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Languages with official status in India

Languages with official status in India
The official languages of the Republic of India are Hindi and English;[1] states in India can legislate their own official languages.[1] Neither the Constitution of India, nor any Indian law defines any national language. States specify their own official language(s) through legislation. The section of the Constitution of India dealing with official languages therefore includes detailed provisions[2] which deal not just with the languages used for the official purposes of the union,[3] but also with the languages that are to be used for the official purposes of each state and union territory in the country,[4] and the languages that are to be used for communication between the union and the states inter se.[5] At the time the constitution entered into force, English was used for most official purposes both at the federal level and in the various states. The constitution envisaged the gradual phasing in of local languages, principally Hindi, to replace English over a fifteen-year period, but gave Parliament the power to, by law, provide for the continued use of English even thereafter. Accordingly, English continues to be used today, in combination with Hindi (at the central level and in some states) and other languages (at the state level). The legal framework governing the use of languages for official purpose currently includes the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, 1963, Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, and various state laws, as well as rules and regulations made by the central government and the states. official purposes was to cease 15 years after the constitution came into effect, i.e., on 26 January 1965.[7] The prospect of the changeover, however, led to much alarm in the non Hindi-speaking areas of India. As a result, Parliament enacted the Official Languages Act, 1963,[8][9][10][11][12][13] which provided for the continued use of English for official purposes along with Hindi, even after 1965. In late 1964, an attempt was made to expressly provide for an end to the use of English, but it was met with protests from states such as Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal, Karnataka, Pondicherry and Andhra Pradesh. Some of these protests also turned violent. As a result, the proposal was dropped,[14][15] and the Act itself was amended in 1967 to provide that the use of English would not be ended until a resolution to that effect was passed by the legislature of every state that had not adopted Hindi as its official language, and by each house of the Indian Parliament.[16] The current position is thus that the Union government may continue to use English in addition to Hindi for its official purposes[17] as a "subsidiary official language,"[18] but is also required to prepare and execute a programme to progressively increase its use of Hindi.[19] The exact extent to which, and the areas in which, the Union government uses Hindi and English, respectively, is determined by the provisions of the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, 1963, the Official Languages Rules, 1976, and statutory instruments made by the Department of Official Language under these laws.

Official languages of the Union
Hindi and English
The Indian constitution, in 1950, declared Hindi in Devanagari script to be the official language of the union.[6] Unless Parliament decided otherwise, the use of English for

The language of Parliamentary proceedings and laws
The Indian constitution draws a distinction between the language to be used in Parliamentary proceedings, and the language in which laws are to be made. Parliamentary business, according to the Constitution, may be conducted in either Hindi or English.[20] The use of English in parliamentary proceedings was to be phased out at the end of

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fifteen years unless Parliament chose to extend its use,[21] which Parliament did through the Official Languages Act, 1963.[22] In addition, the constitution permits a person who is unable to express himself in either Hindi or English to, with the permission of the Speaker of the relevant House, address the House in his mother tongue.[23] In contrast, the constitution requires the authoritative text of all laws, including Parliamentary enactments and statutory instruments, to be in English, until Parliament decides otherwise.[24] Parliament has not exercised its power to so decide, instead merely requiring that all such laws and instruments, and all bills brought before it, also be translated into Hindi, though the English text remains authoritative.[25]

Languages with official status in India
translation into the other language if required.[34] In addition, every person submitting a petition for the redress of a grievance to a government officer or authority has a constitutional right to submit it in any language used in India.[35]

Official languages at the state level
The Indian constitution does not specify the official languages to be used by the states for the conduct of their official functions, and leaves each state free to, through its legislature, adopt Hindi or any language used in its territory as its official language or languages.[36] The language need not be one of those listed in the Eighth Schedule, and several states have adopted official languages which are not so listed. Examples include Kokborok in Tripura, Mizo in Mizoram, Khasi, Garo, and Jaintia in Meghalaya, and French in Pondicherry.

