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New York City mayoral elections

New York City mayoral elections
The Mayor of the City of New York is elected in early November every four years and takes office at the beginning of the following year. The City which elects the Mayor as her chief executive consists of The Five Boroughs (Manhattan, The Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island) which consolidated to form "Greater" New York on January 1, 1898. The consolidated City’s first Mayor, Robert A. Van Wyck, was elected with other municipal officers in November 1897. Mayoral Elections had previously been held since 1834 by the City of Brooklyn and the smaller, unconsolidated City of New York (Manhattan, later expanded into the Bronx). The current mayor of New York, now completing his second term, is Michael R. Bloomberg (elected in 2001 and 2005). The next mayoral election will be held in November 2009 for the term beginning on January 1, 2010. are magnified by the sheer size of the population. There was a history of a large socialist vote, there is a history of tension between ’regular’ and ’reform’ politicians, and there is the factor, not seen in most of the United States, of electoral fusion with the resulting plethora of smaller, yet influential, third parties. Further information: Characteristics of New York City mayoral elections

Terms and term limits (since 1834)
Direct elections to the mayoralty of the unconsolidated City of New York began in 1834 for a term of one year, extended to two years after 1849. The 1897 Charter of the consolidated City doubled the term to four years which could not be renewed. In 1901, the term limit was removed, but the term halved to two years. In 1905, the four-year term, without limit, was restored. (Mayors Fiorello La Guardia, Robert F. Wagner, Jr. and Ed Koch were later able to serve for twelve years each.) [1] In 1993, the voters approved a two-term (eight-year) limit, and reconfirmed this limit when the issue was submitted to referendum in 1996. In 2008, the New York City Council voted to extend the twoterm limit to three terms (without submitting the issue to the voters),[2] but this action faced legal challenges.[3] Principal source: The Encyclopedia of New York City (see Sources below), entries for "charter" and "mayoralty". 1. See List of mayors of New York City. 2. Mayor Strong, elected in 1894, served an extra year because no municipal election was held in 1896, in anticipation of the consolidated City’s switch to odd-year elections. 3. George B. McClellan, Jr. was elected to one two-year term (1904-1905) and one four-year term (1906-1909) 4. David Dinkins was not affected by the term limit enacted in 1993 because he had served only one term by 1993 and failed to win re-election.

Overview
Scope of this article
The vast bulk of this page’s contents is statistical: the main results, city-wide and by borough, of each of the 31 elections to the Mayoralty of the City of New York since Greater New York was consolidated from The Five Boroughs in 1897-1898. For many years, but not all, there are also results for minor candidates and for the different parties nominating the same major candidate. (Because minor parties’ votes are not uniformly available, totals and thus percentages can be slightly inconsistent, either between different elections or between individual boroughs and the whole City in the same election.) There are brief comments about some of the elections, and separate articles have been written for those of 1917, 1977, 1997, 2001, 2005 and 2009. Different elections are compared in many of the individual notes, in two summary tables and in one specialized table. New York City’s Mayoral elections have been marked by an interplay of factors that

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
year term term limit years

New York City mayoral elections
Mayor(s) affected 1

Unconsolidated City 1834 1 year (no limit) 1849 2 years 1897 4 years 1901 2 years 1905 4 years 1993 4 years 2008 4 years (no limit) 1 term (no limit) (no limit) 2 terms 3 terms (unlimited) all from Cornelius Van Wyck Lawrence to Caleb S. Woodhull (unlimited) all from Ambrose Kingsland to William L. Strong 2 Greater New York (The Five Boroughs) 4 years Robert A. Van Wyck (unlimited) Seth Low and George B. McClellan, Jr.3 (unlimited) all from George B. McClellan, Jr.3 to David Dinkins 4 8 years Rudolph Giuliani 5 12 years Michael Bloomberg 6 and his successors

5. The aerial assaults upon Manhattan of September 11th, 2001, coincided with the primary elections for a successor to Mayor Giuliani, who was completing his second and final term of office. Many were so impressed by both the urgency of the situation and Giuliani’s response that they wanted keep him in office beyond December 31, 2001, either by removing the term limit or by extending his service for a few months.[4] However, neither happened, the primary elections (with the same candidates) were re-run on September 25th, the general election was held as scheduled on November 6th, and Michael Bloomberg took office on the regularly-appointed date of January 1, 2002. 6. On October 2, 2008, Michael Bloomberg announced that he would ask the City Council to extend the limit for Mayor, Council and other officers from two terms to three, and that, should such an extended limit prevail, he himself would seek re-election as Mayor.[5] On October 23, the New York City Council voted 29-22 to extend the two-term limit to three terms. (A proposed amendment to submit the vote to a public referendum had failed earlier the same day by a vote of 22-28 with one abstention.)[2]

Interrupted terms
Mayors John T. Hoffman (1866-68, elected Governor 1868), William Havemeyer (1845-46, 1848-49 & 1873-74), William Jay Gaynor (1910-13), Jimmy Walker (1926-32) and William O’Dwyer (1946-50) failed to complete the final terms to which they were elected. The uncompleted mayoral terms of Hoffman, Walker and O’Dwyer were added to the other offices elected in (respectively) 1868, 1932 and 1950. † Became Acting Mayor as the President of the Board of Aldermen or (in 1950) City Council. (D) = (Democratic) (R) = (Republican) • Mayor was a Democrat who ran as a Republican against the Democratic Tweed Ring in 1872. • Acting Mayors , Vance and Kline did not seek election as Mayor. • Acting Mayors and Impellitteri were Democrats who lost the Democratic primary to succeed themselves, but still ran in the general election as independents. • Elected Mayor won re-election, while Mayor Wickham did not seek it. Mayors Mitchel and O’Brien lost attempts at reelection, while Mayor Impellitteri did not run for a full term in the 1953 regular general election after losing the Democratic primary.

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New York City mayoral elections

Interrupted Terms of New York City’s Elected Mayors since 1834 Elected Mayor John T. Hoffman (D) Wm Havemeyer (R) William Gaynor (D) Jimmy Walker (D) William O’Dwyer (D) Last End of Service Elected Dec. 1867 Nov. 1872 Nov. 1909 Nov. 1929 Nov. 1949 Interim Successor ??† Election Elected Successor A. Oakey Hall (D) William H. Wickham (D) John P. Mitchel (Fusion) John P. O’Brien (D) Vincent Impellitteri (Experience)

resigned 30 Thomas Coman Dec.1868 Nov. 1868 (D) (special) died 30 Nov. 1874 died 10 Sept. 1913 resigned 1 Sept. 1932 resigned 31 Aug. 1950 Samuel B. H. Nov. 1874 Vance (R) (regular) Ardolph L. Nov. 1913 Kline (R) (regular) Joseph V. Nov. 1932 McKee (D) (special) Vincent Impel- Nov. 1950 litteri (D) (special)

Summary tables
Principal candidates’ City-wide vote since 1897
This chart has several purposes. One is to provide ordinary readers with simple, basic information from a very detailed page. Another is to provide a handy index for those looking for a particular candidate or campaign. (Just click on the year, the candidate’s name, or the party name or abbreviation for more details.) A slightly more sophisticated purpose is to sketch out on one screen the flow of votes across parties and candidates, as affected by fusion, splitting, cross-endorsement and the emergence of new movements or personalities. Votes in thousands for principal candidates only, generally those winning more than 4.0% (1/25) of the total vote. (Therefore, low votes may not be shown in a particular year for an otherwise significant party, such as Socialist or Conservative. For some of the lesser left-wing candidates before 1945, see #Collapse of the Socialist Party vote below.) Total vote includes that for all candidates and parties, major and minor. Winner in bold-face in a colored box. Sitting mayor (elected or acting) at the time of the election in italics. To determine the meaning of abbreviations, click the link or check the list below this table. (Different first names, initials and nicknames may be used for the same person purely to fit the available space.) Abbreviations used in this table: Fu. or Fus = Fusion, Ind. = Independent, Ind Fu. = Independent Fusion (1989), Independence

= Independence Party of New York, L or Lib. = Liberal Party of New York, Cons. = Conservative Party of New York, ALP = American Labor Party, Soc. = Socialist Party of America, Jeff’n D = The Democracy of Thomas Jefferson (Henry George, 1897), Civic All’ce = Civic Alliance (Hearst 1909), Exp = Experience party (Impellitteri’s label for his independent campaign in 1950)

How the Boroughs voted
See the table above for more information about the candidates and parties involved. Blue indicates a candidate endorsed by the Democratic Party; pink one endorsed by the Republicans; and buff (or beige) one endorsed by neither party. (Darker shades indicate where a borough voted for a candidate who lost the city-wide vote.) In 1981, Edward Koch ran on the tickets of both the Democrats and the Republicans. Click a year to see the table or tables for that particular election (# indicates a link devoted to one specific election rather than to a set of two to six.) Although separate boroughs since 1898, The Bronx and Manhattan shared New York County and reported elections together until the separate Bronx County was formed in April 1912 and started her separate existence on January 1, 1914. The Borough of Richmond changed her name to the Borough of Staten Island in 1975, although the co-extensive Richmond County still retains that name. Although it was not uncommon for a candidate to carry all five boroughs in the same election, one can see some interesting variations. Since they started reporting separate

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
year Total Democratic ’000 ’000 Fusion, Lib- ’000 eral, Independent, etc.

