Pine_Bluff__Arkansas by zzzmarcus


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Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Pine Bluff, Arkansas
Pine Bluff, Arkansas


Nickname(s): Crime Bluff Motto: little bit of the good life

Pine Bluff is the largest city and county seat of Jefferson County,[2] Arkansas, United States. It is also the principal city of the Pine Bluff Metropolitan Statistical Area and part of the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff, Arkansas Combined Statistical Area. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 52,693,[3] ranking it as the seventh most populous city in the state. According to the 2007 US Census Estimate, Pine Bluff now has a population of 50,667[4] The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff is located here. Pine Bluff is also the home of the Pine Bluff Arsenal, a major site for the demolition of chemical weapons.

Coordinates: 34°13′0″N 92°1′23″W / 34.21667°N 92.02306°W / 34.21667; -92.02306Coordinates: 34°13′0″N 92°1′23″W / 34.21667°N 92.02306°W / 34.21667; -92.02306 Country State County Founded Incorporated Government - Mayor United States Arkansas Jefferson 1832 1839[1] Carl Redus

Pine Bluff is on the Arkansas River; the community was named for a bluff along the Arkansas River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 46.8 square miles (121.3 km²), of which, 45.6 square miles (118.1 km²) of it is land and 1.2 square miles (3.2 km²) of it (2.65%) is water.


As of the census[6] of 2000, there were 55,085 people, 19,956 households, and 13,350 families residing in the city. In 2005 Area the population of Jefferson County was 46.8 sq mi (121.3 km2) - City 45.6 sq mi (118.1 km2) 81,700. The population density was 1,207.6 - Land 3.2 sq mi (1.2 km2) - Water people per square mile (466.3/km²). There were 22,484 housing units at an average 220 ft (67 m) Elevation density of 492.9/sq mi (190.3/km²). The racial Population (2007) makeup of the city was 32.30% White, 50,667 - City 65.85% Black or African American, 0.17% 1,207.6/sq mi (466.3/km2) - Density Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.04% Pacific 107,341 - Metro Islander, 0.19% from other races, and 0.72% CST (UTC-6) Time zone from two or more races. 0.82% of the popula- Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5) tion were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 870 Area code(s) There were 19,956 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 05-55310 FIPS code 18 living with them, 38.7% were married 0078006 GNIS feature ID couples living together, 23.8% had a female Website householder with no husband present, and


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Population of Pine Bluff[7] Year 1900 1906/07 1910 1916/17 1920 1930 1940 Population 10,000 13,000 15,100 17,400 19,300 20,800 21,300 Year 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Population 37,200 44,000 57,400 56,600 57,100 55,085

33.1% were non-families. There are 843 unmarried partner households: 734 heterosexual, 34 same-sex male, and 75 same-sex female. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.20. In the city the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, and 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,247, and the median income for a family was $34,362. Males had a median income of $30,766 versus $21,009 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,637. About 20.6% of families and 25.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.0% of those under age 18 and 18.2% of those age 65 or over.

Pine Bluff’s Beginnings (1819-1861)
Pine Bluff was first established on a high bank of the Arkansas River which appeared to be a bluff because it was heavily forested with tall pine trees. The high ground furnished a safe haven for settlers from the annual floods of the stream. Joseph Bonne, who was half French and half Quapaw Indian, is said to have settled on this bluff in 1819. After the Quapaws signed a treaty in 1824, relinquishing their title to all of the lands they claimed in Arkansas, other settlers began to join Bonne on the bluff. Thomas Phillips claimed a half section of land where Pine Bluff is located in 1829. Jefferson County was established by the Territorial Legislature, November 2, 1829 and began functioning as a county April 19, 1830. At the August 13, 1832 county election, the pine bluff was chosen as the county seat. The Quorum Court voted to name the village "Pine Bluff Town" on October 16, 1832. Pine Bluff was first incorporated January 8, 1839, by the order of County Judge Taylor. At the time, the village had about 50 residents. Improved transportation facilities aided in the growth of Pine Bluff during the 1840s and 1850s. More and better steamboats improved river traffic.