The language of the judiciary
The constitution provides that all proceedings in the Supreme Court of India, the country’s highest court, shall be in English.[26] Parliament has the power to alter this by law, but has not done so.[27]

The language of administration
The Union government is required by law to progressively increase the use of Hindi in its official work,[19] which it has sought to do through "persuasion, incentive and goodwill."[28] The Official Language Act provides that the Union government shall use both Hindi and English in most administrative documents that are intended for the public.[29] The Official Languages Rules, in contrast, provide for a higher degree of use of Hindi in communications between offices of the central government (other than offices in Tamil Nadu, to which the rules do not apply[30]). Communications between different departments within the central government may be in either Hindi or English, although a translation into the other language must be provided if required.[31] Communications within offices of the same department, however, must be in Hindi if the offices are in Hindi-speaking states,[32] and in either Hindi or English otherwise with Hindi being used in proportion to the percentage of staff in the receiving office who have a working knowledge of Hindi.[33] Notes and memos in files may be in either Hindi or English, with the Government having a duty to provide a

The language of the legislature and administration
The constitutional provisions in relation to use of the official language in legislation at the State level largely mirror those relating to the official language at the central level, with minor variations. State legislatures may conduct their business in their official language, Hindi or (for a transitional period, which the legislature can extend if it so chooses) English, and members who cannot use any of these have the same rights to their mother tongue with the Speaker’s permission.[37] The authoritative text of all laws must be in English, unless Parliament passes a law permitting a state to use another language, and if the original text of a law is in a different language, an authoritative English translation of all laws must be prepared.[38] The state has the right to regulate the use of its official language in public administration, and in general, neither the constitution nor any central enactment imposes any restriction on this right. However, every person submitting a petition for the redress of a grievance to an officer or authority of the state government has a constitutional right to submit it in any language used in that state, regardless of its official status.[35]

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In addition, the constitution grants the central government, acting through the President, the power to issue certain directives to the government of a state in relation to the use of minority languages for official purposes. The President may direct a State to officially recognise a language spoken in its territory for specified purposes and in specified regions, if its speakers demand it and satisfy him that a substantial proportion of the State’s population desire its use.[39] Similarly, States and local authorities are required to endeavour to provide primary education in the mother tongue for all linguistic minorities, regardless of whether or not their language is official in that State, and the President has the power to issue directions he deems necessary to ensure that they are provided these facilities.[40]

Languages with official status in India

States Union Territories

The languages of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution
The Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution contains a list of 22 scheduled languages. At the time the constitution was enacted, inclusion in this list meant that the language was entitled to representation on the Official Languages Commission,[90] and that the language would be one of the bases that would be drawn upon to enrich Hindi, the official language of the Union.[91] The list has since, however, acquired further significance. The Government of India is now under an obligation to take measures for the development of these languages, such that "they grow rapidly in richness and become effective means of communicating modern knowledge."[92] In addition, a candidate appearing in an examination conducted for public service at a higher level is entitled to use any of these languages as the medium in which he answers the paper.[93] Via the 92nd Constitutional amendment 2003, 4 new languages – Bodo, Maithili, Dogri, and Santali – were added to the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution.[94] The following table lists the languages set out in the eighth schedule as of May 2007, together with the regions where they are used:[95] Since 2003, a government committee has been looking into the feasibility of treating all languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution as "Official Languages of the Union".[96]

The language of the judiciary
States have significantly less freedom in relation to determine the language in which judicial proceedings in their respective High Courts will be conducted. The constitution gives the power to authorise the use of Hindi, or the state’s official language in proceedings of the High Court to the Governor, rather than the state legislature, and requires the Governor to obtain the consent of the President of India,[41] who in these matters acts on the advice of the Government of India. The Official Languages Act gives the Governor a similar power, subject to similar conditions, in relation to the language in which the High Court’s judgments will be delivered.[42] Four states - Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan - have been granted the right to conduct proceedings in their High Courts in their official language, which, for all of them, was Hindi. However, the only non-Hindi state to seek a similar power Tamil Nadu, which sought the right to conduct proceedings in Tamil in its High Court had its application rejected by the central government earlier , which said it was advised to do so by the Supreme Court.[43] In 2006, the law ministry said that it would not object to Tamil Nadu state’s desire to conduct Madras High Court proceedings in Tamil.[44][45][46][47][48]

