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Multiple citizenship is a status in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen under the laws of more than one state. Multiple citizenships exist because different countries use different, and not necessarily mutually exclusive, citizenship requirements. Whether a person may hold multiple citizenship therefore depends on those nations’ prevailing laws. Individual countries follow their own individual rationales in establishing their criteria for citizenship. Some countries bestow citizenship automatically at birth to persons with a parent who is one of their nationals (jus sanguinis), or to persons born on their territory (jus soli), or through marriage to persons wedding their nationals (jure matrimonii). Other nations (such as Australia) allow the grant of citizenship to be made to the children of citizens under certain circumstances. In addition, citizenship can be granted through naturalization. Once citizenship is bestowed, the bestowing country may or may not consider a voluntary renunciation of citizenship to be valid. Some countries consider multiple citizenship undesirable and take measures to prevent it; this may take the form of an automatic loss of a citizenship if another citizenship is acquired voluntarily (e.g., in China, Denmark, Japan, Singapore and India) or criminal penalties for exercising another citizenship (e.g., for carrying a foreign passport in Saudi Arabia). Others may allow a citizen to have any number of nationalities. However, since each country decides for itself who its citizens are, based solely on its own laws and generally without regard for the laws of other countries, it is quite possible for a given individual to be considered a citizen by two or more countries even if some or all of these countries forbid dual or multiple citizenship. On the other hand, some countries consider multiple citizenship desirable because it increases opportunities for their citizens to compete and build contacts globally, and/or have taken active steps towards permitting multiple citizenship in recent years (e.g., Australia since April 4, 2002). India, as noted below, has introduced a form of overseas citizenship but this stops well short of full dual citizenship. Many countries, even those that "permit" dual or multiple citizenship, do not "recognize" dual or multiple citizenship under their laws: individuals are treated either as citizens of that country or not, and their citizenship with respect to other countries is considered to have no bearing. This can mean (e.g., in Iran, Mexico, many Arab countries, former Soviet republics) that consular officials abroad may not have access to their citizens if they also hold local citizenship. Some countries may provide access for consular officials as a matter of courtesy, but do not accept any obligation to do so under international consular agreements. The right of countries to act in this fashion is protected via the Master Nationality Rule. In popular discourse, reference to countries that "recognize" multiple citizenship may refer only to the lack of any specific statute forbidding multiple citizenship (leaving aside the difficulties of enforcing such statutes).
Citizenship of multiple countries
Each country has different requirements for citizenship, as well as different policies regarding dual citizenship. These laws sometimes leave gaps where the acquisition of other citizenships don’t render the original citizenship invalid, creating a possible situation for an individual to hold two or more nationalities. The Republic of Ireland frames its citizenship laws as relating to "the island of Ireland", thereby extending them to Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. Therefore, anyone born in Northern Ireland who meets the requirements for being an Irish citizen through birth on the island of Ireland may exercise an entitlement to Irish citizenship by acting in such a way that only an Irish citizen is entitled to do (such as applying for an Irish passport). Conversely, that such a person has not acted in this way does not necessarily mean that they are not an
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Irish citizen. See Irish nationality law and British nationality law. People born in Northern Ireland are British citizens on the same basis as people born elsewhere in the United Kingdom. People born in Northern Ireland can hold either a British Passport or an Irish Passport, or can hold both if they so choose.
which Finns without regional citizenship cannot. Finns can get Ålandic citizenship after living on the islands for five years and Ålanders lose their regional citizenship after living on the Finnish mainland for five years. • The government of Puerto Rico began issuing Puerto Rican citizenship certificates in September 2007 after Juan Mari Bras, a lifelong supporter of independence, won a successful court victory which validated his claim that Puerto Rican citizenship was valid and can be claimed by anyone born on the island or with at least one parent who was born there. • Following Soviet occupation in 1968 and prior to the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, Czechoslovak citizens also possessed an internal citizenship of either the Czech or Slovak Republic. • Before the break-up of Yugoslavia in 1991, Yugoslav citizens possessed an internal citizenship of their own republic (e.g. Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia etc.) as well as Yugoslav citizenship.
