Value Orientations of one’s self and the others

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					Value Orientations of one’s self and the others
R. A. Jasseem Al- Basrah University e-mail (Riffat19602003@yahoo.com) I. Al-Kinani Al- Mustansiriyah University 2007b

Introduction
The importance of this research implies two fundamental considerations. The first is concerned with an attempt to recognize Iraqi man awareness, precisely speaking, to enable ourselves recognizing how the Iraqi sees himself and the rest of individuals in his society and the other individuals in other societies and cultures. The second consideration focuses on two important subjects; they are cross-cultural psychology and the value orientations theory. The two subjects are of vital importance especially we live in the first decade of 21st century as the events that occur in the east leave its marks on people who live in the west in its full sense and vice versa. How to deal with mental constructs such as “we” and “you” with all positive characteristics – a mostly – involved in “we” in contrast with all negative characteristics – a mostly – involved in “you”? How to deal with concepts like Globalism, Culture Conflict etc.

Scope of the research
The scope of current research is to study the value orientations, submitted by Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, in addition to two new value orientations, submitted by the current researchers. And for the academic year (2005-2006).

Aim of research
The present research has a main aim: to recognize the value orientation of a sample of university students, and the value orientations of Iraqi society; and the western society as well from the view point of those students.

Tool of research
The revised schedule of value orientations has been conducted in this research. This tool consists of two parts; the first one is the original schedule of value orientations, laid down by Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck. This schedule involves (23) day life situations or stories based on (4) value orientations, distributed as follows: (man’s relationship with nature and super nature 5 stories), (man’s relationship with others 7 stories), (time orientation 5 stories), (activity orientation 6 stories). The second part is the new two value orientations which have been added to the current research (Jasseem & Al-Kinani, 2007a). These two value orientations are (freedom orientation 5 stories) and (after death orientation 6).

The Sample
The research has been conducted to a sample of (349) university students' volunteers from (Al-Mustansiriyah, Al-Basrah, and Babel universities) during the academic year 20052006, of both sexes. 35 of them have neglected due to deficiencies in their answers on the schedule, so the remaining are (314) students represent the research sample. Their ages are between 21-24 years old.

The procedures
The revised schedule of value orientations has been conducted each time on a group of students (males &females) ranging in number from (20-50). The researcher presents a brief summary in advance concerning value orientations theory to the students for about (15) minutes to enable them to form a general idea about the schedule they are going to answer .

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Validity
The revised schedule of value orientations and a summary of value orientations theory have been presented to a group of experts to identify the face validity. All the experts have accepted the revised schedule of value orientations as constructively valid tool.

Reliability
In order to get reliability; the revised schedule of value orientations has been applied on voluntary sample of university students (total 29 students of both sexes; 13 males and 16 females). The revised schedule has been applied again on the same sample. Chi-square has been conducted to figure out the significance of variations between the first application and the second. There was no statistical significance in variations between the first and second application.

A summary of Value Orientations Theory
Some references view that the foundations of this theory dates back to the thirties of previous century when Florence Rockwood Kluckhohn developed “General Life Situation” concept during her field study to obtain the Ph.D. in 1936 on a village speaking Spanish in New Mexico. At that time she assumed that group orientations towards universally common life situations are an external behavioral expression for inner beliefs about nature and what is true and good and credible. Other sources think that value orientations theory goes back to the ideas, laid down by Florence husband the anthropologist Clyde Kluckhohn (1949-1952). This anthropologist refers that human beings have a lot biological traits in common, and these traits form the background to develop culture. Any how, Florence has participated her husband Clyde in the project of Harvard University for studying values with a large group of social scientists totaled (30) scientists. The project studied five different cultural communities dwelling in a region whose radius is estimated (40) kilometers called Rim rock. Florence co- operated with another scientist in Harvard team, called Freed Strodtbeck. The two scientists studied a sample of individuals allotting in communities found in a village of the Americans of Spanish origins, Al-Navaho tribe, Al-Zuni tribe, Moron village, and the old Texas society. These scientists conducted the process of publishing the research project in (1961) in a notable book called "Variation in value orientation". Dr. Kluckhohn define value orientations as“...complex but definitely patterned (rank-ordered) principles, resulting from the transactional interplay of three analytically distinguishable elements of the evaluative process… the cognitive, the affective, and the directive elements… which give order and direction to the ever-flowing stream of human acts and thoughts as these relate to the solutions of common human problems.” On this basis the two scientists have suggested that all human communities should find solutions to a limited number of world issues and problems which are universally known but every culture has its own different favorites for a type of solution that she choose. I.e. this theory is based on three assumptions: First assumption: there have been a specific number of common human problems or existential questions that man tries to find a solution or an answer to them everywhere and every time. These problems or existential questions are: 1. What are the innate qualities of human nature? 2. What is the relation of man to nature and supernatural? 3. What is the important time distance in man's life? 4. What are the limits of human activity? 5. What are the limits or the conditions of man's relationship with the others? Second assumption: since there have been variations in solving these problems, these solutions are limited in number and not random but they change within a limited extent of the possible solutions.

