and early 16th centuries, the


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Sojourner Truth motivated hearers to support abolition. Finney preached that slavery was a moral sin, and so supported its elimination. "I had made up my mind on the question of slavery, and was exceedingly anxious to arouse public attention to the subject. In my prayers and preaching, I so often alluded to slavery, and denounced it.[105] Repentance from slavery was required of souls, once enlightened of the subject, while continued support of the system incurred "the greatest guilt" upon them.[106] Quakers in particular were early leaders in abolitionism. In 1688 Dutch Quakers in Germantown, Pennsylvania, sent an antislavery petition to the Monthly Meeting of Quakers. By 1727 British Quakers had expressed their official disapproval of the slave trade.[107] Three Quaker abolitionists, Benjamin Lay, John Woolman, and Anthony Benezet, devoted their lives to the abolitionist effort from the 1730s to the 1760s, with Lay founding the Negro School in 1770, which would serve more than 250 pupils.[108] In June of 1783 a petition from the London Yearly Meeting and signed by over 300 Quakers was presented to Parliament protesting the slave trade.[109] In 1787 the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was formed, with 9 of the 12 founder members being Quakers. During the same year, William Wilberforce was persuaded to take up their cause; as an MP, Wilberforce was able to introduce a bill to abolish the slave trade. Wilberforce first attempted to abolish the trade in 1791, but could only muster half the necessary votes; however, after transferring his support to the Whigs, it became an election issue. Abolitionist pressure had changed popular opintion, and in the 1806 election enough abolitionists entered parliament for Wilberforce to be able to see the passing of the 1807 Slave Trade Act. The Royal Navy subsequently declared that the slave trade was equal to piracy, the West Africa Squadron choosing to seize ships involved in the transfer of slaves and liberate the slaves on board, effectively crippling the transatlantic trade. Through abolitionist efforts, popular opinion continued to mount against slavery, and in 1833 slavery itself was outlawed throughout the British Empire at that time containing roughly 1/6 of the world’s population (rising to 1/4 towards the end of the century).

Christianity and slavery
Though facing much opposition - from violence to the U.S. Postmaster General refusing to allow the mails to carry abolition pamphlets to the South [110][111] - many Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian members freed their slaves and sponsored black congregations, in which many black ministers encouraged slaves to believe that freedom could be gained during their lifetime. After a great revival occurred in 1801 at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, American Methodists made antislavery sentiments a condition of church membership.[112] Abolitionist writings, such as "A Condensed Anti-Slavery Bible Argument" (1845) by George Bourne,[113] and "God Against Slavery" (1857) by George B. Cheever,[114] used the Bible, logic and reason extensively in contending against the institution of slavery, and in particular the chattel form of it as seen in the South. Roman Catholic statements also became increasingly vehement against slavery, during this era. In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV condemned slavery generally; in 1815 Pope Pius VII demanded of the Congress of Vienna the suppression of the slave trade; in the Bull of Canonization of the Jesuit Peter Claver, one of the most illustrious adversaries of slavery, Pope Pius IX branded the "supreme villainy" (summum nefas) of the slave traders;[99] in 1839 Pope Gregory XVI condemned slavery in In Supremo Apostolatus [3]; and in 1888 Pope Leo XIII in In Plurimis [4]. Roman Catholic efforts extended to the Americas. The Roman Catholic leader of the Irish in Ireland, Daniel O’Connell, supported the abolition of slavery in the British Empire and in America. With the black abolitionist Charles Lenox Remond, and the temperance priest Theobold Mayhew, he organized a petition with 60,000 signatures urging the Irish of the United States to support abolition. O’Connell also spoke in the United States for abolition. A more radical abolitionist, John Brown, was considered to have been either a martyr or a zealot, depending on one’s point of view. Other Protestant missionaries of the Great Awakening initially opposed slavery in the South, but by the early decades of the 1800s, many Baptist and Methodist preachers in the South had come to an accommodation with it in order to evangelize the farmers and workers. Disagreements between the newer way of thinking and the old often created schisms within denominations at the time. Differences


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in views toward slavery resulted in the Baptist and Methodist churches dividing into regional associations by the beginning of the Civil War.[115] In 1917, one hundred and ten years after the official abolition of the slave trade in most of the rest of the world, the Papacy finally abolished the Canon Law support for the slave trade.