• Under the U.S. Constitution (Amendment XIV), all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. • Switzerland has a three tier system of citizenship - Confederation, canton and commune (municipality). • Although considered part of the United Kingdom for British nationality purposes, the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man have local legislation restricting certain employment and housing rights to those with "local status". In addition, although the British citizenship of people from these islands gives them full citizenship rights when in the United Kingdom, it does not give them the rights that British citizenship generally confers when in other parts of the European Union (eg the right to reside and/or work). • The Australian territory of Norfolk Island has immigration laws that restrict residence in the territory to those with "local status". Most Norfolk Islanders are Australian citizens. • The statuses of permanent residency of Hong Kong and Macau, each a Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, are overlaid on Chinese nationality as stipulated in their respective basic laws. Those who concurrently have Chinese nationality and permanent residency in either SAR are entitled a Chinese passport issued by that SAR, which affords them more visa waivers. It is now possible to be a permanent resident of both Special Administative Regions. • People from Åland have joint regional (Åland) and national (Finnish) citizenship. People with Ålandic citizenship (hembygdsrätt) have the right to buy property and set up a business on Åland,
• In European Union law there is the concept of EU citizenship which flows from citizenship of a member state. • The Commonwealth of Nations has a Commonwealth citizenship for the citizens of its members. Some member states (such as the UK and Jamaica) allow nonnationals who are Commonwealth citizens to vote and stand for election while resident there. However, other member states make little or no distinction between citizens of other Commonwealth nations and citizens of nonCommonwealth nations.
For more details on this topic, see Indian nationality law#Overseas Citizenship of India. There now exists a provision for a new form of Indian nationality, the holders of which are to be known as Overseas Citizens of India. The Constitution of India does not permit dual citizenship or dual nationality, except for minors where the second nationality was
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involuntarily acquired. Indian authorities have interpreted the law to mean a person can’t have a second country’s passport simultaneously with an Indian one — even in the case of a child who is claimed by another country as a citizen of that country, and who may be required by the laws of the other country to use one of its passports for foreign travel (e.g., a child born in the United States to Indian parents) — and the Indian courts have given the executive branch wide discretion over this matter. Therefore, Overseas Citizenship of India is not a full citizenship of India and thus, does not amount to dual citizenship or dual nationality. Moreover, people who have acquired Citizenship in Pakistan or Bangladesh are not eligible for Overseas Citizenship.
of foreign law, or the identity of the foreign country" as is explicitly clarified in a Department of Defense policy memorandum which defines a guideline requiring that "... any clearance be denied or revoked unless the applicant surrenders the foreign passport or obtains official permission for its use from the appropriate agency of the United States Government". This guideline has been followed in administrative rulings by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Office of Hearings and Appeals (DOHA) office of Industrial Security Clearance Review (ISCR), which decides cases involving security clearances for Contractor personnel doing classified work for all DoD components. In one such case, an administrative judge ruled that it is not clearly consistent with U.S. national interest to grant a request for a security clearance to an applicant who was a dual national of the U.S. and Ireland.
Being a citizen of more than one country can have many advantages as it allows to draw various citizenship benefits from multiple sources. This includes the rights to establish residence, to work, and to acquire property, educational opportunities, eligibility for various government subsidies, including healthcare and retirement, etc. However, it is prudent to realize that each citizenship carries also responsibilities and obligations and that being a citizen of another country may be a liability. There are a number of categories where potential problems call for caution or even for obtaining professional legal counsel.