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Third assumption: all the alternative solution are available and appear in all societies in everywhere and every time but the differences between society and another depend on the preferences of one solution to another. There for, there has always been what can be called prevalent value orientations and the less dominating of value orientations. This preference is the one that distinguishes a culture from another culture.

The range of variations within the original orientations
Person-Nature Orientation Mastery Over: The individual or group can and should exercise total control over the forces of, and in, nature and super-natural. Harmony With: The individual or group can and should exercise partial but not total control by living in a balance with the natural forces around them. Subject To: The individual or group cannot and should not exercise control over these forces but, rather, is subject to the higher power of these forces. Time Orientation Past: The temporal focus is on the past (the time before now), and in persevering and maintaining traditional teachings and beliefs. Present: The temporal focus is on the present (what is now), and in accommodating changes in beliefs and traditions. Future: The temporal focus is on the future (the time to come), planning ahead, and seeking new ways to replace the old. Activity Orientation Doing: The locus of meaning for self-expression is external to the individual, with an emphasis on activity that is valued by both the self and sanctioned by others in the group. Being: The locus of meaning for self-expression is internal to the individual, with an emphasis on activity valued by the self but not necessarily others in the group. Human Relations Orientation Collaterality: Emphasis is placed on consensus within the laterally extended group. Lineality: Emphasis is placed on hierarchical principles and deferring to higher authority or authorities within the group. Individualism: Emphasis is placed on the individual or individual families within the group who make decisions independently from the others.

The range of variations within the two additional orientations
Freedom Orientation Fatalistic Orientation: Refers to individual’s belief that he is submitted to a greater power, which determines his life. On this basis the individual’s major belief whatever responses he presents, the results will remain as they are (negative or positive). Free will Orientation: This orientation refers to man’s attempt to have a full control on nature, powers, on weather, climate conditions, diseases and death so as to build up a paradise on earth. Mixture Orientation: Man owns the liberty of options to do the evil and good acts. On the other hand, the mixture orientation believes that man’s freedom has limits that cannot be violated in any way. After death orientation Sensational Orientation: All topics that cannot be perceived by senses cannot be an object for thinking or reasoning. Accordingly, speech about another life after death in view of this is regarded irrational speech.

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Religious orientation: We can believe in things that we cannot necessarily feel with our senses as (Allah, Gods, angles, or souls …etc). On this basis, the religious orientation views that the life we live now is a true and life after death is a true too (Jasseem & Al-Kinani, 2007a).

Results and discussions Results
Results will be reviewed through two methods. First reviewing the general value orientations for (actual self, ideal self, Iraqis, and westerns) on each measurement, of the six value orientations measurement. Second, the review of the results for (actual self, ideal self, Iraqis, and westerns) through situations which form the measurement of each of the six value orientations. Activity orientation The general analysis for self and the others towards activity The result has showed that the value orientation in general for all targeting selves (actual self, ideal self, Iraqis, and westerns) – as viewed by the individual’s sample of this research – is towards the (doing orientation). They have confirmed their beliefs (4018) frequencies, against (3518) frequencies for the (being orientation). By using Chi-square, it becomes obvious that the difference between the two orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (33.1), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8).
Table7 General value orientation for all selves (self and others) towards activity calculated by frequencies Being orientation Doing orientation 3518 4018

As for the results of each self separately, the research results show that value orientation for (actual self) is toward (doing) orientation. This orientation obtains (1019) against (865) for (being) orientation. The variation between the two values is statistically significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (12.5) whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the degree of freedom (1) and level of significance (0.001) (see table 8). As for the (ideal self), the (doing) orientation obtain (1062) frequencies against (822) goes to (being) orientation. The variation between the two orientations is statically significant at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (30.5), whereas the scheduled Chisquare totaled (10.8) (see table 8). As for the (others) – as viewed by the individuals' sample – they think that (Iraqis) are more inclined towards (being) orientation. The respondents enhanced their belief (944) frequencies against (940) frequencies to (doing) orientation. The calculated Chi-square totaled (0.008) only. Therefore, this value has no statistical significance at the level (0.05) and (1) degree of freedom, and the value of scheduled Chisquare is (3.8) (see table 8). Concerning the second level of (the others) i.e. the (westerns), the respondents think that westerns are more inclined towards (doing) orientation, the respondents confirmed their belief (997) frequencies against (887) frequencies for (being) orientation. The variation between the two orientations is statically significant at the level (0.02) and (1) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (6.42), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (5.41) (see table 8).

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Table 8 General value orientations for self and the others towards activity orientation calculated by frequencies self others Actual self Ideal self Iraqis Westerns 1019 1062 940 997 Doing orientation 865 822 944 887 Being orientation 1884 1884 1884 1884 Total

