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despite frequently being considered as such. For example, semi-automatic-only rifles that share designs with assault rifles such as the AR-15 (which the M-16 rifle is based on) are not assault rifles, as they are not capable of switching to automatic fire and thus not selective fire. Belt-fed weapons (such as the M249 SAW) or rifles with fixed magazines are likewise not assault rifles because they do not have detachable box magazines. The term "assault rifle" is often more loosely used for commercial or political reasons to include other types of arms, particularly arms that fall under a strict definition of the battle rifle, or semi-automatic variant of military rifles such as AR-15s The US Army defines assault rifles as "short, compact, selective-fire weapons that fire a cartridge intermediate in power between submachinegun and rifle cartridges."
The M16 was first adopted in 1964 by the United States Air Force (USAF). It fires the 5.56x45mm NATO round. An assault rifle is a rifle designed for combat, with selective fire (capable of shooting in both fully automatic and semi automatic modes). Assault rifles are the standard infantry weapons in most modern armies, having largely superseded or supplemented larger and more powerful battle rifles such as the M14, FN FAL and the Heckler & Koch G3. Examples of assault rifles include the AK-47, the M16 and the Steyr AUG.
The term assault rifle is a translation of the German word Sturmgewehr (literally meaning "storm rifle"), "storm" used as a verb being synonymous with assault, as in "to storm the compound." The name was coined by Adolf Hitler to describe the Maschinenpistole 44, subsequently re-christened Sturmgewehr 44, the firearm generally considered the first true assault rifle that served to popularize the concept. The translation assault rifle gradually became the common term for similar firearms sharing the same technical definition as the StG 44. In a strict definition, a firearm must have at least the following characteristics to be considered an assault rifle: • It must be an individual weapon with provision to fire from the shoulder (i.e. a buttstock); • It must be capable of selective fire; • It must have an intermediate-power cartridge: more power than a pistol but less than a standard rifle or battle rifle; • Its ammunition must be supplied from a detachable box magazine. Rifles that meet most of these criteria, but not all, are technically not assault rifles
Assault weapons vs. Automatic weapons
Primarily limited to the United States, the term assault weapon is a legal term, separate from the technical definition, used to describe a variety of semi-automatic firearms that have certain features generally associated with military assault rifles. The 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban, which expired on September 13, 2004, defined the rifle type of assault weapon as a semiautomatic firearm with the ability to accept a detachable magazine, and two or more of the following: • Folding or telescoping stock • Conspicuous pistol grip • Bayonet mount • Flash suppressor, or threaded barrel designed to accommodate one • Grenade launcher • Barrel shroud The assault weapons ban did not restrict weapons capable of fully automatic fire, such as assault rifles and machine guns. Fully automatic weapons were unaffected by the ban and have been continuously and heavily regulated since the National Firearms Act of 1934 was passed. Subsequent laws such as
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the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the Firearm Owners Protection Act of 1986 also affected the importation and civilian ownership of fully automatic firearms, the latter fully prohibiting sales of newly-manufactured machine guns to non-law enforcement or SOT (special occupational taxpayer) dealers. Questions over the definition, manufacture, sale and ownership of assault weapons still continue; supporters and opponents of increased gun control constantly debate these topic.
fields; the high power of relatively unwieldy bolt-action rifles of the day (which had been tripled by the adaptation of smokeless powder, along with a corresponding increase in recoil and report) was no longer suited to the close-range engagement of modern warfare. Military leaders and arms manufacturers thus began grasping for a new type of weapon for this new era.