New York City mayoral elections
Republican ’000 other major ’000 candidates

1897 532 1901 562 1903 595

Robert A. Van Wyck Edward Shepard Geo. B. McClellan, Jr George B. McClellan, Jr. William Jay Gaynor Edward E. McCall

234 Seth Low, Citizens Union 265 Seth Low, Fusion 315 Seth Low, Fusion 228 Wm Randolph Hearst, Municipal Ownership League

152 Benjamin F. Tracy 297 252

102 Henry George, Jeff’n D

22

1905 606

225 William M. Ivins (Senior)

137

1909 604 1913 627

250 Wm R. Hearst,
Civic All’ce

154 Otto Bannard, R-Fusion 358

177 Chas E. Russell, Soc 32

234 John P. Mitchel, Fusion

[The State of New York granted the vote to women in 1917, doubling the potential total vote.] 1917 692 John Francis Hylan 314 John P. Mitchel, Fusion 750 749 868 1,054 Joseph McKee, Ind
write-in

155 William M. Bennett Henry Curran, R-Coalition Frank D. Waterman Fiorello H. La Guardia 234 Lewis H. Pounds 609 F.H. La Guardia, RFusion

56 Morris Hillquit, Soc. 333 347 Jacob Panken, Soc. 368 Norman Thomas, Soc 443 Morris Hillquit, Soc. 869

145

1921 1,196 John Francis Hylan 1925 1,161 Jimmy Walker 1929 1,465 Jimmy Walker 1932 2,254 John P. O’Brien 1933 2,205 John P. O’Brien 1937 2,300 Jeremiah Mahoney, DTrades UnionAnticommunist

83 176 252

587 Jos.V. McKee, Recovery 891

Fiorello H. La 1,345 Guardia, R-ALPFusion-Progressive

1941 2,294 William O’Dwyer 1945 2,037 William O’Dwyer,
D-ALP

1,054

Fiorello H. La 1,187 Guardia, R-ALPFusion-United City

1,125 Newbold Morris, No Deal

408 Jonah Goldstein, R-Lib.-Fus.

432

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1949 2,663 William O’Dwyer 1950 2,697 Ferdinand Pecora, D-Lib. 1,267

New York City mayoral elections
Newbold Morris, R-Lib.-Fusion 956 Vito Marcan- 357 tonio ALP 382 Paul Ross, ALP 662 586 148

935 Vincent Im- 1,161 Edward Corsi pellitteri, Exp 467 Harold Riegelman Robert Christenberry 322 Louis Lefkowitz, RNonpartisanCivic Action John V. Lindsay, R-LiberalIndependent Citizens

1953 2,224 Robert F. 1,023 Rudolph Halley, Lib.-Ind. Wagner, Jr. 1957 2,224 Robt Wagner, D-LibFus

1,509

1961 2,467 Robert F. 1,237 Lawrence Gerosa, Ind.Wagner, Citizens Party Jr., D-LiberalBrotherhood

836

1965 2,652 Abraham Beame, DCivil Service Fusion

1,046

341 1,149 Wm F. Buckley, Jr, Conservative 543

1969 2,458 Mario Procaccino,
DNonpartisanCivil Service Ind

832 John V. Lind- 1,013 John Marchi, R-Conservative say, Liberal

1973 1,701 Abraham Beame 1977 1,370 Edward Koch 1981 1,223 Edward Koch, D-R 1985 1,107 Edward Koch, DInd. 1989 1,900 David Dinkins 1993 1,889 David Dinkins 1997 1,117 Ruth Messinger 2001 1,481 Mark Green, D-Working Families 2005 1,290 Fernando Ferrer

961 Albert Blumenthal, Lib. 717 Mario Cuomo, Liberal 913 Frank Barbaro, Unity 868 Carol Bellamy, Liberal 917

265 John Marchi

277 Mario Biaggi, Cons. 59 Barry Farber, Cons.

190

588 Roy M. Goodman 163 113 Diane McGrath, R-Cons. Rudolph Giuliani, R-L.-Ind
Fu.

57

102

870

877 479 709

Rudolph Giuliani, R-Lib. Rudolph Giuliani, R-Lib. Michael Bloomberg, R-Independence Michael Bloomberg,
R/Liberal – Independence

930 616 744

503

753

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
borough Manhattan and The Bronx county 1897 1901 1903 1905 1909 [ New York ] Van Wyck 48% Low 49% McClellan 56% McClellan 42% Gaynor 43% Brooklyn [ Kings ] Van Wyck 40% Low 55% McClellan 49%

New York City mayoral elections
Queens [ Queens ] Van Wyck 41% Shepard 49% McClellan 56% Richmond [S.I.] [ Richmond ] Van Wyck 44% Low 52% Low 48% Van Wyck 45% Low 51% McClellan 53% McClellan 38% City of New York

Hearst 39% Hearst 39% McClellan 44%

Gaynor 42% Gaynor 38% Gaynor 47% Gaynor 42% Brooklyn [ Kings ] Queens [ Queens ] Richmond [S.I.] [ Richmond ] City of New York

borough Manhattan The Bronx county 1913 #1917 #1921 #1925 #1929 #1932 #1933 #1937 #1941 #1945 #1949 #1950 #1953 #1957 #1961 #1965 #1969 [ New York ] Mitchel Hylan 46% Hylan 63% [ Bronx ] Mitchel Hylan 43% Hylan 68%

Mitchel 60% Mitchel 60% Mitchel 54% Mitchel 57% Hylan 47% Hylan 62% Walker 61% Walker 58% Hylan 52% Hylan 69% Walker 63% Walker 62% Hylan 58% Hylan 71% Walker 67% Walker 58% Hylan 47% Hylan 64% Walker 66% Walker 61%

Walker 70% Walker 72% Walker 64% Walker 63% O’Brien 61% La Guardia 38% La Guardia 58% La Guardia 56% O’Dwyer 56% O’Dwyer 45% Impellitteri 40% Wagner 48% Wagner 74% Wagner 56% Lindsay 56% Lindsay 67%

O’Brien 52% O’Brien 51% O’Brien 48% O’Brien 54% O’Brien 53% La Guardia 39% La Guardia 62% La Guardia 58% O’Dwyer 55% O’Dwyer 49% La Guardia 44% La Guardia 63% La Guardia 55% O’Dwyer 57% O’Dwyer 49% La Guardia 39% La Guardia 55% O’Dwyer 60% O’Dwyer 61% O’Dwyer 53% La Guardia 44% La Guardia 56% O’Dwyer 60% O’Dwyer 66% O’Dwyer 65% Impellitteri 60% La Guardia 40% La Guardia 60% La Guardia 52% O’Dwyer 55% O’Dwyer 48% Impellitteri 44%

Pecora 42% Pecora 41% Impellitteri 55%

Wagner 46% Wagner 47% Wagner 41% Wagner 52% Wagner 46% Wagner 77% Wagner 75% Wagner 64% Wagner 65% Wagner 68% Wagner 56% Wagner 53% Wagner 46% Lefkowitz 42% Wagner 50.1%

Beame 47% Beame 47% Lindsay 47% Lindsay 46% Lindsay 43% Procaccino 41% Procaccino Lindsay 36% Marchi 62% Lindsay 42% 41%

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
#1973 Beame 49% Beame 57% Beame 63% Brooklyn [ Kings ] Koch Koch Koch Dinkins Dinkins Giuliani Green 52% Bloomberg 58%

New York City mayoral elections
Beame 57% Queens [ Queens ] Cuomo Koch Koch Giuliani Giuliani Giuliani Bloomberg 55% Bloomberg 64% Beame 47% Staten Island [ Richmond ] Cuomo Koch Koch Giuliani Giuliani Giuliani Bloomberg 77% Bloomberg 77% Koch 52% Koch 75% Koch 78% Dinkins 48% Giuliani 49% Giuliani 55% Bloomberg 50% Bloomberg 58% Beame 57% City of New York

borough Manhattan The Bronx county #1977 #1981 #1985 #1989 #1993 #1997 #2001 #2005 [ New York ] Koch Koch Koch Dinkins Dinkins Giuliani [ Bronx ] Koch Koch Koch Dinkins Dinkins Messinger

Green 52% Green 55% Bloomberg 60% Ferrer 60%

returns in 1913, The Bronx has supported only one Republican (Fiorello La Guardia) and Manhattan has opposed only two successful candidates (Giuliani in 1993 and Bloomberg in 2001). On the other hand, in the last ten elections contested between Democratic and Republican candidates (i.e. excluding 1981, when Ed Koch was endorsed by both parties), Queens and Staten Island have voted for only two Democratic candidates, Abe Beame in 1973 and Koch in 1985. The City as a whole elected four of the Democratic candidates in those same ten elections, from 1965 to 2005. The Bronx supported all ten, Brooklyn eight, and Manhattan six.

2001
The 2001 mayoral election was held on Tuesday, November 6. Republican incumbent Rudy Giuliani could not run again due to term limits. As Democrats outnumber Republicans by 5 to 1 in the city, it was widely believed that a Democrat would succeed him in City Hall. However, billionaire Michael Bloomberg, a lifelong Democrat, changed his party affiliation a few months before the election in order to avoid a crowded primary, and ran as a Republican. The Democratic primary was meant to be held on September 11 but was postponed due to the September 11 attacks; it was instead held on September 25. The primary opened the way to a bitter run-off between the Bronx-born Puerto Rican Fernando Ferrer, and Mark J. Green, a non-Hispanic who attacked Ferrer’s close ties to Rev. Al Sharpton, leaving the party divided along racial lines. Bloomberg spent $74 million on his election campaign, which was a record amount at the time for a non-presidential election (Bloomberg would break his own record in 2005). [1] Thanks also in part to active support from Giuliani, whose approval ratings shot up after the September 11 attacks, Bloomberg won a very close general election.

