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Barack Obama

Barack Obama
Barack Obama Occupation Community organizer Lawyer Constitutional law professor Author Christian,[3] former member of United Church of Christ[4][5]

Religion

44th President of the United States Incumbent Assumed office January 20, 2009 Vice President Preceded by Joe Biden George W. Bush

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The White House

United States Senator from Illinois In office January 4, 2005 – November 16, 2008 Preceded by Succeeded by Peter Fitzgerald Roland Burris

This article is part of a series about Barack Obama Background · Illinois Senate · U.S. Senate · Political positions · Public image · Family · 2008 primaries · Obama–Biden campaign · Transition · Inauguration · Electoral history · Presidency (Timeline, First 100 days) more...

Member of the Illinois Senate from the 13th district In office January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004 Preceded by Succeeded by Born Alice Palmer Kwame Raoul August 4, 1961 (1961-08-04) [1] Honolulu, Hawaii[2] Barack Hussein Obama II[2] American Democratic Michelle Obama (m. 1992) Malia Ann (b.1998) Natasha (Sasha) (b.2001) The White House Occidental College Columbia University (B.A.) Harvard Law School (J.D.)

Birth name Nationality Political party Spouse Children Residence Alma mater

Barack Hussein Obama II (pronounced /bəˈrɑːk huːˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/; born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from January 2005 until November 2008, when he resigned after his election to the presidency. Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the first African American president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney in Chicago and also taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Obama served three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, Obama ran for United States Senate in 2004. His victory from a crowded field in the March 2004 Democratic primary raised his visibility, and his primetime televised keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004 made him a rising star nationally in the Democratic Party. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in

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November 2004 by the largest margin in Illinois history. He began his run for the presidency in February 2007. After a close campaign in the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries against Hillary Rodham Clinton, he won his party’s nomination, becoming the first major party African American candidate for president. In the 2008 general election, he defeated Republican candidate John McCain and was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2009.

Barack Obama

Early life and career
Barack Obama was born at the Kapi’olani Medical Center for Women & Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, United States,[6] to Stanley Ann Dunham,[7] an American of mainly English descent from Wichita, Kansas,[8][9][10] and Barack Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Obama’s parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[11][12] The couple married on February 2, 1961,[13] and Barack was born later that year. His parents separated when he was two years old and they divorced in 1964.[12] Obama’s father returned to Kenya and saw his son only once more before dying in an automobile accident in 1982.[14] After her divorce, Dunham married Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro, who was attending college in Hawaii. When Suharto, a military leader in Soetoro’s home country, came to power in 1967, all Indonesian students studying abroad were recalled and the family moved to the island nation.[15] From ages six to ten, Obama attended local schools in Jakarta, including Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School. In 1971, he returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Armour Dunham, and attended Punahou School, a private college preparatory school, from the fifth grade until his graduation from high school in 1979.[16] Obama’s mother returned to Hawaii in 1972 and remained there until 1977, when she relocated to Indonesia to work as an anthropological field worker. She finally returned to Hawaii in 1994 and lived there for one year before dying of ovarian cancer.[17]

Right-to-left: Barack Obama and half-sister Maya Soetoro, with their mother Ann Dunham and grandfather Stanley Dunham, in Hawaii (early 1970s) Of his early childhood, Obama recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me—that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk—barely registered in my mind."[18] He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[19] Reflecting later on his formative years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered—to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect—became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[20] Obama has also written and talked about using alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind".[21] At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency in 2008, Obama identified his high-school drug use as his "greatest moral failure".[22] Following high school, he moved to Los Angeles in 1979 to attend Occidental College.[23] After two years he transferred in 1981 to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations[24] and graduated with a B.A. in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation[25][26] and then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.[27][28] After four years in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago, where he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman and Riverdale) on Chicago’s far

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South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May [27][29] During his three years as the 1988. DCP’s director, its staff grew from one to thirteen and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants’ rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[30] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[31] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time to Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[32] He returned in August 2006 in a visit to his father’s birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya.[33] Obama entered Harvard Law School in late 1988. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[34] and president of the journal in his second year.[35] During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley & Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[36] After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude[37][38] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[34] Obama’s election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[35] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations,[39] though it evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[39] From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois’s Project Vote, a voter registration drive with a staff of ten and 700 volunteers; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, and led to Crain’s Chicago Business naming Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[40][41] For twelve years, Obama served as a professor of constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School; as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[42] In 1993 he joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a twelve-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.[43]

Barack Obama
Obama was a founding member of the board of directors of Public Allies in 1992, resigning before his wife, Michelle, became the founding executive director of Public Allies Chicago in early 1993.[27][44] He served from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project, and also from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Joyce Foundation.[27] Obama served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[27] He also served on the board of directors of the Chicago Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Center for Neighborhood Technology, and the Lugenia Burns Hope Center.[27]

Political career: 1996–2008
State legislator: 1997–2004
Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois’s 13th District, which at that time spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park-Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[45] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming ethics and health care laws.[46] He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[47] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan’s payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[48] Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was reelected again in 2002.[49] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[50][51] In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate’s Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a

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majority.[52] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[47][53] During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[54] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[55]

Barack Obama
networks, a combined 9.1 million viewers saw Obama’s speech, which was a highlight of the convention and elevated his status as a star in the Democratic Party.[63] Obama’s expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[64] Two months later, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party’s nomination to replace Ryan.[65] A long-time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination.[66] In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes’ 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.[67][68]

2004 U.S. Senate campaign
See also: United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004 In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race; he created a campaign committee, began raising funds and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod by August 2002, and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[56] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[57] Obama’s candidacy was boosted by Axelrod’s advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.[58] In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won an unexpected landslide victory with 53% of the vote in a seven-candidate field, 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival, which overnight made him a rising star in the national Democratic Party and started speculation about a presidential future.[59][60] In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.[61] He spoke about changing the U.S. government’s economic and social priorities, while questioning the Bush administration’s management of the Iraq War and speaking about obligations to American soldiers. He criticized heavily partisan views of the electorate and asked Americans to find unity, saying, "There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there’s the United States of America."[62] Though it was not televised by the three major broadcast news

U.S. Senator: 2005–2008
Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005.[69] Obama was the fifth African American Senator in U.S. history and the third to have been popularly elected.[70] He was the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[71] CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007; in 2005 he was ranked sixteenth most liberal, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth.[72][73] In 2008, Congress.org ranked him as the eleventh most powerful Senator,[74] and the politician who was the most popular in the Senate, enjoying 72% approval in Illinois.[75] Obama announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[76][77] This enabled him to avoid the conflict of dual roles as President-elect and Senator in the lame duck session of Congress, which no sitting member of Congress had faced since Warren Harding.[78]

Legislation
See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[80] In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act.[81] Obama introduced two initiatives bearing his name:

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Barack Obama
which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[87] In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[88] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[89] Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections[90] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,[91] neither of which has been signed into law. Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.[92] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[93] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran’s oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[94][95] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children’s Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[96]

Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (R-OK) and Obama discussing the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act.[79] Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons,[82] and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending.[83] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[84]

Committees
Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans’ Affairs through December 2006.[97] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[98] He also became Chairman of the Senate’s subcommittee on European Affairs.[99] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of the Palestinian Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the Kenyan govern[100][101][102][103] ment.

Obama and U.S. Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian mobile launch missile dismantling facility in August 2005.[85] Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[86] Obama is not hostile to tort reform and voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008

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Barack Obama
A large number of candidates entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a duel between Obama and Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama gaining a steady lead in pledged delegates due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in caucus states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules.[108][109] On June 3, with all states counted, Obama was named the presumptive nominee[110][111] and delivered a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7.[112]

2008 presidential campaign

Obama stands on stage with his wife and two daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, Feb. 10, 2007. On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[104][105][106] The choice of the announcement site was symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[106] Throughout the campaign, Obama emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence and providing universal health care.[107]

Obama meets with 43rd President George W. Bush in the Oval Office on November 10, 2008. Obama proceeded to focus on the general election campaign against Senator John McCain, the presumptive Republican nominee, in the lead up to the Democratic National Convention. He announced on August 23, 2008, that he had selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[113] At the convention, held August 25 to August 28 in Denver, Colorado, Hillary Clinton called for her delegates and supporters to endorse Obama, and she and Bill Clinton gave convention speeches in support of Obama.[114][115] Obama delivered his acceptance speech to over 75,000 supporters and presented his policy goals; the speech was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide.[116][117] During both the primary process and the general election, Obama’s campaign set

Obama delivers his presidential election victory speech in Grant Park.