Christianity and slavery
dedicated to the "empowerment of the white race"), and Christian Reconstructionists still argue that slavery is justified by Christian doctrine today.

Slavery in the Americas
The nearly universal consensus throughout the ages has been that Christians must not keep other Christians as slaves. The Christianisation of Europe in the Dark Ages saw the traditional slavery disappearing in Europe and being replaced with feudalism. But this consensus was broken in the slave states of the United States, where the justification switched from religion (the slaves are heathens) to race (Africans are the descendants of Ham); indeed, in 1667, Virginia’s assembly enacted a bill declaring that baptism did not grant freedom to slaves. The opposition to the U.S. Civil Rights movement in the 20th century was founded in part on the same religious ideas that had been used to justify slavery in the 19th century. Slavery was by no means relegated to the continental United States, as in addition to vast numbers of Native Americans slaves, it is estimated that for every slave who went to North America, South America imported nearly twelve slaves, with the West Indies importing over ten.[121] By 1570 56,000 inhabitants were of African origin in the Caribbean.[122] In introduction of Catholic Spanish colonies to the Americas resulted in forced conversions and slavery to the indigenous peoples living there. Some priests, such as Father Bartolomé de las Casas worked to protect Americans from slavery, although Casas’ works may have helped to inspire the African slave trade. In 1888 Brazil became the last country in the Americas to abolish slavery.[123] See Abolition of slavery timeline for other dates.

Opposition to abolitionism
Passages in the Bible on the use and regulation of slavery have been used throughout history as justification for the keeping of slaves, and for guidance in how it should be done. Therefore, when abolition was proposed, many Christians spoke vociferously against it, citing the Bible’s apparent acceptance of slavery as ’proof’ that it was part of the normal condition. George Whitefield, famed for his sparking of the so-called Great Awakening of American evangelicalism, campaigned, in Georgia, for the legalisation of slavery[116][117]; slavery had been outlawed in Georgia, but due to George’s campaign it was legalised in 1751. In both Europe and the United States many Christians went further, arguing that slavery was actually justified by the words and doctrines of the Bible. [Slavery] was established by decree of Almighty is sanctioned in the Bible, in both Testaments, from Genesis to has existed in all ages, has been found among the people of the highest civilization, and in nations of the highest proficiency in the arts - Jefferson Davis, President, Confederate States of America [118] Every hope of the existence of church and state, and of civilization itself, hangs upon our arduous effort to defeat the doctrine of Negro suffrage - Robert Dabney, a prominent 19th century Southern Presbyterian pastor ... the right of holding slaves is clearly established in the Holy Scriptures, both by precept and example - Richard Furman, President, South Carolina Baptist Convention[119][120] And some members of fringe Christian groups like the Christian Identity movement, and the Ku Klux Klan (an organization

Christianity and Indigenous African Religions
Slavery witnessed the lack of synchronization of Christian belief with Folk religion of African origin . African-American slaves did not have any organized spirituality other than what they were taught. Slavery in the United States devastated traditional culture and religion among Africans. Slaves in the eighteenth century came from various African


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societies, cultures and nations, such as the Igbo, Ashanti and Yoruba on the West African Coast. Consequently, slaves from differing ethnic groups displayed little commonalities. Africans were black, but did not experience a homogenous existence they shared little of their traditional cultures and religions. Slaveholders and whites feared individual and group consciousness. Traditional African beliefs, cultures, and religions, were suppressed to prohibit cultural unity among slaves. It was the practice of ‘Divide and Rule’. Ibo, Yoruba, and Ashanti religions did not survive the Middle Passage. The Institution of slavery, and the influx of forced Christian conversions, eliminated traditional African religions in the United States. No Ibo, Ashanti, or Yoruba traditional culture and religion survived.