Appearance of foreign allegiance
In addition to the formal adjudicative process of security clearance, there is a matter of public perception for individuals with dual citizenship as demonstrating potential dual loyalty that applies to any government office, even one that does not require security clearance. In the United States, dual citizenship is not very common among politicians or government employees; however, it does occur. For example, Arnold Schwarzenegger has retained his Austrian citizenship during his service as a Governor of California. In 1999, the U.S. Attorney General’s office issued an official opinion that a statutory provision that required the Justice Department to employ only "citizen[s] of the United States" did not bar it from employing dual citizens. In Canada, conversely, federal cabinet ministers often have dual citizenship with France or the United Kingdom and this in the past has not been an issue to their security clearances. One small controversy did arise in 2005 when Michaëlle Jean was appointed the Governor General of Canada (official representative of the Queen and Canada’s de facto head of state in the Queen’s absence). Although Jean no longer holds citizenship in her native Haiti, her marriage to French-born filmmaker Jean-Daniel Lafond allowed her to obtain French citizenship several years
Dual citizenship is associated with two categories of security concerns: foreign influence and foreign preference. Contrary to common misconceptions, dual citizenship in itself is not the major problem in obtaining or retaining security clearance in the United States. As a matter of fact, if a security clearance applicant’s dual citizenship is "based solely on parents’ citizenship or birth in a foreign country", that can be a mitigating condition. However, exercising (taking advantage of the entitlements of) a non-U.S. citizenship can cause problems. For example, possession and/or use of a foreign passport is a condition disqualifying from security clearance and "... is not mitigated by reasons of personal convenience, safety, requirements
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before her appointment. Article 23-8 of the French civil code allows the French government to withdraw the French nationality from French citizens holding government or military positions in other countries and Jean’s appointment made her both de facto head of state and commander-in-chief of the Canadian forces. The French embassy released a statement that this law would not be enforced because the Governor General is essentially a ceremonial figurehead. Nevertheless Jean renounced her French citizenship two days before taking up office to avoid controversy.  Former Canadian Prime Minister John Turner was born in the United Kingdom and retains his dual citizenship to this day. Stéphane Dion, former head of the Liberal Party of Canada and the previous leader of the official opposition, holds dual citizenship with France as a result of his mother’s nationality; Dion has, however, indicated a willingness to renounce French citizenship if a significant number of Canadians view it negatively, in order not to hamper his party’s prospects in a future election. The Constitution of Australia, in Section 44, explicitly forbids people who hold foreign citizenship from sitting in the parliament of Australia. A court case (see Sue v Hill) determined that Britain is a foreign power for purposes of this section of the constitution despite Australia and Britain holding a common nationality at the time of Australian federation, and ruling that Senator-elect Heather Hill had not been duly elected to the national parliament because at the time of her election she was a subject or citizen of a foreign power. (This restriction does not apply to members of the state parliaments, who may hold foreign citizenship.)
• - a country may tax the worldwide income of their citizens, regardless of whether they reside in that country or not. Most countries use residency and/or source when determining if a person should be subject to taxation. A few countries, such as the Philippines and the United States, do use citizenship as one of the determining factors for tax liability. A person with multiple citizenship may have a tax liability to his country of residence and also to one or more of his countries of citizenship; or worse, if he was unaware that one of his citizenships created a tax liability, then that country may consider him to be a tax evader. Many countries and territories have contracted tax treaties or agreements for avoiding double taxation. Still, there are cases in which a person with multiple citizenship will owe tax solely on the basis of holding one of those citizenships. Example: A person who holds both Australian and United States citizenship, lives and works in Australia. He would be subject to Australian taxation, because Australia taxes its residents, and he would be subject to US taxation because he holds US citizenship. In general, he would be allowed to subtract the Australian income tax he paid from the US tax that would be due. Plus, the US will allow some parts of foreign income to be exempt from taxation; for instance, in 2006 the foreign earned income exclusion allowed up to US$82,400 of foreign salaried income to be exempt from income tax. This exemption, plus the credit for foreign taxes paid mentioned above, often results in no US taxes being owed, although a US tax return would still have to be filed. In instances where the Australian tax was less than the US tax, and if there was income that could not be exempted from US tax, the US would expect any tax due to be paid. The IRS has excluded some regulations, e.g. Alternate Minimum Tax (AMT) from tax treaties that protect double taxation. In its current format even if U.S. citizens are paying income taxes at a rate of 56%, far above the maximum U.S. marginal tax rate, the citizen can be subject to U.S. taxes because the calculation of AMT does not allow full deduction for taxes paid to a foreign countries. Other regulations such as the post date of foreign mailed tax returns are not recognized and can result in penalties for late filing if
In some cases, multiple citizenship can create additional tax liability. Countries that impose tax will generally use a combination of three factors when determining if a person is subject to taxation: • - a country may tax the income of anyone who lives there, regardless of citizenship; • - a country may tax any income generated there, regardless of whether the earner is a citizen, resident, or non-resident; or
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they arrive at the IRS later than the filing date.
citizenship by Pakistani citizens who have obtained another citizenship is required by the Pakistani government.