Upcoming elections
2009

Recent elections
2005
In 2005, Mayor Bloomberg won every borough but The Bronx (of which his Democratic opponent was the former Borough President) against a Democratic Party split by a divisive primary, in contrast to his first victory in 2001, when Bloomberg carried only Queens and Staten Island. Source: Board of Elections in the City of New York http://www.vote.nyc.ny.us/results.html

1997
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2005 party Manhattan The Bronx + 98,973

New York City mayoral elections
Brooklyn Queens Staten Total Island – + 10,705 214,381 + + 35,489 61,227 + + 50,522 249,870 % + 17.0% + 2.4% + 19.4% 52.6% 5.8%

change in Bloomberg’s margin of victory, 2001-2005

– 19,634 + 97,622 + 48,125 – 21,683 – 28,182 + 46,904

Bloomberg’s margin over Mark – 22,777 Green (2001) Bloomberg’s margin over Ferrer (2005) + 76,196

– 41,317 + 69,440 + 95,029 69,577 35.3% 6,840 3.5% 76,417 38.8% 189,581 52.7% 20,141 5.6% 209,723 58.2%

Michael R. Republican\Liberal 171,593 Bloomberg 52.6% Independence 25,416 7.8% Total 197,010 60.4% Fernando Ferrer Thomas V. Ognibene Anthony Gronowicz Jimmy McMillan Martin Koppel Seth A Blum Write-ins TOTAL Democratic 120,813 37.0% Conservative Green Rent Is Too Damn High Socialist Workers Education 1,729 3,195 1,369 991 758 322 109 326,295

184,426 63,267 678,444 57.9% 17,689 5.6% 71.5% 4,559 5.2% 74,645

202,116 67,827 753,089 63.5% 76.7%

58.4%

117,734 140,282 59.8% 1,185 466 474 234 231 131 1 39.0% 3,573 3,112 1,293 841 766 382 90

107,086 17,304 503,219 33.6% 5,645 1,285 799 617 384 264 57 19.6% 2,498 239 176 205 117 77 12 14,630 8,297 4,111 2,888 2,256 1,176 269

39.0%

1.1% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% .02%

Audrey Silk Libertarian

196,873 360,061

318,252 88,454 1,289,935

Notes: • In the Democratic Primary, Messinger defeated Rev. Al Sharpton, avoiding a runoff election. • Figures are for 99% of precincts reporting

1977
In his 2005 book Ladies and Gentlemen, The Bronx Is Burning, historian Jonathan Mahler argues that the New York City blackout of 1977, with its accompanying rioting, enabled the law-and-order advocate Ed Koch to beat out his more left-wing opponents, including incumbent mayor Abe Beame, in the 1977 election. Note that the eventual winner, Rep. Ed Koch, could not win a plurality in any of the Five Boroughs for the initial Democratic primary. Rep. Bella Abzug took Manhattan, Mayor Abe Beame Brooklyn, Rep. Herman Badillo the Bronx, and NY Sec. of State Mario Cuomo Queens & Staten Island. In the

Past elections
1993 1989 1985 1981
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2001 General Election party Manhattan The Bronx – 22,777

New York City mayoral elections
Brooklyn Queens Staten Island + 46,904 + 61,227 Total %

Bloomberg’s margin over Green

– 21,683 – 28,182 72,551 8,046 80,597 43.1% 97,087 5,193 174,053 14,987 189,040 45.7% 206,005 11,217

+ 35,489 685,666 59,091 744,757

+ 2.4% 46.3% 4.0% 50.3%

162,096 Michael R. Republican Bloomberg Independence 17,701 Total 179,797 46.1% Mark Green Democratic Working Families Total 193,372 9,202 202,574 52.0% Alan G. Hevesi Liberal Better Schools Total Julia Willebrand Terrance M. Gray Thomas K. Leighton Kenny Kramer Bernhard H. Goetz Kenneth B. Golding Green Conservative Marijuana Reform Libertarian Fusion American Dream 2,684 416 3,100 2,241 507 791 368 203 96 114 389,791 9,186 398,977

196,241 80,725 14,191 4,166

210,432 84,891 55.3% 77.1%

157,897 22,356 5,631 1,308

676,717 32,551 709,268

45.7% 2.2% 47.9%

102,280 217,222 54.7% 847 772 1,619 670 642 529 296 201 112 57 52.5% 2,124 628 2,752 2,456 844 680 338 333 163 26

163,528 23,664 43.0% 1,886 407 2,293 1,579 1,219 418 306 253 81 106 21.5% 486 81 567 209 365 145 100 59 22 29

8,027 2,304 10,331 7,155 3,577 2,563 1,408 1,049 474 332

0.5% 0.2% 0.7% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% .03% .02%

scattered votes TOTAL RECORDED VOTE (unrecorded votes) Total vote

187,003 413,854 6,125 12,097

380,215 110,051 1,480,914 (100.0%) 10,285 1,836 39,529

193,128 425,951

390,500 111,887 1,520,443

Democratic run-off with Cuomo, Koch took Queens and three other boroughs, leaving Cuomo with only Staten Island. In the general election, Cuomo kept Staten Island and won back Queens, but lost the other three boroughs (Manhattan, Brooklyn and The Bronx) to Koch.

1929 to 1973
Some figures and anecdotes courtesy James Trager’s New York Chronology (HarperCollins: 2003). Other numbers are from The World Almanac and Book of Facts, then published by The New York World-Telegram (Scripps-Howard), for 1943 (page 412) and 1957 (page 299), and from The

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Democratic Primary Runoff Manhattan The Bronx Mark Green Fernando Ferrer 131,438 86,579 38,256

New York City mayoral elections

Brooklyn Queens Staten Island 7,193

Total

120,781 94,342 18,183 403,000 387,019 790,019

106,086 109,831 77,330

Democratic Primary Manhattan The Bronx Fernando Ferrer Mark Green Peter F. Vallone (Sr.) Alan G. Hevesi George N. Spitz 60,839 83,856 25,296 32,925 1,558 Brooklyn Queens Staten Island 49,441 5,084 Total 279,451 243,182

86,571 77,516 26,125 18,268 6,066 1,264 77,805 51,210 25,110 2,923

49,692 5,704 48,576 27,163 2,489

11,842 155,192 3,504 283 94,768 8,517 785,365

Republican Primary Manhattan The Bronx Michael Bloomberg Herman Badillo 10,959 4,161 3,230 1,838 Brooklyn Queens Staten Island 10,168 4,153 14,543 9,155 5,700 2,624 Total 48,055 18,476 72,961 General Election Manhattan The Bronx Republican Liberal Democratic Rudolph W. Giuliani Ruth Messinger Others 138,718 128,478 5,534 81,897 Brooklyn Queens Staten Total Island

173,343 176,751 45,120 615,829 10,288 479,288 1,961 21,241 1,116,358

102,979 145,349 92,194 2,901 6,259 4,586

Encyclopedia of New York City (see Sources below). Before 1975, the present Borough of Staten Island was formally known as The Borough of Richmond.

note: All the candidates except Marchi had run in the Democratic primary.

1969
note: In one of the most unusual primary seasons since the conglomeration of greater New York, the incumbent Mayor (Lindsay) and a former incumbent (Robert F. Wagner,

1973
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
General Election Manhattan The Bronx change in Giuliani margin Giuliani – Dinkins, 1989 Giuliani – Dinkins, 1993 Republican Liberal Democratic Rudolph W. Giuliani David N. Dinkins + 21,433 – 97,600 – 76,167 166,357 242,524

New York City mayoral elections

Brooklyn Queens + 16,428

Staten Island + 26,517 + 67,392

Total + 100,447 – 47,080 + 53,367

+ 8,256 + 27,786

– 72,471 – 39,071 + 94,670

– 64,215 – 11,285 + + 111,098 93,909 98,780

258,058 291,625 115,416 930,236 876,869 15,926 1,889,003

162,995 269,343 180,527 21,507

Conservative - George J. Right to Life Marlin

General Election Manhattan The Bronx Dinkins’ lead over Giuliani Democratic Republican Liberal Independent Right to Life Conservative David N. Dinkins Rudolph W. Giuliani Henry Hewes Ronald S. Lauder + 97,600 + 72,471 255,286 157,686 Brooklyn Queens + 39,071 Staten Total Island

– 94,670 – + 47,080 67,392

172,271 276,903 190,096 22,988 917,544 99,800 237,832 284,766 90,380 870,464

17,460 9,271 1,899,845

Democratic Primary Manhattan The Bronx David N. Dinkins Edward I. Koch Harrison J. Goldin Richard Ravitch 151,113 96,923 6,889 17,499 Brooklyn Queens Staten Island Total

101,274 170,440 113,952 11,122 547,901 66,600 4,951 5,946 139,268 129,262 24,260 456,313 9,619 13,214 5,857 9,443 1,493 1,432 28,809 47,534