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numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[118][119][120] On June 19, 2008, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[121] After McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, three presidential debates were held between the contenders spanning September and October [122][123] In November, Obama won the 2008. presidency with 52.9% of the popular vote to McCain’s 45.7%,[124] and 365 electoral votes to 173,[125][126] to become the first African American president, as well as the first born in Hawaii.[127][128][129][130][131] In his victory speech, delivered before thousands of supporters in Chicago’s Grant Park, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America".[132]

Barack Obama
records.[136] He also issued orders closing Guantanamo Bay detention camp "as soon as practicable and no later than" January 2010.[137] The first 100 days of Barack Obama’s presidency included his signing into law a $787 billion economic stimulus package on February 17, 2009, aimed at helping the economy recover from the deepening recession. The bill included increased federal spending for health care, infrastructure, education, various tax breaks and incentives, and direct assistance to individuals.[138][139] Although Obama made a high-profile visit to Capitol Hill to engage with Congressional Republicans, the bill ultimately passed largely on a party-line vote.[140] On February 18, 2009 he announced that the U.S. troop strength in Afghanistan would be boosted by 17,000. In the announcement, Obama asserted that the increase was necessary to stabilize a deteriorating situation in Afghanistan, which has not received the strategic attention, direction and resources it urgently requires. [141] On February 27, 2009, Obama declared that combat operations would end in Iraq within 18 months. Obama stated in his remarks to Marines who were about to deploy to Afghanistan, "Let me say this as plainly as I can: By August 31, 2010, our combat mission in Iraq will end." [142]

Presidency
Presidental styles of Barack Obama

Reference style Spoken style Alternative style

The Hon. Barack Obama, President of the United States of America President Obama Mr. President

Political positions
A method that some political scientists use for gauging ideology is to compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).[143] Based on his years in Congress, Obama has a lifetime average conservative rating of 7.67% from the ACU[144] and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90% from the ADA.[145] In economic affairs, in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security.[146] In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.[147] Shortly before announcing his presidential campaign, Obama said he supports universal health care in the United States.[148] He has proposed

See also: Confirmations of Barack Obama’s Cabinet The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President, and Joe Biden as Vice President, took place on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda reversing President Bush’s ban on federal funding to foreign establishments that allow abortions (known as the Mexico City Policy and referred to by critics as the "Global Gag Rule"),[133] changed procedures to promote disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act,[134] directed the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq,[135] and reduced the secrecy given to presidential

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Barack Obama

Obama campaigning in Abington, Pennsylvania, October 2008 rewarding teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.[149] On taxation, his plan would eliminate taxes for senior citizens with incomes of less than $50,000 a year, raise income taxes for those making over $250,000, raise the capital gains and dividends taxes,[150] close corporate tax loopholes, lift the income cap on Social Security taxes, restrict offshore tax havens, and simplify filing of income tax returns by pre-filling wage and bank information already collected by the IRS.[151] In September 2007, he blamed special interests for distorting the U.S. tax code.[152] For environment, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system to restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.[153] Obama proposed that all pollution credits must be auctioned, with no grandfathering of credits for oil and gas companies, and the spending of the revenue obtained on energy development and economic transition costs.[154] In foreign affairs, Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush administration’s policies on Iraq.[155] On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[156] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally,[157] and spoke out against the war.[158][159] He

Barack Obama giving a speech at the University of Southern California in support of a proposition to fund alternative energy research addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd that "it’s not too late" to stop the war.[160][161] Although Obama had previously said he wanted all U.S. troops out of Iraq within 16 months of becoming president, after he won the primary, he said he might change or refine plans as further developments unfold.[162] In November 2006, he called for a "phased redeployment of U.S. troops from Iraq" and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Syria and Iran.[163] In a March 2007 speech to AIPAC, a pro-Israel lobby, he said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, although he did not rule out military action.[164] Obama has indicated that he would engage in "direct presidential diplomacy" with Iran without precondi[165][166][167] In August 2007, Obama tions. remarked that "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of alQaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had

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confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas. He said that as president, he would not miss a similar opportunity, even without the support of the Pakistani government.[168] Obama stated that if elected he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense systems, not weaponize space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems", and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favors ending development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and seeking negotiations with Russia in order to make it less necessary to have ICBMs on high-alert status.[169] Obama has called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan.[170] He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.[171] In the July–August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and, in his view, the renewal of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying that "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission", he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by example".[172]

Barack Obama
his Kenyan father’s family, six of them living, and a half-sister with whom he was raised, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband.[174] Obama’s mother was survived by her Kansasborn mother, Madelyn Dunham[175] until her death on November 2, 2008[176] just two days before his election to the Presidency. In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother’s family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, president of the southern Confederacy during the American Civil War.[177] Obama’s great-uncle served in the 89th Division that overran Ohrdruf,[178] the first Nazi camp liberated by U.S. troops during World War II.[179] Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with his given name during his college years.[180] Besides his native English, Obama speaks Indonesian at the conversational level, which he learned during his four childhood years in Jakarta.[181][182] He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school’s varsity team.[183]

Family and personal life

Barack Obama with his wife Michelle Obama In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family: "It’s like a little mini-United Nations," he said. "I’ve got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I’ve got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[173] Obama has seven half-siblings from

Obama playing basketball with U.S. military at Camp Lemonier, Djibouti in 2006[184]

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In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[185] Assigned for three months as Obama’s adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial requests to date.[186] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[187] The couple’s first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[188] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[189] The Obama daughters attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the private Sidwell Friends School.[190] Applying the proceeds of a book deal, the family moved in 2005 from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to a $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood, Chicago.[191] The purchase of an adjacent lot and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer, campaign donor and friend Tony Rezko attracted media attention because of Rezko’s subsequent indictment and conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[192][193] In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family’s net worth at $1.3 million.[194] Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[195] Obama is a Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household". He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known". He describes his father as "raised a Muslim", but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful". Obama explained how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change".[196][197] He was baptized at the Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988 and was an active member there for two decades.[198][199] Obama

Barack Obama
resigned from Trinity during the Presidential campaign after controversial statements made by Rev. Jeremiah Wright became public.[200] Obama has tried to quit smoking several times,[201] and said he will not smoke in the White House.[201]

Cultural and political image

43rd President George W. Bush invited then President-Elect Barack Obama and former Presidents George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter to a meeting in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009. Obama’s family history, early life and upbringing, and Ivy League education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[202] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that "we’re still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[203] Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn’t be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[204] Obama is frequently referred to as an exceptional orator.[205][206][207] During his preinauguration transition period and continuing into his presidency, Obama has delivered a series of weekly Internet video addresses [208] similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt’s famous fireside chats to explain his policies and actions.[209] Obama’s international appeal has been described as a defining factor for his public

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Barack Obama
americanpresident/obama. Retrieved on January 23, 2009. [4] United Church of Christ (January 20, 2009). Barack Obama, long time UCC member, inaugurated forty-fourth U.S. President. Press release. http://www.ucc.org/news/obamainauguration.html. Retrieved on January 21, 2009. "Barack Obama, who spent more than 20 years as a UCC member, is the forty-fourth President of the United States." [5] An Associated Press wire story on Obama’s resignation from Trinity United Church of Christ in the course of the Jeremiah Wright controversy stated that he had, in doing so, disaffiliated himself with the UCC. (See "Obama’s church choice likely to be scrutinized". Associated Press. msnbc.com. November 17, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/ 27775757/. Retrieved on 2009-01-20. ) [6] Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible". Politics (Washington Post). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ content/article/2008/08/23/ AR2008082301620.html. Retrieved on October 27, 2008. [7] For Stanley Ann’s first name, see Obama (1995, 2004), p. 19 [8] "Born in the U.S.A.". FactCheck. August 21, 2008. http://www.factcheck.org/ elections-2008/born_in_the_usa.html. Retrieved on October 24 2008. [9] Hutton, Brian (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama’s South Side Irish". Politics (The Chicago Sun-Times). http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/ 368961,CST-NWS-ireland03.article. Retrieved on November 23, 2008. [10] "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own washingtonpost.com". Washingtonpost.com. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ content/article/2007/05/12/ AR2007051201551.html. Retrieved on November 8, 2008. [11] Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see "Barack Obama: Creation of Tales". East African. November 1, 2004. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/

Play video Obama presents his first weekly address as President of the United States, discussing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. image.[210] Polls show strong support for Obama in other countries,[211] and he has met with prominent foreign figures including then-British Prime Minister Tony Blair,[212] Italy’s Democratic Party leader and then Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni,[213] and French President Nicolas Sarkozy.[214] Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[215] His "Yes We Can" speech, which artists independently set to music, was viewed by 10 million people on YouTube in the first month,[216] and received an Emmy Award.[217] In December 2008, Time magazine named Barack Obama as its Person of the Year for his historic candidacy and election, which it described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments".[218]

Notes
[1] "President Barack Obama". www.whitehouse.gov. http://www.whitehouse.gov/ administration/president_obama/. [2] ^ "Birth Certificate of Barack Obama". Department of Health, Hawaii. PolitiFact.com. August 8, 1961. http://www.politifact.com/media/img/ graphics/birthCertObama.jpg. Retrieved on December 12, 2008. [3] "American President: Barack Obama". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/academic/