The language of centrestate and interstate communication
The language in which communications between different states, or from the central government to a state or a person in a state, shall be sent is regulated by the Official Languages Act and, for states other than Tamil Nadu, by the Official Languages Rules.

Languages currently used by Indian states and union territories
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No. State 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Official Language Telugu[49] Assamese[53] Hindi[54] Hindi[56] Konkani[57] Gujarati[58], Hindi[58] Hindi[59] Urdu[61] Hindi[63] Kannada[64][65] Malayalam[66] Hindi[67] Marathi[68][69] Meitei[70] English[72] Mizo[74] English[75] Oriya,[76] Punjabi[77] Hindi[78] English[79][80] Tamil[82] English, Bengali, Kokborok[83] English, Hindi[84] Hindi[85] Bengali[86]

Languages with official status in India
Other officially recognised languages Urdu[50] None[52] Bengali, Bodo[53] Urdu[55] None[56] Marathi[57] Punjabi[59] Pahari [60] None[62] None[63] English[66]

Arunachal Pradesh English[51]

Himachal Pradesh Hindi[60]

10. Jammu and Kashmir 11. Jharkhand 12. Karnataka 13. Kerala 14. Madhya Pradesh 15. Maharashtra 16. Manipur 17. Meghalaya 18. Mizoram 19. Nagaland 20. Orissa 21. Punjab 22. Rajasthan 23. Sikkim 24. Tamil Nadu 25. Tripura 26. Uttarakhand 27. Uttar Pradesh 28. West Bengal

None[71] Khasi, Garo[73] None[74] None[75] None[76] None[77] None[78] None[81] None[82] None[83] Urdu[84] Urdu, Bojpoori[85] Nepali[86] except in exceptional cases.[97] Communication with a second category of states, which do not use Hindi as their official language but are willing to communicate with the centre in Hindi (currently Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab and Chandigarh[98]) is usually in Hindi, whilst communications sent to an individual in those states may be in either Hindi or English.[99] Communication with all other states, and with persons living in them, is in English.[100]

Communication between states who use Hindi as their official language is required to be in Hindi, whereas communication between a state whose official language is Hindi and one whose is not is required to be in English, or in Hindi with an accompanying English translation (unless the receiving state agrees to dispense with the translation).[17] Communication between the centre and states which use Hindi as their official language (classified by the Official Language Rules as "the states in Region A"), and with persons who live in those states, is in Hindi,

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No. Union Territory 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Delhi Lakshadweep Pondicherry Official Language Hindi, English[87] Punjabi, Hindi Marathi, Gujarati Gujarati, English Hindi Malayalam, Tamil French[89], Tamil,English,

Languages with official status in India
Other officially recognised languages Telugu , Tamil

Marathi[57] Urdu,[88] Punjabi[88] Telugu, Malayalam

See also
• Languages of India • List of Indian languages by number of native speakers

References
[1] ^ 1. Schwartzberg, Joseph E., 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica, India—Linguistic Composition. Quote: "By far the most widely spoken is Hindi, the country’s official language, with more than 300 million speakers." 2. Oldenburg, Phillip. (1997-2007) Encarta Encyclopedia "India: Official Languages." Quote: "Hindi is the main language of more than 40 percent of the population. No single language other than Hindi can claim speakers among even 10 percent of the total population. Hindi was therefore made India’s official language in 1965. English, which was associated with British rule, was retained as an option for official use because some nonHindi speakers, particularly in Tamil Nādu, opposed the official use of Hindi." 3. United Kingdom, Foreign and Commonwealth Office: India—Country Profile. Quote: "The official language of India is Hindi written in the Devanagari script and spoken by some 30% of the population as a first language. Since 1965 English has been recognised as an ’associated language’." 4. UNESCO: Education for All—The Nine Largest Countries Quote: "Hindi is the language of 30% of the population and the official language of India." 5. United States Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, Country Profile: India Quote:

"Languages: Hindi is the official language and the most commonly spoken, but not all dialects are mutually comprehensible. English also has official status and is widely used in business and politics, although knowledge of English varies widely from fluency to knowledge of just a few words." 6 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Country Profile: India Quote: "Hindi is constitutionally designated as the official language of India, with English as an associate official language." [2] Part XVII of the Constitution of India. [3] Article 343 of the Constitution of India. [4] Article 345 of the Constitution of India. [5] Article 346 of the Constitution of India. [6] Article 343(1). [7] Articles 343(2) and (3). [8] DOL [9] Commissioner Linguistic Minorities [10] Language in India [11] THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT, 1963 [12] National Portal of India : Know India : Profile [13] Committee of Parliament on Official Language report [14] "The force of words". http://www.time.com/time/magazine/ article/0,9171,940936,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-05. [15] Forrester, Duncan B. (Spring — Summer 1966), "The Madras Anti-Hindi Agitation, 1965: Political Protest and its Effects on Language Policy in India", Pacific Affairs 39 (1/2): 19-36, doi:10.2307/2755179 . [16] Official Languages Act, 1963, S. 3(5). [17] ^ Official Languages Act, 1963, S. 3(1). [18] Notification No. 2/8/60-O.L. (Ministry of Home Affairs), dated 27th April, 1960.

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Language Genetic affiliation Indo-Aryan, Eastern Indo-Aryan, Eastern TibetoBurman Indo-Aryan, Northern Indo-Aryan, Western Indo-Aryan, various Dravidian, Southern Dardic Indo-Aryan, Southern Indo-Aryan, Eastern Dravidian, Southern Speakers (as of 2001, in million) 13 83 1.2 0.1 46 422 38 5.5 2.5 12 33 1.5

Languages with official status in India
Geographical distribution

Assamese/ Axomiya Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam

Assam West Bengal, Assam, Jharkhand, Tripura (list) Assam Jammu and Kashmir Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu (list) the "Hindi belt", Northern India Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Goa (list) Jammu and Kashmir Konkan (Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala) Bihar Kerala, Lakshadweep, Mahé, Puducherry Manipur

Manipuri (also TibetoBurman Meitei or Meithei) Marathi Nepali Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Santali Indo-Aryan, Southern Indo-Aryan, Northern Indo-Aryan, Eastern Indo-Aryan Indo-Aryan Munda

72 2.5 33 29 0.05 6.5

Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Goa (list) Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam Orissa Punjab, Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana Mattur Santal tribals of the Chota Nagpur Plateau (comprising the states of Bihar, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa) Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh (list Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Pondicherry, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra (list) Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Orissa (list) Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh

Sindhi Tamil Telugu

Indo-Aryan, 2.5 Northwestern Dravidian, Southern Dravidian, SouthCentral Indo-Aryan, Central 61 74

Urdu

52

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[19] ^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 1. [20] Article 120(1). [21] Article 120(2). [22] Official Languages Act, 1963, S. 3(1)(b). [23] Article 120(1) first proviso. [24] Article 348(1). [25] Official Languages Act, 1963, Ss. 5(1) and (2). [26] Article 348(1)(a). [27] Article 348(1), leading text. [28] "Official language policy of the Union." [29] S. 3(3) names, amongst others, resolutions, general orders, rules, notifications, administrative or other reports or press communiques issued by a government department, agency or corporation; administrative and other reports and official papers laid before a House or the Houses of Parliament; and contracts and agreements executed, and licences, permits, notices and forms of tender issued by or on behalf of the government (including government companies). [30] Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 1(ii) [31] Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 4(a) [32] Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraphs 4(b) and (c) [33] Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 4(d) [34] Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 8 [35] ^ Constitution of India, Article 350. [36] Constitution of India, Article 345 [37] Constitution of India, Article 210. [38] Articles 348(1) and (3). [39] Constitution of India, Article 347. [40] Constitution of India, Article 350A. [41] Constitution of India, Article 348(2). [42] S. 7 [43] Special Correspondent (12 March 2007), "Karunanidhi stands firm on Tamil in High Court", The Hindu: 1, http://www.hindu.com/2007/03/12/ stories/2007031205180100.htm . [44] The Hindu : Tamil Nadu / Thanjavur News : No objection to Tamil as court language: A.P. Shah