1900s–1930s: Pre-Sturmgewehr Light automatic rifles
These automatic firearms tended to use used pre-existing rifle cartridges, kinetic energy ranged between 3,000–5,000 J (2,200–3,700-foot-pounds), velocities of 750–900 m/s (2,460–2,950 ft/s) and bullets of 9 to 13 g (139–200 grains). The first service precursor of the assault rifle was the Russian Fedorov Avtomat issued for the first time in 1915 and chambered for the Japanese 6.5x50mm Arisaka rifle cartridge; the Fedorov Avtomat, though a service rifle, was only used in small numbers. The Fedorov Avtomat also cannot be considered a true assault rifle in the modern sense as it did not fire an intermediate cartridge. During World War I the French Chauchat was introduced, a light machine gun and a precursor to the modern assault rifle. It was produced in large numbers (250,000). Like the later assault rifle it was capable of both single and automatic fire, and was loaded with a magazine and also featured a pistol grip. Compared to other light machine guns of the time the Chauchat was fairly light at the weight of 9 kg but it was still too cumbersome for closer quarters and had recoil that was too heavy to control when firing fully automatic due to the use of full powered rifle rounds like original French chambering of the 8 mm Lebel (8x50mmR) or variants produced later for US forces in .30-06 Springfield and other international customers in 7.92 mm and 7.65 mm rifle calibers. Despite some serious flaws it was so important to infantry combat that desperate German troops who had no comparable weapon of their own started using captured Chauchats. While it was chambered for the full-size caliber and therefore did not use an intermediate cartridge, it was an intermediate weapon between submachine guns and heavier machine guns such as the Lewis Gun.
The changing face of infantry combat
From ancient times, light infantry had fought in dispersed formations, while heavy infantry had fought in tightly packed formations. This continued as the sling and spear were replaced by musket and bayonet. Bright colored uniforms (German: Blue, Russian: Green; British: Red, French: White) became a standard for unit cohesion in the midst of clouds of black powder smoke. Muskets were inaccurate at distances greater than 50 to 100 meters and were slow to reload, which lead to formation-style war as multiple ranks maximized firepower and guaranteed that at least part of the unit would be ready to fire at all times. Tight formations also aided officers in controlling their men during combat. The adaptation of rifled muskets for military use in the mid-19th century increased range and power of guns and made battle from dense formations an extremely bloody affair, as witnessed by the high level of casualties in the American Civil War. Skirmisher tactics were given greater emphasis as gunpowder weapons increased in reliability, accuracy, and rate of fire. Cavalry adapted by dismounting, and using skirmisher tactics with breechloading rifles (which could be reloaded from a prone position, reducing vulnerability to enemy fire). After the American Civil War, further developments such as the adaptation of magazine-fed rifles, rapid-fire machine guns and high explosive shells for the artillery, spelled the end of the dense infantry formation during World War I. What this meant in practice was that infantry units no longer engaged each other at long range in open
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The Ribeyrolle 1918 may be the first real select fire compact weapon using an intermediate round fitting today’s definition of an assault rifle. The cartridge was based on the .351 Winchester Self-Loading case necked down to accept a 8 mm Lebel bullet. It was first introduced to the Army Technical Service on July, 6, 1918. Its official designation was Carabine Mitrailleuse (English: machine carbine; German: Maschinenkarabiner). It was finally rejected in 1921 because it was not accurate enough at distances beyond 400 meters. The American M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) copied the Chauchat concept in a more reliable design but was not introduced or used in any significant numbers before the end of the First World War. Later developments added heavier barrels and bipods that made it more like today’s light machine gun or squad automatic weapon, though it did help establish the doctrine of use for light selective fire rifles. These versions of the BAR were produced in large numbers, widely adopted, and served well into the 1960s with the U.S. military and other nations. During World War I, submachine guns also entered service, such as the Villar Perosa, the Beretta Model 1918 and the MP18. These weapons shared many elements with assault rifles, but they fired pistol cartridges such as the 9x19 mm Parabellum. The developers of the Thompson submachine gun (also developed during the 1910s) originally intended to use rifle-powered rounds. However, a mechanical system that could handle their power was not available and the .45 ACP cartridge was chosen instead. These firearms are considered part of the submachine gun class, but were an important step in the development of assault rifles.