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20070927225314/ [19] Obama (1995), Chapters 4 and 5. See http://www.nationmedia.com/ also: Serrano, Richard A (March 11, EastAfrican/01112004/Features/ 2007). "Obama’s Peers Didn’t See His PA2-2212.html. Retrieved on April 13, Angst" (paid archive). Los Angeles 2008. Times. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ [12] ^ Jones, Tim (March 27, 2007). latimes/access/ "Obama’s mom: Not just a girl from 1230439131.html?dids=1230439131:1230439131&F Kansas: Strong personalities shaped a Retrieved on January 4, 2008. future senator". Chicago Tribune, [20] Reyes, B. J (February 8, 2007). "Punahou reprinted in The Baltimore Sun. Left Lasting Impression on Obama". http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/ Honolulu Star-Bulletin. nation/politics/ http://archives.starbulletin.com/2007/02/ chi-0703270151mar27-archive,0,91024,full.story. 08/news/story02.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on October 27, 2008. January 4, 2008. "As a teenager, Obama [13] Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). "The went to parties and sometimes sought Story of Barack Obama’s Mother". Time. out gatherings on military bases or at the http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/ University of Hawaii that were mostly 0,8599,1729524,00.html. Retrieved on attended by blacks." April 9, 2007. [21] "Obama Gets Blunt with N.H. Students". [14] Merida, Kevin (December 14, 2007). Associated Press. Boston Globe. "The Ghost of a Father". Washington November 21, 2007. Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ http://www.boston.com/news/nation/ wp-dyn/content/story/2007/12/13/ articles/2007/11/21/ ST2007121301893.html. Retrieved on obama_gets_blunt_with_nh_students/. June 24, 2008. See also: Ochieng, Philip Retrieved on January 4, 2008. In Dreams (November 1, 2004). "From Home from My Father, Obama writes: "Pot had Squared to the US Senate: How Barack helped, and booze; maybe a little blow Obama Was Lost and Found". East when you could afford it." Obama (1995), African. Archived from the original on pp. 93–94. For analysis of the political September 27, 2007. impact of the quote and Obama’s more http://web.archive.org/web/ recent admission that he smoked 20070927223905/ marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a http://www.nationmedia.com/ kid, I inhaled."), see: Romano, Lois EastAfrican/01112004/Features/ (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama’s PA2-11.html. Retrieved on June 24, Candor Remains to Be Seen". 2008. Washington Post. [15] Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 44–45. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ [16] Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). content/article/2007/01/02/ "Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics". AR2007010201359.html. Retrieved on Honolulu Star-Bulletin. January 4, 2008. Seelye, Katharine Q http://archives.starbulletin.com/2004/03/ (October 24, 2006). "Obama Offers More 21/news/story4.html. Retrieved on April Variations From the Norm". New York 13, 2008. See also: Obama (1995, 2004), Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ Chapters 3 and 4. fullpage.html?res=9D07E2DB173FF937A15753C1A9 [17] Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). "The Retrieved on January 4, 2008. Story of Barack Obama’s Mother". Time. [22] Hornick, Ed (August 17, 2008). "Obama, http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/ McCain talk issues at pastor’s forum". 0,8599,1729524,00.html. Retrieved on LAKE FOREST, California: CNN.com. June 24, 2008. See also: Suryakusuma, http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/08/ Julia (November 29, 2006). "Obama for 16/warren.forum/. Retrieved on January President... of Indonesia". Jakarta Post. 4, 2009. http://old.thejakartapost.com/ [23] "Oxy Remembers "Barry" Obama ’83". yesterdaydetail.asp?fileid=20061129.F03. Occidental College. January 29, 2007. Retrieved on June 24, 2008. http://www.oxy.edu/x8270.xml. Retrieved [18] Obama (1995), pp. 9–10. on April 13, 2008.

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[24] Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). 2008/articles/1990/02/15/ "Barack Obama ’83". Columbia College a_law_review_breakthrough/. Retrieved Today. http://www.college.columbia.edu/ on June 15, 2008. Corr, John (February cct_archive/jan05/cover.php. Retrieved 27, 1990). "From mean streets to on June 9, 2008. hallowed halls" (paid archive). The [25] "Curriculum Vitae". The University of Philadelphia Inquirer: p. C01. Chicago Law School. Archived from the http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/ original on May 9, 2001. Archives?p_product=PI&p_theme=pi&p_action=sear http://web.archive.org/web/ 27/1990%20to%2002/27/ 20010509024017/ 1990)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0= http://www.law.uchicago.edu/faculty/ 27/1990%20to%2002/27/ obama/cv.html. Retrieved on November 1990)&p_field_advanced-0=Author&p_text_advanced 3, 2008. Retrieved on June 6, 2008. [26] Issenberg, Sasha (August 6, 2008). [31] Obama, Barack (August–September "Obama shows hints of his year in global 1988). "Why organize? Problems and finance: Tied markets to social aid". promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/ 14 (8–9): 40–42. reprinted in: Knoepfle, news/nation/articles/2008/08/06/ Peg (ed.) (1990). After Alinsky: obama_shows_hints_of_his_year_in_global_finance/ community organizing in Illinois. ?page=1. Retrieved on April 13, 2008. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State [27] ^ Chassie, Karen (ed.) (2007). Who’s University. pp. 35–40. ISBN Who in America, 2008. New Providence, 0962087335. Tayler, Letta; Herbert, NJ: Marquis Who’s Who. p. 3468. ISBN Keith (March 2, 2008). "Obama forged 9780837970110. path as Chicago community organizer". http://www.marquiswhoswho.com/ Newsday: p. A06. products/WAprodinfo.asp. Retrieved on http://www.newsday.com/news/ June 6, 2008. printedition/nation/ny[28] Scott, Janny (October 30, 2007). usobam025598601mar02,0,7841545,full.story. "Obama’s Account of New York Years Retrieved on June 6, 2008. Often Differs from What Others Say". [32] Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437. The New York Times. [33] Gnecchi, Nico (February 27, 2006). http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/us/ "Obama Receives Hero’s Welcome at His politics/30obama.html. Retrieved on Family’s Ancestral Village in Kenya". April 13, 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. Voice of America. 133–140; Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63. http://www.voanews.com/english/ [29] Secter, Bob; McCormick, John (March archive/2006-08/2006-08-27-voa17.cfm. 30, 2007). "Portrait of a pragmatist". Retrieved on June 24, 2008. Chicago Tribune: p. 1. Archived from the [34] ^ Levenson, Michael; Saltzman, original on February 9, 2008. Jonathan (January 28, 2007). "At Harvard http://web.archive.org/web/ Law, a unifying voice". The Boston 20080209030448/ Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/ http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ local/articles/2007/01/28/ nationworld/ at_harvard_law_a_unifying_voice/ chi-0703300121mar30,1,6651421,full.story. ?page=full. Retrieved on June 15, 2008. Retrieved on June 6, 2008. Lizza, Ryan Kantor, Jodi (January 28, 2007). "In law (March 19, 2007). "The Agitator: Barack school, Obama found political voice". The Obama’s Unlikely Political Education" New York Times: p. 1. (alternate link). New Republic. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/us/ http://www.pickensdemocrats.org/info/ politics/ TheAgitator_070319.htm. Retrieved on 28obama.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all. April 13, 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. Retrieved on June 15, 2008. Kodama, 140–295; Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83. Marie C (January 19, 2007). "Obama left [30] Matchan, Linda (February 15, 1990). "A mark on HLS". The Harvard Crimson. Law Review breakthrough" (paid http://www.thecrimson.com/ archive). The Boston Globe: p. 29. article.aspx?ref=516664. Retrieved on http://www.boston.com/news/politics/ June 15, 2008. Mundy, Liza (August 12,