Historical population figures Metropolitan Statistical Area
Pine Bluff is the largest city in a three-county MSA as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau including Jefferson, Cleveland, and Lincoln counties. The Pine Bluff MSA population in 2000 was 107,341 people. The Pine Bluff MSA population in 2007 dropped to 101,484. Pine Bluff was the fastest-declining Arkansas MSA from 2000-2007. The Pine Bluff area is also a component of the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff Combined Statistical Area which had a population of 785,024 people in the 2000 U.S. census. The 2008 census estimate was 850,561.

Civil War & Reconstruction (1861-1900)
From all indications, Pine Bluff was prospering at the outbreak of the Civil War. As with many small towns in the South, Pine Bluff suffered lasting effects of the war. A surprising number of citizens were opposed to secession, and when the Union forces occupied


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Little Rock, a group of Pine Bluff citizens requested Major General Frederick Steele to send Union forces to occupy the town for protection. The Union troops under Colonel Powell Clayton arrived September 17, 1863, and stayed until the War was over. Confederate General J.S. Marmaduke tried to expel the Union Army from Pine Bluff October 25, 1863, but was repulsed. Because of the presence of Union forces, Pine Bluff became an over-crowded refugee center after the Emancipation Proclamation as freed slaves flocked to the city. Schools were started by the American Missionary Society to begin education of the blacks. By September 1872, Professor Joseph C. Corbin opened the Branch Normal School of the Arkansas Industrial University. Founded as Arkansas’s first black tax-supported college, it today comprises the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. The recovery from the Civil War was slow at first, but with the construction of railroads and the increased production of cotton as more farms were reactivated, the economy began to recover. The first railroad reached Pine Bluff in December 1873. This same year Pine Bluff’s first utility was formed when Pine Bluff Gas Company began furnishing manufactured gas from coke for lighting purposes. As personal fortunes increased from the 1870s onward, large Victorian-style homes were constructed west of Main Street by the community leaders. The first telephone system was placed in service March 31, 1883. Wiley Jones, a former slave and wealthy black man, built the first mule-drawn street car line in October 1886. The first light, power and water plant was completed in 1887; establishment of a more dependable light and water system arrived by 1912. Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, economic expansion was also fueled by the growing lumber industry in the region.

Pine Bluff, Arkansas
opposite Pine Bluff to keep the river flowing by the city. During a later flood, the channel of the river did leave the city and formed what is now Lake Langhofer. Even though river traffic diminished, the river remained a barrier, separating one part of the county from the other. After many years of haggling, because of the bond issue involved in raised taxes, the Free Bridge was opened in 1914, uniting the county for the first time on a permanent basis. Two natural disasters in Pine Bluff’s history had shocking effects on the area’s economy. The first of these was a 100-year flood in 1927. Due to levee breaks, most of northern and southeastern Jefferson County were flooded. The second disaster was the severe drought of 1930. The failure of crops, coupled with the effects of economic conditions of The Great Depression created many problems for Pine Bluff residents. In 1930, two of the larger banks failed. With the inauguration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, many government programs were enacted which benefited local communities. Pine Bluff built new schools, a football stadium and developed Oakland Park as the first major recreation facility of the city. To encourage diversification in the county’s agriculture, a stockyard was built in 1936 to give a sales outlet for farmer’s livestock. Of great importance to Pine Bluff and Jefferson County was the state’s highway construction program in the later 1920s and early 1930s, facilitating trade with other communities throughout southeast Arkansas.

World War II & Economic Diversification (1941-1960)
World War II brought profound changes to Pine Bluff and its agriculture, timber and railroad-oriented economy. The first took the form of a new airport. Grider Field housed the Pine Bluff School of Aviation to furnish flight training for air cadets for the Army Air Corps. Approximately 10,000 flyers were trained by the time the school closed in October 1944. Ground was broken for the Pine Bluff Arsenal December 2, 1941, on 15,000 acres (61 km²) bought by the Army north of the city. The arsenal and Grider Field literally changed Pine Bluff from an agricultural economy to a diversified base with a mixture of

Turn-of-the-Century & The Great Depression in Pine Bluff (1900-1941)
The influence of the Arkansas River on the city continued into the early 1900s. River traffic was still an integral part of the local economy and community leaders were concerned that the main channel would leave the city. The United States Army Corps of Engineers were persuaded to build a levee


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industry and agriculture. The addition of small companies to the industrial base of Pine Bluff helped the economy remain steady in the late 1940s. The Korean War was a stabilizing factor after 1950. In 1957, Richard Anderson announced the construction of a Kraft paper mill north of the city, followed within a short time by International Paper Co. buying a plant site five miles east of Pine Bluff. Residential developments were begun on an extensive basis.