Jr.) both lost their parties’ primaries. Procaccino won with less than 33% of the vote against four opponents, which inspired the

use of runoffs in future primaries. In the general election, Lindsay carried Manhattan (the only borough he had carried in losing the

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
General Election Manhattan The Bronx Democratic Independent Liberal Republican Conservative Edward I. Koch Diane McGrath 171,582

New York City mayoral elections

Brooklyn Queens Staten Island

Total

137,472 248,585 248,041 62,580 868,260 14,092 12,358 29,256 25,738 25,098 36,032 3,835 113,471

Carol Bellamy 41,190 17,491

10,049 101,668 1,106,762

General Election Manhattan The Bronx Democratic Republican Unity Edward I. Koch Frank J. Barbaro 189,631 56,702 Brooklyn Queens Staten Island Total

132,421 261,292 275,812 53,466 912,622 22,074 48,812 31,225 3,906 162,719 1,222,644

General Election Manhattan The Bronx Democratic Liberal Neighborhood Government Republican Conservative Edward I. Koch Mario M. Cuomo Roy M. Goodman Barry M. Farber 184,842 77,531 Brooklyn Queens Staten Total Island

116,436 204,934 191,894 19,270 717,376 87,421 173,321 208,748 40,932 587,913

19,321

6,102

11,491

18,460

3,229

58,606 57,437 1,370,142

1977 Democratic Primary Runoff Manhattan The Bronx Edward I. Koch 114,084 Mario M. Cuomo 61,555 55,017 Brooklyn Queens Staten Island Total 431,839

69,230 131,538 107,182 9,770

112,862 105,149 19,639 354,222

Republican primary to Marchi, 107,000 to 113,000) as he did in 1965, but he was only 4,000 votes ahead of giving first place in Queens to Procaccino. Turnout dropped to 2.4 million from 2.6 million in 1965. (In the same election, Lindsay’s 1965 opponent Abe Beame was easily returned to his old job of Comptroller.) [6]

1965
Over a quarter of Lindsay’s vote (293,194) was on the Liberal Party line, while over 60,000 of Beame’s votes were on the Civil Service Fusion line. John Lindsay, a Republican Congressman from the "Silk-Stocking"

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Democratic Primary Manhattan The Bronx Edward I. Koch 49,855 Mario M. Cuomo Abraham D. Beame Bella Abzug Percy Sutton Herman Badillo 1973 Gener- party al Election Abraham Beame John Marchi Democratic Republican 25,056 23,057 54,591 34,742 26,895 23,237 22,939 25,534 20,429 24,588

New York City mayoral elections

Brooklyn Queens Staten Island 49,894 55,439 62,921 37,790 42,215 51,515 5,747

Total 180,248

56,719 10,335 170,488 44,342 33,623 28,286 8,961 7,306 4,286 1,366 868 163,610 150,719 131,197 99,808

34,246 28,838

Manhattan The Bronx 158,050 49.0% 45,803 14.2% 101,117 31.3% 5.5% 322,852 57.0% 37,609 13.3% 32,661 11.6% 50,805 18.0%

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

% 56.5% 16.3% 15.6% 11.2%

160,774 321,477 63.4% 73,776 14.5% 60,340 11.9% 51,713 10.2%

283,474 37,355 56.6% 90,942 18.2% 66,059 13.2% 60,490 12.1% 46.7% 28,445 35.5% 5,120 6.4% 9,096 11.4%

961,130 276,575 265,297 189,986

Liberal Albert H. Blumenthal Mario Biaggi subtotal others TOTAL 1973 Democratic initial primary Abraham Beame Herman Badillo Albert H. Blumenthal Mario Biaggi subtotal (for the top 4 candidates only)

Conservative 17,882

281,849 507,306

500,965 80,016

1,692,988 99.5% 7,883 1,700,871 0.5%

Manhattan The Bronx 45,901 26% 73,676 41% 41,906 23% 17,830 10% 179,313 41,508 27% 55,432 36% 18,400 12% 39,462 25%

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

%

96,621 41% 57,836 25% 31,913 14% 48,352 21%

73,520 40% 33,990 19% 28,960 16% 45,992 25%

8,912 42% 2,902 14% 2,062 10% 7,524 35%

266,462 34% 223,836 29% 123,241 16% 159,160 21% 772,699 [100%]

154,802 234,722

182,462 21,400

District on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, carried Manhattan, Queens, and traditionally-Republican Staten Island (Richmond), while Abe Beame, the City

Comptroller, carried The Bronx and his home borough of Brooklyn, both of which he had also won in the Democratic primary. However, while Beame had also carried

13

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1973 Democratic run-off primary Abraham Beame Herman Badillo TOTAL 1969 General Election John V. Lindsay party Manhattan The Bronx 77,928 41% 112,482 59% 190,410 97,415 53% 86,482 47%

New York City mayoral elections
Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

%

201,866 68% 93,140 32%

153,415 17,999 73% 57,658 27% 78% 4,819 21%

548,623 60.7% 354,581 39.3% 903,204 %

183,897 295,006

211,073 22,818

Manhattan The Bronx

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

Liberal 328,564 Independent 67.1%

161,953 256,046 40.1% 41.0% 76,711 19.0% 36.0% 42.4% 152,933 21.5% 165,647 301,324

249,330 16,740 36.3% 35.8% 17.5% 245,783 19,558 20.5%

1,012,633 41.2% 831,772 33.8%

Democratic - 99,460 Mario Procaccino Civil Service 20.3% Fusion John Marchi Republican - 61,539 Conservative 12.6% subtotal others TOTAL 1969 Republican primary 489,563

192,008 59,220 27.9% 62.0% 687,121 95,518

542,411

22.1%

404,311 710,303

2,386,816 97.1% 71,387 2,458,203 2.9%

Manhattan The Bronx [Lindsay minus + 31,779 Marchi] John V. Lindsay 44,236 John J. Marchi 12,457

Brooklyn Queens Staten Island

Total

– 3,910 – 13,119 – 13,811 12,222 20,575 26,658 16,132 33,694

– 7,271 – 6,332 3,675 107,366 221,064

40,649 10,946 113,698

Queens in the primary, he lost it to Lindsay in the general election.[7] (Five years later, Bill Buckley’s brother James L. Buckley would win the 1970 New York state election for U.S. Senator on the Conservative Party line against divided opposition.)

1961. Gerosa ran against Wagner for Mayor as the "real Democrat" on a pro-taxpayer platform. 211,000 of Wagner’s 1,237,000 votes came on the Liberal Party line, and 55,000 on the purpose-built Brotherhood line.[8]

1961
Mayor Wagner broke with the regular Democratic organization which had supported him in 1953 and 1957, defeating their candidate, Arthur Levitt, in the Democratic primary 61% to 39%. At the same time, after running successfully with Lawrence Gerosa for Comptroller in the previous two elections, Wagner chose to run instead with Abraham Beame in

1957
The Wagner-Christenberry campaign has left us one of the great campaign anecdotes: Christenberry was railing against Wagner’s police department for not doing enough to fight corruption and vice, so the cops raided Christenberry’s illegal casino in the basement of the hotel he was manager of.

1953
14

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1969 Democratic primary Manhattan The Bronx Mario Procaccino 26,804

New York City mayoral elections

Brooklyn Queens Staten Island

Total

50,465 87,650 34% 33,442 23% 48,841 33% 4,214 3% 10,788 7% 36% 81,833 33% 52,866 22% 10,299 4% 11,942 5%

79,002 11,628 255,529 40% 61,244 31% 37,880 19% 8,700 4% 8,994 5% 52% 6,967 31% 2,769 12% 703 3% 509 2% 33% 224,464 29% 217,165 28% 41,288 5% 39,350 5% 777,796

percentage 16% Robert F. Wag- 40,978 ner, Jr. percentage 25% Herman Badillo 74,809

percentage 45% Norman Mailer 17,372 percentage 10% James H. Scheuer 7,117

percentage 4%

1965 General Election John V. Lindsay

party

Manhattan The Bronx

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

%

Republican - 291,326 Liberal 55.8% Independent Citizens

181,072 308,398 39.5% 40.0%

331,162 37,148 46.9% 45.8%

1,149,106 43.3%

Abraham Democratic - 193,230 Civil Service 37.0% Beame Fusion William Conservative 37,694 F. 7.2% Buckley, Jr. subtotal others TOTAL 522,250

213,980 365,360 46.6% 63,858 13.9% 47.4% 97,679 12.7%

250,662 23,467 35.5% 28.9%

1,046,699 39.4%

123,544 20,451 17.5% 25.2%

343,226

12.9%

458,910 771,437

705,368 81,066

2,539,031 95.7% 115,420 2,654,451 4.3%

"Industrial Government" is a ballot title sometimes used, to avoid confusion or to meet election laws, by the Socialist Labor Party. The Liberal Party of New York won over five times as many votes as the American Labor Party in Manhattan, and eight-toten times as many in the other boroughs. The ALP lost its ballot status after the 1954 Governor’s race, and voted to dissolve itself in 1956.