Christianity and slavery
states from liberating slaves who had fled from other states, and instructed them to return such fugitive slaves[129] The rise of abolitionism in nineteenth century politics was mirrored in religious debate; slavery among Christians was generally dependent on the attitudes of the community they lived in. This was true in Protestant and Catholic churches.[130] Religious integrity affected the white slave-holding Christian population. The Bible was used and manipulated to support the institution of slavery and inhumane practices. Crimes such as murder were justifiable if it was inflicted upon AfricanAmericans. Christianity was used to suppress and conform a people. Slaveholders, priests, and those tied to the Church undermined the beliefs of the millions of African-American converts. As abolitionism gained popularity in the northern states, it strained relations between northern and southern churches. Northern preachers increasingly preached against slavery in the 1830s. In the 1840s, slavery began to divide denominations.[131] This, in turn, weakened social ties between the North and South, allowing the nation to become even more divided in the 1850s. [132] [133] The issue of slavery in the United States came to a conclusion with the American Civil War. Although the war began as a political struggle over the preservation of the nation, it took on religious overtones as southern preachers called for a defense of their homeland and northern abolitionists preached the good news of liberation for slaves. Gerrit Smith and William Lloyd Garrison abandoned pacifism, and Garrison changed the motto of The Liberator to Leviticus 25:10, "Proclaim Liberty throughout all the land, and to all the inhabitants thereof." The YMCA joined with other societies to found the United States Christian Commission, with the goal of supporting Union soldiers, and churches collected $6 million for their cause.[134] Harriet Tubman, considered by many to be a prophet due to her success as a liberator with the Underground Railroad, warned "God won’t let master Lincoln beat the South till he does the right thing" by emancipating slaves. Popular songs such as John Brown’s Body (later The Battle Hymn of the Republic) contained verses which painted the northern war effort as a religious struggle to end slavery. Even Abraham Lincoln appealed to religious sentiments, suggesting in various

United States
For additional context, see Slavery in the United States The first African slaves arrived in Jamestown, Virginia in 1619, when a Dutch slave trader traded his African ’cargo’ for food. These Africans became indentured servants, possessing a legal position similar to many poor Englishmen[124]. It was not until around the 1680s that the popular idea of a racial-based slave system became reality.[125] Additionally, "New World slavery was a unique conjuntion of features. Its use of slaves was strikingly specialized as unfree labor-producing commodities, such as cotton and sugar, for a world market."[126] "By 1850 nearly two-thirds of the plantation slaves were engaged in the production of cotton...the South was totally transformed by the presences of slavery.[127] For the most part, the Pilgrims who had settled at Plymouth Massachusetts in 1620 had servants and not slaves, meaning that after turning 25 years old most black servants were offered their freedom, which was a contractual arrangement similar to that of English apprenticeships.[128] Opposition to slavery in the United States predates the nation’s independence. As early as 1688, congregations of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) actively protested slavery. The Quaker Testimony of Equality would have an influence on slavery in Pennsylvania. However, at independence the nation adopted a Constitution which forbade


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speeches that God had brought on the war as punishment for slavery,[135] while acknowledging in his Inaugural Address that both sides "read the same Bible, and pray to the same God; and each invokes His aid against the other." With the Union victory in the war and a constitutional ban on slavery, abolitionist Christians also declared a religious victory over their slave-holding brethren in the South. Southern religious leaders who had preached a message of divine protection were now left to reconsider their theology.

Christianity and slavery
Following Emancipation, African-Americans believed that true freedom was to be found through the communal and nurturing aspects of the Church. The Methodist Church was at the forefront of freed-slave agency in the South. Denominations into the southern states included the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) and African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) churches. These institutions were led by blacks that explicitly resisted white charity, believing it would have displayed white supremacy to the black congregations. The AME, AMEZ, and AfricanAmerican churches throughout the South provided social services such as ordained marriages, baptisms, funerals, communal support, and educational services. Education was highly regarded. Methodists taught former slaves how to read and write, consequently enriching a literate African-American society. Blacks were instructed through Biblical stories and passages. Church buildings became schoolhouses, and funds were raised for teachers and students.