The analysis of self and the others towards activity through situations 1. The value orientation of (self) towards activity through situations As mentioned before, the respondents have chosen (doing) orientation as a general attitude towards human activity. As for the (actual self), if we examine carefully the responses, we will notice that the (doing) orientation does not impose its existence except two situations only of the six situations specified to measure activity orientation, they are the situations (16th, and 23rd) (see table 9). The most powerful availability towards (doing) orientation has been realized in situation (23) as it has obtained (281) frequencies against (33) frequencies for (being) orientation. The differences as shown have statistical significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (195.8), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom, (see table 9). Contrastively the weak presence of (doing) orientation is in the (1st and 22nd) situations which have obtained (100) frequencies in those two situations (see table 9). Regarding the (ideal self), the (doing) orientation imposes itself on three situations (see table 9). In harmony with actual self, the strongest tendency towards (doing) orientation is available in situation (23rd) as it has obtained (255) frequencies against (59) frequencies for (being) orientation. The differences are statistical significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (122.3), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom, (see table 9). On the contrary, the weak presence of (doing) orientation is in the (1st) situation which has obtained (97) frequencies, whereas (being) orientation has obtained (217) frequencies. The difference is statistically significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (45.8), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom, (see table 9). 2. The value orientation of the (others) towards activity through situations As we said before the (others) value orientations are viewed by the respondents themselves. On this basis, the respondents attribute a greater concern of the (Iraqis) towards (being) orientation (see table 8). Nevertheless, this orientation does not impose any mastery except in two situations. They are the (1st, and 2nd) (see table 9). Its strong influence is on the (1st) situation which obtains (248) frequencies whereas (doing) orientation has obtained (66) frequencies. The difference has a statistical significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (105.4), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom, (see table 9). The weak presence of (being) orientation is in the (23rd) situation which has obtained (100) frequencies, whereas (doing) orientation has obtained (214) frequencies. The difference is statistically significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (41.3), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom, (see table 9). The second element of the others is the (westerns), the respondents has ascribed great tendencies of the westerns towards (doing) orientation. This time, this orientation has a control over (5) situations out of (6) specified to measure the activity orientation (see table 9). Its strongest presence is available in the (2nd) situation as it obtains (205) frequencies against (109) frequencies towards (being) orientation, the difference has 5

statistically significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (29.3), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom. The weak presence of this orientation is in the (22nd) situation which has obtained (119) frequencies, whereas (being) orientation has obtained (195) frequencies. The difference is statistically significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (18.3), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom.
Table 9 Value orientations of (self and the others) towards activity through situations calculated by frequencies 1st situation 2nd situation 16th situation 19th situation 22nd situation 23rd situation being 214 217 248 125 doing 100 97 66 189 being 171 164 225 109 doing 143 150 89 205 being 63 85 128 156 doing 251 229 186 158 being 170 177 133 152 doing 144 137 181 162 being 214 120 110 195 doing 1oo 194 204 119 being 33 59 100 150 doing 281 255 214 164

Actual self Ideal self The Iraqis The westerns Total

1256

1256

1256

1256

1256

1256

Human relational orientation The general analysis for self and the others towards human relations The result shows that the value orientation in general for all targeting selves (actual self, ideal self, Iraqis, and westerns) is towards the (Lineality orientation). The respondents have confirmed their beliefs (3385) frequencies, against (3118) frequencies for the (Individualism) and (2289) frequencies for the (Collaterality) orientation (see table 10). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degrees of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (222.9), whereas the scheduled Chisquare totaled (13.8).
Table 10 General value orientation for all selves (self and others) towards human relational calculated by frequencies Collaterality orientation Individualism orientation Lineality orientation 2289 3118 3385

Concerning the orientation for (actual self) the (Lineality) orientation reached (993) frequencies against (663) frequencies for (individualism) orientation and (542) frequencies for (Collaterality) (see table11). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (148.74), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). (Lineality) orientation dominated the (ideal self) as it has obtained (1061) frequencies against (618) frequencies for (individualism) orientation and (519) for (Collaterality) (see table11). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (227.41), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The respondents believe that the rest of society (the Iraqis) with their relationship adopt the type itself (Lineality) orientation. The respondents have identified (821) frequencies against (654) frequencies for (individualism) orientation and (723) frequencies for (Collaterality) (see table11). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (19.2), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). As for (the westerns), the respondents believe that the dominating value orientation type for them is the (individualism) orientation. They have identified (1183) frequencies against (510) 6

frequencies for (Lineality) orientation and (505) for (Collaterality) (see table11). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (415.2), whereas the scheduled Chisquare totaled (13.8).
Table 11 General value orientations for self and the others towards human relation calculated by Frequencies self others actual ideal Iraqis westerns 993 1061 821 510 Lineality 542 519 723 505 Collaterality 663 618 654 1183 Individualism 2198 2198 2198 2198 Total

The analysis of self and the others towards human relation through situations 1. The value orientation of (self) towards human relation and cross situations As for (actual self), the (Lineality) orientation has imposed its mastery on five out of the seven situations confined to measure relational orientation. It has achieved the strongest presence in situation (8th) entitled help in misfortune. The respondents have chosen (176) frequencies against (122) frequencies for (Collaterality) orientation and (16) frequencies for (individualism) (see table12). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (126.5), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The remaining situation is the (9th) which is biased to the (Collaterality) orientation which is entitled "family work relations", and the (18th) which is based to the (individualism) orientation. As for (ideal self), the (Lineality) orientation becomes stronger as imposed its mastery on six out of the seven situations confined to measure relational orientation (see table 12). 2. The value orientation of the (others) towards human relation relational and across situations The respondents believe that the (Lineality) orientation is the dominant one in (the Iraqis) relational. Actually, this orientation controls only two situations (8th and 13th). The strongest availability here in situation (8th) which is entitled help in misfortune, as it has got (192) frequencies against (98) frequencies for (Collaterality) orientation and (24) frequencies for (individualism) (see table12). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (135.4), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). In addition to that, we can see the mastery of (Collaterality) orientation on three situations (3rd, 9th, 10th), and the strongest availability here in (9th) situation which has obtained (147) frequencies against (96) frequencies for (Lineality) orientation and (71) frequencies for (individualism) (see table12). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (28.6), whereas the scheduled Chisquare totaled (13.8). The respondents believe that the (individualism) orientation governs the (the westerns) relational (see table 11). This orientation has mastered six situations out of seven which are specified to measure relational orientation (see table 12).