There may be also problems with conscription, travel restrictions, embargoes and sets of laws issued by multiple governments governing one’s behaviour domestically and while traveling abroad. Many countries conscript citizens into military service and consider dual citizens who live abroad as evading their military duties. In extreme cases, such as when the countries of citizenship are at war with each other, a dual citizen’s international status can be very complicated, and, historically, often led to incarceration of the “enemy” citizen, notwithstanding the person’s actual loyalties. If someone faces problems resulting from multiple citizenship, they may choose to resolve them by renouncing the undesirable citizenship(s). During the heightened interest in security after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the security issue was raised of persons with multiple citizenship traveling under different names — having passports under their old and new names from different countries — and using one kind of passport to exit a country, while traveling on another passport in a different name abroad, and not disclosing this travel upon return. Legislation is being prepared in Canada to end this practice, identify persons traveling abroad under different names and passports, and possible security issues that might arise under the current system. Some countries have more complicated rules than others governing what other citizenships a citizen may hold.
Example 1: A person born in Canada to an American father and a Canadian mother would have Canadian citizenship by birth, and may also have US citizenship, depending on certain circumstances (the parents’ marital status, date of the child’s birth, and whether the US citizen parent has met certain physical presence requirements). If the requirements have been met, then the child would also be a US citizen, and therefore would have dual citizenship. Example 2: A person born in Canada after January 1, 1983 to parents who are respectively a Japanese father and a British mother (otherwise than by descent) is entitled to triple citizenship at birth. Lex sanguinis applies for British and Japanese citizenships through parental blood relationships, and lex soli applies for Canadian citizenship because of birth on Canadian soil. However, according to Japanese nationality law, Japanese citizenship would be lost if British and Canadian citizenships are not renounced between the ages of 20 and 22 (although renunciation of British nationality to a foreign authority is not recognised under British nationality law). Furthermore, lex sanguinis would not apply automatically to any children born to this person outside the UK. Example 3: A British citizen also holds European Union and Commonwealth of Nations citizenship. In addition, most UK citizens born in Northern Ireland are also entitled to citizenship of the Republic of Ireland. Example 4: A person born in the US to one or both Canadian parents is entitled to both US and Canadian citizenship. A person born outside Canada to a Canadian parent is a Canadian citizen. Example 5: A person born in Canada to an Algerian father and British mother automatically acquires the Algerian citizenship  and is entitled to British citizenship (in both cases, jus sanguinis). The child also is also entitled to Canadian citizenship (jus soli). Unlike Japan (see Example 2), Algeria allows its nationals to acquire multiple citizenship. However, Algeria recognizes its nationals on its soil as Algerian, which can
In Pakistan, multiple citizenships are permitted, but somewhat restricted. In theory, one must renounce any existing citizenships to be naturalised in Pakistan. This however, may have no effect if the country whose citizenship is being renounced, does not recognise such renunciations. However, in the case of a select number of countries, namely: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Egypt, France, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, United Kingdom and the United States, renunciation of citizenship is not required. However, renunciation of Pakistani
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limit the ability of other countries whose citizenship the child possesses to provide consular assistance to the child when (s)he encounters problems. Example 6: A person born in Canada to a Moroccan father and Russian mother automatically acquires the father’s citizenship at birth. The child is also entitled to Russian citizenship (jus sanguinis) and Canadian citizenship (jus soli). However, Morocco and Russia recognize their nationals on their soil as their nationals, which can limit the ability of other countries whose citizenship the child possesses from providing consular assistance to the child when (s)he encounters problems. Russia and Morocco, like Algeria, allow their nationals to acquire multiple citizenship. Example 7: A person born in the UK to a American father and Syrian mother does not automatically acquire the mother’s Syrian citizenship. The child may or may not be entitled to United States citizenship (jus sanguinis), depending on the parent’s marital status and the amount of physical presence the father has spent in the U.S. A child born inside the UK on or after January 1, 1983 acquires British citizenship at birth only if at least one of the parents is "settled" in the UK at the time of the birth (i.e. is a British citizen or otherwise has the right of abode in the UK, is an Irish citizen, is a citizen of an EU/ EEA country and has permanent residence in the UK, or holds indefinite leave to remain in the UK). Prior to this date anyone born in the UK was automatically a British Citizen. Such a child instead of being stateless at birth would probably acquire some class of British nationality in this exceptional situation. Example 8: A person of Chinese descent born in Hong Kong prior to January 1, 1983 would be a British subject (known also as Commonwealth citizen at that time); citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies; and People’s Republic of China citizen at birth, with right to abode in Hong Kong (jus soli in both cases; and jus sanguinis for China). This is to note that the PRC recognises only Chinese citizenship for its Chinese nationals born within the "official" borders of the PRC which includes Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. When this person becomes naturalised in a foreign country, say Canada, he would normally have lost his PRC citizenship status automatically, if not immediately after July 1, 1997 -- when Chinese Nationality Law