1950
15

Vincent Impellitteri, the mayor who succeeded mid-term after William O’Dwyer resigned on August 31, 1950, swept Manhattan, Queens and Staten Island in this special election, while Ferdinand Pecora (aided by the Liberal Party) took very narrow leads in The Bronx and Brooklyn. In this election, the Liberals heavily outpolled the American Labor Party in every borough but Manhattan and Staten Island, where the two parties’ votes were almost equal.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1965 Democratic primary Manhattan The Bronx Abraham D. Beame Paul R. Screvane William F. Ryan Paul O’Dwyer 53,386 66,444 48,744 6,771

New York City mayoral elections

Brooklyn Queens Staten Island

Total 336,345 271,381 113,738 28,675 750,139

66,064 128,146 82,601 6,148 54,260 16,632 5,976 79,485 24,588 8,332 63,680 22,570 6,895 7,512 1,204 697

1961 General Election

party

Manhattan The Bronx 265,015 55.6%

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

%

Robert F. Democratic Wagner, Liberal Brotherhood Jr.

255,528 396,539 55.8% 52.7%

290,194 30,145 45.8% 41.0%

1,237,421 50.15%

Republican 174,471 Louis Lefkowitz Nonpartisan - 36.6% Civic Action Lawrence Independent - 36,893 E. Gerosa Citizens’ Party 7.7% subtotal others TOTAL 1961 Democratic primary 476,379

134,964 251,258 29.5% 67,213 14.7% 33.4% 105,232 14.0%

243,836 31,162 38.5% 99,987 15.8% 42.3% 12,279 16.7%

835,691

33.87%

321,604

13.03%

457,705 753,029

634,017 73,586

2,394,716 97.05% 72,830 2,467,546 2.95%

Manhattan The Bronx 78,626 62% 47,885 38%

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

%

Robert F. Wagner, 122,607 Jr. 65% Arthur Levitt 66,917 35% subtotal (for Wagn- 189,524 er and Levitt only)

136,440 57% 103,296 43%

102,845 15,498 62% 64,157 38% 60% 10,471 40%

456,016 61% 292,726 39% 748,742 [100%]

126,511 239,736

167,002 25,969

1949 1945
The No Deal Party (according to Chris McNickle in The Encyclopedia of New York City) was founded by the retiring maverick Republican Mayor Fiorello La Guardia to draw Republican votes towards Newbold Morris and away from the official Republican Party with whom La Guardia was having a dispute. The No Deal Party dissolved soon after the 1945 election. Newbold Morris was

a Republican, while Jonah Goldstein was a Democrat until nomination day.

1941
As in 1937, more voters in every borough voted on the Democratic line than on any other single line; but this time (unlike 1937) the Democrat carried Queens and Staten Island over La Guardia, shrinking the Mayor’s overall citywide percentage lead from 20% to 6%. As in 1937, La Guardia’s overall margin of victory depended on the American Labor

16

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1957 Robert F. Wagner, Jr. party Manhattan The Bronx 76.6% 96,726 23.4%

New York City mayoral elections
Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

%

Democratic 316,203 - Liberal - 73.8% Fusion

316,299 494,078 75.1% 163,427 24.9%

341,212 40,983 64.1% 64.7%

1,508,775 67.8%

Republican 112,173 Robert Christenberry 26.2% subtotal others TOTAL 1953 Robert F. Wagner, Jr. party Democratic 428,376

191,061 22,381 35.9% 35.3% 532,273 63,364

585,768

26.3%

413,025 657,505

2,094,543 94.2% 129,511 2,224,054 5.8%

Manhattan The Bronx 236,960 47.9% 147,876 29.9% 76,884 84,532 17.1% 46.2% 97,224 21.7% 9,853 27.4% 13,290 7,760

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

%

206,771 339,970 46.6% 183,968 25.2% 13,264 24.1% 17,337 13,062

207,918 31,007 40.6% 51.8%

1,022,626 45.6%

Republican Harold Riegelman Rudolph Halley Liberal Total Clifford T. McAvoy David L. Weiss Nathan Karp scattered unrecorded (blank, spoiled, etc.) TOTAL

208,829 23,694 40.8% 73,192 7,356 80,548 15.7% 7,182 7,254 39.6% 3,514 295 3,809 6.4% 332 1,019

661,591 428,690 38,416 467,106 53,045 2,054 916 180 36,630

29.5% 19.1% 1.7% 20.8% 2.4% 0.1% .04% .01% 1.6%

112,825 162,275 122,678 175,539

Independent 7,648

American 14,904 Labor Party Socialist Workers Industrial Gov’t [SLP] 10,683

494,955

447,723 729,876

511,731 59,861

2,244,146 from roughly

Party, which again won more votes than the Republicans in The Bronx. While the total vote and Republican vote were almost identical in 1937 and 1941, the ALP line lost 47,000 votes (2.4%), almost entirely from Manhattan (-18,000) and Brooklyn (-26,000), as the vote on La Guardia’s other lines (Fusion, Progressive and United City) dropped from 187,000 (8.3%) to 86,000 (3.7%). The Democratic Party gained about 160,000 votes lost by La Guardia (and about 7½ % of the total). In both Queens and Richmond (Staten Island), the swing was even greater: La Guardia lost over 15% of the total vote (and the Democrats gained over 15%) from 1937,

as his lead there flipped 56%-44% to 39%-60%.

1937
Note that the leading line in every borough, and in the City as a whole, is the Democratic line for Judge Mahoney. Running on the Republican line alone (as he did when losing the election of 1929), Mayor La Guardia would have lost every borough, but he carried all five when the American Labor Party line was added. The ALP line did better than the Republican line in The Bronx, although worse than the Democratic one.

17

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1950 party Manhattan The Bronx 41.3% 59,717 41.6% 54,796 10.5% 34,575

New York City mayoral elections
Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

%

Experience 246,608 Vincent Impellitteri 40.4% Ferdinand Pecora Democratic 166,240 Liberal Total Edward Corsi Paul Ross 48,370 214,610 35.1% Republican 102,575 16.8% American Labor Party 47,201

215,913 357,322 40.5% 90,576 41.0% 113,392 12.8% 49,999 157,537 271,670 217,254 362,246

303,448 37,884 55.5% 24,489 23.6% 99,225 18.1% 14,904 60.0% 104,734 11,177 841 19.0% 12,384 19.6% 899 129,223 12,018

1,161,175 44.2% 711,358 223,993 935,351 382,372 147,578 27.1% 8.5% 35.6% 14.6% 5.6%

TOTAL 1949 William O’Dwyer Newbold Morris party

610,994

522,538 882,959

546,800 63,185

2,626,476 %

Manhattan The Bronx 44.8% 48.7% 35.5% 82,386 15.8%

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

Democratic 278,343 Republican 219,430 - Liberal - 35.3% Fusion 123,128 19.8% 620,901

254,014 425,225 48.8% 38.2% 113,478 13.0% 185,248 332,433

270,062 38,868 53.4% 39.7% 34,677 6.9% 64.5% 200,552 18,406 30.6% 2,957 4.9%

1,266,512 47.6% 956,069 35.9%

American Vito Marcantonio Labor subtotal others TOTAL 1945 William O’Dwyer party

356,626

13.4%

521,648 871,136

505,291 60,231

2,579,207 96.9% 83,710 2,662,917 3.1%

Manhattan The Bronx 55.3%

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

%

Democratic 253,371 55.8% American Labor

227,818 386,335 56.5%

228,275 29,558 61.5% 66.3%

1,125,357 55.3%

Jonah J. Republican 100,591 Goldstein - Liberal - 22.2% Fusion Newbold No Deal Morris subtotal others TOTAL 100,064 22.0% 454,026

95,582 23.2% 88,404 21.5%

161,119 23.6% 136,262 19.9%

65,240 17.6% 77,687 20.9%

9,069 20.4% 5,931 13.3%

431,601

21.2%

408,348

20.0%

411,804 683,716

371,202 44,558

1,965,306 96.5% 71,385 2,036,691 3.5%

1933
While opposed by Tammany Hall, McKee enjoyed the support of Democratic President

(and former Governor) Franklin D. Roosevelt, who declared neutrality when his ally Mayor La Guardia was running for reelection in

18

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1941 party Manhattan The Bronx – 21,481 – 31,205

New York City mayoral elections
Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

% – 14.5% + 20.3% + 5.8% 29.5% 19.2%

change in La Guardia’s margin of victory, 1937-1941 La Guardia’s margin over Jeremiah Mahoney (1937) La Guardia’s margin over O’Dwyer (1941) Fiorello H. La Guardia

–116,061

–133,684 – 19,160

– 321,591

+ 91,989

+105,517 +207,869 + 40,966

+ 7,533

+ 453,874 + 132,283 668,485 435,374

+ 70,508

+ 74,312 + 91,808 – 92,718 – 11,627 103,420 22.9% 135,900 30.1% 14,719 5,568 259,607 57.6% 185,295 41.1% 6,005 242,537 30.5% 174,601 21.9% 17,024 5,694 439,856 55.2% 348,048 43.7% 8,574 116,359 17,318 27.1% 39,693 9.3% 8,759 1,770 30.7% 3,538 6.3% 1,223 170

Republican 188,851 35.6% American Labor Party 81,642 15.4%

City Fusion 21,642 United City 6,090 Total 298,225 56.2% William Democratic 227,717 O’Dwyer 42.9%
[9]