shorter ranges. Conversely, full-sized military rifle calibers were uncomfortable to fire repeatedly, were large and lead to unwieldy and heavy rifles, and were difficult to control during fully automatic or rapid fire because of significant recoil. The cost of design and manufacture of full-size rifles ammunition was also higher. One attempt to combine an intermediate cartridge with an automatic rifle by the Italian arms company Beretta resulted in the MAB 38 (Moschetto Automatico Beretta 1938). The MAB 38 used a Fiocchi 9M38 cartridge, a higher-powered version of the 9x19mm Parabellum pistol cartridge, which could provide longer effective range up to 200 m. In 1942, the United States introduced the M1 carbine, which was an intermediate power weapon chambered for the .30 Carbine cartridge. While select-fire capability was initially planned for the M1 carbine, this was dropped from the initial version. Later in the war, selective fire variants were made (M2 and M3). The weapon had greater range and accuracy than submachine guns, but was not as powerful as full-size automatic rifles such as the M1918 BAR. The longer barrel provided the carbine with a higher muzzle velocity than pistols and submachine guns chambered for the same .30-caliber round. Originally the carbine was envisioned as an inexpensive lightweight weapon for issue to rear-echelon and support troops (truckers, tankers, cooks, etc.) in place of the more expensive M1911 pistol or M1 Garand rifle. The M1 series was soon found suitable for close quarter battle engagements, a concept that would be re-applied later. The M1 carbine series would remain in service with the U.S. military primary forces until supplemented and finally replaced by the M16 rifle in the 1960s; it continued to be used in limited roles, particularly by the U.S. Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and many Training Commands in the various branches of the U.S. armed forces well into the 1980s. The 1930s was also the beginning of the important German Maschinenkarabiner program of arms development that resulted in the prototype Maschinenkarabiner M35 that was however not adopted for service.
1930s: Automatic intermediate weapons
M1 carbine (U.S.). The later M2 and M3 variants were capable of fully automatic fire. Continuing evolution of the intermediatecaliber automatic rifle was primarily driven by ammunition. Handgun ammunition used by submachine guns was only effective at
1940s–early 1950s: Maschinenkarabiner, Sturmgewehr & AK-47
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nothing more than independent yet similar solutions to the same problem. The 7.92x33mm round used the same cartridge case head as the standard 7.92x57mm Mauser and the bullet was made from the same diameter rod. In 1942, Walther presented the Maschinenkarabiner ("automatic carbine," abbr. MKb), named MKb42(W). In the same year, Haenel presented the MKb42(H), designed by Hugo Schmeisser as a result of this program. Rheinmetall-Borsig (some said Krieghoff) presented its FG42 (Fallschirmjäger Gewehr 42, sponsored by Hermann Göring) though this was in a different role, and using a heavy 7.92x57mm Mauser cartridge, which was not an intermediate round. Wartime tests in Russia indicated the MKb42(H) performed better than the other two. Schmeisser developed it first as the MP43, then MP43/1, and finally as the MP44/ Sturmgewehr 44 (abbreviated StG44, or sometimes Stg 44). It immediately entered large scale production. More than 5,000 units had been produced by February 1944, and 55,000 by the following November. Following the end of the war in 1947, Mikhail Kalashnikov developed the AK-47, inspired by the concept and layout of the German StG44, but is quite different mechanically. It fired the 7.62x39mm cartridge, which had been developed as model 43 for use in their SKS carbines that were developed by Simonov in 1945 and subsequently adopted as the SKS-45 . The round was similar to the StG44’s in that the bullet was an intermediate round of the same caliber than the larger, full-size Russian rifle ammunition. Hugo Schmeisser was sent with his team to the Soviet Union where they worked with Kalashnikov team. Though it further supports claims that Kalashnikov closely followed his German counterpart, Russian historians point out that Hugo Schmeisser arrived to Izhevsk in late 1947, while Kalashnikov had relocated development of his rifle to the same premises only as late as 1948 (the development itself began in 1943). Still, Schmeisser greatly helped Soviet gunsmiths to master the cold stamping technology, which was extensively used in the AK design (this especially relates to the later stamped receiver variant). Prototypes, machinery and blueprints of the MKb42, MP43 and StG44 were sent to the Soviet Union as well. Schmeisser was