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Ac. Ide. Ira. We Tot

Table12 Value orientations of (self and the others) towards human relation and across situations calculated by frequencies 3rd situation 8th situation 9th situation 10th situation 13th situation 17th situation 18th situation I L C I L C I L C I L C I L C I L C I L C 97 139 78 16 176 122 89 108 117 74 167 73 131 147 36 105 154 55 151 102 61 103 142 69 22 179 113 89 102 123 99 145 70 86 176 52 113 157 44 106 160 48 107 82 125 24 192 98 71 96 147 103 91 120 79 140 95 143 106 65 127 114 73 183 82 49 118 40 156 214 54 46 162 102 50 138 82 94 179 73 62 189 77 48

1256 1256 1256 1256 1256 1256 Note: (I refer to individualism, L refers to Lineality, C refers to Collaterality, Ac. refers to Actual, Ide. refers to Ideal, Ira. refers to Iraqis, We. refers to westerns)

1256

Person – nature orientation The general analysis for self and the others towards Person – nature orientation The results show that the subjection orientation towards nature is the powerful orientation. It has obtained (2224) frequencies against (2096) for mastery on nature and (1960) for harmony with (see table 13). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chisquare totaled (16.6), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).
Table 13 General value orientation for all selves (self and others) towards person – nature orientation calculated by frequencies Harmony with nature Mastery on nature Subjection to nature 1960 2096 2224

As for value orientation of each self, the respondents has chosen Subjection to nature for the (actual self) (624) frequencies against (413) for mastery on nature and (533) for harmony with (see table 14). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (42.8), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The desire to Submit to nature has risen on the part of the respondents regarding (ideal self) as they have chosen this orientation (666) against (393) for mastery on nature and (511) for harmony with nature (see table 14). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chisquare totaled (71.6). The scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The desire of the rest of (Iraqis) to Subject to nature do not vary from the preceding selves, further more this desire increases as the respondents believe (723) frequencies against (350) for mastery on nature and (497) for harmony with nature (see table 14). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (132.2), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). Only the (western) have fled from nature subjection as the respondents view that the western man has a strongest interest to master on nature, and they have emphasized their believe (940) frequencies against (211) for subjection to nature and (419) for harmony with (see table 14). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (497.3), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).

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Table 14 General value orientations for self and the others towards nature calculated by frequencies self others actual ideal Iraqis westerns 624 666 723 211 Subjection to nature 413 393 350 940 mastery over nature 533 511 497 419 Harmony with 1570 1570 1570 1570 Total

The analysis of value orientations for self and the others towards nature and cross situations 1. The value orientation of (self) towards nature across situations We have noticed that the value orientation for (actual self) is in the direction of a subjection to it. But if we check accurately, we will find out that this orientation is mastering only two situations out of the five situations specified for measuring the value orientations towards
nature. They are the situations (5th and 20th), and the strongest availability of this orientation is situation (20th), as it has obtained (214) frequencies against (51) for mastery on nature and (49)

for harmony with (see table 15). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (171.3), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). On the other hand we notice that the
harmony with nature orientation dominates three situations out of five situations. They are the (7th, 11th and 14th). The most powerful availability of this orientation is in the situation (7th) as it has obtained (154) frequencies against (39) for mastery on nature and (121) for harmony with (see

table 15). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (66.9), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).
Concerning (ideal self), the orientation of nature subjection is the dominant one but it still controls only two situations. They are the situations (5th and 20th) similar to actual self. The strongest availability of this orientation is the situation (20th) which has obtained (232) frequencies against

(38) for mastery on nature and (44) for harmony with (see table 15). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (232.53), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).
On the other hand, we notice also here that the harmony with nature dominate three situations. They are the situations (7th and 11th and 14th), the strongest availability of this orientation is in the (7th) situation as it has obtained (145) frequencies against (42) for mastery on nature and (127) for subjection to nature (see table 15). The difference between these orientations is statistically

significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (57.8), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). 2. The value orientation of the (others) towards nature and cross situations We have noticed that the respondents have attributed the strongest orientation towards Subjection to nature on the part of (Iraqis) (see table 14). Despite this, based on (actual and ideal self), this orientation controls two situations only. They are the situations (5th and 20th), and the situation (20th) is traditionally the strongest as it has obtained (239) frequencies against (34) for mastery on nature and (41) for harmony with (see table 15). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (258.8), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).
Meanwhile, we notice also here that the harmony with nature dominates three situations. They are the situations (7th and 11th and 14th) too. Its strongest availability this time is situation (11th) as it has obtained (145) frequencies against (76) for mastery on nature and (93) for subjection to nature