By the 1830s, tension had begun to mount between Northern and Southern Baptist churches. The support of Baptists in the South for slavery can be ascribed to economic and social reasons. However, Baptists in the North claimed that God would not "condone treating one race as superior to another". Southerners, on the other hand, held that God intended the races to be separate. Finally, around 1835, Southern states began complaining that they were being slighted in the allocation of funds for missionary work. The break was triggered in 1844, when the Home Mission Society announced that a person could not be a missionary and still keep his slaves as property. Faced with this challenge, the Baptists in the south assembled in May 1845 in Augusta, Georgia, and organized the Southern Baptist Convention.

Further information: Blacks and the Latter Day Saint movement Mormon scripture condemns slavery, teaching "it is not right that any man should be in bondage one to another."(D&C 101:80) The Book of Mormon heralds righteous kings who did not allow slavery, (Mosiah 29:40) and righteous men who fought against slavery.(Alma 48:11) The Book of Mormon also describes an ideal society instituted by Jesus Christ, in which the people "had all things common among them; therefore there were not rich and poor, bond and free, but they were all made free, and partakers of the heavenly gift."(4 Nephi 1:3) Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, issued a number of statements stating the church’s position regarding slavery and the abolitionist movement. Concerning American slavery, Smith said "it makes my blood boil within me to reflect upon the injustice, cruelty, and oppression of the rulers of the people,"[136] but preached the importance of upholding the law of the land,[137] which included the institution of slavery. Instead, he proposed a gradual end to slavery by the year 1850 by buying slaves from their slave holders. He argued that blacks should then be given equal employment opportunities as whites.[138] He believed that given equal

Methodists believed that the institution of slavery contradicted their strict morality and abolitionist principles. Methodists were long at the forefront of slavery opposition movements. The Christian denomination attempted to help slaves and subsequently freed blacks through philanthropic agencies such as the American Colonization Society and the Mission to the Slaves. It was during the 1780s that American Methodist preachers and religious leaders formally denounced African-American Slavery. The founder of Methodism, the Anglican priest John Wesley, believed that “slavery was one of the greatest evils that a Christian should fight”. Eighteenth and early nineteenth century Methodists had anti-slavery sentiments, as well as the moral responsibility to bring an end to African-American Slavery.


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chances as whites, blacks would be like whites.[139] In his personal journal, he wrote that the slaves owned by Mormons should be brought "into a free country and set ... free—Educate them and give them equal rights."[140] Later in his life, living in Illinois and running for the presidency of the United States, Smith wrote a political platform containing a plan to abolish slavery.[138] However, Smith’s successor, Brigham Young, taught that the curse of Cain was "the flat nose and black skin," and that blacks were further cursed to be "servant of servants" until that curse was removed (Journal of Discourses, 7:290), and instituted a policy that would exclude blacks from the Mormon priesthood until officially overturned in 1978. Mormons also believed that slavery would eventually lead to Civil War. In 1832 Joseph Smith supposedly received the following revelation from the Lord, "Verily, thus saith the Lord concerning the wars that will shortly come to pass, beginning at the rebellion of South Carolina, which will eventually terminate in the death and misery of many souls; 2 And the time will come that war will be poured out upon all nations, beginning at this place. 3 For behold, the Southern States shall be divided against the Northern States, and the Southern States will call on other nations, even the nation of Great Britain, as it is called, and they shall also call upon other nations, in order to defend themselves against other nations; and then awar shall be poured out upon all nations. 4 And it shall come to pass, after many days, slaves shall rise up against their masters, who shall be marshaled and disciplined for war." (D&C 87:1). The Civil War started in 1861. Some critics of Joseph Smith claim that he got the timing wrong because in 1832 he said the war would "shortly come to pass." Mormons respond that the war’s start within 30 years falls within the period "shortly," especially given the long history of slavery, the conflict between North and South, and the context of Section 87 of the Doctrine and Covenants in which he gave the prophecy.