Sturmgewehr 44 (Germany). Its development began in earnest with the Maschinenkarabiner project Some of these automatic firearms used preexisting rounds; others used new intermediate cartridges. Kinetic energy ranged between 1,400–2,100 J (1,033–1,550-footpounds), muzzle velocities of 600–800m/s (1,970–2,625 ft/s) and bullets of 7–9g (108–139 grains). Germany, under the Versailles Treaty was limited to a professional army of long service soldiers numbering only 100,000 men and forbade tanks or military aircraft. This encouraged an approach that emphasized high quality, and reduced emphasis on low cost. Infantry tactics became based on teams of General Purpose Machine Guns (GPMG) supporting and supported by a section of infantry. GPMG had high rates of fire to permit small numbers of men to fire at long range to defend a wide front. Enemy soldiers, briefly exposed, would be engaged with a high rate burst of fire to cause casualties before they could take cover. Close range assaults would be conducted by units with submachine guns, for greater mobility, and higher rates of fire. This tactical approach was a refinement of the "Hutier" tactics used by Germany in the last year of WWI. Germany, like other countries, had observed and studied the emerging demand of infantry rifles evolving since World War I, and their factories made a variety of nonstandard cartridges, therefore having less incentive to retain their existing calibers. The 7.92x30 mm (Kurz) cartridge was an example of these experiments; in 1941, it was improved to 7.92x33mm Kurz Infanterie Kurz Patrone ("Infantry Short Cartridge"). In 1942, it was again improved as Maschinenkarabiner Patrone S, and in 1943, Pistolen Patrone 43mE; then, finally, Infanterie Kurz Patrone 43. The similarity in size between the 7.92x33mm German cartridge and the 7.62x33mm developed for the M1 Carbine is a curious coincidence, but was ultimately
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released in 1952 and assigned to residence in Suhl where he died in 1953. Mauser had developed several prototype Sturmgewehr 45 assault rifles, first with the Gerät 06 (Device 6) using a roller-delayed blowback mechanism originally adapted from the roller-locked recoil operation of the MG42 machine gun but with a fixed barrel and gas system. It was realized that with careful attention to the mechanical ratios, the gas system could be omitted. The resultant weapon, the Gerät 06(H) was supposedly slated for adoption by the Wehrmacht as the StG45.
The M16 had its trial by fire with the USAF in Vietnam in the early 60s; by 1967 the M16A1 became the Army’s standard service rifle actually fought. Several things were learned which applied directly to personal weapon design. Perhaps most important, research found that most combat casualties caused by small-arms fire took place at short range. So the long range and accuracy of the standard rifle was, in a real sense, wasted. Second, the research found that aiming was not a major factor in causing casualties. Instead, the number one predictor of casualties was the total number of bullets fired. Third, psychological studies found that many riflemen (as much as 2/3) never fired their weapons at the enemy. By contrast, those soldiers equipped with rapid-fire weapons (submachine guns and the early assault rifles) were far more likely to actually use their weapons in battle. This combination of factors led to the conclusion that a fairly short-range weapon capable of rapid fire would be the most effective general purpose weapon for infantry. While these studies were being digested, the United States insisted on introducing their own 7.62x51mm full-power cartridge as the standard for NATO armies. It could kill at distances of more than 500 meters (though this was increasingly seen as irrelevant). At the time, the British were developing their own 7x43mm (.280 British) intermediate cartridge for their modern EM-2 bullpup assault rifle. Due to political pressure from the Conservative Party, which agreed with the American standardization campaign, the whole project was shelved at the eve of introduction. In Belgium, the famous arms producer FN Herstal started experimenting with the German 7.92x33mm Kurzpatrone. They built a prototype of a rifle using this cartridge, but the impending NATO standardization forced them to rebuild it to use American ammo, giving birth to the FN FAL, Switzerland introduced the SIG 510 that still fired Swiss service full-length rifle rounds but also produced the SIG 510-4 that fired the 7.62x51mm NATO round. Bolivia and Chile adopted the SIG 510-4 as their service rifle,