Pine Bluff, Arkansas
in Downtown Pine Bluff. Pine Bluff also has a semi-professional basketball team by the name of the Arkansas Rivercatz, who kicked off their inauguaral season on November 10, 2006, and play at the Pine Bluff Convention Center. A new farmers market was recently opened on Lake Saracen in downtown Pine Bluff.

• • • • • • • • • Dollarway University Park White Hall, Arkansas Redfield, Arkansas Watson Chapel Pinebergen Packingtown, Arkansas Altheimer, Arkansas Moscow, Arkansas

Pine Bluff in the Modern Era (1960-present)
Major construction projects during the 1960s and 1970s were Jefferson Hospital (now Jefferson Regional Medical Center), the dams of the McClellan-Kerr Navigation System on the Arkansas River, a Federal Building, the Pine Bluff Convention Center complex including The Royal Arkansas Hotel & Suites [1], Pine Bluff Regional Park, two industrial parks and several large churches. One project that had a tremendous effect on trade patterns in the city was the construction of Jefferson Square, the community’s first major shopping center. The 1980s and 1990s saw a number of significant construction projects. Benny Scallion Park was created to honor an alderman who brought a Japanese garden to the Pine Bluff Civic Center. In the late 1980s, The Pines, Pine Bluff’s first large enclosed shopping center, was constructed on the east side of the city. The mall significantly increased shopping traffic from southeast Arkansas. The most important construction project of the 1990s was completion of a southern bypass that was designated as part of Interstate 530. In addition, a highway and bridge across Lock and Dam #4 were completed, providing another link to the farm areas in northeastern Jefferson County with the transportation system radiating from Pine Bluff. Through a private matching grant, a multi-million dollar Arts and Science Center for Southeast Arkansas was completed downtown in 1994. Pine Bluff Downtown Development began an ongoing historical mural project that has resulted in increased tourism. In 2004, a new Walmart Supercenter opened in southern Pine Bluff on a patch of former farmland. This construction has caused tremendous growth in that area of town. The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff recently opened its business incubator

Major Shopping Areas
• mall - in the years after its opening in 1986 many of Jefferson Square’s stores have closed. Quite a few of the stores were moved to the mall. Now the mall is poorly ran and majority of the stores are going back to Jefferson Square. • - an open-air shopping center first opened in the early 1960s on Olive Street, making Olive one of the city’s busiest streets. It has about 60-70 stores. • Chapel Shoppes • Walmart Shopping Area

Noteworthy natives
People of note born in or residing in Pine Bluff include: • John Barfield, (1964- ) baseball player, Texas Rangers (1990-1992) • Mark Bradley (1982- ), football player, Chicago Bears • Clifton R. Breckinridge (1846-1932), U.S. Representative from Arkansas, Minister to Russia, Confederate Army and Navy veteran • The Browns, 1950s and ’60s singing group • Bill Carr (1909-1966), 1932 Olympic track double gold medalist, 400 meters & 4 x 400 meter relay • Joe Barry Carroll (1958- ), basketball player, Purdue University and the NBA (#1 pick in 1980 NBA draft)