would take effect in Hong Kong. However, a special interpretation given in 1996 for the Hong Kong Basic Law allows for this person to keep his Chinese nationality but his foreign nationality would not be recognised on PRC soil. This person’s British nationality of any kind in connection with Hong Kong would have been lost unless he has applied for British National (Overseas) status prior to July 1, 1997. However, by virtue of being a BN(O) or Canadian Citizen, that person is a Commonwealth citizen. Being a person of Chinese descent who has a third country of permanent residence (Canada), this person is also entitled to claim Republic of China citizenship (jus sanguinis). He is eligible to obtain a ROC passport since theoretically all Chinese are ROC citizens. Controversially, this would be contradictory to his PRC citizenship. Example 9: A citizen of Ireland who naturalizes in the United States would end up having both Irish and U.S. citizenships, despite the fact that the U.S. naturalization oath contains a statement of renunciation. The U.S. State Department does not prevent its citizens from holding other citizenships and the Irish government does not recognise the renunciation clause of the oath. Example 10: A person who was born in the People’s Republic of China, who later naturalized in Canada, who then later naturalized in the United States after 1977, and who then later naturalized in France, will be a citizen of Canada, the U.S., and France, but not the People’s Republic of China. Chinese nationality would have been lost because Article 9 of Chinese nationality law automatically deprives citizenship to those who voluntarily acquire another citizenship. However, under the Canadian nationality law after 1977, it is essentially impossible to involuntarily lose citizenship unless the citizenship was fraudulently obtained. The same is true under United States nationality law. Example 11: Under the Nationality Law of the Republic of China, a U.S. citizen wishing to obtain Taiwanese citizenship must first give up his U.S. citizenship. However, there is no clause stopping a naturalized Taiwanese from adding U.S. or other citizenship thereafter. Example 12: A person born in France of an American mother and a French father would be a citizen of both countries. Lex
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sanguinis applies for both American and French citizenship. lex soli also applies for French citizenship, subject to certain residency requirements. Example 13: A person born in the U.S. to a father who was born in The Bahamas before July 10, 1973 is automatically a Bahamian citizen at birth, pursuant to the Bahamian constitution. This only applies in cases where the parents of the child are married. If the parents of the child are not married, the mother would had to have been born in the Bahamas before July 10, 1973 in order for her child to claim Bahamian citizenship. The foregoing applies only if the parent in question was a citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies as of July 9, 1973. Example 14: A person born in the U.S. to one parent who is a citizen of Norway with the other parent being a citizen of the Philippines would be a citizen of all three countries at birth if the date of birth was later than August 31, 2006. For earlier births, Norwegian citizenship would have been acquired only if (1) the mother was Norwegian or if (2) the Norwegian father was married to the nonNorwegian mother either at the time of the child’s birth or at the time of the father’s death prior to the birth. For births between May 14, 1935 and January 17, 1973 the child would have acquired Philippine citizenship but, if acquired through the mother, it would have been lost upon reaching the age of majority unless earlier formally elected. For births between January 17, 1973 and October 15, 1986, the child would not have acquired Philippine citizenship, as the Philippine constitution in force during those dates required both parents to be Philippine citizens. Example 15: A person born in Bosnia and Hercegovina and considered a Croat while it was still part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had a Yugoslav passport; since the break-up of Yugoslavia the person can hold citizenship of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as a citizenship of Croatia. If such a person emigrated to a country allowing mutiple citizenship, he or she may also be able, in time, to naturalize as a citizen of that country. Example 16: A person born on or after 1 January 1978 in the United States to a Filipino Father and a New Zealand mother would be a citizen at birth of the United States and the Philippines. The person may have a claim to New Zealand citizenship by
descent if his mother’s New Zealand citizenship was other than by descent. Example 17: A Jewish person, or a person with at least one Jewish grandparent, or a person who converts to Judiasm, who makes aliyah to Israel will be an Israeli citizen in addition to their original citizenship, by operation of the Law of Return. For example, a Jewish person born in South Africa to British parents will be South African by birth, British by descent and Israeli on aliyah. Israeli citizenship is bestowed three months after aliyah and a full Israeli passport is issued after one year’s residency. Example 18: A man born in Greece retains Greek citizenship throughout life even if he emigrates to another country and acquires citizenship elsewhere. If he returns to Greece after the age of 18, he may be arrested for not participating in military conscription.