CEAM Modèle 1950, a French StG45 derivative in .30 US Carbine The German technicians involved in developing the Sturmgewehr 45 continued their research in France at CEAM. The StG45 mechanism was modified by Ludwig Vorgrimler and Theodor Löffler at the Mulhouse facility between 1946 and 1949. Three versions were made, chambered in .30 Carbine, 7.92x33mm Kurz as well as the 7.65x35mm cartridge developed by Cartoucherie de Valence and adopted in 1948. A 7.5x38mm cartridge using a partial aluminium bullet was abandoned in 1947. Engaged in the Indochina war and being the second NATO contributor, France canceled the adoption of these new weapons. Vorgrimler moved to Spain and began production of CETME Modelo A,B and C precursors of Heckler & Koch’s G3 battle rifle and MP5 submachine gun
Late 1950s–1960s: Lighter rifles & smaller bullets
Many of these automatic firearms used intermediate cartridges with much lighter bullets and smaller calibers, but fired at very high velocity; kinetic energy ranged between 1300–1800J (960–1,330-foot-pounds), velocities of 900–1050m/s (2,950–3,450 ft/s), and bullets of 3–4g (46–62 grains). Following the end of World War II, the U.S. Army conducted a number of studies of what happened in the war and how it was
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Bolivian/Chilean exports were licence produced by the Italian firm Beretta. The M14 rifle, chambered for the 7.62x51mm NATO (more commonly known as the .308 Winchester cartridge among civilians), had a very high recoil due to the weapon’s powerful cartridge, and this made it almost impossible to control the M14 in full automatic fire. The weapon recoiled both up and back, putting the shooter off target very quickly. This could be corrected by making the stock straight so that it only recoiled back, minimizing the need to re-aim after each shot or burst of fully automatic fire. To compensate for the straight-stock design, the sights were raised above the line of the rifle’s recoil. A new cartridge was matched to this redesigned weapon: the 5.56x45mm NATO. The small cartridge made for doubts among the armed forces and they questioned the rifle’s stopping power. However, after some study, it was found that the 5.56 mm bullet, after entering the body, started to tumble end over end, creating massive damage. They christened their new rifle the M16. But soon after the rifle was made the standard weapon of the US armed forces, it was found that the M16 had a very high tendency to jam, making it unsuitable for jungle warfare. The M16’s jamming problems were attributed to improper care and cleaning, which was soon fixed by supplying adequate cleaning equipment and training. The Americans saw no reason to make a rifle that shot beyond a rifleman’s ability to aim, and therefore considered a lighter, lesspowerful cartridge to be more effective. This permitted a lighter rifle and allowed a greater amount of the lighter ammunition to be transported in the same amount of space. Moreover, the smaller cartridges lessened recoil, which allowed riflemen to sustain a higher accurate rate of fire and facilitate marksmanship training. In addition, the smaller size and handiness of an assault rifle would benefit tank crews, support troops, and units with missions other than front line combat. The 5.56x45mm with 55-grain (3.6 g) bullet, aka M193 cartridge) was developed in the late 1950s, and was adopted for use in the M16 assault rifle. The M16A1 version soon followed to rectify issues found during use in the Vietnam War. The M16A2 was a further refinement and upgrade introduced in 1986 meant to use the Belgian-updated
5.56x45mm NATO cartridge with a heavier 62-grain (4.0 g) bullet known as the SS109 or M855. The smaller-caliber military cartridges such as the 5.56x45mm and 5.45x39mm were sometimes considered less lethal than the previous generation of assault rifle rounds, such as the 7.62x39mm, which were largecaliber bullets with reduced propellant or cases. However, the lighter, small-caliber bullets achieved higher velocities, more favorable ballistic properties, and reduced carrying weight. One aspect of the smaller caliber ammunition that is sometimes hotly debated is its fragmentation behavior. Stopping capability is the effectiveness of the round in completely stopping the target when it hits—either killing or fully incapacitating. Within a certain range of ballistic conditions, the lighter 5.56 mm and 5.45 mm will, upon striking tissue, first tumble and then fragment. Beyond 100 yards (91 m), or when fired from shorter barrels, such bullets can often fail to fragment upon impact because of insufficient velocity. Thus, the result in a target is a rather small .22 caliber bullet hole, instead of a much larger wound channel. Effectiveness depends on what tissues of the enemy