Christianity and slavery
• Slavery in medieval Europe • The Bible and slavery • Judaism and slavery

[1] History of Abolitionism [2] "As for your male and your female slaves, whom you may have; of the nations that are around you, from them you may buy male and female slaves." (Leviticus 25:44) [3] Jewish Encyclopedia (1901), article on Ham [4] Origen, Homilies, on Genesis 16:1 [5] (edited by Ciala Kourcikidzé), The cave of treasures: Georgian version, translated by Jean-Pierre Mahé in The written corpus of eastern Christianity 526-27, part of Scriptores Iberici 23-24 (Louvain, 1992-93), 21:38-39 [6] Goldenberg, D. M. (2003). The Curse of Ham. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, page 141. [7] (edited by J.P. Migne), Complete course in Patrology…Greek series, (Paris, 1857-66), on Annals 111:917B:41-43 [8] A. Sanda, Opposcula Monophysitica Johannes Philoponi (Beirut, 1930), page 96 [9] Haynes, S. R. (2002). Noah’s Curse. New York, New York: Oxford University Press, page 71. [10] Felder, C. H. (2002). Race, Racism, and the Biblical Narratives. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress, page 8. [11] Jerome, Homilies, 1:3:28 [12] Exodus 22:2-3 [13] Deuteronomy 21:10-11 [14] Jewish Encyclopedia (1901), article on Slaves and Slavery [15] Deuteronomy 20:10-16 [16] Deuteronomy 24:7 [17] Exodus 20:10-16 [18] Leviticus 25:44 [19] Isaiah 22:2-3 [20] 2 Kings 4:1-7 [21] Jewish Encyclopedia (1901), article on Slaves and Slavery [22] Peake’s commentary on the Bible (1962), on Exodus 21:18-27 [23] Deuteronomy 16:14 [24] Deuteronomy 16:14 [25] Exodus 20:10 [26] Leviticus 25:43 [27] Leviticus 25:53

See also
• • • • • History of slavery Islam and slavery Slavery in ancient Greece Slavery in ancient Rome Slavery in antiquity


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[28] Leviticus 25:39 [29] Exodus 21:26-27 [30] Exodus 21:20-21 [31] Maimonides, Mishneh Torah [32] Jewish Encyclopedia (1901), article on Slaves and Slavery [33] Jewish Encyclopedia (1901), article on Avenger of Blood [34] Leviticus 25:47-55 [35] {{bibleverse||Exodus|21:7|} [36] Jewish Encyclopedia (1901), article on Law, Codification of [37] Peake’s commentary on the Bible (1962), on Exodus 21:2-11 [38] {{bibleverse||Deuteronomy|15:12|} [39] Deuteronomy 15:13-14 [40] Jewish Encyclopedia (1901), article on Slaves and Slavery [41] Thomas Kelly Cheyne and John Sutherland Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (1903), article on Slavery [42] Exodus 21:5-6 [43] Thomas Kelly Cheyne and John Sutherland Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (1903), article on Slavery [44] Leviticus 25:44-46 [45] Ephesians 6:5-8 [46] Colossians 3:22-25 [47] 1 Timothy 6:1 [48] Titus 2:9-10 [49] 1 Peter 2:18 [50] Ehrman, Bart D. (2004). The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. New York: Oxford. ISBN 0-19-515462-2. , page 385 [51] Udo Schnelle, Apostle Paul: His Life and Theology (2003), [english translation published 2005] [52] Hermann Detering, The Falsified Paul (1995) [53] Stephen G. Wilson, Luke and the Pastoral Epistles (1979) [54] Norman Perrin, The New Testament: An Introduction (1974) [55] W. Bujard, Stilanalytische Untersuchungen zum Kolosserfrief als Beitrag zur Methodik von Sprachvergleichen (1973) [56] E J Goodspeed, Key to Ephesians (1956), page 6 [57] Mitton, The Epistle to the Ephesians (1951), pages 245-255 [58] Alfred Loisy, The Origins of the New Testament (1936) [59] Percy Neale Harrison, The Problem of the Pastoral Epistles (1921)