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2007). "A series of fortunate events". The artman/publish/article_11791.shtml. Washington Post: p. W10. Retrieved on November 15, 2008. Pugh, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ Allison J. (Associated Press) (April 18, content/article/2007/08/08/ 1990). "Law Review’s first black AR2007080802038_pf.html. Retrieved on president aims to help poor" (paid June 15, 2008. Heilemann, John archive). The Miami Herald: p. C01. (October 22, 2007). "When they were http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/ Archives?p_product=MH&p_theme=realcities2&p_ac young". New York 40 (37): 32–7, 132–3. 18/1990%20to%2004/18/ http://www.printthis.clickability.com/pt/ 1990)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0= cpt?action=cpt&title=When+They+Were+Young&expire=&urlID=24417790&fb=Y&url=http%3A%2 18/1990%20to%2004/18/ Retrieved on June 15, 2008. Mendell 1990)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_text_advanced-0= (2007), pp. 80–92. Retrieved on June 15, 2008. [35] ^ Butterfield, Fox (February 6, 1990). [36] Aguilar, Louis (July 11, 1990). "Survey: "First black elected to head Harvard’s Law firms slow to add minority partners" Law Review". The New York Times: (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 1 p. A20. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ (Business). http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ fullpage.html?res=9C0CE2DC1631F935A35751C0A966958260. chicagotribune/access/ Retrieved on June 15, 2008. Ybarra, 28774085.html?dids=28774085:28774085&FMT=AB Michael J (February 7, 1990). "Activist in Retrieved on June 15, 2008. "Barack Chicago now heads Harvard Law Obama, a summer associate at Hopkins Review" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: & Sutter in Chicago" p. 3. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ [37] Adams, Richard (May 9, 2007). "Barack chicagotribune/access/ Obama". The Guardian. 28797353.html?dids=28797353:28797353&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/ Retrieved on June 15, 2008. Matchan, may/09/barackobama.uselections20081. Linda (February 15, 1990). "A Law Retrieved on October 26, 2008. Review breakthrough" (paid archive). [38] Mendell, David. "Barack Obama The Boston Globe: p. 29. (American politician)". http://www.boston.com/news/politics/ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ 2008/articles/1990/02/15/ topic/973560/Barack-Obama. Retrieved a_law_review_breakthrough/. Retrieved on October 26, 2008. on June 15, 2008. Corr, John (February [39] ^ Scott, Janny (May 18, 2008). "The 27, 1990). "From mean streets to story of Obama, written by Obama". The hallowed halls" (paid archive). The New York Times: p. 1. Philadelphia Inquirer: p. C01. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/18/us/ http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/ politics/ Archives?p_product=PI&p_theme=pi&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_trackval=PI&s_search_ty 18memoirs.html?pagewanted=all. 27/1990%20to%2002/27/ Retrieved on June 15, 2008. Obama 1990)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=02/ (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii. 27/1990%20to%2002/27/ [40] White, Jesse (ed.) (2000). Illinois Blue 1990)&p_field_advanced-0=Author&p_text_advanced-0=(John%20Corr)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpa Book, 2000, Millennium ed.. Springfield, Retrieved on June 15, 2008. Drummond, IL: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 83. Tammerlin (March 12, 1990). "Barack OCLC 43923973. Obama’s Law; Harvard Law Review’s http://www.sos.state.il.us/bb/toc.html. first black president plans a life of public Retrieved on June 6, 2008. service" (paid archive). Los Angeles [41] Jarrett, Vernon (August 11, 1992). Times: p. E1. "’Project Vote’ brings power to the http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/ people" (paid archive). Chicago Sunaccess/ Times: p. 23. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl60017156.html?dids=60017156:60017156&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. search/we/ Retrieved on June 15, 2008. Evans, Archives?p_product=CSTB&p_theme=cstb&p_action Gaynelle (March 15, 1990). "Opening 11/1992%20to%208/11/ another door: The saga of Harvard’s 1992)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0= Barack H. Obama". Black Issues in 11/1992%20to%208/11/ Higher Education: p. 5. 1992)&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced-0=(Ve http://www.diverseeducation.com/

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Retrieved on June 6, 2008. Reynolds, 5/1993%20to%207/5/ Gretchen (January 1993). "Vote of 1993)&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced-0=(Bu Retrieved on June 15, 2008. Miner, Confidence". Chicago 42 (1): 53–54. Barnhill & Galland (2008). "About Us". http://www.chicagomag.com/ChicagoMiner, Barnhill & Galland – Chicago, Magazine/January-1993/Vote-ofIllinois. http://www.lawmbg.com/ Confidence/. Retrieved on June 6, 2008. index.cfm/PageID/2711. Retrieved on Anderson, Veronica (September June 15, 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 27–October 3 1993). "40 under Forty: 438–439, Mendell (2007), pp. 104–106. Barack Obama, Director, Illinois Project [44] Public Allies (2008). "Fact Sheet on Vote". Crain’s Chicago Business 16 (39): Public Allies’ History with Senator 43. Barack and Michelle Obama". Public [42] University of Chicago Law School Allies. http://www.publicallies.org/site/ (March 27, 2008). "Statement regarding c.liKUL3PNLvF/b.3960231/. Retrieved on Barack Obama". University of Chicago June 6, 2008. Law School. [45] Jackson, David; Ray Long (April 3, 2007). http://www.law.uchicago.edu/media/ "Obama Knows His Way Around a index.html. Retrieved on June 10, 2008. Ballot". Chicago Tribune. Miller, Joe (March 28, 2008). "Was http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ Barack Obama really a constitutional law politics/obama/chi-070403obama-ballotprofessor?". FactCheck.org. archive,0,5693903.story. Retrieved on http://www.factcheck.org/askfactcheck/ January 14, 2008. White, Jesse (2001). was_barack_obama_really_a_constitutional_law.html. "Legislative Districts of Cook County, Retrieved on June 10, 2008. Holan, 1991 Reapportionment". Illinois Blue Angie Drobnic (March 7, 2008). Book 2001–2002. Springfield: Illinois "Obama’s 20 years of experience". Secretary of State. p. 65. State Sen. PolitiFact.com. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/ 26. article/2008/mar/07/obamas-20-years[46] Slevin, Peter (February 9, 2007). "Obama experience/. Retrieved on June 10, 2008. Forged Political Mettle in Illinois [43] Robinson, Mike (Associated Press) Capitol". Washington Post. (February 20, 2007). "Obama got start in http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ civil rights practice". The Washington content/article/2007/02/08/ Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ AR2007020802262.html. Retrieved on wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/20/ April 20, 2008. Helman, Scott AR2007022000045.html. Retrieved on (September 23, 2007). "In Illinois, March 10, 2009. Pallasch, Abdon M Obama dealt with Lobbyists". Boston (December 17, 2007). "As lawyer, Obama Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/ was strong, silent type; He was ’smart, nation/articles/2007/09/23/ innovative, relentless,’ and he mostly let in_illinois_obama_dealt_with_lobbyists/. other lawyers do the talking". Chicago Retrieved on April 20, 2008. See also: Sun-Times: p. 4. "Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/ Critics". Associated Press. CBS News. obama/700499,CST-NWS-ObamaJanuary 17, 2007. law17.article. Retrieved on June 15, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/ 2008. "People" (paid archive). Chicago 01/17/politics/main2369157.shtml. Tribune: p. 9 (Business). June 27, 1993. Retrieved on April 20, 2008. "In-Depth http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ Look at Obama’s Political Career" chicagotribune/access/ (video). CLTV (Chicago 24302659.html?dids=24302659:24302659&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT.Tribune). February 9, 2007. Retrieved on June 15, 2008. "Business http://video.chicagotribune.com/global/ appointments" (paid archive). Chicagovideo/popup/ Sun-Times: p. 40. July 5, 1993. pop_player.asp?clipid1=1226539. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/ Retrieved on April 20, 2008. Archives?p_product=CSTB&p_theme=cstb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=(Busine [47] ^ Scott, Janny (July 30, 2007). "In 5/1993%20to%207/5/ Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic 1993)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=7/ and

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Shrewd". The New York Times. politics/09obama.html. Retrieved on http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/30/us/ April 20, 2008. politics/30obama.html. Retrieved on [51] McClelland, Edward (February 12, April 20, 2008. See also: Pearson, Rick; 2007). "How Obama Learned to Be a Ray Long (May 3, 2007). "Careful Steps, Natural". Salon. http://www.salon.com/ Looking Ahead". Chicago Tribune. news/feature/2007/02/12/ Archived from the original on February obama_natural/. Retrieved on April 20, 16, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/ 2008. See also: Wolffe, Richard; Daren 20080216014957/ Briscoe (July 16, 2007). "Across the http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ Divide". Newsweek (MSNBC). politics/ http://www.newsweek.com/id/33156. chi-0705030101may03,1,7439904.story. Retrieved on April 20, 2008. Helman, Retrieved on April 20, 2008. Scott (October 12, 2007). "Early Defeat [48] Allison, Melissa (December 15, 2000). Launched a Rapid Political Climb". "State takes on predatory lending; Rules Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/ would halt single-premium life insurance news/nation/articles/2007/10/12/ financing". Chicago Tribune: p. 1 early_defeat_launched_a_rapid_political_climb/. (Business). http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ Retrieved on April 20, 2008. and Wills, chicagotribune/access/ Christopher (October 24, 2007). "24, 65214450.html?dids=65214450:65214450&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Obama learned 2007-3157940059_x.htm Retrieved on June 1, 2008. Long, Ray; from failed Congress run". USA Today. Allison, Melissa (April 18, 2001). "Illinois http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/ OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to 2007-10-24-3157940059_x.htm 24, avert home foreclosures.". Chicago 2007-3157940059_x.htm. Retrieved on Tribune: p. 1. September 20, 2008. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ [52] Calmes, Jackie (February 23, 2007). chicagotribune/access/ "Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama". 71459393.html?dids=71459393:71459393&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on June 1, 2008. http://online.wsj.com/public/article/ [49] "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). SB117219748197216894-Sn6oV_4KLQHp_xz7CjYLuy Illinois State Senate Democrats. August Retrieved on April 20, 2008. 24, 2000. Archived from the original on [53] Tavella, Anne Marie (April 14, 2003). April 12, 2000. http://web.archive.org/ "Profiling, taping plans pass Senate". web/20000824102110/ Daily Herald: p. 17. http://www.senatedem.state.il.us/obama/ http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/ index.html. Retrieved on April 20, 2008. Archives?p_product=ADHB&p_theme=adhb&p_actio "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). 4/2003%20to%204/4/ Illinois State Senate Democrats. October 2003)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0= 9, 2004. Archived from the original on 4/2003%20to%204/4/ August 2, 2004. http://web.archive.org/ 2003)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=Y web/20040802233730/ Retrieved on June 1, 2008. Haynes, V. http://www.senatedem.state.il.us/obama/ Dion (June 29, 2003). "Fight racial index.html. Retrieved on April 20, 2008. profiling at local level, lawmaker says; [50] "Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House U.S. guidelines get mixed review". Results - Illinois". Federal Election Chicago Tribune: p. 8. Commission. http://www.fec.gov/pubrec/ http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ fe2000/ilh.htm. Retrieved on April 24, chicagotribune/access/ 2008. . See also: "Obama’s Loss May 352884461.html?dids=352884461:352884461&FMT Have Aided White House Bid". Retrieved on June 1, 2008. Pearson, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/ Rick (July 17, 2003). "Taped confessions story.php?storyId=14502364. and Scott, to be law; State will be 1st to pass Janny (September 9, 2007). "A legislation". Chicago Tribune: p. 1 Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young (Metro). http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ Obama". The New York Times. chicagotribune/access/ http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/09/us/ 370136121.html?dids=370136121:370136121&FMT Retrieved on June 1, 2008.