body the round destroys. Larger destroyed areas increases the probability that sufficient damage will be done to end enemy resistance. Ultimately, any pointed (spitzer) round will tumble in soft tissue. If the jacket has a cannelure, such as the U.S. 5.56x45mm M193 round, and the bullet is in the proper ballistic state and high enough velocity, the bullet will fragment, inflicting significant blood loss and internal damage, as well as a wound channel profile that is more complex to address medically. If the bullet acts as a solid, and doesn’t fragment, full effectiveness occurs only if striking the brain or spinal cord, causing immediate loss of control. There is a distinct, though lesser effectiveness if the heart, large blood vessels, or liver (which last tends to tear) is hit causing fairly quick loss of blood pressure, and consequent unconsciousness. Part of the dispute over small-caliber rounds arises here. Blood loss leads to indirect incapacitation, but often takes longer than direct destruction of tissue. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara presented wounding ability as a reason for adoption of the M16 over the M14 as a question of
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battlefield efficiency - that it is better to wound an adversary than kill him, as wounded must be tended to by their comrades, taking them out of the fight and demoralizing them in the process. Many claim that this theory was wed to the findings of Project SALVO, but nowhere in the SALVO findings was reduced lethality of rifle rounds ever stressed or presented as an argument for adoption of a lighter/smaller caliber round. SALVO concluded that the main factor in inflicting casualties in infantry combat was solely rounds fired - aiming had negligible impact. The general effectiveness of the 5.56 x 45 mm cartridge was questioned; experience had shown that it did not always fragment, and that the bullet was light enough to easily deflect or divert radically from its path after passing through even a soft or very thin object. The theory that enemy soldiers would stop to aid a wounded comrade was questionable. The heavier 7.62 mm bullets in use were claimed to hit harder with more mass, would not deflect or destabilize as readily, and more reliably killed what it hit. (Some of the substantiated issues were later addressed in 1982 with the changes made in the M16A2, which used a heavier 62-grain (4.0 g) bullet with different ballistic characteristics than its M16A1 predecessor.)
QBZ-95 (China), using 5.8x42mm rounds. Adopted in 1995.
The G36 (Germany), was adopted by the German Army in 1997.
1970s–1990s: Development of features and form factors
The L85A1 bullpup rifle was adopted by the British Army in 1985. FAMAS bullpup rifle (France). Adopted in 1978.
The INSAS rifle was adopted by the Indian Armed Forces in 1997.
The FX-05 Xiuhcoatl (Mexico) adopted by the Mexican Army in 2006.
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several popular rifle designs. Although largely based on the ever-popular AK-47, the INSAS has a number of differences making it a unique weapon. It has features borrowed from the FN FNC, the AK-74, the IMI Galil and the G3. The INSAS system was originally planned to have three component weapons: a standard rifle, a carbine, and a squad automatic rifle (LMG), all chambered for 5.56x45mm NATO ammunition. In 1997 the rifle and LMG were ready for mass production, and in 1998 the first units were observed armed with INSAS rifles for the Republic Day Parade . The mass introduction of the INSAS rifle was initially delayed by the lack of the domestically made 5.56 mm ammunition and India accordingly bought significant stocks of ammunition from the Israeli company, IMI. At least 300,000 INSAS rifles are in service with the Indian army; some of these have seen action in Indo-Pakistani conflicts. The Heckler & Koch G36, adopted in the late 1990s by Spain and Germany, had integral telescopic and red dot sights and a composite exterior. The G36C, a compact variant, featured a different barrel assembly, a shorter foregrip, and a Picatinny rail in place of the standard sight assembly to accommodate a detachable sight. Through the 1990s, modular accessories for use on rifles, of a variety of types, started to become widespread with the rapidly increasing practice of mounting Picatinny pattern rails on firearms. This was primarily driven by the growing visibility and number of tactical police, counter-terrorist units, SWAT teams, special forces, and other groups that desired the capability to specifically tailor their weapons. Tactical lights, visible lasers, weapon suppressors infrared lights, drum magazines, ergonomic accessories (such as vertical foregrips), folding or collapsible stocks, and a plethora of other options appeared. As these options became available to civilians, customization of weapons other than assault rifles, such as the SKS rifle became common. Intertwined with the growth of the modular accessories was the concept of rifles being modular themselves. While some assault rifles can be modified through the use of attachments (such as the M4 carbine with SOPMOD), other assault rifles like the H&K G36, can have their entire function modified. The G36 can be converted from a standard
