Docstoc

Republic_of_Angola

Document Sample
Republic_of_Angola Powered By Docstoc
					From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Angola

Angola
Republic of Angola República de Angola GDP (nominal) Total Per capita HDI (2007) Currency Time zone Summer (DST)
Flag Coat of arms

2008 estimate $83.384 billion[1] $4,961[1] ▲0.446 (low) (162nd) Kwanza (AOA) WAT (UTC+1) not observed (UTC+1) right .ao 244

Anthem: Angola Avante! (Portuguese)
Forward Angola!

Drives on the Internet TLD Calling code

Capital (and largest city) Official languages Recognised regional languages

Luanda
8°50′S 13°20′E / 8.833°S 13.333°E / -8.833; 13.333

Portuguese Kongo, Chokwe, South Mbundu (Umbundu), North Mbundu (Kimbundu) Angolan Presidential republic José Eduardo dos Santos Paulo Kassoma from Portugal November 11, 1975 1,246,700 km2 (23rd) 481,354 sq mi negligible 16,941,000 (59th) 5,646,177 13/km2 (199th) 34/sq mi 2008 estimate $106.410 billion[1] $6,331[1]

Demonym Government President Prime Minister

Independence Date Area Total Water (%)

Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República de Angola, pronounced [ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈɡɔlɐ]; Kongo: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in south-central Africa bordered by Namibia on the south, Democratic Republic of the Congo on the north, and Zambia on the east; its west coast is on the Atlantic Ocean. The exclave province of Cabinda has a border with the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Angola was a Portuguese overseas territory from the 16th century to 1975. The country is the secondlargest petroleum and diamond producer in sub-Saharan Africa; however, its life expectancy and infant mortality rates are both among the worst ranked in the world. According to the International Monetary Fund, more than $4 billion in oil receipts have disappeared from Angola’s treasury in the 2000s. In August 2006, a peace treaty was signed with a faction of the FLEC, a separatist guerrilla group from the Cabinda exclave in the North, which is still active.[2] About 65% of Angola’s oil comes from that region.

Population 2007 estimate 1970 census Density GDP (PPP) Total Per capita

History
Early migrations
Khoisan hunter-gatherers are some of the earliest known modern human inhabitants of the area. They were largely replaced by Bantu tribes during the Bantu migrations, though small numbers of Khoisans remain in parts of southern Angola to the present day.

1

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Bantu came from the north, probably from somewhere near the present-day Republic of Cameroon. When they reached what is now Angola, they encountered the Khoisans, Bushmen and other groups considerably less advanced than themselves, whom they easily dominated with their superior knowledge of metal-working, ceramics and agriculture. The establishment of the Bantus took many centuries and gave rise to various groups who took on different ethnic characteristics. The BaKongo kingdoms of Angola established trade routes with other trading cities and civilizations up and down the coast of southwestern and West Africa but engaged in little or no transoceanic trade. This contrasts with the Great Zimbabwe Mutapa civilization which traded with India, the Persian Gulf civilizations and China.[3] They engaged in limited trading with Great Zimbabwe and traded copper and iron for salt, food and raffia textiles across the Kongo River.[4]

Angola
Portuguese merchants who bought them to sell as cheap labour for use on Brazilian agricultural plantations. This trade would last until the first half of the 1800s.

Queen Nzinga in peace negotiations with the Portuguese governor in Luanda, 1657. The Portuguese gradually took control of the coastal strip during the sixteenth century by a series of treaties and wars forming the Portuguese colony of Angola. Taking advantage of the Portuguese Restoration War, the Dutch occupied Luanda from 1641 to 1648, where they allied with local peoples, consolidating their colonial rule against the remaining Portuguese resistance. In 1648, Portugal retook Luanda and initiated a conquest of the lost territories, which restored Portugal to its former possessions by 1650. Treaties regulated relations with Congo in 1649 and Njinga’s Kingdom of Matamba and Ndongo in 1656. The conquest of Pungo Andongo in 1671 was the last great Portuguese expansion, as attempts to invade Congo in 1670 and Matamba in 1681 failed. Portugal expanded its territory behind the colony of Benguela in the eighteenth century, and began the attempt to occupy other regions in the mid-nineteenth century. The process resulted in few gains until the 1880s. Development of the hinterland began after the Berlin Conference in 1885 fixed the colony’s borders, and British and Portuguese investment fostered mining, railways, and agriculture. Full Portuguese administrative control of the hinterland did not occur until the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1951, the colony was designated as an overseas province, called Overseas Province of Angola. Portugal had a presence in Angola for nearly five hundred years, and the population’s initial reaction to calls for independence was mixed. More overtly political organisations