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[54] Youngman, Sam; Aaron Blake (March 14, rising star in Illinois Senate candidate". 2007). "13, 2007.html Obama’s Crime USA Today: p. A04. Votes Are Fodder for Rivals". The Hill. http://www.usatoday.com/news/ http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/ politicselections/nation/ obamas-crime-votes-are-fodder-for2004-03-18-obama-usat_x.htm. Retrieved rivals-2007-03-13.html 13, 2007.html. on March 1, 2009. Mendell (2007), pp. Retrieved on April 20, 2008. See also: 235–246. "US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites [60] Scheiber, Noam (May 31, 2004). "Race Work on State Death Penalty Reforms". Against History. Barack Obama’s Associated Press. International Herald miraculous campaign". The New Tribune. November 12, 2007. Republic 230 (20): 21–22, 24–26 (cover http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/11/ story). http://www.tnr.com/politics/ 12/america/NA-POL-US-Obama-Deathstory.html?id=f8c75ffb-705b-4697-9e87-7829e139c7 Penalty.php. Retrieved on April 20, Retrieved on 2009-03-24. Finnegan, 2008. William (May 31, 2004). "The Candidate. [55] Coffee, Melanie (November 6, 2004). How far can Barack Obama go?". The "Attorney Chosen to Fill Obama’s State New Yorker 20 (14): 32–38. Senate Seat". Associated Press. HPKCC. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2004/ http://www.hydepark.org/hpkccnews/ 05/31/040531fa_fact1?currentPage=all. raoul.htm#ap. Retrieved on April 20, Retrieved on 2009-03-24. Dionne Jr., E. 2008. J. (June 25, 2004). "In Illinois, a star [56] Helman, Scott (October 12, 2007). "Early prepares". The Washington Post: p. A29. Defeat Launched a Rapid Political http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ Climb". Boston Globe. articles/A4062-2004Jun24.html. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/ Retrieved on 2009-03-24. Mendell articles/2007/10/12/ (2007), pp. 247–259. early_defeat_launched_a_rapid_political_climb/. Bernstein, David (June 2007). "The [61] Retrieved on April 13, 2008. Speech". Chicago Magazine. [57] Davey, Monica (March 7, 2004). "Closely http://www.chicagomag.com/ChicagoWatched Illinois Senate Race Attracts 7 Magazine/June-2007/The-Speech/. Candidates in Millionaire Range". The Retrieved on April 13, 2008. New York Times. [62] Obama, Barack (July 27, 2004). "Keynote http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/07/ Address at the 2004 Democratic National politics/campaign/07ILLI.html. Retrieved Convention" (text or video). on April 13, 2008. BarackObama.com. [58] Wallace-Wells, Ben (April 1, 2007). http://www.barackobama.com/2004/07/ "Obama’s Narrator". The New York 27/keynote_address_at_the_2004_de.php. Times Magazine. Retrieved on April 13, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/01/ [63] . (August 2, 2004). "Star Power. magazine/01axelrod.t.html. Retrieved on Showtime: Some are on the rise; others April 13, 2008. have long been fixtures in the firmament. [59] Mendell, David (March 17, 2004). A galaxy of bright Democratic lights". "Obama routs Democratic foes; Ryan Newsweek: pp. 48–51. tops crowded GOP field; Hynes, Hull fall http://www.newsweek.com/id/54728/ far short across state". Chicago Tribune: output/print. Retrieved on November 15, p. 1. http://www.chicagotribune.com/ 2008. Samuel, Terence (August 2, features/custom/fashion/ 2004). "A shining star named Obama. chi-0403170332mar17,0,4716349.story. How a most unlikely politician became a Retrieved on March 1, 2009. Davey, darling of the Democrats". U.S. News & Monica (March 18, 2004). "As quickly as World Report: p. 25. overnight, a Democratic star is born". http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/ The New York Times: p. A20. articles/040802/2obama.htm. Retrieved http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ on November 15, 2008. Lizza, Ryan fullpage.html?res=9C01E2DD1231F93BA25750C0A9629C8B63&pagewanted=all.Why is (September 2004). "The Natural. Retrieved on March 1, 2009. Howlett, Barack Obama generating more Debbie (March 19, 2004). "Dems see a excitement among Democrats than John

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Kerry?". The Atlantic Monthly: pp. 30, 20040809-0849-illinoissenate.html. 33. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/ Retrieved on April 13, 2008. 200409/lizza. Retrieved on November 15, [66] Liam, Ford; David Mendell (August 13, 2008. Davey, Monica (July 26, 2004). "A 2004). "Keyes Sets Up House in Cal surprise Senate contender reaches his City". Chicago Tribune. biggest stage yet". The New York Times: http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ p. A1. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/07/ local/chicago/ 26/politics/campaign/ chi-0408130201aug13,0,1664738.story. 26obama.html?pagewanted=all&ei=5090&en=a9ec67011c39350b&ex=1248494400&partner=rssuse Retrieved on April 13, 2008. Retrieved on November 15, 2008. [67] "America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Leibovich, Mark (July 27, 2004). "The Illinois". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/ other man of the hour". The Washington ELECTION/2004/pages/results/states/IL/ Post: p. C1. S/01/index.html. Retrieved on April 13, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ 2008. Slevin, Peter (November 13, articles/A16606-2004Jul26.html. 2007). "For Obama, a Handsome Payoff Retrieved on November 15, 2008. in Political Gambles". The Washington Milligan, Susan (July 27, 2004). "In Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ Obama, Democrats see their future". The wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/12/ Boston Globe: p. B8. AR2007111201945.html. Retrieved on http://www.boston.com/news/local/ April 13, 2008. articles/2004/07/27/ [68] Chase, John and Mendell, David in_obama_democrats_see_their_future/. (2004-11-03). "Obama scores a record Retrieved on November 15, 2008. landslide". Chicago Tribune: p. 1. Seelye, Katharine Q. (July 28, 2004). http://www.noticiasdot.com/ "Senate nominee speaks of publicaciones/2004/1104/0311/ encompassing unity". The New York noticias031104/presidenciales-usa/ Times: p. A1. http://www.nytimes.com/ images/usa/chicago_tribune/ 2004/07/28/politics/campaign/ chicago_tribune_031104.pdf. Retrieved 28blacks.html?ex=1248753600&en=d855f4b42b8e8b7c&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland. on 2009-04-03. Fornek, Scott Retrieved on November 15, 2008. (2004-11-03). "Obama takes Senate seat Broder, David S. (July 28, 2004). in a landslide". Chicago Sun-Times. "Democrats focus on healing divisions; http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/ Addressing convention, newcomers set obama/1113153,cst-nwsthemes". The Washington Post: p. A1. obama110304.article. Retrieved on http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ 2009-04-03. articles/A17865-2004Jul27.html. [69] "About Barack Obama". Barack Obama Retrieved on November 15, 2008. Bing, U.S. Senate Office. Jonathan; McClintock, Pamela (July 29, http://obama.senate.gov/about/. 2004). "Auds resist charms of Dem Retrieved on April 27, 2008. stars". Daily Variety: p. 1. [70] "Breaking New Ground: African http://www.variety.com/article/ American Senators". U.S. Senate VR1117908388.html?categoryid=1077&cs=1. Historical Office. http://www.senate.gov/ Retrieved on November 15, 2008. pagelayout/history/ Mendell (2007), pp. 272–285. h_multi_sections_and_teasers/ [64] "Ryan Drops Out of Senate Race in Photo_Exhibit_African_American_Senators.htm. Illinois". CNN. June 25, 2004. Retrieved on June 25, 2008. http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/ [71] "Member Info". Congressional Black 06/25/il.ryan/. Retrieved on April 13, Caucus. http://www.house.gov/kilpatrick/ 2008. Mendell (2007), pp. 260–271. cbc/member_info.html. Retrieved on June [65] Lannan, Maura Kelly (August 9, 2004). 25, 2008. See also: Zeleny, Jeff (June 26, "Alan Keyes Enters U.S. Senate Race in 2005). "When It Comes to Race, Obama Illinois Against Rising Democratic Star". Makes His Point—With Subtlety". Associated Press. Union-Tribune (San Chicago Tribune. Archived from the Diego). http://www.signonsandiego.com/ original on February 16, 2008. news/politics/ http://web.archive.org/web/ 20080216014942/