M4 carbine (U.S.). Many of these automatic firearms used the same rounds as in older eras, but developed new layout designs, materials, and features, like standard telescopic and reflex sights. In the 1980s and 1990s, high velocity, smaller-caliber ammunition was becoming the standard of assault rifle ammunition. Following the trend set by the United States (which went from 7.62x51mm to 5.56x45mm), the Soviet Union developed its own smaller-caliber cartridge: the 5.45x39mm. In 1974, the 5.45x39 AK-74 became the successor to the AK-47/AKM series. Though AK-74s began utilizing synthetic materials as opposed to wood, the weapon largely maintained the design of the AK-47. China in the 1980s introduced the 5.8x42mm DBP87 round, to compete with the assault rifle rounds of NATO and Russia. One notable development in ammunition in the 1970–1980s was the German Heckler & Koch G11 rifle, which used 4.73 mm caseless ammunition. Because of German reunification and heat-dissipation issues with the caseless ammunition, the rifle never entered full production. New developments were rifle designs that utilized modularity, new form factors, sights, electronics, and new materials. A number of bullpup rifles entered service in the late 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Although bullpup design had existed since the 1930s, the United Kingdom’s EM-2 was one of the few bullpup assault rifles prior to this time. Examples of the trend include the FAMAS, Steyr AUG, and SA80. All three are bullpup rifles that make heavy use of composites and plastics, the FAMAS and AUG both have ambidextrous controls, and the AUG, and SA80 both added a low-power telescopic sight to the standard service version. The QBZ-95, SAR-21, and the Tavor TAR-21 follow a similar trend as well, with a bullpup configuration and heavy use of composites. In the 1980s India began to develop the INSAS rifle, incorporating features from
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rifle to a compact carbine for closer engagements or a squad automatic weapon for support, simply by swapping parts. Interchangeable or quick-detachable barrel assemblies of different lengths are emerging for some weapons, with retrofit kits to provide similar capabilities on older types. The AR-15 in particular has an entire industry that has grown to make variations of every component of the rifle. A variety of upper receivers of many types of operation (bolt, direct gas impingement, gas piston, blowback) are manufactured that allow the weapon to fire different ammunition than the standard assault rifle round (from small target rounds such as .22 LR to pistol rounds such as .380 ACP) without permanently changing the rifle. Because of developments in modularity, AKvariant rifles can fire 5.56x45mm NATO rounds (used by the M16), and M16-based rifles can fire AK rounds.
The XM8’s modular variants. different roles by changing the parts. Weapons manufacturer Heckler and Koch has also created a redesigned M4 assault rifle. The new weapons, the HK416 (firing 5.56x45 NATO) and the HK417 (firing 7.62x51 NATO), have updated features, but are not completely different weapons platforms. They feature a piston (not gas-operated) action, Picatinny rails, a drop free magazine release, a bolt that is sealed from the action (reducing dirt, heat and chance of failure) and other additions. Another trend of the 21st century is the combination of sophisticated electronics with modern rifle designs. The US spent millions on the Objective Individual Combat Weapon program, to create a more advanced combat rifle. The XM29 OICW rifle design was finalized in in the early 2000s- it featured an integrated laser rangefinder, thermal vision and night vision capabilities, and an integral smart grenade launcher. The project was cancelled in 2004, but the US’s experimental XM29 rifle lead to other countries developing similar systems. France’s PAPOP program is currently underway to create a computerized infantry weapon system. South Korea’s prototype XK11 Korean New Rifle has a ballistics computer, a laser rangefinder, and a digital scope that provides the operator with combat data and is capable of night operation through thermal imaging.