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• John M. Clayton (1840-1889), assassinated Arkansas politician, sheriff of Jefferson County • Monte Coleman (1957- ), football player, 16 year player for Washington Redskins, current head coach of the University of Arkansas-Pine Bluff Lions • CeDell Davis (1927- ), Blues musician. • George Howard, Jr. (1924-2007), lawyer and judge, the first African-American in Arkansas to serve as a federal judge, state Supreme Court justice, and Court of Appeals judge. • Torii Hunter (1975- ), baseball player, Major League Baseball’s Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. • Don Hutson (1913-1997), Pro Football Hall of Fame receiver for the Green Bay Packers • E. Fay Jones (1921-2004), noted American architect and designer, apprentice of Frank Lloyd Wright • J. Lomax "Max" Jordan, Jr., Lafayette lawyer and Republican member of the Louisiana State Senate, 1992-2000 • Carl Kidd (1973- ), football player, Arkansas Razorbacks, former NFL’s Oakland Raiders and CFL All-Pro cornerback • Lafayette "Fat" Lever (1960- ), basketball player, Arizona State and the NBA’s Portland Trail Blazers, Denver Nuggets and Dallas Mavericks • Robbie Locke (1980- ), lead vocalist for Laidlaw. • Peter McGehee (1955-1991), novelist • Martha Mitchell (1918-1976), wife of John Mitchell, United States Attorney General under President Richard Nixon, known for exposing Nixon’s involvement in the Watergate conspiracy • Smokie Norful, Grammy Award-winning gospel singer • Freeman Harrison Owens (1890-1979), World War I photographer, cinematographer, movie sound system inventor • Willie Roaf (1970- ), football player, Louisiana Tech and the NFL’s New Orleans Saints and Kansas City Chiefs, 11-time Pro Bowl selection • Chief Saracen Chief of the Quapaw Indians • Peggy Shannon (1910-1941), actress • John Thach (1905-1981), World War II aviation hero

Pine Bluff, Arkansas
• Casey Bill Weldon (1909-196?), blues musician best known for his slide guitar skill • Dante Wesley (1979- ), football player, Arkansas-Pine Bluff and the NFL’s Chicago Bears • J. Mayo Williams (1894-1980), pioneering producer of recorded blues music.

Culture and Education
Pine Bluff retains a healthy, diverse cultural climate. The Pine Bluff Convention Center is one of the state’s largest meeting facilities. The Arts and Science Center features theatrical performances and workshops for children and adults. Pine Bluff also boasts the only Band Museum in the country, downtown murals depicting the history of Pine Bluff, the Pine Bluff/Jefferson County Historical Museum and the Arkansas Railroad Museum. Recreational opportunities in Pine Bluff range from water sports and some of the best bass fishing in the state on the Arkansas River to golf or tennis. As host to 30-35 bass tournaments each year, Pine Bluff/Jefferson County Regional Park has earned Pine Bluff the nickname of "Bass Capital of the World". A hunting and fishing in Arkansas exhibit features dioramas of outdoor activities and collections of hunting, fishing and conservation memorabilia in the Governor Mike Huckabee Delta Rivers Nature Center at Regional Park and the Arkansas Entertainers Hall of Fame at the Pine Bluff Convention Center both of which will draw thousands to the area each year. Pine Bluff has a full complement of educational facilities. The Pine Bluff School District includes elementary magnet schools to meet special interests in the fields of math, science, foreign language, communications, and fine and performing arts. Watson Chapel School District and Dollarway School District also serve the city as well as a number of private schools. The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff is the second oldest public educational institution in the state of Arkansas, and the oldest with a black heritage. The newly accredited Southeast Arkansas College features technical career programs as well as a 2-year college curriculum. The Main Library of the Pine Bluff/Jefferson County Library System contains an extensive genealogy collection, including the


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online obituary index of the Pine Bluff Commercial, Arkansas census records, and many county and city records for much of southeast Arkansas. In addition to downtown Pine Bluff’s main library, PBJCLS branch libraries can also be found in the city’s Watson Chapel area, as well as in White Hall, Redfield and Altheimer.

Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Pine Bluff is served by a network of five U.S. and five state highways radiating from the city. Interstate 530, formerly part of US 65, connects Little Rock to southeast Pine Bluff. Interstates 30 and 40 can be accessed in approximately 40 minutes from any point in the city. U.S. Highways include 63, 65, 79, 270, and 425; Arkansas State Highways include 15, 81, 54, 190, and 365.

Pine Bluff Area Colleges and Universities
• University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff • Southeast Arkansas College

Located on the navigable Arkansas River, with a slackwater harbor, Pine Bluff is accessible by water via the Port of Pine Bluff, the anchor of the city’s Harbor Industrial District.