63,367 19,292

2.8% 0.9%

166,581 22,249 38.8% 39.4%

1,186,518 52.4%

259,299 33,876 60.5% 2,973 60.1% 274

1,054,235 46.6%

GeSocialist orge W. Hartmann TOTA L

4,790

22,616

1.0%

530,732

450,907

796,478

428,853 56,399

2,263,369

#1937. (See Ed Flynn’s comments about FDR’s 1936 contribution to starting the American Labor Party in the #References below.) According to Michael Tomasky, La Guardia, who had lost the #1921 Republican Mayoral primary to Manhattan Borough President Henry Curran, did not enjoy the support of a united Republican Party when he won the party’s nomination and lost the general election in #1929, but was able to win over Republican organizational support in 1933.[11]

Collapse of the Socialist Party vote
In 1933, a year that might otherwise have favored the Socialist Party’s chances, the New Deal began, Morris Hillquit died, Norman Thomas refused to run again for Mayor, and the Socialist vote (previously as high as one-eighth to one-fifth of the total) collapsed irretrievably from a quarter of a million to

sixty thousand (one-thirtieth of the total). Many supporters of Thomas’s 1929 campaign defected (some, like Paul Blanshard leaving the Party) to support Fiorello La Guardia.[12] By the time of the next Mayoral election in 1937, which the Socialist Party decided by internal referendum not to contest, many reformers and trade-unionists who wanted to support major-party progressives like La Guardia (R-ALP-Fusion), Gov. Herbert Lehman (D-ALP) and Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt (D-ALP) from outside the two-party structure backed the American Labor Party (ALP), the Social Democratic Federation and later the Liberal Party of New York.[13] After a disastrous gubernatorial campaign in 1938 (where Thomas and George Hartmann won only 25,000 votes out of over 4.7 million), the Socialist Party lost its separate line on the New York ballot, allowed its members to join the ALP, and in fact encouraged them to do

19

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1937 party Manhattan The Bronx

New York City mayoral elections
Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

% + 20.3% 30.2% 21.6%

La Guardia’s margin over + 91,989 Mahoney Fiorello H. La Guardia Republican 181,518 32.1% American Labor Party Fusion 99,735 17.6% 39,959 7.1% Progressive 7,783 Total 328,995 58.1%
[10]Jeremiah

+105,517 +207,869 + 40,966 96,468 22.0% 138,756 31.6% 30,677 7.0% 6,421 272,322 62.0% 163,856 37.3% 1,378 1,571 166,805 38.0% 439,127 228,313 29.2% 200,783 25.7% 55,423 7.1% 9,997 494,516 63.3% 282,137 36.1% 2,490 2,020 286,647 36.7% 781,163

+ 7,533

+ 453,874 674,611 482,790

144,433 23,879 37.3% 40,153 10.4% 26,217 6.8% 3,136 55.3% 38.4% 3,363 5.4% 7,280 11.7% 336 56.1%

159,556 27,673

7.1% 1.2%

213,939 34,858

1,344,630 60.2%

Democratic 233,120 41.2% Trades Union 2,044

171,002 27,100 44.2% 1,014 957 43.6% 122 103

877,215 7,048 6,493 890,756

39.2% 0.3% 0.3% 39.8%

T. Mahoney

Anti1,842 Communist Total 237,006 41.9% TOTAL 1933 party 566,001

172,973 27,325 44.7% 43.9%

386,912 62,183

2,235,386 % 40.4%

Manhattan The Bronx 38.8%

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

Fiorello Republican 203,479 - Fusion H. La 38.4% Guardia Joseph V. McKee Recovery 123,707 23.3%

151,669 331,920 44.4%

154,369 27,085 39.3% 43.7%

868,522

131,280 194,558 33.6% 93,403 23.9% 14,758 26.0% 194,335 26.0% 26,941

141,296 18,212 36.0% 90,501 23.0% 6,669 29.4% 15,784 25.4% 953

609,053

28.3%

John P. Democratic 192,649 O’Brien 36.3% Charles Socialist Solomon (subtotal) Robert Minor Communist 10,525 530,360

586,672 59,846

27.3% 3.0%

391,110 747,754

392,835 62,034 26,044 2,150,137 1.3%

TOTAL so. In 1939, the Socialist Harry W. Laidler, a co-founder of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society and League for Industrial Democracy, was elected (with the help of proportional

representation) to the New York City Council on the ALP’s ticket, but lost its renomination two years later because of rivalry with the Communists.[14] [Although not apparent from

20

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
the table below, the Communist Party’s vote for other municipal offices, such as City Council and President of the Board of Aldermen, was increasing at the same time that the Socialist Party’s was declining below the Communists’. But in 1936, when the foundation of the ALP coincided with world Communism’s shift from independent action towards the Popular Front, New York City Communists redirected much of their own energy towards supporting the ALP.] [15] [Click on the year for fuller details. ALP = American Labor Party (see commentary above). Socialist Labor Party candidates and votes not listed by The World Almanac for every year.] † In 1894 and in 1897, Lucien Sanial was the mayoral candidate of the Socialist Labor Party before both the SLP and the Social Democratic Party each split in two. In 1901, one faction of the SLP, led by Morris Hillquit, and one faction of the SDP, led by Eugene V. Debs, united to form the Socialist Party of America, which soon drew away many votes formerly cast for the SLP. For further details, see Hillquit’s History of Socialism in the United States (1910) and Howard Quint’s Forging of American Socialism (1964), both cited in the #References at the end of this article.

New York City mayoral elections

1929
The great stock market crash hit Wall Street on October 24-29, 1929, less than two weeks before Election Day. Richard E. Enright was New York City Police Commissioner from 1918 to 1925.

1897 to 1925
¶ Basic numbers for the elections of 1897 to 1925 come from The World Almanac and Book of Facts for 1929 and 1943. Percentages and borough totals calculated independently. (Because of some anomalies, not all columns and rows add precisely.) First names and informational links gathered from Wikipedia and several external sources, including the free public archive of The New York Times.

1925
Mayor Hylan, an ally of the newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst, was unseated in a venomous Democratic primary by "Gentleman" Jimmy Walker, the Democratic party leader in the New York State Senate, who had been recruited to oppose Hylan by Hearst’s inveterate enemy, Democratic Governor Al Smith. After the death of Tammany Hall leader Charles F. Murphy in 1924, the regular Democratic organizations also split their allegiances, with Hylan receiving support from John McCooey, the leader in Brooklyn, and Walker from Ed Flynn of the Bronx. (Hearst had run for Mayor on thirdparty tickets in 1909 and 1913, while Al Smith had lost a bid for the Democratic nomination for Mayor in 1917, instead winning the Presidency of the New York City Council as Hylan’s running-mate.) [17]

1932
Totals after a court-ordered recount: Joseph V. McKee, as the (popularly-elected) President of the Board of Aldermen, became Acting Mayor upon the resignation of elected Mayor Jimmy Walker on September 1, 1932. McKee’s write-in total is, in fact, the highest any New York City election would ever see. For the election after the next one, voting machines which would make write-in voting much more difficult were introduced. Machines of this basic design are still being used. Lewis Humphrey Pounds was President of the Borough of Brooklyn from June 1913 to December 1917.[16] This was the last of many campaigns for different offices by Morris Hillquit, a cofounder of the Socialist Party of America, who died in 1933. Hillquit had won over 21% of the vote for Mayor in 1917. • Borough returns before the recount (which did not significantly affect the outcome):

1921
Henry Curran was the Borough President of Manhattan and heavily defeated Fiorello H. La Guardia, President of the Board of Aldermen, in the Republican primary election for Mayor.

1917
[Others and Total from The Encyclopedia of New York City (Yale, 1995), which does not exactly match the other numbers, taken from The World Almanac for 1929 & 1943.]

21

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New York City mayoral elections

The Rise and Fall of the Socialist Vote for Mayor of the City of New York year Social-Democrat- votes ic Party & Socialist Party of America 1897 % Socialist votes Labor Party Lucien Sanial † 9,834 16,956 11,817 1.7% 2.9% 2.0% Keinard Hunter % other left, labor & reform votes %

14,467 2.8% Henry Ge21,693 orge, Jefferson Dem. 6,213 5,205 1.1% 0.9% 0.4% W.R. Hearst, Muni. Own’ship 0.2% Wm R. Hearst, Civic Alliance 0.3%

4.1%

1901 Hanford [Social Dem.] 1903 Forman [Social Dem.] 1905 Algernon Lee

Kinneally 2,276

224,989 37.2%

1909 Joseph Cassidy

11,768

2.0%

Hunter

1,256

154,187 25.9%

1913 Charles Edward Russell 1917 Morris Hillquit 1921 Jacob Panken

32,057

5.1%

Walters

1,647

145,332 21.7% Edmund Seidel 82,607 7.1% John P. Quinn 1,049 0.1% Jerome De Hunt, FarmerLabor 1,008 0.1%

1925 Norman Thomas 1929 Norman Thomas

39,574

3.5%

Brandon 1,643

0.1% Fisher, 1,498 Progressive 0.4% Richard En- 5,965 right, Square Deal Robert Minor, Communist F.H. La Guardia, ALP line only 26,044

0.1% 0.4%

175,697 12.3% Olive M. 6,401 Johnson 251,656 12.6% 59,846 3.0%

1932 Morris Hillquit 1933 Charles Solomon

1.3%

1937 [no candidate]

482,790 21.6%

1941 [9] George W. Hartmann

22,616

1.0%

F.H. La Guardia, ALP line only

435,374 19.2%

The Fall 1917 election would have been exciting even had it occurred in peacetime. In September, the City held its first-ever primary elections for Mayor. The sitting

independent Democratic Mayor, John P. Mitchel, who had enjoyed Republican support under Fusion in 1913, narrowly lost the Republican primary to William Bennett, after