Portuguese rule
The geographical areas now designated as Angola first became subject to incursions by the Portuguese in the late 15th century. In 1483, when Portugal established relations with the Kongo State, Ndongo and Lunda existed. The Kongo State stretched from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. Angola became a link in European trade with India and Southeast Asia. The Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais founded Luanda in 1575 as "São Paulo de Loanda", with a hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. Benguela, a Portuguese fort from 1587 which became a town in 1617, was another important early settlement they founded and ruled. The Portuguese would establish several settlements, forts and trading posts along the coastal strip of current-day Angola, which relied on slave trade, commerce in raw materials, and exchange of goods for survival. The African slave trade provided a large number of black slaves to Europeans and their African agents. For example, in what is now Angola, the Imbangala economy was heavily focused on the slave trade.[5][6] European traders would export manufactured goods to the coast of Africa where they would be exchanged for slaves. Within the Portuguese Empire, most black African slaves were traded to

2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
first appeared in the 1950s, and began to make organised demands for their rights, especially in international forums such as the Non-Aligned Movement. The Portuguese regime, meanwhile, refused to accede to the nationalist’s demands of separatism, provoking an armed conflict that started in 1961 when black guerrillas attacked both white and black civilians in cross-border operations in northeastern Angola. The war came to be known as the Colonial War. In this struggle, the principal protagonists were the MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola), founded in 1956, the FNLA (National Front for the Liberation of Angola), which appeared in 1961, and UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola), founded in 1966. After many years of conflict, Angola gained its independence on 11 November 1975, after the 1974 coup d’état in the metropole’s capital city of Lisbon which overthrew the Portuguese regime headed by Marcelo Caetano. Portugal’s new revolutionary leaders began a process of democratic change at home and acceptance of its former colonies’ independence abroad. These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal’s African territories (mostly from Portuguese Angola and Mozambique), creating over a million destitute Portuguese refugees — the retornados.[7]

Angola
government troops, and a cease-fire was reached by the two factions. UNITA gave up its armed wing and assumed the role of major opposition party. Although the political situation of the country began to stabilise, President dos Santos has so far refused to institute regular democratic processes. Among Angola’s major problems are a serious humanitarian crisis (a result of the prolonged war), the abundance of minefields, and the actions of guerrilla movements fighting for the independence of the northern exclave of Cabinda (Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda). While most of the internally displaced have now returned home, the general situation for most Angolans remains desperate, and the development facing the government challenging as a consequence.[9]

Politics
See also: List of political parties in Angola Angola’s motto is Virtus Unita Fortior, a Latin phrase meaning "Virtue is stronger when united." The executive branch of the government is composed of the President, the Prime Minister (currently Paulo Kassoma) and the Council of Ministers. For decades, political power has been concentrated in the Presidency. The Council of Ministers, composed of all government ministers and vice ministers, meets regularly to discuss policy issues. Governors of the 18 provinces are appointed by and serve at the pleasure of the president. The Constitutional Law of 1992 establishes the broad outlines of government structure and delineates the rights and duties of citizens. The legal system is based on Portuguese and customary law but is weak and fragmented, and courts operate in only twelve of more than 140 municipalities. A Supreme Court serves as the appellate tribunal; a Constitutional Court with powers of judicial review has never been constituted despite statutory authorization. Parliamentary elections held on September, 5th, 2008, announced MPLA as the winning party with 81% of votes. The closest opposition party was UNITA with 10%. These elections were the first since 1992.