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http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/02/ 13/stimulus/index.html/. Retrieved on 2009-03-29. [141]Obama launches Afghanistan surge". " The Australian. February 19, 2009. http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/ story/0,25197,25074581-2703,00.html. [142] eller, Ben (2009-02-27). "Obama sets F firm withdrawal timetable for Iraq". The Detroit News. CAMP LEJEUNE, N.C.. http://www.detnews.com/article/ 20090228/POLITICS/902280332/ Obama+sets+firm+Iraq+withdrawal. Retrieved on 2009-03-03. [143] ayer, William (March 28, 2004). M "Kerry’s Record Rings a Bell". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wpdyn/ A28761-2004Mar27?language=printer. Retrieved on June 7, 2008. "The question of how to measure a senator’s or representative’s ideology is one that political scientists regularly need to answer. For more than 30 years, the standard method for gauging ideology has been to use the annual ratings of lawmakers’ votes by various interest groups, notably the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) and the American Conservative Union (ACU)." [144]2005 U.S. Senate Votes". American " Conservative Union. http://www.acuratings.org/ 2005senate.htm. Retrieved on September 20, 2008. ; "2006 U.S. Senate Votes". American Conservative Union. http://www.acuratings.org/ 2006senate.htm. Retrieved on September 20, 2008. ; "2007 U.S. Senate Votes". American Conservative Union. http://www.acuratings.org/ 2007senate.htm. Retrieved on September 20, 2008. [145]ADA’s 2005 Congressional Voting " Record" (PDF). Americans for Democratic Action. http://www.adaction.org/media/ votingrecords/2005.pdf. Retrieved on September 20, 2008. ; "ADA’s 2006 Congressional Voting Record" (PDF). Americans for Democratic Action. http://www.adaction.org/media/ votingrecords/2006.pdf. Retrieved on September 20, 2008. ; "ADA’s 2007 Congressional Voting Record" (PDF).

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Americans for Democratic Action. [154] arack Obama. "The Blueprint for B http://www.adaction.org/media/ Change: Barack Obama’s plan for votingrecords/2007.pdf. Retrieved on America" (PDF). Obama for America. September 20, 2008. http://www.barackobama.com/pdf/ [146] ranklin, Ben A (June 1, 2005). "The F ObamaBlueprintForChange.pdf. Fifth Black Senator in U.S. History Retrieved on April 20, 2008. Makes F.D.R. His Icon". Washington [155] trausberg, Chinta (September 26, S Spectator. 2002). "Opposition to war mounts" (paid http://www.washingtonspectator.com/ archive). Chicago Defender: p. 1. articles/20050601obama_1.cfm. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/ Retrieved on January 14, 2008. 1P3-220062931.html. Retrieved on [147] eleny, Jeff (September 12, 2005). Z February 3, 2008. "Judicious Obama Turns Up Volume". [156] ffice of the Press Secretary (October 2, O Chicago Tribune. 2002). "President, House Leadership http://www.acesse.com/ Agree on Iraq Resolution". The White cache.php?id=412653&q=clinton%20global%20initiative. House. http://georgewbushRetrieved on March 12, 2009. whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/ [148] ickler, Nedra (January 25, 2007). P 2002/10/20021002-7.html. Retrieved on "Obama Calls for Universal Health Care February 17, 2008. Tackett, Michael within Six Years". Associated Press via (October 3, 2002). "Bush, House OK Iraq Union-Tribune (San Diego). deal; Congress marches with Bush" (paid http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/ archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 1. politics/20070125-1240-democratshttp://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ healthcare.html. Retrieved on January chicagotribune/access/ 14, 2008. 203569641.html?dids=203569641:203569641&FMT [149] avis, Teddy; Sunlen Miller (November D Retrieved on February 3, 2008. 20, 2007). "Obama Bucks Party Line on [157] lauber, Bill (October 3, 2003). "War G Education". ABC News. protesters gentler, but passion still http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/ burns" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: Story?id=3894699. Retrieved on January p. 1. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ 14, 2008. chicagotribune/access/ [150]Study:Bush tax cuts favor wealthy". " 203569621.html?dids=203569621:203569621&FMT CBS. August 13, 2004. Retrieved on February 3, 2008. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/ Strausberg, Chinta (October 3, 2002). 08/16/politics/main636398.shtml. "War with Iraq undermines U.N.". Retrieved on April 5, 2008. Chicago Defender: p. 1. [151]Obama Tax Plan: $80 Billion in Cuts, " http://www.highbeam.com/doc/ Five-Minute Filings". CNN. September 1P3-220379051.html. Retrieved on 18, 2007. http://www.cnn.com/2007/ October 28, 2008. "Photo caption: Left POLITICS/09/18/obama.taxplan/. Photo: Sen. Barack Obama along with Retrieved on January 14, 2008. Rev. Jesse Jackson spoke to nearly 3,000 [152]A Speech On the Economy, Opportunity " anti-war protestors (below) during a rally and Tax Policy with Senator Barack at Federal Plaza Wednesday." Bryant, Obama". Tax Policy Center. September Greg (October 2, 2002). "300 protesters 18, 2007. rally to oppose war with Iraq". Medill http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/events/ News Service. http://74.125.95.104/ obama.cfm. Retrieved on January 14, search?q=cache:joI6vZO9y4UJ:mesh.medill.northwe 2008. mnschicago/archives/2002/10/ [153] eleny, Jeff (October 9, 2007). "Obama Z 300_protesters.html. Retrieved on Proposes Capping Greenhouse Gas February 3, 2008. Katz, Marilyn Emissions and Making Polluters Pay". (October 2, 2007). "Five Years Since Our The New York Times. First Action". Chicagoans Against War & http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/09/us/ Injustice. http://www.noiraqwarpolitics/09obama.html. Retrieved on chicago.org/?p=127. Retrieved on January 14, 2008. February 17, 2008. Bryant, Greg; Vaughn, Jane B. (October 3, 2002). "300