22

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Year Candidate Party Democratic Republican Socialist Independent/Write-in

New York City mayoral elections
Total percent

1932 John P. O’Brien (after Lewis H. Pounds recount) Morris Hillquit Joseph V. McKee 1932 party (before recount) John P. Democratic O’Brien Republican Lewis H. Pounds Morris Socialist Hillquit

1,054,324 (53.0%) 443,020 (22.3%) 251,656 (12.6%) 241,899 (12.2%) %

Manhattan The Bronx 308,944 60.8% 116,729 23.0% 40,011 7.9%

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

181,639 358,945 52.0% 48,366 13.9% 68,980 19.8% 50,212 14.4% 51.0% 157,152 22.3% 113,622 16.2% 73,431 10.4%

176,070 30,517 47.9% 28.6% 24,981 6.8% 61,648 16.8% 54.3% 105,068 16,586 29.5% 2,293 4.1% 6,782 12.1%

1,056,115 53.2% 443,901 22.4%

249,887 234,372

12.6% 11.8%

Joseph Independent 42,299 (write-in) V. 8.3% McKee TOTAL 1929 party 507,983

349,197 703,150

367,767 56,178

1,984,275 % 59.2% 25.1%

Manhattan The Bronx 62.9% 52,646 20.7% 39,181 15.4% 1,577 845

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

Jimmy Democratic 232,370 Walker 63.8% Fiorello Republican 91,944 H. La 25.3% Guardia Norman Socialist Thomas Olive M. Socialist Johnson Labor Richard Enright others TOTAL Square Deal 37,316 10.3% 1,238 1,121 363,989

159,948 283,432 57.7% 132,095 26.9% 71,145 14.5% 2,585 2,361

166,188 25,584 61.7% 75,911 28.2% 24,897 9.2% 906 1,354 57.8% 15,079 34.0% 3,248 7.3% 95 284

867,522 367,675

175,697 6,401 5,965

12.0% 0.4% 0.4%

subtotal

254,197 491,618

269,256 44,290

1,423,260 97.2% 41,429 1,464,689 2.8%

mistakes and frauds led to a series of recounts. When negotiations between the parties failed, Mitchel ran alone as a Fusion candidate against Bennett, the Socialist Morris Hillquit and John F. Hylan, the regular Democrat supported by Tammany Hall and William Randolph Hearst. However, the elections happened after the United States had declared war on April 6th. Hillquit and the Socialist Party quickly and

vigorously opposed the war, which Mitchel vigorously supported. Hillquit’s anti-war position helped the Socialists win their highestever vote for Mayor, but also led to vitriolic denunciations by many including The New York Times and former President Theodore Roosevelt. Mitchel and Hillquit each won less than quarter of the vote, while Hylan, who had been non-committal about the war, won the election with less than half the vote.

23

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1925 Gen- party eral Election Jimmy Walker
[18]

New York City mayoral elections
Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

Manhattan The Bronx

%

Democratic 247,079 69.4%

131,226 244,029 71.8% 39,615 21.7% 11,133 488 262 60.9% 139,060 34.7% 16,809 591 528

103,629 22,724 63.0% 58,478 35.6% 1,943 155 284 67.3% 10,794 32.0% 207 21 37

748,687 346,564

65.8% 30.5%

Frank Republican 98,617 D. 27.7% Waterman Norman Thomas Brandon Fisher TOTAL 1925 Democratic primary Jimmy Walker John Francis Hylan subtotal (for Walker and Hylan only) 1921 party Socialist Socialist Labor 9,482 388

39,574 1,643 1,498 1,137,966 %

3.5% 0.1% 0.1%

Progressive 387 355,953

182,724 401,017

164,489 33,783

Manhattan The Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total [Staten Is.] Bronx 102,835 79% 27,802 21% 130,637 45,308 65,671 68% 32% 52% 48% 21,228 60,814 66,536 126,485 28,203 47% 53% 6,321 34%

248,338 62% 154,204 38% 402,542 [100%]

32,163 12,197 66% 60,366 18,518

Manhattan The Bronx 67.6% 34,919 20.0% 21,255 12.2% 133

Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total
[Staten Is.]

% 64.2%

Democratic 261,452 John Francis 62.9% Hylan Henry Republican 124,253 - Coalition 29.9% H. Curran Jacob Socialist Panken Jerome T. De Hunt John P. Quinn Farmer Labor Socialist Labor 28,756 6.9% 321

118,235 260,143 62.1% 128,259 30.6% 29,580 7.1% 395

87,676 69.0% 36,415 28.6% 2,741 2.2% 88

22,741 70.8% 9,000 28.0% 275 0.9% 71

750,247

332,846

28.5%

82,607 1,008

7.1% 0.1%

316

244 120

346 390

123 111

20 14

1,049 1,010

0.1% 0.1%

George Prohibition 375 K. Hinds TOTAL 415,473

174,906 419,113

127,154 32,121

1,168,767

However, as in 1897, the numbers suggest that Tammany Hall might have won even against a unified opposition.

1897 to 1913
¶ The Bronx and Manhattan, although separate Boroughs since 1898, shared New York

24

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1917 John Francis Hylan John Purroy Mitchel Morris Hillquit William M. Bennett Subtotal Edmund Seidel others TOTAL 1913 party Socialist Labor party

New York City mayoral elections
%

Manhattan The Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total [Staten Is.] Bronx 41,546 114,487 42.9% 46.5% 19,247 52,921 19.9% 21.5% 35,399 8,850 51.7% 13,641 19.9% 13,477 19.7% 5,916 8.6% 58.3% 2,940 19.4% 1,425 9.4% 1,968 13.0% 671,277 20,586 56,438 46.4%

Democratic 113,728

314,010 46.8%

Fusion

66,748 27.3%

155,497 23.2%

Socialist

51,176 20.9%

30,374 48,880 31.4% 5,576 5.8% 19.9% 29,748 12.1%

145,332 21.7% 8.4%

Republican 13,230 5.4% 244,882

96,743 246,036

68,433 15,183

691,809 The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total [Staten Is.] and Manhattan 178,224 54.7% Democratic Socialist 129,113 39.6% 17,383 137,074 60.2% 77,826 34.2% 11,560 538 587 227,585 34,279 8,604 59.6% 20,097 35.0% 2,865 129 118 54.4% 6,883 43.3% 249 28 96 32,057 1,647 1,213 627,017 5.1% 0.3% 0.2% 233,919 37.3% %

John Purroy Mitchel Edward E. McCall Charles Edward Russell Walters Raymond TOTAL

Fusion

358,181 57.1%

Socialist Labor 952 Prohibition 412 326,084

57,488 15,860

County and reported their votes together until Bronx County was formed in April 1912 and came into its separate existence on January 1, 1914. [ The World Almanac does not list separate returns for the two boroughs until 1917, but The Encyclopedia of New York City (see Sources) gives these major candidates’ results for 1913: • Manhattan: McCall 103,429 - Mitchel 131,280, and The Bronx: McCall 25,684 - Mitchel 46,944. ] Mayor William Jay Gaynor, who had survived being shot in the throat by a disappointed office-seeker in 1910, died at sea from the indirect effects of his injury on September 10, 1913. He was succeeded for the rest of 1913

by Ardolph Loges Kline, the acting President of the Board of Aldermen. The election of 1897 was held just before the Five Boroughs formally consolidated into Greater New York in 1898, so it was the present City’s first Mayoral election. For preliminary results for all the municipal offices, broken down into smaller districts, see "DEMOCRATS TAKE ALL; The Tammany Ticket Makes Almost a Clean Sweep of the Greater City. ONLY TWO REPUBLICANS IN THE COUNCIL..." in The New-York Times, November 4, 1897 (seen April 11, 2008). Henry George, author of Progress and Poverty and proponent of the Single Tax on land, died (probably from the strain of campaign speeches) on October 29th, four days

25

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1909 party

New York City mayoral elections
%

The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total [Staten Is.] and Manhattan 134,075 42.5% 87,155 27.6% 86,497 27.4% 6,811 315,351 91,666 41.9% 49,040 22.4% 73,860 33.8% 3,874 369 218,809 17,570 7,067 38.4% 15,186 33.2% 11,907 26.0% 1,004 56 47.1% 2,806 18.7% 5,049 33.6% 79 18 11,768 1,256 594,902

William Jay Gaynor

Democratic

250,378 42.1% 154,187 25.9% 177,313 29.8% 2.0% 0.2%

William Ran- Civic Alliance dolph Hearst Otto T. Bannard Republican Fusion

Joseph Cassidy Socialist Hunter TOTAL 1905 party

Socialist Labor 813

45,723 15,019

The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total [Staten Is.] and Manhattan 140,264 41.6% 123,292 36.6% 64,280 19.1% 7,466 336,787 68,788 31.4% 84,835 38.8% 61,192 28.0% 3,387 657 218,859 13,228 37.6% 39.2% 7,213 20.5% 847 95 6,127 44.1%

%

Democratic George B. McClellan, Jr. William Ran- Municipal dolph Hearst Ownership League
[19]