Languages with official status in India
[45] Silobreaker: Make Tamil the language of Madras High Court: Karu [46] The Hindu : Tamil Nadu News : Karunanidhi hopeful of Centre’s announcement [47] indianexpress.com [48] Tamil Nadu government press release [49] The Andhra Pradesh Official Language Act, 1966, declares Telugu to be the official language. This enactment was implemented by GO Ms No 420 in 2005. Rao, M. Malleswara (September 18, 2005), "Telugu declared official language", The Hindu (Online edition), http://www.hindu.com/2005/09/18/ stories/2005091803740600.htm, retrieved on 2007-07-16 [50] Urdu is used as a second official language in certain districts for certain specific purposes. Fatihi, A.R. (April 2003). "Urdu in Andhra Pradesh" (html). Language in India 3 (4). ISSN: 1930-2940. http://www.languageinindia.com/ april2003/urduinap.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. [51] Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 2.4, http://nclm.nic.in/ index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [52] Five languages spoken by the principal tribes in Arunachal Pradesh - Adi, Apatani, Bhoti, Khampti and Nishi are offered to students in state schools, however English is the language of administration and recruitment. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 2.3 - 2.4, http://nclm.nic.in/ index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [53] ^ Assamese is the official language of the State. Bodo is used as an associate official language for specific purposes in the districts of Kokrajhar and Nalbari and in the Udalguri sub division. Bengali is used for administrative and other official purposes in the districts of the Barak valley.Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 3.5, http://nclm.nic.in/ shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved on 2007-06-06 . See also Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 3.4,

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http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [54] Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 20.5, http://nclm.nic.in/ index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [55] Urdu is recognised as an additional official language for seven specific purposes, namely, receiving and replying to representations from the public; receiving documents in government offices; publishing rules, regulations and notices; issuing important letters and orders; publishing important advertisements; publishing government gazettes; and signboards at important places and offices.Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 20.5, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [56] ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 39th report: July 2000 - June 2001, p. section 6, http://nclm.nic.in/shared/ linkimages/4.zip, retrieved on 2007-07-16 [57] ^ The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani the sole official language, but provides that Marathi may also be used for "for all or any of the official purposes". The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 11.3, http://nclm.nic.in/ shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved on 2007-06-06 However, whilst there have been demands for making Marathi an official language, as of May 2007, Konkani remained the sole official language. UNI (May 30, 2007), Marathi vs Konkani debate continues in Goa, http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/may/ 30goa.htm, retrieved on 2007-06-06 [58] ^ Fatihi, A.R. (September 9, 2003). "Urdu in Gujarat" (html). Language in India 3. http://www.languageinindia.com/ sep2003/urduingujarat.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. [59] ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 28.3, http://nclm.nic.in/shared/