(see table 15). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (24.6), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). As for the (westerns), the respondents have contributed to the strongest mastery over nature (see table 14). This orientation has mastered

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four situations out of five. They are the situations (7th, 11th, 14th, and 20th) (see table 15). The strongest availability of this orientation is situation (11th) as it has obtained (252) frequencies against (32) for Subjection to nature and (30) for harmony with (see table 15). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (311.1), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).
Table15 Value orientations of (self and others) towards nature via situations calculated by frequencies
5th situation Harm. Mast. Subj. with on to 7th situation Harm. Mast. Subj. with on to 11th situation Harm. Mast. Subj. with on to 14th situation Harm. Mast. Subj. with on to 20th situation Harm. Mast. Subj. with on to

Act. self Ide. self Iraqis westerns total

44 58 47 164

111 95 106 119

159 161 161 31

154 145 143 42

39 42 45 205

121 127 126 67

151 129 145 30

116 120 76 252

47 65 93 32

135 135 121 81

96 98 89 180

83 81 104 53

49 44 41 102

51 38 34 184

214 232 239 28

1256 1256 1256 1256 Note: (Harm. refer to Harmony, Mast. refers to Mastery, Subj. refers to Subjection)

1256

Time orientation The general value orientation (for self and the others) towards time The results have shown that future orientation is the most dominant. It has obtained (2528) frequencies, against (2479) frequencies for present orientation and (1273) for past orientation (see table 16). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (482.7), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).
Table 16 General value orientation for all selves (self and others) towards time calculated by frequencies Past orientation Present orientation Future orientation 1273 2479 2528

Regarding value orientation of each self separately, the result have shown the mastery of present orientation on three selves (actual self, ideal self, and Iraqis). For the first one, present orientation has recurred (761) frequencies against (530) frequencies for future orientation and (279) for past orientation (see table 17). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (222.1), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). As for (ideal self) of the respondents, the present orientation has repeated (794) frequencies against (526) for future orientation and (250) for past orientation (see table 17). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (282.7), whereas the scheduled Chisquare totaled (13.8). As for the (Iraqis) the present orientation has repeated (584) frequencies against (574) for future orientation and (412) for past orientation (see table 17). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (35.6), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). In reference to the fourth self targeted in the research i.e. the (westerns), we notice a qualitative shifting in the type of orientation. Here future orientation has a domination, it has obtained (1060) frequencies against (340) for present orientation and (170) for past orientation (see table 17). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (853.1), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).

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Table 17 General value orientations for self and the others towards time calculated by frequencies self others actual ideal Iraqis westerns 530 526 574 1060 Future orientation 761 794 584 340 Present orientation 279 250 412 170 past orientation 1570 1570 1570 1570 Total

The analysis of value orientations for self and the others towards time and cross situations 1. The value orientation of (self) towards time and cross situations We have noticed that present orientation is the dominant in (actual self) value orientation toward time. The orientation is so strong that it governs four situations out of five which is specified to measure time orientation. The strongest availability of this orientation is situation (4th), as it has obtained (264) frequencies against (25) frequencies for past and future orientation (see table 18). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (363.8), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The weak presence of this orientation is situation (15th), as it has obtained (116) frequencies against (114) frequencies for past and (84) for future orientations (see table 18). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.05) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chisquare totaled (6.13), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (5.9). The only remaining situation the (6th), governed strongly by future orientation as it is obtained (175) frequencies against (96) frequencies for present orientation and (43) for past orientation (see table 18). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (84.3), whereas the scheduled Chisquare totaled (13.8). As for (ideal self), the present orientation controls three situations only. They are the (4th, 15th, and 21st). And similar to (actual self), its strongest availability is situation (4th), as it has obtained (254) frequencies against (39) frequencies for future orientation and (21) frequencies for past orientation (see table 18). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (321. 1), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).
The weak presence of this orientation is situation (15th) also, as it has obtained (120) frequencies

against (109) frequencies for past and (85) for future orientations (see table 18). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.05) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (6.15), whereas the scheduled Chisquare totaled (5.9). And as in the (actual self), the (6th) situation governed by future orientation as it is obtained (143) frequencies against (122) frequencies for present orientation and (49) for past orientation (see table 18). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (46.5), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). for the first time the (12th) situation is equal in the direction of domination as each present and future orientation has obtained (144) frequencies whereas the past orientation has obtained (26) frequencies (see table 18). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (88.6), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). 2. The value orientation of the (others) towards time and cross situations The sample believes that present orientation is the dominating type for the (Iraqis) see table 17). But this present orientation controls two situations only out of five. They are (4th and12th). Its strongest availability is situation (4th), as it has obtained (159 frequencies against (124) frequencies for past and (31) for future orientation (see table 18). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. 11