Independence and civil war
After independence in November 1975, Angola faced a devastating civil war which lasted several decades and claimed millions of lives and refugees.[8] Following negotiations held in Portugal, itself under severe social and political turmoil and uncertainty due to the April 1974 military coup, Angola’s three main guerrilla groups agreed to establish a transitional government in January 1975. Within two months, however, the FNLA, MPLA and UNITA were fighting each other and the country was well on its way to being divided into zones controlled by rival armed political groups. The superpowers were quickly drawn into the conflict, which became a flash point for the Cold War. The United States supported the FNLA and UNITA. The Soviet Union supported the MPLA.

Ceasefire with UNITA
On February 22, 2002, Jonas Savimbi, the leader of UNITA, was killed in combat with

3

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Angola
over sovereignty of its former overseas province of Angola to the local independentist groups (MPLA, UNITA, and FNLA), the territory of Cabinda has been a focus of separatist guerrilla actions opposing the Government of Angola (which has employed its military forces, the FAA – Forças Armadas Angolanas) and Cabindan separatists. The Cabindan separatists, FLEC-FAC, announced a virtual Federal Republic of Cabinda under the Presidency of N’Zita Henriques Tiago. One of the characteristics of the Cabindan independence movement is its constant fragmentation, into smaller and smaller factions, in a process which although not totally fomented by the Angolan government, is undoubtedly encouraged and duly exploited by it.

Administrative divisions

Angola is divided into eighteen provinces (províncias) and 163 municipalities.[10] The provinces are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Bengo 10. Benguela 11. Bié 12. Cabinda 13. Cuando Cubango14. Cuanza Norte 15. Cuanza Sul 16. Cunene 17. Huambo 18. Huila Luanda Lunda Norte Lunda Sul Malanje Moxico Namibe Uíge Zaire

Military
The Angolan Armed Forces (AAF) is headed by a Chief of Staff who reports to the Minister of Defense. There are three divisions—the Army (Exército), Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MGA), and Air and Air Defense Forces (Força Aérea Nacional, FAN). Total manpower is about 110,000. The army is by far the largest of the services with about 100,000 men and women. The Navy numbers about 3,000 and operates several small patrol craft and barges. Air force personnel total about 7,000; its equipment includes Russian-manufactured fighters, bombers, and transport planes. There are also Brazilian-made EMB-312 Tucano for Training role, Czech-made L-39 for training and bombing role, Czech Zlin for training role and a variety of western made aircraft such as C-212\Aviocar, Sud Aviation Aloutte III, etc. A small number of FAA personnel are stationed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa) and the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville).

Exclave of Cabinda
With an area of approximately 7,283 km² (2,800 square miles), the Northern Angolan province of Cabinda is unique in being separated from the rest of the country by a strip, some 60 kilometres (37 mi) wide, of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) along the lower Congo river. Cabinda borders the Congo Republic to the north and north-northeast and the DRC to the east and south. The town of Cabinda is the chief population center. According to a 1995 census, Cabinda had an estimated population of 600,000, approximately 400,000 of whom live in neighboring countries. Population estimates are, however, highly unreliable. Consisting largely of tropical forest, Cabinda produces hardwoods, coffee, cocoa, crude rubber and palm oil. The product for which it is best known, however, is its oil, which has given it the nickname, "the Kuwait of Africa". Cabinda’s petroleum production from its considerable offshore reserves now accounts for more than half of Angola’s output. Most of the oil along its coast was discovered under Portuguese rule by the Cabinda Gulf Oil Company (CABGOC) from 1968 onwards. Since Portugal handed

Police
The National Police departments are: Public Order, Criminal Investigation, Traffic and Transport, Investigation and Inspection of Economic Activities, Taxation and Frontier Supervision, Riot Police and the Rapid Intervention Police. The National Police are in the process of standing up an air wing, which will provide helicopter support for police operations. The National Police are also developing their criminal investigation and

4

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
forensic capabilities. The National Police has an estimated 6,000 patrol officers, 2,500 Taxation and Frontier Supervision officers, 182 criminal investigators and 100 financial crimes detectives and around 90 Economic Activity Inspectors. The National Police have implemented a modernization and development plan to increase the capabilities and efficiency of the total force. In addition to administrative reorganization; modernization projects include procurement of new vehicles, aircraft and equipment, construction of new police stations and forensic laboratories, restructured training programs and the replacement of AKM rifles with 9 mm UZIs for police officers in urban areas.