Pine Bluff Public Area Schools
• • • • Pine Bluff School District Dollarway School District White Hall School District Watson Chapel School District

Daily commercial air freight and passenger services, along with scheduled commuter flights, are available at the Little Rock National Airport, Adams Field, some 40 minutes driving time from Pine Bluff via Interstate 530 and interstate connectors. This airport is served by American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Southwest Airlines, Northwest Airlines, Continental Airlines, Frontier Airlines, United Airlines and US Airways. Pine Bluff’s municipal airport, Grider Field (PBF), is located four miles southeast of the city[8]. The airport serves as home base for corporate craft and general aviation craft. Charter, air ambulance and cargo airline services are also available.

Pine Bluff Area Private Schools
• St. Joseph Catholic High School (Pine Bluff, Arkansas) and Jr. High • Trinity Episcopal School • Ridgway Christian School • Maranatha Baptist Academy • Pine Bluff Christian Academy

Agriculture is a mainstay in Pine Bluff. Jefferson County is located in the heart of a rich agricultural area in the Arkansas River Basin. The leading products include cotton, soybeans, cattle, rice, poultry, timber and catfish. Principal industries in the area are engaged in processing cotton; production of cottonseed oil, paper and wood products; the manufacture of wire products; poultry processing; the manufacture of electric transformers; and metal fabrication. It is the large number of paper mills in the area that gives Pine Bluff its distinctive odor, a feature known prominently among Arkansans. Major area employers include Jefferson Regional Medical Center, Simmons First National Corp., Tyson Foods, Evergreen Packaging, the Pine Bluff Arsenal and Union Pacific Railroad.

Royal Coach Lines offers local access to intrastate, regional, and charter services. Within the city, the city-owned Pine Bluff Transit operates six routes[9] to various points including government, medical, educational and shopping centers. As an innovation, two of the buses have professional quality murals advertising the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff.

[1] William D. Halsey, ed (1976). "Pine Bluff". Collier’s Encyclopedia. 19. New York: Macmillan Educational Corporation. p. 56. [2] "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/



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cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. "Annual Estimates of the Population for All Incorporated Places in Arkansas" (CSV). 2005 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. June 21, 2006. cities/tables/SUB-EST2005-04-05.csv. Retrieved on November 16 2006. "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Arkansas, Listed Alphabetically: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007" (XLS). 2007 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. July 10, 2008. popest/cities/tables/SUBEST2007-04-05.xls. Retrieved on February 15 2009. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. AirNav: KPBF - Grider Field Airport Pine Bluff Transit

Pine Bluff, Arkansas
• The Alliance, official website serving the Greater Pine Bluff Chamber of Commerce, Jefferson County Industrial Foundation, and Pine Bluff-Jefferson County Port Authority • Pine Bluff/Jefferson County Library System • Junior League of Pine Bluff



• Pine Bluff Commercial, the local newspaper serving Pine Bluff and southeast Arkansas • Pine, community information site compiled by the Pine Bluff Commercial

[5] [6]

Community events
• Pine Bluff Festival Association, producers of city festivals such as the 4th of July Celebration and The Enchanted Land of Lights & Legends, Arkansas’s Largest Drive-thru Christmas Display. • Pine Bluff Film Festival, supporting restoration efforts at the city’s Saenger Theater through exhibition of silent movies and other classic film works

[7] [8] [9]

External links
Government & civic groups
• Official website of the City of Pine Bluff • Pine Bluff Transit, the City owned bus company.*Positively Pine Bluff, official website of the Pine Bluff Convention & Visitors Bureau

• History of Pine Bluff’s Jewish community (from the Institute of Southern Jewish Life) • Arkansas Railroad Museum website • Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry: Pine Bluff (Jefferson County)

Retrieved from ",_Arkansas" Categories: Jefferson County, Arkansas, Cities in Arkansas, Settlements established in 1832, Pine Bluff, Arkansas, Pine Bluff metropolitan area, United States communities with African American majority populations, County seats in Arkansas This page was last modified on 20 May 2009, at 15:33 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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