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attend rally against Iraq war" (paid 2003/WORLD/meast/03/16/sprj.irq.main/ archive). Daily Herald (Arlington index.html. Retrieved on February 17, Heights): p. 8. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl2008. "’Moment of truth for the world’; search/we/ Bush, three allies set today as final day Archives?p_product=ADHB&p_theme=adhb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_text_search-0=30 for Iraq to disarm or face massive 3/2002%20to%2010/3/ military attack" (paid archive). Chicago 2002)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=10/ March Sun-Times. Associated Press: p. 1. 3/2002%20to%2010/3/ 17, 2003. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl2002)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no. search/we/ Retrieved on October 28, 2008. Mendell Archives?p_product=CSTB&p_theme=cstb&p_action (2007), pp. 172–177. Retrieved on February 3, 2008. [158] bama, Barack (October 2, 2002). O [162] S election: Barack Obama wobbles on U "Remarks of Illinois State Sen. Barack withdrawing Iraq troops, Obama Against Going to War with Iraq". telegraph.co.uk, July 4, 2008 BarackObama.com. [163] or audio and text, see: Obama, Barack F http://www.barackobama.com/2002/10/ (November 20, 2006). "A Way Forward in 02/remarks_of_illinois_state_sen.php. Iraq". Chicago Council on Global Affairs. Retrieved on February 3, 2008. http://www.thechicagocouncil.org/ [159] cCormick, John (October 3, 2007). M hottopics_details.php?hottopics_id=52. "Obama marks ’02 war speech; Retrieved on January 14, 2008. Contender highlights his early opposition [164] bama, Barack (March 2, 2007). "AIPAC O in effort to distinguish him from his Policy Forum Remarks". Barack Obama rivals" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: U.S. Senate Office. p. 7. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ http://obama.senate.gov/speech/ chicagotribune/access/ 070302-aipac_policy_fo/index.php. 1351610621.html?dids=1351610621:1351610621&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. (Archive Retrieved on January 30, 2008. Retrieved on October 28, 2008. "The top copy at the Internet Archive) For strategist for Sen. Barack Obama has Obama’s 2004 Senate campaign remarks just 14 seconds of video of what is one of on possible missile strikes against Iran, the most pivotal moments of the see: Mendell, David (September 25, presidential candidate’s political career. 2004). "Obama Would Consider Missile The video, obtained from a Chicago TV Strikes on Iran" (paid archive). Chicago station, is of Obama’s 2002 speech in Tribune. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/ opposition to the impending Iraq chicagotribune/access/ invasion." Pallasch, Abdon M. (October 699578571.html?dids=699578571:699578571&FMT 3, 2007). "Obama touts anti-war cred; Retrieved on January 14, 2008. Kicks off tour 5 years after speech [165]Barack Obama and Joe Biden’s Plan to " critical of going to Iraq" (paid archive). Secure America and Restore Our Chicago Sun-Times: p. 26. Standing". Obama for America. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/ http://origin.barackobama.com/issues/ Archives?p_product=CSTB&p_theme=cstb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=headlin foreign_policy/. Retrieved on September war%20cred)%20AND%20date(all)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_text_advanced-0=(Obama%20touts% 22, 2008. war%20cred)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no. [166] ordon, Michael R. and Zeleny, Jeff G Retrieved on October 28, 2008. (November 2, 2007). "Obama Pledges [160] itter, Jim (March 17, 2003). "Anti-war R ’Aggressive’ Iran Diplomacy". The New rally here draws thousands" (paid York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/ archive). Chicago Sun-Times: p. 3. 2007/11/02/us/politics/01cndhttp://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/ obama.html?_r=2&ei=5088&en=6e53bced62b78a88 Archives?p_product=CSTB&p_theme=cstb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=headlin Retrieved on June 17, 2008. war%20rally%20here%20draws%20thousands)%20AND%20date(all)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_tex [167]Transcript of fourth Democratic " war%20rally%20here%20draws%20thousands)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_dat debate". The New York Times. July 24, Retrieved on February 3, 2008. 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/ [161] ffice of the Press Secretary (March 16, O 24/us/politics/ 2003). "President Bush: Monday 24transcript.html?_r=2&pagewanted=all. "Moment of Truth" for World on Iraq". Retrieved on June 17, 2008. The White House. http://www.cnn.com/

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[168]Obama Warns Pakistan on Al-Qaeda". " http://www.foreignaffairs.org/ BBC News. August 1, 2007. 20070701faessay86401/barack-obama/ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/ renewing-american-leadership.html. 6926663.stm. Retrieved on January 14, Retrieved on January 14, 2008. 2008. For video and text of the speech, [173]Keeping Hope Alive: Barack Obama " see: "Policy Address on Terrorism by The Puts Family First". The Oprah Winfrey Honorable Barack Obama, United States Show. October 18, 2006. Senator from Illinois". Woodrow Wilson http://www.oprah.com/slideshow/ International Center for Scholars. August oprahshow/oprahshow1_ss_20061018/ 1, 2007. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/ 10. Retrieved on June 24, 2008. index.cfm?fuseaction=events.event&event_id=269510. Scott (September 9, 2007). "Half [174] ornek, F Retrieved on January 30, 2008. For Siblings: ’A Complicated Family’". details of the aborted 2005 military Chicago Sun-Times. operation, see Mazzetti, Mark (July 8, http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/ 2007). "Rumsfeld Called Off 2005 Plan to obama/familytree/545462,BSX-NewsCapture Top Qaeda Figures". wotrees09.stng. Retrieved on June 24, International Herald Tribune. 2008. See also: "Interactive Family http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/07/08/ Tree". Chicago Sun-Times. September 9, news/qaeda.php. Retrieved on January 2007. http://www.suntimes.com/images/ 14, 2008. cds/special/family_tree.html. Retrieved [169] arack Obama. (October 22, 2007) (flv). B on June 24, 2008. Obama-Caucus4Priorities. Obama ’08. [175] ornek, Scott (September 9, 2007). F http://www.youtube.com/ "Madelyn Payne Dunham: ’A watch?v=7o84PE871BE. Retrieved on Trailblazer’". Chicago Sun-Times. May 18, 2008. http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/ [170] bama, Barack; Sam Brownback O obama/familytree/545449,BSX-News(December 27, 2005). "Policy Adrift on wotreeee09.stng. Retrieved on June 24, Darfur". The Washington Post. 2008. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ [176]Obama’s grandmother dies after battle " content/article/2005/12/26/ with cancer". CNN. November 3, 2008. AR2005122600547.html. Retrieved on http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/11/ January 14, 2008. Doyle, Jim (May 1, 03/obama.grandma/index.html. 2006). "Tens of Thousands Rally for Retrieved on November 4, 2008. Darfur". San Francisco Chronicle. [177] bama (1995, 2004), p. 13. For reports O http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/ on Obama’s maternal genealogy, article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/05/01/ including slave owners, Irish MNGFBIIFOA1.DTL. Retrieved on connections, and common ancestors with January 14, 2008. George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and Harry [171] uhnhenn, Jim (Associated Press) (May K Truman, see: Nitkin, David; Harry 17, 2007). "Giuliani, Edwards Have Merritt (March 2, 2007). "A New Twist to Sudan Holdings". San Francisco an Intriguing Family History". Baltimore Chronicle. http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/ Sun. Archived from the original on article.cgi?f=/n/a/2007/05/17/politics/ 2007-09-30. http://web.archive.org/web/ p171906D95.DTL. Retrieved on January 20070930033339/ 14, 2008. ; Obama, Barack (August 30, http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/ 2007). "30, nationworld/politics/bal2007_hit_iran_where_it_hurts.html Hit te.obama02mar02,0,3453027.story. Iran Where It Hurts". New York Daily Retrieved on June 24, 2008. Jordan, News. http://www.nydailynews.com/ Mary (May 13, 2007). "Tiny Irish Village opinions/2007/08/30/ Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its 2007-08-30_hit_iran_where_it_hurts.html Own". The Washington Post. 30, 2007_hit_iran_where_it_hurts.html. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ Retrieved on January 14, 2008. content/article/2007/05/12/ [172] bama, Barack (July–August 2007). O AR2007051201551.html. Retrieved on "Renewing American Leadership". June 24, 2008. "Obama’s Family Tree Has a Few Surprises". Associated Press. Foreign Affairs 86 (4).

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CBS 2 (Chicago). September 8, 2007. [186] bama (2006), p. 329. O http://cbs2chicago.com/topstories/ [187] ornek, Scott (October 3, 2007). F Barack.Obama.family.2.339709.html. "Michelle Obama: ’He Swept Me Off My Retrieved on June 24, 2008. Feet’". Chicago Sun-Times. [178]ohnson, Carla K., Associated Press J http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/ Writer (July 24, 2008). "Obama’s greatobama/585261,CST-NWSuncle recalls liberating Nazi camp". wedding03.stng. Retrieved on April 28, USATODAY.com. 2008. http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/ [188] artin, Jonathan (July 4, 2008). "Born on M 2008-07-24-1654309354_x.htm. the 4th of July". The Politico. Retrieved on 2009-03-12. http://www.politico.com/blogs/ [179]The 89th Infantry Division". United " jonathanmartin/0708/ States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Born_on_the_4th_of_July.html. Retrieved http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/ on July 10, 2008. article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10006140. [189] bama (1995, 2004), p. 440, and Obama O Retrieved on 2009-03-12. (2006), pp. 339–340. See also: "Election [180]When Barry Became Barack". " 2008 Information Center: Barack Newsweek. March 31, 2008. Obama". Gannett News Service. http://www.newsweek.com/id/128633. http://www.gannettnewsservice.com/ Retrieved on November 6, 2008. ?cat=153. Retrieved on April 28, 2008. [181] immer, Benjamin (2009). "Obama’s Z [190]Obamas choose private Sidwell Friends " Indonesian Redux". Language Log. School", ’International Herald Tribune, http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/ November 22, 2008 ?p=1025. Retrieved on 2009-03-12. [191] eleny, Jeff (December 24, 2005). "The Z [182]Obama: Saya Kangen Nasi Goreng, " first time around: Sen. Obama’s Bakso, dan Rambutan". freshman year". Chicago Tribune. http://cetak.kompas.com/read/xml/2008/ http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ 11/26/00223862/ local/ obama.saya.kangen.nasi.goreng.bakso.dan.rambutan. chi-051224obama,0,1779783,full.story. [183] antor, Jodi (June 1, 2007). "One Place K Retrieved on April 28, 2008. Where Obama Goes Elbow to Elbow". [192] levin, Peter (December 17, 2006). S The New York Times. "Obama says he regrets land deal with http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/01/us/ fundraiser". The Washington Post. politics/01hoops.html. Retrieved on April http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ 28, 2008. See also: "The Love of the content/article/2006/12/16/ Game" (video). HBO: Real Sports with AR2006121600729.html. Retrieved on Bryant Gumbel (YouTube June 10, 2008. (BarackObama.com)). April 15, 2008. [193] obinson, Mike (June 4, 2008). "Rezko R http://www.hbo.com/realsports/stories/ found guilty in corruption case". 2008/episode.133.s1.html. Retrieved on Associated Press. MSNBC.com. April 28, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/ [184]Senator Barack Obama Visit to CJTF" 24973282/. Retrieved on June 24, 2008. HOA and Camp Lemonier: August [194]Obama’s Money". CNNMoney.com. " 31–September 1, 2006" (video). December 7, 2007. Combined Joint Task Force—Horn of http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2007/ Africa (YouTube). February 6, 2007. moneymag/0712/ http://www.youtube.com/ gallery.candidates.moneymag/5.html. watch?v=d9GqdzQeCz0. Retrieved on Retrieved on April 28, 2008. April 28, 2008. See also:Goldfarb, Zachary A (March 24, [185] bama (2006), pp. 327–332. See also: O 2007). "Measuring Wealth of the ’08 Brown, Sarah (December 7, 2005). Candidates". The Washington Post. "Obama ’85 masters balancing act". The http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ Daily Princetonian. content/article/2007/03/24/ http://www.dailyprincetonian.com/2005/ AR2007032400305.html. Retrieved on 12/07/14049. Retrieved on February 9, April 28, 2008. 2009.