The calculated Chi-square totaled (83.6), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The past orientation has appeared for the first time as a dominate power on situation (15th) as it has obtained (162) frequencies against (83) frequencies for present orientation and (69) for future orientations (see table 18). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.05) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (48.04), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). In situation (21st) the respondents have seen that nothing has been settled regarding any of the orientations, chosen by the Iraqis. As a result, they have chosen two orientations and granted them the same strength. These orientations are the past and future orientation. Each has obtained (106) frequencies against (102) frequencies for present orientation (see table 18). The difference between these orientations is not significant at any of the levels of significance as calculated Chi-square totaled (0.1) only. As for the (westerns), we notice as usual a qualitative shifting in the type of value orientation. We notice here that future orientation is the dominant type. The respondents have identified the strength of this orientation as it dominants all the five situations beyond any competition mentioned from the other two orientations. The least availability is (21st) situation. Despite this, it has obtained (165) frequencies against (95) frequencies for present orientation and (54) for past orientation (see table 18). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (60.1), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).
Table18 Value orientations of (self and the others) toward time via situations calculated by frequencies 4th situation 6th situation 12th situation 15th situation 21st situation Fut. Pres. past Fut. Pres. past Fut. Pres. past Fut. Pres. past Fut. Pres. past 25 264 25 175 96 43 130 148 36 84 116 114 116 137 61 Act. self 39 254 21 143 122 49 144 144 26 85 120 109 115 154 45 Ide. self 31 159 124 116 115 83 90 125 99 69 83 162 106 102 106 Iraqis 38 10 209 55 50 244 51 19 176 101 37 165 95 54 westerns 266

total

1256

1256

1256

1256

1256

Freedom orientation The general value orientation for self and the others towards freedom The results show that the mixture orientation is the strongest orientation regarding freedom topic. The respondents have emphasized it through the four selves (2296) frequencies, against (2109) frequencies for the freewill orientation and (1875) for fatalistic orientation (see table 19). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (42.5), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).
Table 19 General value orientation for all selves (self and others) towards freedom calculated by frequencies mixture orientation Freewill orientation fatalistic orientation 2296 2109 1875

Regarding value orientation of each self separately, the result has showed that the mixture orientation has the mastery over the (actual self and ideal self). As For the first, the number of frequencies is in favor of the mixture orientation (655) frequencies against (488) frequencies for fatalistic orientation and (427) frequencies for freewill orientation (see table 20). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) 12

and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (53.2), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The mixture orientation has the mastery over the (ideal self) as it has obtained (647) frequencies against (488) frequencies for fatalistic orientation and (435) for freewill orientation (see table 20). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chisquare totaled (46.5), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). As for the (Iraqis). The respondents believe that the Iraqis tends to have a fatalistic orientation. This orientation has obtained (627) frequencies against (591) frequencies for mixture orientation and (325) for freewill orientation (see table 20). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (85.3), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). As for the (westerns). The respondents' believe that the westerns are freewill orientation follower. They have emphasized their believe (895) frequencies against (403) frequencies for mixture orientation and (272) for fatalistic orientation (see table 20). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (357), whereas the scheduled Chisquare totaled (13.8).
Table 20 General value orientations for self and the others towards freedom calculated by frequencies self Others actual ideal Iraqis westerns 488 488 627 272 fatalistic orientation 655 647 591 403 mixture orientation 427 435 325 895 freewill orientation 1570 1570 1570 1570 Total

The analysis of value orientations for self and the others towards freedom and cross situations 1. The value orientation of (self) towards freedom and cross situations It has been noticed that the mixture orientation is the dominant one in (actual self) orientation toward freedom. This orientation has mastered three situations out of five which is specified to measure freedom orientation. The strongest availability of this orientation is situation (24th), as it has obtained (191) frequencies against (52) frequencies for freewill orientation and (71) for fatalistic orientation (see table 21). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (108.5), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The
weak presence of this orientation is found in the situation (30th), as it has obtained (85) frequencies

against (199) frequencies for fatalistic orientation and (30) for freewill orientation (see table 21). The variations of these orientations are statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (141.9), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The last situation was for the freewill orientation. It has obtained (142) frequencies against (101) frequencies for mixture orientation and (71) for fatalistic orientation (see table 21). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (24.2), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). As for (ideal self) it has been noticed that the mixture orientation is the dominant orientation toward freedom. This orientation has mastered three situations. The strongest availability of this orientation is situation (24th) also, as it has obtained (170) frequencies against (57) frequencies for freewill orientation and (87) for fatalistic orientation (see table 21). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chisquare totaled (65.4), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The weak presence of 13

this orientation is found in situation (30th) also. As it has obtained (70) frequencies against (216)

frequencies for fatalistic orientation and (28) for freewill orientation (see table 21). The variations of these orientations are statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (186), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The last situation was for the freewill orientation. It has obtained (152) frequencies against (106) frequencies for mixture orientation and (56) for fatalistic orientation (see table 21). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (44), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). 2. The value orientation of the (others) toward freedom via situations As we noticed, the respondents believe that the fatalistic orientation is the dominating orientation type for the (Iraqis) toward freedom problem (see table 20). But if we check carefully this belief we will discover that this orientation controls only one situation out of five. This situation is the (30th). It has obtained (210) frequencies against (47) frequencies for freewill orientation and (57) for mixture orientation. The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (159.4), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). The four remaining situations are governed by mixture orientation. The strongest availability of this orientation is situation (29th), as it has obtained (146) frequencies against (66) frequencies for freewill orientation and (102) for fatalistic orientation (see table 21). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (30.6), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8). As for the (westerns), we notice a qualitative shifting in the type of orientation. We notice that freewill orientation has a domination on the whole five situations. The most powerful availability is in situation (28th) as it has obtained (212) frequencies against (60) frequencies for mixture orientation and (42) for fatalistic orientation (see table 21). The difference between these orientations is statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (166.6), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).
The weak availability of this orientation is found in situation (30th), as it has obtained (155) frequencies against (50) frequencies for fatalistic orientation and (109) for mixture orientation