• • • • • • • • • • • • Category:Nationality law Canadians of convenience Citizenship Dual loyalty Examples of nationality law in specific countries Immigration jus sanguinis jus soli Nationality Nationality law Naturalization Talbot v. Janson
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Nolan, Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Counsel)  Perd la nationalité française le Français qui, occupant un emploi dans une armée ou un service public étranger ou dans une organisation internationale dont la France ne fait pas partie ou plus généralement leur apportant son concours, n’a pas résigné son emploi ou cessé son concours nonobstant l’injonction qui lui en aura été faite par le Gouvernement. L’intéressé sera, par décret en Conseil d’Etat, déclaré avoir perdu la nationalité française si, dans le délai fixé par l’injonction, délai qui ne peut être inférieur à quinze jours et supérieur à deux mois, il n’a pas mis fin à son activité. Lorsque l’avis du Conseil d’Etat est défavorable, la mesure prévue à l’alinéa précédent ne peut être prise que par décret en conseil des ministres. Retrieved from LegiFrance Dec. 12, 2008 (translation requested)  CBC News: New governor general to give up French citizenship; September 25, 2005  CBC News (December 8, 2006). "Dion would sacrifice French citizenship to become PM". CBC.ca. http://www.cbc.ca/ canada/story/2006/12/07/dionfrance.html. Retrieved on 2006-12-08.  "Sue v Hill (1999) HCA 30; 199 CLR 462; 163 ALR 648; 73 ALJR 1016 (23 June 1999)". HIGH COURT OF AUSTRALIA. June 23,1999. http://www.austlii.edu.au/ au/cases/cth/HCA/1999/30.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-22.  IRS Foreign Earned Income Exclusion  Pakistan Citizenship, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Interior, Interior Division  8 U.S.C. § 1401, "Nationals and citizens of United States at birth", Paragraph (g) classifies such a person as a US citizen at birth, not merely as someone entitled to claim US citizenship.  ^ "Travel report — Algeria". Department of Foreign Affairs and international Trade, Canada. http://www.voyage.gc.ca/ dest/report-en.asp?country=5000. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.  ^ "Travel Report —Morocco". Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada.