Languages with official status in India
linkimages/35.htm, retrieved on 2007-07-16 [60] ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 29.7, http://nclm.nic.in/shared/ linkimages/35.htm, retrieved on 2007-07-16 [61] Article 145 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir makes Urdu the official language of the state, but provides for the continued use of English for all official purposes. [62] Article 146 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, read together with the sixth schedule thereto, requires the government of the state to establish an academy to develop eight regional languages, namely Kashmiri, Dogri, Balti, Dardi, Punjabi, Pahari, Ladakhi and Gojri. None of these, however, are official. [63] ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. para 15.3, http://nclm.nic.in/shared/ linkimages/23.htm, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [64] "The Karnataka Official Language Act, 1963" (PDF). Official website of Government of Karnataka. Government of Karnataka. http://dpal.kar.nic.in/ 26%20of%201963%20(E).pdf. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. [65] "The Karnataka Local Authorities (Official Language) Act, 1981" (PDF). Official website of Government of Karnataka. Government of Karnataka. http://dpal.kar.nic.in/ 30%20of%201981%20(E).pdf. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. [66] ^ "Malayalam, How to Arrest it’s Withering Away?". M. K. Chand Raj, Ph.D. on Language in India. Central Institute of Indian Languages,Mysore. http://www.languageinindia.com/ feb2005/ malayalamdevelopmentchandraj1.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. [67] "Language and Literature". Official website of Government of Madhya Pradesh. Government of Madhya Pradesh. http://www.mpgovt.nic.in/ culture/language.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. [68] "Maharashtra Tourism: Trivia". Official website of Maharashtra Tourism. Government of Maharashtra.

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Languages with official status in India

http://www.maharashtratourism.gov.in/ 2006/21-03-2006s.htm, retrieved on MTDC/HTML/MaharashtraTourism/ 2007-07-16 . Trivia.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. [74] ^ Mizo is the sole official language [69] Palkar, A.B (2007) (PDF), under the Official Languages Act. [http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/ However, this statute does not apply to VOLUME-I.pdf Report of One Man autonomous regions of Commission Justice A.B.Palkar: Shri Mizoram.Commissioner Linguistic Bhaurao Dagadu Paralkar & Others V/s Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. paras 28.4, 28.9, State of Maharashtra], I, pp. 41, http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/ http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/ 23.htm, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . VOLUME-I.pdf, retrieved on 2007-07-16 [75] ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, [70] Section 2(f) of the Manipur Official 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, Language Act, 1979 states that the p. para 17.4, http://nclm.nic.in/ official language of Manipur is the index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on Manipuri language (an older English 2007-07-16 . name for the Meiti language) written in [76] ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, the Bengali script. The Sangai Express, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, Mayek body threatens to stall p. para 5.4, http://nclm.nic.in/shared/ proceeding, http://www.e-pao.net/ epRelatedNews.asp?heading=9&src=290703, linkimages/35.htm, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [77] ^ Punjabi is the official language of the [71] Nine tribal languages are recognised for state. Section 8 of Punjab’s Official the purpose of education, but have no Language Act requires the state other official status. Commissioner Government to "take suitable steps to Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July develop the Hindi language in the State" 2004 - June 2005, p. para 22.4, but does not give Hindi any official http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, status. Commissioner Linguistic retrieved on 2007-07-16 . Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June [72] Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 2004, p. para 19.6, http://nclm.nic.in/ 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved on p. para 25.5, http://nclm.nic.in/shared/ 2007-06-06 . linkimages/35.htm, retrieved on [78] ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 2007-07-16 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, [73] The 43rd report of the National p. para 26.4, http://nclm.nic.in/shared/ Commission of Linguistic Minorities linkimages/35.htm, retrieved on reports that, from a date to be 2007-07-16 . determined, Khasi will have the status of [79] Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, an associate official language in the 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, districts of the East Khasi Hills, West pp. para 27.3, http://nclm.nic.in/ Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills and Ri Bhoi. index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on Garo will have a similar status in the 2007-07-16 . districts of the East Garo Hills, West [80] Government of Sikkim, Introduction to Garo Hills and South Garo Hills. Sikkim, http://sikkim.nic.in/sws/ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, home_int.htm, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, [81] Eleven other languages — Bhutia, p. para 25.1, http://nclm.nic.in/ Lepcha, Limboo, Nepali, Newari, index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on Gurung, Mangar, Mukhia, Rai, Sherpa 2007-07-16 . On the 21st of March 2006, and Tamang - are termed "official", but the Chief Minister of Meghalaya stated only for the purposes of the preservation in the State Assembly that a notification of culture and tradition. Nepali is widely to this effect had been issued. Meghalaya used for official purposes, but has no Legislative Assembly, Budget session: formal legal status as the official Starred Questions and Answers language.Commissioner Linguistic Tuesday, the 21st March 2006., Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June http://megassembly.gov.in/questions/ 2005, pp. paras 27.3 - 27.4,