Angola

View of the mountains of Lubango. Luanda, lies on the Atlantic coast in the north-west of the country. Angola’s average temperature on the coast is 60 degrees Fahrenheit (16 °C) in the winter and 70 degrees Fahrenheit (21 °C) in the summer.

Geography

Economy

Luanda is Angola’s capital city and economic and commercial hub. Satellite image of Angola, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library At 481,321 square miles (1,246,700 km²), [1] Angola is the world’s twenty-third largest country (after Niger). It is comparable in size to Mali and is nearly twice the size of the US state of Texas, or five times the area of the United Kingdom. Angola is bordered by Namibia to the south, Zambia to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north-east, and the South Atlantic Ocean to the west. The exclave of Cabinda also borders the Republic of the Congo to the north. Angola’s capital, Angola’s economy has undergone a period of transformation in recent years, moving from the disarray caused by a quarter century of war to being the second fastest growing economy in Africa and one of the fastest in the world. In 2004, China’s Eximbank approved a $2 billion line of credit to Angola. The loan is being used to rebuild Angola’s infrastructure, and has also limited the influence of the International Monetary Fund in the country.[11] Growth is almost entirely driven by rising oil production which surpassed 1.4 million barrels per day (220,000 m³/d) in late-2005 and which is expected to grow to 2 million barrels per day (320,000 m³/d) by 2007.

5

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Control of the oil industry is consolidated in Sonangol Group, a conglomerate which is owned by the Angolan government. In December 2006, Angola was admitted as a member of OPEC.[12] The economy grew 18% in 2005, 26% in 2006 and 17.6% in 2007 and it’s expected to stay above 10% for the rest of the decade. The security brought about by the 2002 peace settlement has led to the resettlement of 4 million displaced persons, thus resulting in large-scale increases in agriculture production. The country’s economy has grown since achieving political stability in 2002. However, it faces huge social and economic problems as a result of the almost continual state of conflict from 1961 onwards, although the highest level of destruction and socio-economic damage took place after the 1975 independence, during the long years of civil war. The oil sector, with its fast-rising earnings has been the main driving force behind improvements in overall economic activity – nevertheless, poverty remains widespread. Anti-corruption watchdog Transparency International rated Angola one of the 10 most corrupt countries in the world in 2005. The capital city is the most developed and the only large economic centre worth mentioning in the country, however, slums called musseques, stretch for miles beyond Luanda’s former city limits. According to the Heritage Foundation, a conservative American think tank, oil production from Angola has increased so significantly that Angola now is China’s biggest supplier of oil.[13]

Angola

Ethnic groups of Angola two Mbundu nations combined form a majority of the population, at 62%. It is estimated that Angola was host to 12,100 refugees and 2,900 asylum seekers by the end of 2007. 11,400 of those refugees were originally from the Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) who arrived in the 1970s.[15] As of 2008 there were an estimated 400,000 DRC migrant workers,[16] at least 30,000 Portuguese,[17] and at least 20,000 Chinese living in Angola.[18] Prior to independence in 1975, Angola had a community of approximately 500,000 Portuguese.[19]

Transport
Transport in Angola consists of: • Three separate railway systems totalling 2,761kms • 76,626kms of highway of which 19,156kms is paved • 1,295 navigable inland waterways • Eight major sea ports • 243 airports, of which 32 are paved.