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http://www.voyage.gc.ca/dest/reporten.asp?country=197000. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.  "Travel Report — Russia". Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada. http://www.voyage.gc.ca/dest/ report-en.asp?country=249000. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.  "Campaign to Change Unfair Citizenship Law Continues". The UN Refugee Agency. 19 december 2008. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/ publisher,IWPR,,,4959de2a1e,0.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-22.  "Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons". United Nations: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 26 April 1954. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/ o_c_sp.htm. ; ^ "United Nations Convention relating to the status of Stateless Persons: Declarations and Reservations". 3–4. http://www.interculturaldialogue.eu/web/ files/32/en/UCSSP-R.pdf. (Compiled by the ERICarts Institute from the UN website http://www.ohchr.org/english/ countries/ratification/2.htm); ^ Nehemiah Robinson (1955). "CONVENTION RELATING TO THE STATUS OF STATELESS PERSONS Its History and Interpretation: A COMMENTARY". United Nations: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. http://www.unhcr.org/publ/PUBL/ 3d4ab67f4.pdf. ; ^ "The 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons: Implementation within the European Union Member States and Recommendations for Harmonisation". UNHCR: Department of International Protection. October 2003. http://www.unhcr.org/protect/ PROTECTION/4039fbba2.pdf. , ^ "Chapter 47: Registration by entitlement of stateless persons born outside the United Kingdom and the British overseas territories on or after 1 January 1983". Volume 1: The British Nationality Act 1981 - caseworking instructions. Home Office: UK Border Agency. http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/ sitecontent/documents/policyandlaw/
nationalityinstructions/nichapter47/ chapter47?view=Binary. .  "Nationality Law of the People’s Republic of China". Immigration Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. http://www.immd.gov.hk/ehtml/ chnnationality_1.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.  "Citizenship Act ( R.S., 1985, c. C-29 )". Department of Justice, Canada. http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/showdoc/cs/ C-29/bo-ga:l_III::bo-ga:l_IV?page=4. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.  "Possible Loss of U.S. Citizenship and Dual Nationality". U.S. Department of State. http://travel.state.gov/law/ citizenship/citizenship_778.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.  "The Bahamas Independence Order 1973". June 20, 1973. http://www.constitution.org/cons/ bahamas.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.  "1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Chanrobles Law Library. 1935-05-14. http://www.chanrobles.com/ 1935constitutionofthephilippines.htm. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.  "1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Chanrobles Law Library. 1986-10-15. http://www.chanrobles.com/ philsupremelaw1.htm. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.  "1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Chanrobles Law library. 1973-01-17. http://www.chanrobles.com/ 1973constitutionofthephilippines.htm. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.  "Norwegian citizenship by birth". Norwegian Directorate of immigration. http://www.udi.no/templates/ Tema.aspx?id=8706. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.  "New Zealand Citizenship by Descent". New Zealand departmentof Internal Affairs. http://www.citizenship.govt.nz/ diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/ServicesCitizenship-New-Zealand-Citizenship-byDescent?OpenDocument. Retrieved on 2008-08-19.
• The Hague 1930 Convention
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• Convention n°8 on the exchange of information concerning acquisition of nationality, 1964 Council of Europe • Convention on the Reduction of Cases of Multiple Nationality and on Military Obligations in Cases of Multiple Nationality, 1963 • European Convention on Nationality, 1997 Australia • Australian Citizenship Canada • Dual Citizenship (Citizenship and Immigration Canada) Croatia • Law on Croatian citizenship (article 2) Finland • Nationality Act of 2003 (Chapters 3 and 5) Ghana • Citizenship Act of 2000 (Section 16) India • Ministry of Home Affairs, Citizenship Division • Ministry of Home Affairs, Overseas Citizenship of India Ireland • Irish Citizenship by Descent (Foreign Births Registry) Italy • Embassy of Italy in the United States (archived page) Mexico • Embassy of Mexico in Canada (translated by Google) New Zealand • The Department of Internal Affairs: Citizenship Service Pakistan • Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Affairs Division • Pakistan Citizenship Law
The Netherlands • Dutch nationality • Acquisition of another nationality by a Dutch citizen • Acquisition of dutch citizenship by a foreign national Philippines • Republic of the Philippines: FAQ - Dual Citizenship Sri Lanka • Sri Lankan Dual Citizenship United States • Dual Citizenship FAQ -- latest archive.org copy of site (Mar 30, 2005) • Dual Nationality (State Department) • Possible Loss of U.S. Citizenship and Dual Nationality (State Department)
• Randall Hansen, Patrick Weil, ed (January 2002). Dual Nationality, Social Rights and Federal Citizenship in the U. S. and Europe: The Reinvention of Citizenship. Berghahn Books. ISBN 1571818049. • Thomas Faist, ed (August 2007). Dual Citizenship in Europe: From Nationhood to Societal Integration. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate. ISBN 9780754649144. • Thomas Faist, Peter Kivisto, ed (November 2007). Dual Citizenship in Global Perspective: From Unitary to Multiple Citizenship. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230006546. • Federal Investigative Services Division of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (2001). "Citizenship Laws of the World: A Directory" (PDF). http://www.opm.gov/ extra/investigate/IS-01.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.