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . See also Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. paras 28.4, 28.9, http://nclm.nic.in/shared/ linkimages/23.htm, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [82] ^ Whilst Tamil is the only official language, important communications are published in minority languages, and electoral rolls are published in Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam in areas where they are widely used. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 15.4, http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/ 35.htm, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [83] ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. para 17.3, http://nclm.nic.in/shared/ linkimages/23.htm, retrieved on 2007-06-16 . [84] ^ English, Hindi and Urdu are the official languages of the state, although the purposes for which Urdu is used have not been fully described. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 7.3, http://nclm.nic.in/ index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [85] ^ Hindi is the official language, and Urdu is used for seven specific purposes, similar to those for which it is used in Bihar. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. paras 6.1-6.2, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [86] ^ Bengali is the official language of West Bengal. Nepali is recognised as an additional official language in Darjeeling district. In addition, the government has a policy of replying to representations received in minority languages in those languages. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 18.4, http://nclm.nic.in/ index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved on 2007-07-16 . [87] "Most of Indian languages are spoken in Andaman and Nicobar Islands because of its cosmopolitan nature. The common language is Hindi whereas English and Hindi are used in official correspondence." Andaman District

Languages with official status in India
Administration, Profile, http://andamandt.nic.in/profile.htm, retrieved on 2007-06-06 [88] ^ Urdu and Punjabi are the second official languages of Delhi under the Delhi Official Language Bill, 2000 "Punjabi, Urdu made official languages in Delhi". The Times of India. 2003-06-25. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ articleshow/43388.cms. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. [89] Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, Pondicherry, General Information on Pondicherry, http://www.ceopondicherry.nic.in/ Bkground/GeneralInfo.htm, retrieved on 2007-06-06 [90] Constitution of India, Article 344(1). [91] Constitution of India, Article 351. [92] Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 2. [93] Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 4. [94] National Portal of India : Government : Constitution of India [95] Constitution of India, page 330, EIGHTH SCHEDULE, Articles 344 (1) and 351]. Languages. [96] "A Committee has been constituted under the Chairmanship of Shri Sita Kant Mohapatra to make recommendation, inter-alia on the feasibility of treating all languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution, including Tamil, as Official Languages of the Union. The Government will consider the recommendations of the Committee and take a suitable decision in the matter."Indian parliament [97] Official Languages Rules, 1976, para. 3(1). [98] Official Languages Rules, 1976, para. 2(g). [99] Official Languages Rules, 1976, para. 3(2). [100] fficial Languages Rules, 1976, para. O 3(3).

External links
• Department of Official Language (DOL) – Official webpage explains the chronological events related to Official Languages Act and amendments

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Central Institute of Indian Languages – A comprehensive federal government site that offers complete info on Indian Languages • Reconciling Linguistic Diversity: The History and the Future of Language Policy in India by Jason Baldridge • Ethnologue – Ethnologue report on the languages of India • TDIL-MCIT,GoI – Technology Development for Indian Languages, Government of India

Languages with official status in India
• India at a Glance – The Official Portal of the Indian Government • The force of words - A TIME magazine article about India’s language controversy • Multi-lingualism and language policy in India • Free Online Indic Transliteration in all Indian Languages and to image conversion Bengali - Hindi - Kannada Malayalam - Oriya - Punjabi - Tamil Gujarati - Punjabi\Gurumukhi & Telugu

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_with_official_status_in_India" Categories: Lists of Indo-European languages, Languages of India This page was last modified on 21 May 2009, at 10:05 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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