(see table 21). The variations of these orientations are statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (2) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (52.9), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (13.8).
Table21 Value orientations of (self and the others) towards freedom cross situations calculated by frequencies 24th situation 28th situation 29th situation 30th situation 32nd situation mix. Fata. f.will mix. Fata. f.will mix. Fata. f.will mix. Fata. f.will mix. Fata. f.will 191 71 52 141 41 132 137 106 71 85 199 30 101 71 142 Act. self 87 57 154 49 111 147 80 87 70 216 28 106 56 152 Ide. self 170 140 120 54 135 98 81 146 102 66 57 210 47 113 97 104 Iraqis 80 63 171 60 42 212 77 65 172 109 50 155 77 52 185 westerns total 1256 1256 1256 1256 1256

Note: mix., refers to mixture, fata., refers to fatalistic, f. will, refers to freewill

After death orientation The general analysis for self and the others towards after death The result showed in general that the religious orientation for all targeting selves (actual self, ideal self, Iraqis, and westerns) – as viewed by the individual’s sample of this research – is the dominating orientation and the strongest one. The sample confirmed its beliefs (4997) frequencies, against (2539) frequencies for the (sensational orientation) (see table 22). By using Chi-square, it becomes obvious that the difference between the two orientations is 14

statistically significant at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom. The calculated Chisquare totaled (801.7), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8).
Table22 General value orientation for all selves (self and others) towards after death calculated by frequencies religious orientation sensational orientation 4997 2539

As for the results of each self separately, the research results show that value orientation for (actual self) is toward (religious) orientation. This orientation obtains (1555) frequencies against (329) for (sensational) orientation (see table 23). The variation between the two values is statistically significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (797.8) whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the degree of freedom (1) and level of significance (0.001). As for the (ideal self), the (religious) orientation obtain (1515) frequencies against (369) goes to (sensational) orientation (see table 23). The variation between the two orientations statically significant at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (697.08), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8). The respondents think that (Iraqi) people are more oriented toward (religious) orientation too. The respondents have enhanced their belief (1463) frequencies against (421) frequencies goes to (sensational) orientation (see table 23). The calculated Chi-square totaled (576.3) whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level of significance (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom, Concerning the second level of (the others), the (westerns). The respondents think that westerns are more oriented toward (sensational) orientation. The respondents fostered their belief (1420) frequencies against (464) frequencies for (religious) orientation. The variation between the two orientations statically significant at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom. The calculated Chi-square totaled (485.1), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) (see table 23).
Table 23 General value orientations for self and the others towards after death orientation calculated by frequencies self others Actual self Ideal self Iraqis westerns 1555 1515 1463 464 religious orientation 329 369 421 1420 sensational orientation 1884 1884 1884 1884 Total

The analysis of self and the others towards after death cross situations 1. The value orientation of (self) towards after death via situations As is mentioned before, the respondents have chosen (religious) orientation as a general attitude toward after death. As for the (actual self), the strongest availability of this orientation is the situation (25th) as it has obtained (285) frequencies against (29) frequencies for (sensational) orientation. The differences as shown has statistically significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (208.7), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom, (see table 24). In contrast the weak existence of (religious) orientation is in the situation (27th) which has obtained (232) frequencies against (82) frequencies for (sensational) orientation in (see table 24). Regarding the (ideal self), the (religious) orientation achieved its strongest availability in situations (25th) also (see table 24). As it has obtained (275) frequencies against (39) frequencies for sensational orientation, the differences has statistically significant as the calculated Chi-square totaled (177.3), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8)

15

at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom. On the contrary, the weak presence of (religious) orientation is in the situation (27th) also, which has obtained (236) frequencies, whereas (sensational) orientation has obtained (78) frequencies. The difference has statistically significant as the calculated Chi-square totaled (79.5), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom, (see table 24). 2. The value orientation of the (others) towards after death and cross situations The respondents attribute a great concern of the (Iraqis) toward (religious) orientation (see table 23). The strongest availability of this orientation is in situation (25th) just like the (actual and ideal self). As it has obtained (276) frequencies against (38) frequencies for (sensational) orientation. The differences as shown has statistically significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (180.3), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom (see table 24). In contrast the weakest existence of (religious) orientation is in the situation (27th) too, which has obtained (179) frequencies against (135) frequencies for (sensational) orientation (see table 24). The differences as shown has statistically significant. The calculated Chisquare totaled (6.1), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (5.4) at the level (0.02) and (1) degree of freedom. Regarding the (westerns), we notice as usual a shifting in the type of orientation. The sensational orientation here govern all the situations specified to measure the after death orientation. This orientation achieved its strongest availability in situations (25th). As it has obtained (259) frequencies against (55) frequencies for religious orientation, the differences has statistically significant. The calculated Chisquare totaled (132.5), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom. On the contrary, the weak presence of (sensational) orientation is the situation (33rd), which has obtained (213) frequencies, whereas (religious) orientation has obtained (101) frequencies. The difference has statistically significant. The calculated Chi-square totaled (39.9), whereas the scheduled Chi-square totaled (10.8) at the level (0.001) and (1) degree of freedom.
Table 24 Value orientations of (self and the others) towards after death across situations calculated by frequencies 25th situation Reli. 285 275 276 55 Sens. 29 39 38 259 26th situation Reli. 274 270 261 63 Sens. 40 44 53 251 27th situation Reli. 232 236 179 88 Sens. 82 78 135 226 31st situation Reli. 249 236 248 97 Sens. 65 78 66 217 33rd situation Reli. 253 247 247 101 Sens. 61 67 67 213 34th situation Reli. 262 251 252 60 Sens. 52 63 62 254