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[195] eleny, Jeff (April 17, 2008). "Book Sales Z Lifted Obamas’ Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2 Million". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/17/us/ politics/17obama.html. Retrieved on April 28, 2008. [196] bama (2006), pp. 202–208. Portions O excerpted in: Obama, Barack (October 23, 2006). "My Spiritual Journey". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/ article/0,9171,1546579,00.html. Retrieved on April 28, 2008. [197] bama, Barack (June 28, 2006). "’Call to O Renewal’ Keynote Address". Barack Obama: U.S. Senator for Illinois (website). http://obama.senate.gov/ speech/060628-call_to_renewal/. Retrieved on June 16, 2008. [198] antor, Jodi (April 30, 2007). "Barack K Obama’s search for faith". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/ articles/2007/04/30/america/ 30obama.php?page=2. April 30, 2007 [199] bama, Barack (October 23, 2006). "My O Spiritual Journey". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/ article/0,9171,1546579,00.html. [200]Obama’s church choice likely to be " scrutinized". Associated Press. msnbc.com. November 17, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/ 27775757/. Retrieved on 2009-01-20. [201] "Obama says he won’t be smoking in ^ White House". Reuters. December 7, 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/ politicsNews/idUSTRE4B61GF20081207. Retrieved on 2009-20-21. [202] allace-Wells, Benjamin (November W 2004). "The Great Black Hope: What’s Riding on Barack Obama?". Washington Monthly. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/ features/2004/0411.wallace-wells.html. Retrieved on April 7, 2008. See also: Scott, Janny (December 28, 2007). "A Member of a New Generation, Obama Walks a Fine Line". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/ 2007/12/28/america/obama.php. Retrieved on April 7, 2008. [203] ayne, Les (August 19, 2007). "In One P Country, a Dual Audience" (paid archive). Newsday. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/newsday/ access/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Barack Obama

http://obama.senate.gov/press/ 050823-obama_to_visit/. • Curry, Jessica. "Barack Obama: Under the [213] uel giorno di tre anni fa a Washington Q Lights", Chicago Life, Fall 2004. Retrieved Barack mi raccontò la sua speranzaRome on January 14, 2008. Mayor’s Leadership Bid May Lead to • Graff, Garrett. "The Legend of Barack Early Italian Elections; VELTRONI A Obama", Washingtonian, November 1, NEW YORK - Il politico prevale sull’ 2006. Retrieved on January 14, 2008. amministratore; Libreria Rizzoli Galleria • Koltun, Dave (2005) "The 2004 Illinois [214] edder, Sophie (February 20, 2008). P Senate Race: Obama Wins Open Seat and "Sarkozy, Obama and McCain". The Becomes National Political “Star”" in "The Economist. http://www.economist.com/ Road to Congress 2004" Editors: Sunil blogs/certainideasofeurope/2008/02/ Ahuja (Youngstown State University) and sarkozy_obama_and_mccain.cfm. Robert Dewhirst (Northeast Missouri Retrieved on November 20, 2008. State University), Nova Science [215] oodman, Dean (February 10, 2008). G Publishers, Haupauge, New York, Binding: "Obama or Clinton? Grammys go for Hardcover Pub. Date: 2005, ISBN Obama". Reuters. 1-59454-360-7 http://www.reuters.com/article/ • Lizza, Ryan. "Above the Fray", GQ, musicNews/idUSN0852813420080210. September 2007. Retrieved on January 14, Retrieved on November 24, 2008. 2008. [216] trange, Hannah (March 5, 2008). S • MacFarquhar, Larissa. "The Conciliator: "Celebrities join YouTube revolution". Where is Barack Obama Coming From?", The Times (UK). New Yorker, May 7, 2007. Retrieved on http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/ January 14, 2008. tol/arts_and_entertainment/film/ • Mundy, Liza. "A Series of Fortunate article3491460.ece. Retrieved on Events", The Washington Post Magazine, December 18, 2008. August 12, 2007. Retrieved on January 14, [217] appler, Margaret (June 20, 2008). W 2008. "Emmys give knuckle bump to will.i.am; • Wallace-Wells, Ben. "Destiny’s Child", more videos on the way". Los Angeles Rolling Stone, February 7, 2007. Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/ Retrieved on January 14, 2008. soundboard/2008/06/emmys-give• Zutter, Hank De. "What Makes Obama knuc.html. Retrieved on December 18, Run?", Chicago Reader, December 8, 2008. 1995. Retrieved on January 14, 2008. [218] on Drehle, David (December 16, 2008). V "Why History Can’t Wait" (Cover article). Person of the Year 2008 (Time Magazine). http://www.time.com/time/ specials/2008/personoftheyear/article/ Official sites 0,31682,1861543_1865068,00.html?cnn=yes. • President Barack Obama official White Retrieved on December 17, 2008. House website • Full transcript and video of President Obama’s inaugural address (from whitehouse.gov) • Mendell, David (2007). Obama: From • U.S. presidential campaign site Promise to Power. New York: Amistad/HarperCollins. ISBN Site directory 0-06-085820-6. • Obama, Barack (1995, 2004). Dreams • Barack Obama at the Open Directory from My Father: A Story of Race and Project Inheritance. New York: Three Rivers • Works by or about Barack Obama in Press. ISBN 1-4000-8277-3. libraries (WorldCat catalog) • Obama, Barack (2006). The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 0-307-23769-9.

Further reading

External links

References

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Barack Obama
• Biography, voting record, and interest group ratings at Project Vote Smart • Issue positions and quotes at On The Issues • Staff salaries, trips and personal finance at LegiStorm.com • Current Bills Sponsored at StateSurge.com • Congressional profile at GovTrack.us Persondata NAME Obama, Barack, II ALTERNATIVE Obama, Barack Hussein NAMES SHORT 44th President of the UnDESCRIPTION ited States of America DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH August 4, 1961 Honolulu, Hawaii

News media
• Ongoing news coverage from the BBC News, Chicago Sun-Times, Chicago Tribune, The Guardian, Washington Post • "US election results map". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/ us_elections_2008/7697829.stm. • "In pictures: Election result reaction". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ in_pictures/7709830.stm. • "In quotes: US election reaction". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ americas/us_elections_2008/7710020.stm. • FACTBOX: Barack Obama, Democratic President-elect (Reuters, November 5, 2008)

Congressional links
• Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress • Voting record maintained by The Washington Post • Campaign finance reports and data at the Federal Election Commission • Campaign contributions at OpenSecrets.org

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama" Categories: Barack Obama, 1961 births, Living people, African American academics, African American history, African American lawyers, African American memoirists, African American politicians, African American United States presidential candidates, African American United States Senators, American civil rights lawyers, American legal academics, American political writers, Audio book narrators, Columbia University alumni, Community organizers, Current national leaders, Democratic Party (United States) politicians, Democratic Party (United States) presidential nominees, English Americans, Grammy Award winners, Harvard Law School alumni, Illinois Democrats, Illinois lawyers, Illinois State Senators, Kenyan-Americans, Luo people, Memoirists, Occidental College alumni, People from Chicago, Illinois, People from Honolulu, Hawaii, Politicians from Chicago, Illinois, Presidents of the United States, Punahou School alumni, Renewable-energy promoters, Time magazine Persons of the Year, United Church of Christ members, United States presidential candidates, 2008, United States Senators from Illinois, University of Chicago faculty, Writers from Chicago, Illinois This page was last modified on 25 May 2009, at 19:10 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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