Languages
Portuguese is spoken as a first language by 60% of the population, and as a second language by another 20%. The majority dominance of Portuguese over the native Mbundu and other African languages is due to a strong influence from Portugal and Brazil, as opposed to in Mozambique, which being more remote from the Lusosphere, retained a majority of Bantu language speakers.

Demographics
Angola is composed of Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestiços (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, and 22% ’other’ ethnic groups.[14] The

Religion
Christianity is the major religion in Angola at 53 percent. Of the Christians in Angola, 72% are Roman Catholic, and 28% are Protestant.

6

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
47% of Angolans practice indigenous beliefs.[20]

Angola
in the region. Angola has one of the highest infant mortality rates in the world and one of the world’s lowest life expectancies.

Religion in Angola
religion Christian Indigenous percent[20] 53% 47%

Education

The Roman Catholic Church claims 6.5 million adherents, but such figures could not be verified. The major Protestant denominations also are present, along with a number of indigenous African and Brazilian Christian denominations. The largest Protestant denominations include the Methodists, Baptists, Congregationalists (United Church of Christ), and Assemblies of God. The largest syncretic religious group is the Kimbanguist Church, whose followers believe that a mid-20th century Congolese pastor named Joseph Kimbangu was a prophet. A small portion of the country’s rural population practises animism or traditional indigenous religions. There is a small Islamic community based around migrants from West Africa. In colonial times, the country’s coastal populations primarily were Catholic while the Protestant mission groups were active inland. With the massive social displacement caused by 26 years of civil war, this rough division is no longer valid. Foreign missionaries were very active prior to independence in 1975, although the Portuguese colonial authorities expelled many Protestant missionaries and closed mission stations based on the belief that the missionaries were inciting pro-independence sentiments. Missionaries have been able to return to the country since the early 1990s, although security conditions due to the civil war have prevented them from restoring many of their former inland mission stations.[21]

Children in an outdoor classroom in Bié, Angola Although by law, education in Angola is compulsory and free for 8 years, the government reports that a certain percentage of students are not attending school due to a lack of school buildings and teachers.[23] Students are often responsible for paying additional school-related expenses, including fees for books and supplies.[23] In 1999, the gross primary enrollment rate was 74 percent and in 1998, the most recent year for which data are available, the net primary enrollment rate was 61 percent.[23] Gross and net enrollment ratios are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and therefore do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance.[23] There continue to be significant disparities in enrollment between rural and urban areas. In 1995, 71.2 percent of children ages 7 to 14 years were attending school.[23] It is reported that higher percentages of boys attend school than girls.[23] During the Angolan Civil War (1975-2002), nearly half of all schools were reportedly looted and destroyed, leading to current problems with overcrowding.[23] The Ministry of Education hired 20,000 new teachers in 2005, and continued to implement teacher trainings.[23] Teachers tend to be underpaid, inadequately trained, and overworked (sometimes teaching two or three shifts a day).[23] Teachers also reportedly demand payment or bribes directly from their students.[23] Other factors, such as the

Health
A 2007 survey concluded that low and deficient niacin status was common in Angola.[22] Epidemies of cholera, malaria, rabies and African hemorrhagic fevers like Marburg hemorrhagic fever, are common diseases in several parts of the country. Many regions in this country have high incidence rates of tuberculosis and high HIV prevalence rates. Dengue, filariasis, leishmaniasis, and onchocerciasis (river blindness) are other diseases carried by insects that also occur

7

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
presence of landmines, lack of resources and identity papers, and poor health also prevent children from regularly attending school.[23] Although budgetary allocations for education were increased in 2004, the education system in Angola continues to be extremely under-funded.[23] Literacy is quite low, with 67.4% of the population over the age of 15 able to read and write in Portuguese. 82.9% of males and 54.2% of women are literate as of 2001. Since independence from Portugal in 1975, a number of Angolan students continued to be admitted every year at Portuguese high schools, polytechnical institutes, and universities, through bilateral agreements between the Portuguese Government and the Angolan Government; in general these students belong to the Angolan elites.