21st Century Developments
The Belgian FN F2000, a bullpup, modular assault rifle with integrated electronics such as a laser rangerfinder and an LCD display 21st century assault rifles tend to be refinements of innovations made in previous decades. For example Israel’s IMI Tavor TAR-21 is a 21st-century assault rifle that continues earlier trends of design: it has a compact bullpup layout, uses the 5.56x45mm NATO cartridge, can be set up for left- or righthanded shooters, exists in several modular variants, is made of lightweight composite materials, and comes standard with a reflex sight. The United States funded development of a replacement for the M16 rifle, eventually leading to the XM8 rifle, an experimental 21st-century design. Based on the Heckler & Koch G36 it had similar features, but added electronics such as a laser sight, round counter, and integral infrared and visible lights. The XM8 was a modular design: the rifle could fulfill
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Small arms technology including the assault rifle can be described as a mature technology. However, changes in battlefield realities can be expected to lead to technological changes. As weapons evolve, the delicate balance for assault rifle systems between power, weight, recoil and terminal effects will likely shift once again in an attempt to defeat body armor, to match the range of full-power cartridges, and to penetrate through windshields and thin-skinned vehicles while still producing good terminal effects. Possible future directions are armor piercing or saboted subcaliber tungsten darts, more powerful cartridges, application of new composite materials such as carbon fiber or carbon nanotubes, and use of exotic metals such as titanium and scandium. As personal body armor technology improves, for example from the development of Magnetorheological fluid-based smart materials, assault rifle designs will be forced to adapt in order to remain effective. Changes in assault rifle technology may come from maturation of other fields - as camera technology becomes more advanced, cameras may be integrated into rifles. Much research and development has already been put into integration of rifles with advanced electronics.
• • • • • Battle rifle Firearm action List of assault rifles List of firearms List of service rifles of national armies
 "Machine Carbine Promoted," Tactical and Technical Trends, No. 57, April 1945.  C. Taylor The fighting rifle – A complete study of the rifle in combat, ISBN 0-87947-308-8  F.A. Moyer Special Forces foreign weapons handbook, ISBN 0-87364-009-8  R.J. Scroggie, F.A. Moyer Special Forces combat firing techniques, ISBN 0-87364-010-1  US Army intelligence document FSTCCW-07-03-70, November 1970  Toward Combined Arms Warfare: a Survey  Historic Firearm of the Month, February 2000  "Тайна автомата Калашникова раскрыта?" ("The mystery behind Kalashnikov rifle unraveled?") Russian Life magazine, 2009-01-12; Link: http://life.ru/news/53051/  Ezell, Edward Clinton (1983). Small Arms of the World (in English). New York: Stackpole Books  Marshall, S.L.A. (1966). Men against Fire:The Problem of Combat Command in Future War. New York: Morrow. pp. 50-60.  Edward Clinton Ezell "The Great Rifle Controversy: Search for the Ultimate Infantry Weapon from World War II Through Vietnam and Beyond," ISBN 978-0811707091
The FN SCAR. The future of the assault rifle may not be entirely in the design of the firearm itself, but rather in the ammunition it fires. Reducing weight and cost being one of the original reasons for the development of the intermediate powered round and subsequently the assault rifle, that goal has been taken to a whole new level with the development of caseless ammunition which does away with the weight and cost of shell casings. Limitations of current technology prevent this idea from being successful but the concept is still being researched.
• Crawford, S. (2003). Twenty-First Century Small Arms. MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7603-1503-5 • Cutshaw, C. (2006). Tactical Small Arms of the 21st Century. Gun Digest Books. ISBN 0-87349-914-X • Halls, Chris. (1974) Guns in Australia, Paul Hamlyn, Sydney. ISBN 0-600-07291-6
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• Lewis, J. (2004). Assault Weapons: An InDepth Look at the Hottest Weapons Around. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87349-658-2 • Popenker, M. et al. (2004). Assault Rifle. Wiltshire: The Crowood Press Ltd. ISBN 1-86126-700-2 • Senich , P. (1987). German Assault Rifle: 1935-1945. Paladin Press. ISBN 0-87364-400-X
• Assault Rifles and their Ammunition: History and Prospects • Infantry Magazine on Assault Rifle Cartridges • Sharper Shooting: Upgrading Ammunition Lethality • Assault Rifle Database Video and Review