Christianity and slavery
[60] Ferdinand Christian Baur, Paul, the Apostle of Jesus Christ: His Life and Works (1845) [61] also partially advocated by Desiderius Erasmus [62] Seven of the Pauline Epistles are regarded as genuine by most scholars; academics therefore use the term undisputed epistles to collectively refer to these seven [63] 1 Corinthians 7:21-23 [64] Religion and the Antebellum Debate Over Slavery, by John R. McKivigan, Mitchell Snay [65] God Against Slavery, p. 140, by Rev. George B. Cheever, D.D [66] Philemon 1:1-25 [67] Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica’s Guide to History [68] Slavery in Bible times by David Meager [69] romans/slavery_04.shtml Resisting Slavery in Ancient Rome By Professor Keith Bradle [70] Acts 6:9 [71] Jewish Encyclopedia (1901), article on Slaves and Slavery [72] Jewish Encyclopedia (1901), article on Slaves and Slavery [73] Friedrich Blass, Philology of the Gospels (1898), [regularly republished, most recently in 2005] [74] Thomas Kelly Cheyne and John Sutherland Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (1903), article on Libertines [75] Philo, Quod Omnis Probus Liber, 12+ [76] Philo, On the contemplative life [77] Hans-Joachim Schoeps (1969). Jewish Christianity: Factional Disputes in the Early Church. Translation Douglas R. A. Hare. Fortress Press. [78] Kriste Stendahl (1991). The Scrolls and the New Testament. Herder & Herder. ISBN 0824511360. [79] clas103/9.htm. [80] The Middle Ages [81] "Classical Slavery and Medieval Serfdom" Lynn Harry Nelson, Emeritus Professor of Medieval History, The University of Kansas [82] Goodell, The American Slave Code. Pt. I Ch. VII [83] ^ Slavery in the Middle Ages [84] Deuteronomy 23:15-16


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[85] Luis M. Bermejo, S.J., Infallibility on Trial, 1992, Christian Classics, Inc., ISBN 0-87061-190-9, p. 313. [86] BBC News story about a belated official apology for the Society’s crimes [87] Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains, The British Struggle to Abolish Slavery (2005), page 61 [88] [89] Defending the Bible’s Position on Slavery by Kyle Butt, M.A. [90] Augustine of Hippo, City of God [91] Elaine Pagels, Adam, Eve, and the Serpent (1988), page 114 [92] Henri Daniel-Rops, Cathedral and Crusade (1957), page 263 [93] Life in Medieval Times by Marjorie Rowling [94] Steven Epstein, Wage Labour & Guilds in Mediaeval Europe (1995), page 226 [95] Ambe J. Njoh, Tradition, culture and development in Africa (2006), page 31 [96] The Encyclopedia Americana [97] Luis M. Bermejo, S.J., Infallibility on Trial, 1992, Christian Classics, Inc., ISBN 0-87061-190-9, p. 315. [98] Luis M. Bermejo, S.J., Infallibility on Trial, 1992, Christian Classics, Inc., ISBN 0-87061-190-9, p. 316. [99] ^ Allard, Paul (1912). "Slavery and Christianity". Catholic Enycyclopedia. XIV. New York: Robert Appleton Company. cathen/14036a.htm. Retrieved on 2006-02-04. [100]1] [ [101]The abolition of the slave trade: " Christian conscience and political action" [102] uoted in Piper, 2002, p. 37) q [103] he Christian Cabinet, Dec. 14 1859 T [104] houghts Upon Slavery, John Wesley, T Published in the year 1774, John Wesley: Holiness of Heart and Life, 1996 Ruth A. Daugherty [105] harles G. Finney, Memoirs (New York: C A.S. Barnes, 1876), 324 [106] uilt modified by ignorance--anti-slavery G duties, by President Finney 1852 [107] ondon Yearly Meeting minutes, Vol. 6, L 457 - 458 [108] ttp:// h pages/5913/Abolition-Movement.html [109] ondon Yearly Meeting minutes, Vol. 17, L 298 - 307