Actual self Ideal self The Iraqis The westerns

1256 1256 1256 1256 1256 1256 Total Note: Reli., refers to religious orientation whereas Sens., refers to sensational orientation

Conclusion
This research is not concerned with passing judgments (right or wrong) or (false and true) as found in intelligence tests or achievement tests. Or normal and abnormal responses as in mental health psychology, or positive and negative as in attitude tests. What this research is concerned with, is to detect the way that man can see things surrounding him and how man deals with things surrounding him. The basic goal of this research is to detect (self) value orientations, through two ways: (actual self and ideal self). And (other) value orientations, through two ways: (the Iraqis and the westerns). The results have showed to us the existences of two different basic forms of cultures based on the prevailing value 16

orientations. The first involves the respondents themselves (actual and ideal self) and the rest of Iraqis society. While the second culture constitutes the (westerns). But we must point out that the prevailing value orientations that color these two cultures with its distinguished features cannot deny the fact of the existence of other alternative value orientations, but having less mastery inside every cultural model, which can be some times regarded as a connected chain or common denominators with other culture. We can say in general, relying on the statements presented by the respondents, that the shape of this culture – the respondents belong to in addition to the rest of individuals in Iraqi society – is a sympathetic culture that embrace them and accept them regardless of what they offered or what they not. It is a humane merit in which Competition element does not form an important basis. Work and activity are very important in them; but man is the most important. Prevailing relational type is the Lineality orientation, while the Collaterality orientation owns a limited presence, whose final chapters might be ended in this culture. If we violate some notes, we will find out that Individualism orientation is considered here narrow and unwelcome. This culture loves nature and is harmonious with it. Nature with its entire phenomenon is from God's creation. What we must do is work and activity and the product is subject to God's will exceptionally death phenomenon, which is the only phenomenon of nature to which man surrender obediently. Perhaps this is attributed to the nature of circumstances surrounding the respondents and the Iraqi community in general. People here are broad minded to accept what is new. But they are alert at the same time of this novelty because they cherish their heritage. Especially when the matter is concerned with their religion, they are not lenient and are not ready to keep pace with the variables that take place around. As for them, time is a phrase, which means an important past and present is more important and future is less important. The future to them is something uncertain and only God knows it. People here believe that they are merely human beings and their abilities are limited. They believe in freedom and they are not dummies. They have their own will and notions. However, in the end every thing is subject to God's will. Due to this, God contentment is the goal of most people in this case because death is the fate of man in the end. After death man will face God who will penalize or reward him for any trivial or big deeds he has committed in his life. Accordingly, man's real success here is not the success he has achieved in this world only but how much he has done to obtain God’s contentment after death. On the other hand, the western culture – based on the statements presented by the respondents – is materialistic and perhaps it has a lot of individuality. There is no place for the careless in their duties or complement for the negligent. Work and accomplishment are put in the first place. The competition is found every where. In spite of the importance of work and activity to them, they enjoy their life to the utmost as possible as they can. Relationships are almost to be "work relationship". Kinship here relies on the narrow family boundaries. The type of individualism relation is the dominant one, where every on is responsible for himself and no body has the right to be responsible for anyone. The desire of mastery is a dominating desire in this culture. Time is the bitter enemy and people struggle for it. Though they are very practical and greatly deal with senses requirements, the future to them is more important than the present, while the past is the capital of the penniless. The notion of slavery to the creator is not accepted in this culture. Freedom is there capital. Due to this freedom, they believe to do every thing even death defeat. Despite the fact that you can find people in this culture who believe in the existence of God and Day of Judgment. These people are so few that cannot change the main flow of this culture or influence the life of the rest of individuals. Those individuals are preoccupied by the notion of success in this life regardless of the requirements of this success and how much they have to pay for it.

17

Note: 1. This research extracted from doctoral dissertation Submitted By: Rifaat Abdullah Jasseem, for Ph.D. degree in Psychology, Baghdad, Iraq (2007). 2. The two researchers would like to express their deep gratitude to D. kurt Russo the directive executive of Kluckhohn Center for studying Values for his generosity and his interest and advice which help, the two researchers much to accomplish this research. 3. for any further information, please contact (riffat19602003@yahoo.com)

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