Angola
Global Witness. http://www.globalwitness.org/ media_library_detail.php/93/en/ a_crude_awakening Hodges, T. (2004). Angola: The Anatomy of an Oil State. Oxford, UK and Indianapolis, US, The Fridtjol Nansen Institute & The International African Institute in association with James Currey and Indiana University Press. Human Rights Watch (2004). Some Transparency, No Accountability: The Use of Oil Revenues in Angola and Its Impact on Human Rights. New York, Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/reports/ 2004/angola0104/ Human Rights Watch (2005). Coming Home, Return and Reintegration in Angola. New York, Human Rights Watch. http://hrw.org/reports/2005/angola0305/ Kapuściński, Ryszard. Another Day of Life, Penguin, 1975. ISBN 014118678X. A Polish journalist’s account of Portuguese withdrawal from Angola and the beginning of the civil war. Ryszard Kapuściński Kevlihan, R. (2003). "Sanctions and humanitarian concerns: Ireland and Angola, 2001-2." Irish Studies in International Affairs 14: 95-106. Lari, A. (2004). Returning home to a normal life? The plight of displaced Angolans. Pretoria, South Africa, Institute for Security Studies. http://www.iss.co.za/ pubs/papers/85/Paper85.pdf Lari, A. and R. Kevlihan (2004). "International Human Rights Protection in Situations of Conflict and Post-Conflict, A Case Study of Angola." African Security Review 13(4): 29-41. http://www.iss.co.za/ pubs/ASR/13No4/FLari.pdf Le Billon, P. (2001). "Angola’s Political Economy of War: The Role of Oil and Diamonds." African Affairs(100): 55-80. Médecins Sans Frontières (2002). Angola: Sacrifice of a People. Luanda, Angola, MSF. http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/ publications/reports/2002/ angola1_10-2002.pdf Pinto Escoval (2004): "Staatszerfall im südlichen Afrika. Das Beispiel Angola". Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin Much of the material in these articles comes from the CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website.

•

•

•

Culture
Portugal ruled over Angola for 400 years and both countries share cultural aspects: language (Portuguese) and main religion (Roman Catholic Christianity). The Angolan culture is mostly native Bantu which was mixed with Portuguese culture. In the Moxico province more than 10,000 persons are Spanish-speaking (ca. 4.34% of the population of this province) due to the presence of Cuban troops during the Angolan Civil War (1975-2002).

•

•

•

See also Further reading
• Le Billon, P. (2005). "Aid in the Midst of Plenty: Oil Wealth, Misery and Advocacy in Angola." Disasters 29(1): 1-25. • Bösl, Anton (2008). Angola´s Parliamentary Elections in 2008. A Country on its Way to One-PartyDemocracy, KAS Auslandsinformationen 10/2008. http://www.kas.de/wf/de/ 33.15186/ • Cilliers, Jackie and Christian Dietrich, Eds. (2000). Angola’s War Economy: The Role of Oil and Diamonds. Pretoria, South Africa, Institute for Security Studies. • Global Witness (1999). A Crude Awakening, The Role of Oil and Banking Industries in Angola’s Civil War and the Plundering of State Assets. London, UK,

•

•

•

•

•

8

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Le Billon, P. (March 2006). Fuelling War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts. Routledge. ISBN 0415379709. • Pearce, J. (2004). "War, Peace and Diamonds in Angola: Popular perceptions of the diamond industry in the Lundas." 2005.African Security Review 13 (2), 2004, pp 51–64. http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/ ASR/13No2/AW.pdf • Porto, J. G. (2003). Cabinda: Notes on a soon to be forgotten war. Pretoria, South Africa, Institute for Security Studies. http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/papers/77/ Paper77.html • Tvedten, I. (1997). Angola, Struggle for Peace and Reconstruction. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press. • Vines, A. (1999). Angola Unravels: The Rise and Fall of the Lusaka Peace Process. New York and London, UK, Human Rights Watch. • Godfrey Mwakikagile, Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era, Third Edition, Pretoria, South Africa, 2006, on Angola in Chapter Eleven, "American Involvement in Angola and Southern Africa: Nyerere’s Response," pp. 324 – 346, ISBN 978-0980253412.