Christianity and slavery
[110] merican Mobbing, 1828-1861 By David A Grimsted [111] chlesinger Age of Jackson, p.190 S [112]Westward Expansion and Development " of Abolitionist Thought," Kentucky underground railroad [113] ttp:// h bourne.html [114] ee also "The guilt of slavery and the S crime of slaveholding, demonstrated from the Hebrew and Greek scriptures" [115] ooley 11-15; McKivigan 27 (ritualism), D 30, 51, 191, Osofsky; ANB Leonidas Polk [116] dward J. Cashin, Beloved Bethesda : A E History of George Whitefield’s Home for Boys (2001) [117] rnold Dallimore, George Whitefield: The A Life and Times of the Great Evangelist of the Eighteenth Century (1980), Volume 2 [118]Religious Tolerance. [ sla_bibl.htm. Accessed 2009-2-3.] [119]oe Early, Readings in Baptist History J (2008), page 82 [120] ichael Corbett and Julia Corbett M Hemeyer, Politics and Religion in the United States (1999), page 95 [121]How Did American Slavery Begin?" " Historian Philip Curtin [122]The Encyclopedia of World History" " 2001 [123]Brazil’s Prized Exports Rely on Slaves " and Scorched Land" Larry Rohter (2002) New York Times, March 25 [124] ugh Brogan, The Penguin History of the H USA (1999) [125]A Brief History of Jamestown," The " Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, Richmond, VA 23220 [126] ncyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology (4 E vols), David Levinson and Melvin Ember (eds), HenryHolt:1996 [127] ncyclopedia Britannica E [128]Were there any blacks on the " Mayflower?" By Caleb Johnson, member of the General Society of Mayflower Descendants [129] nited States Constitution, 4:2:3 U [130] evins, V.2 p.145 N [131] iller, 305 M [132]ngersol, Stan (November/December I 2008), "The Enduring Significance of Pilot Point", Holiness Today, 6 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House) 10: p. 8, ISSN 1523-7788,


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Christianity and slavery • Lewis, Bernard (1992). Race and Slavery articleDisplay.jsp?mediaId=2396849&nid=artt,in the Middle East. New York: Oxford retrieved on 27 November 2008 University Press. ISBN 0-19-505326-5. [133] lder denominations would not be O • Miller, William Lee (1995). Arguing About reunited until the 20th century. The Slavery. John Quincy Adams and the Great Methodists, for example, split in 1844 Battle in the United States Congress. and were not reunited until 1939. The Vintage Books. ISBN 0-3945-6922-9. Presbyterians were not reunited until • Nevins, Allan. The Emergence of Lincoln: 1983, and the Baptists churches of the Prologue to Civil War 1859-1861. ©1950, United States have never reunited. Charles Scribner’s Sons. SBN [134] ossing, Chapter 26 L 684-10416-4. [135] everal examples appear in Wikiquote, S such as [136]oseph Smith (B. H. Roberts ed.), History J • Louis W. Cable - SLAVERY and the BIBLE of the Church 4:544 • African Holocaust [137] rticles of Faith 1:12 A • Christianity and Slavery [138] Joseph Smith Views of U.S. ^ • DeBow’s Review (September 1850): Government February 7, 1844 "Slavery and the Bible" [139] istory of the Church, 5:217–218 H • Passages from the Hebrew Scriptures (Old [140] ompilation on the Negro in C Testament) and from the Christian Mormonism, p.40 Scriptures (New Testament) • Lossing, Benson J., LL.D. Matthew Brady’s • Christianity and slavery on Illustrated History of the Civil War 1861-65 and the Causes That Led Up To • Texas Baptists Committed the Great Conflict. Random House. ISBN 0-517-20974-8.

External links

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