chap4 by ashrafp

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									Laney Pastoria

September 23, 2008

MIS 204

                                                Chapter 4

   1. Control Unit: fetches program instructions and data from memory and decodes the instructions
      into commands the computer can execute.
      Arithmetic Log Unit: performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations

   2. Machine Cycle:
         i. Fetching: control unit finds the data
        ii. Decoding: control unit decodes the data
       iii. Executing: follows the command prompts
       iv.  Storing: stores the data found

   3. A register is a special, high-speed storage area within the central processing unit. The register
      must have all of the data represented before it can be processed.

   4. RAM Memory:
         i. Dynamic RAM: physical memory used in personal computers. The memory is
            constantly refreshed.
        ii. Static RAM: (static random access memory) faster and more reliable than the dynamic
            ram. It does not need to be refreshed like dynamic ram.
       iii. Magnetoresistive RAM: a non-volatile RAM memory technology which uses magnetic
            charges to store data instead of electric charges like dynamic and static ram do.

   5. ROM memory’s purpose is to store permanent data and instructions that usually cannot be
      modified.

   6. Cache:
         i.  L1: ( aka primary cache) a memory cache built into the microprocessor
        ii.  L2: external memory cache which sits between the dram and cpu. It uses static ram
             because it is much larger.
       iii.  L3: extra cache built into the motherboards between the microprocessor and the main
             memory.

   7. Serial vs. Parallel ports. The serial port only transmit one bit of data at a time while the parallel
      port concurrently transmits several bits.

   8. Types of Ports:
      i.    USB: (universal serial bus) an external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of
            12 mbps. Can be used to connect to up to 127 peripheral devices like mice, modems,
            keyboards, and many more.
      ii.   MIDI: (musical instrument digital interface) a standard adopted by the electronic music
            industry for controlling devices, like synthesizers and sound cards, that emit music.
     iii.   Firewire: a very fast external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of 400
            mbps and 800 mbps.

9. Bus: a collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to
   another.

10. Ports:
       i.  SCSI: (small computer system interface) a parallel interface standard used my Apple
           Macintosh Computers, PCs, and many UNIX systems for attaching peripheral devices to
           computers.
      ii.  IrDA: (infrared data association) a group of device managers that developed a standard
           of transmitting data via infrared waves.
     iii.  Bluetooth: a short-range radio technology aimed at simplifying communications among
           internet devices and between devices and the internet. Also, aims to simplify data
           synchronization between internet devices and other computers.

								
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