228,407 37.8% 224,989 37.2%

13,766 3,096 22.3% 4,499 32.4% 117 39

William M. Ivins (Sr) Algernon Lee Kinneally TOTAL 1903

Republican Socialist

137,184 22.7% 11,817 2,276 604,673 % 2.0% 0.4%

Socialist Labor 1,485

35,149 13,878

party

The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total [Staten Is.] and Manhattan 188,681 56.1% 132,178 39.3% 11,318 102,569 48.8% 101,251 48.2% 4,529 1,411 396 210,156 17,074 6,458 56.5% 11,960 39.6% 976 178 47 48.1% 6,697 49.9% 133 76 50 16,956 5,205 869 589,898

Democratic George B. McClellan, Jr. Seth Low Forman Hunter John McKee TOTAL 1901 party Fusion Social Democratic Prohibition

314,782 53.4% 252,086 42.7% 2.9% 0.9% 0.1%

Socialist Labor 3,540 376 336,093

30,235 13,414

The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total [Staten Is.] and Manhattan 156,631 47.4% 88,858 42.7% 13,679 6,009 49.4% 46.1%

%

Edward M. Shepard

Democratic

265,177 45.8%

26

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Seth Low Hanford Keinard Alfred L. Manierre TOTAL 1897 party Fusion Social Democratic Prohibition 162,298 49.1% 6,409 114,625 55.0% 2,692 1,638 501 208,314

New York City mayoral elections
13,118 47.4% 613 181 74 6,772 51.9% 120 71 72 9,834 6,213 1,264 579,301 % 1.7% 1.1% 0.2% 296,813 51.2%

Socialist Labor 4,323 617 330,278

27,665 13,044

The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Richmond Total [Staten Is.] and Manhattan 143,666 48.0% 77,210 25.8% 55,834 18.6% 13,076 76,185 40.1% 65,656 34.6% 37,611 19.8% 6,938 3,593 189,983 9,275 40.7% 5,876 25.8% 5,639 24.7% 1,096 921 4,871 43.5% 2,798 25.0% 2,779 24.8% 583 157 21,693 14,467 523,560

Robert A. Van Wyck Seth Low Benjamin F. Tracy Henry George

Democratic Citizens’ Union Republican Jefferson Democracy

233,997 44.7% 151,540 28.9% 101,863 19.5% 4.1% 2.8%

Lucien Sanial † Socialist Labor 9,796 TOTAL 299,582

22,807 11,188

before Election Day; his son took his place on the ballot to represent "The Democracy of Thomas Jefferson" [20]. (In 1886, George had been the United Labor Party’s candidate for Mayor of the smaller City of New York, now the Borough of Manhattan, winning 68,110 votes to 90,552 for the Democrat Abram Hewitt and 60,435 for the Republican Theodore Roosevelt, although George’s supporters maintained that he had lost the election through fraud.) [21] It appears from the percentages to be an open question whether the Republican Party’s decision in 1897 not to support Seth Low’s Fusion campaign caused his defeat by splitting the vote against Tammany Hall. Republicans withdrew in Low’s favor in 1901 (when he won) and in 1903 (when he lost). † For Lucien Sanial, see the table notes under #Collapse of the Socialist Party vote above (1933) and ALL THEY NEED IS VOTES; THREE CANDIDATES FOR MAYOR WHO WOULD MAKE A STIR. in The NewYork Times for Wednesday, November 4, 1894, page 19.

References
[1] For further details, see Third Term No Charm, Historians Say by Sewell Chan, The New York Times "City Room", published and retrieved on October 1, 2008. [2] ^ Sewell Chan and Jonathan P. Hicks, Council Votes, 29 to 22, to Extend Term Limits, The New York Times, published on-line and retrieved on October 23, 2008 [3] Fernanda Santos, The Future of Term Limits Is in Court, The New York Times, New York edition, October 24, 2008, page A24, retrieved on October 24, 2008 [4] See, for example, these stories from The New York Times: "In Crisis Giuliani’s Popularity Overflows City", by Jennifer Steinhauer, Sept. 20, 2001, "A Shift in the Ritual, and Meaning, of Voting", by Mirta Ojito, Sept. 26, 2001 and "GIULIANI EXPLORES A TERM EXTENSION OF 2 OR 3 MONTHS", by Jennifer Steinhauer with Michael Cooper, September 27, 2001. [5] Sewell Chan, Bloomberg Says He Wants a Third Term as Mayor, The New York

27

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Times, published and retrieved on October 2, 2008. [6] page 437 of The Ungovernable City: John Lindsay and His Struggle to Save New York By Vincent J. Cannato (Basic Books, 2001, ISBN 0-465-00843-7) [7] Page 41 of the 1966 World Almanac & Book of Facts and page 69 of Cannato’s The Ungovernable City: John Lindsay and His Struggle to Save New York [8] To be Mayor of New York: Ethnic Politics in the City, by Chris McNickle (Columbia University Press, 1993, ISBN 0231076363, page 175: free preview was available on June 20, 2008 at http://books.google.com/ books?id=ONlCSIMrV_kC&pg=PA175) [9] ^ A full biographical sketch of Prof. Hartmann is in "The perils of a public intellectual - George W. Hartmann" by Benjamin Harris Journal of Social Issues, Spring, 1998 — available in April 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/ mi_m0341/is_n1_v54/ai_21107569 [10] A brief profile of Judge Jeremiah Titus Mahoney can be found within this article, "Up Again, Down Again", TIME, Monday, August 16, 1937 [11] Michael Tomasky, "New York’s Finest" (a review of The Great Mayor: Fiorello La Guardia and the Making of the City of New York, by Alyn Brodsky), New York Review of Books, February 12, 2004, page 28, available by subscription or payment at http://www.nybooks.com/ articles/article-preview?article_id=16898 [12] pages 105-107 of Bernard K. Johnpoll’s Pacifist’s Progress: Norman Thomas and the decline of American socialism, Quadrangle (Chicago) 1970: ISBN 0-8129-0152-5 [13] See pages 113-116 of The Emerging Republican Majority by Kevin Phillips (Doubleday Anchor paperback edition 1970). According to the March 1950 reminiscences of FDR’s advisor Ed Flynn, "President Roosevelt with Jim Farley and myself, brought the American Labor Party into being. It was entirely Roosevelt’s suggestion. Farley and I never believed in it very much, but he felt at the time—and it is true today—that there were many people who believed in what Roosevelt stood for but who, for some reason or another...would not join the Democratic party. If another

New York City mayoral elections
party were created, you could bring these people into it actively. That was really why it was created." cited in It Didn’t Happen Here: Why socialism failed in the United States, by Seymour Martin Lipset and Gary Marks (New York, 2000: W.W. Norton, ISBN 0-393-04098-4), page 342 note 56 [14] Johnpoll, Pacifist’s Progress, pages 194-5 [15] Pages 265-269 of Harvey Klehr’s The Heyday of American Communism: the Depression decade Basic Books (NY) 1984 ISBN 0-465-02945-0 & ISBN 0-465-02946-9 [16] World Statesmen—Boroughs of New York City retrieved on June 25, 2008. See also the entry for "Borough Presidents" by Nora L. Mandel in The Encyclopedia of New York City (Yale 1995), cited in Sources below. [17] Robert A. Slayton, Empire Statesman: the rise and redemption of Al Smith, The Free Press, New York, 2001, ISBN 0-684-86502-2, pages 115-116 and 221-225. See also New York City mayoral election, 1917. [18] The Wikipedia entry is for Lewis Waterman (Frank D. Waterman’s uncle); see also "Frank D. Waterman’s Run for Mayor: New York City, 1925" from The PENnant (the magazine of the Pen Collectors of America) 1995 [19] The Wikipedia entry is for William Mills Ivins, Jr. (William Mills Ivins’ son); see also a long, contemporary New York Sunday Times magazine feature article, "William M. Ivins, a Man of Many Facets; A Character Study of the Republican Candidate for the Mayoralty" (October 22, 1905 page SM1). [20] The Single Tax Movement in the United States by Arthur Nichols Young (Princeton, 1916), page 152 [21] Young, The Single Tax Movement in the United States, page 95. See also History of Socialism in the United States by Morris Hillquit (5th edition, New York 1910, reprinted New York 1971 by Dover: ISBN 0-486-22767-7), pages 249-253, and The Forging of American Socialism by Howard Quint (2nd edition, Indianapolis 1964: Bobbs-Merrill), pages 37-43.

28

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New York City mayoral elections
• The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1943, page 412 • The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1929 (1971 reprint by American Heritage and Workman Publishing, ISBN 0-07-071881-4), page 893 • The New York Times archives http://query.nytimes.com

Sources
Many sources have been consulted and compared, but the most important ones are these: • The Board of Elections in the City of New York http://www.vote.nyc.ny.us/ results.html • Cable News Network (CNN) http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1997/ gen/resources/election97/results.html • The Encyclopedia of New York City, edited by Kenneth T. Jackson (Yale University Press and The New York Historical Society, New Haven, Connecticut, 1995, ISBN 0-500-05536-6 ), especially the article "Mayoralty" by Charles W. Brecher with tables compiled by James Bradley • The New York Chronology by James Trager (HarperCollins, 2003, ISBN 0-06-074062-0 ) More details and preview available at http://books.google.com/ books?id=xvGhQoNT27IC • The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1957, page 299

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • Mayor of New York City List of mayors of New York City History of New York City Government of New York City Politics of New York (State) Elections in New York (State) Tammany Hall American Labor Party Liberal Party of New York Conservative Party of New York Independence Party of New York Working Families Party

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