Angola

References
[1]

[2]

[3] [4] [5] [6]

[7] [8]

Review: Stuart A. Notholt African Affairs, Vol. 97, No. 387 (Apr., 1998), pp. 276-278, JSTOR [9] Lari (2004), Human Rights Watch (2005) [10] "Virtual Angola Facts and Statistics". http://www.angola.org.uk/ facts_government.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-30. [11] "The Increasing Importance of African Oil". Power and Interest Report. March 20, 2006. http://www.pinr.com/ report.php?ac=view_report&report_id=460&languag [12] "Angola: Country Admitted As Opec Member". Angola Press Agency. 2006-12-14. http://allafrica.com/stories/ 200612140990.html. [13] Into Africa: China’s Grab for Influence and Oil [14] CIA - The World Factbook - Angola [15] [U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. "World Refugee Survey 2008." Available Online at: http://www.refugees.org/ countryreports.aspx?id=2117. pp.37 ] [16] World Refugee Survey 2008 - Angola, UNHCR [17] Angola, U.S. Department of State [18] ANGOLA: Prevention made in China, PlusNews, November 12, 2008 [19] Flight from Angola, The Economist , August 16, 1975 ^ "Angola". International Monetary [20] ^ CIA World Factbook Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ [21] U.S. Deptartment of State ft/weo/2009/01/weodata/ [22] Seal AJ, Creeke PI, Dibari F, et al. weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=614&s=NGDPD% (January 2007). "Low and deficient niacin Retrieved on 2009-04-22. status and pellagra are endemic in (Portuguese) Angola mantém presença postwar Angola". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85 militar reforçada em Cabinda, (1): 218–24. PMID 17209199. UOL.com.br (4th June 2008) http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/ The Story of Africa pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17209199. The Story of Africa [23] ^ "Botswana". 2005 Findings on the Boahen, Adu Boahen. Topics In West Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of African History. p. 110. International Labor Affairs, U.S. Kwaku Person-Lynn. "Afrikan Department of Labor (2006). This article Involvement In Atlantic Slave Trade" incorporates text from this source, which (HTML). http://www.africawithin.com/ is in the public domain. kwaku/afrikan_involvement.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-25 2007. Dismantling the Portuguese Empire, Time Magazine (Monday, Jul. 07, 1975) • Global Integrity Report: Angola has The Decolonization of Portuguese Africa: information on Angola’s anti-corruption Metropolitan Revolution and the efforts. Dissolution of Empire by Norrie • Republic of Angola official government MacQueen - Mozambique since portal (Portuguese only) Independence: Confronting Leviathan by • National Assembly of Angola (Portuguese Margaret Hall, Tom Young - Author of only)

External links

9

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Embassy of Angola in Washington DC • Embassy of Angola in Ottawa, Canada • Chief of State and Cabinet Members General information • Angola entry at The World Factbook • Angola from UCB Libraries GovPubs • Angola at the Open Directory Project • Wikimedia Atlas of Angola Media • Angola news headline links from AllAfrica.com • Angola Press Government-controlled news agency (Portuguese, French, English) • Angonoticias popular news source in Angola (Portuguese only)

Angola
• Televisão Pública de Angola state-owned national TV station (Portuguese only) • Rádio Nacional de Angola state-owned national radio station (Portuguese only) • Jornal de Angola popular newspaper in Angola (Portuguese only) • Nação Ovimbundu chronicles and articles — Angola (Portuguese only) • List of newspapers from Newspaper Index • Canal Angola - Site of Kizomba Music • Kizomba.ORG - Site of Kizomba Videos Tourism • Angola travel guide from Wikitravel

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angola" Categories: Angola, African Union member states, Former Portuguese colonies, Least Developed Countries, OPEC member states, Portuguese-speaking countries, States and territories established in 1975 This page was last modified on 17 May 2009, at 16:09 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

10


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:120
posted:5/27/2009
language:English
pages:10