Japan by SabeerAli1

VIEWS: 26 PAGES: 23

									UNIVERSITY OF YORK
Social Policy Research Unit

COMPARISON OF CHILD BENEFIT PACKAGES IN 22
COUNTRIES

National Informants Questionnaire

When supplying data please could you indicate the date that the data
refers to and give the source of the data. If you cannot match the
definition give the nearest alternative and indicate the difference.

When supplying amounts, could you please give a monthly figure. If
this is not possible/ appropriate, please indicate.

When supplying benefit data, could you please update the data to
July 2001, if possible.



We advise you to look through the whole questionnaire before
answering the questions.


      Part A is concerned with current demographics and employment

      Part B is concerned with up to date current policies that affect
       families with children and have been implemented by July 2001.

      Part C is concerned with changes in policies that affect families with
       children since 1996

      Part D is concerned with future changes in policies that affect
       families with children that have all ready been announced but have
       not yet been implemented by July 2001




                                    1
PART A

Section 1: Demographics

For this section, please use the following definition of lone parent: “ a mother or a
father living without a spouse (and not cohabiting) with his or her never-married
dependent child or children aged either under 16 or from 16 to (under) 19 and
undertaking full time education)” (Department of Social Security).

Please use consistent points in time for the figures in this section.

1.      What is the total population of your country?

                       >>>>>>126,920,000

        <Ministry of Public Management (2001) Census 2000 Provisional Data>


     2. How many children are there under the age of 16?

                       >>>>>> 19,899,500

        <Ministry of Public Management (2001) Census 2000 Provisional Data>


3.      What number of children are there aged:
                                                        0-4 >>>>> 5,817,000
                                                        5-15 >>>>14,082,500

        <Ministry of Public Management (2001) Census 2000 Provisional Data>


4.      What is the total period fertility rate (ie. The number of children that would be
        born to a woman if the current pattern of fertility persisted throughout her
        child-bearing life)?

                       >>>>>>>1.35 (2000)

        <Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Provisional Data for 2000>

5.      What is the live birth rate (ie. The number of births per thousand population of
        all ages) ?

                       >>>>>>> 9.5 (1999)

        <Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Vital Statistics of Japan 1999>


6.      What is the marriage rate (ie. The number of marriages per 1000 adults of
        marriageable age)?

                       >>>>>>> *6.4 (per 1000 population) (1999)

        <Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Vital Statistics of Japan 1999>



                                            2
7.     What is the divorce rate (ie. rates per 1000 married population) ?

                      >>>>>>> *2.1 (per 1000 population)

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Vital Statistics of Japan 1999>


8.     What % of live births are outside marriage?

                      >>>>>>> 1.6% (1999)

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Vital Statistics of Japan 1999>


9.     What is the % of all live births are to mothers aged 15-19?

                      >>>>>>>> 1.65 %

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Vital Statistics of Japan 1999>



10.    What is the % of working age lone parent households with dependent children
       as a % of all working age households with dependent children? (Dependent
       children are persons under 16, or age 16-18 and in full time education.)

                      >>>>>>>> 3.8 % (1999)

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa 1999>


11.    What is the % of lone mothers as a % of all working age families with
       dependent children?

                      >>>>>>>> 3.2% (1999)

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa 1999>


12.    What is the % of lone mothers as a % of all lone parent families?

                      >>>>>>>> 84%

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa 1999>



13.   What % of lone parents are:
              Single              6.2
Separated (other)    4.7
              Divorced            66.8
              Widowed?            20.6


(1998: Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Survey of Lone Parent Families 1998)


                                          3
14.   What % of lone mothers are:
             Single >>>>>>>>>7.3%
Separated (others)>>>>>>4.2
      Divorced >>>>>>> 68.4%
             Widowed >>>>>> 18.7% (1998)

(1998: Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Survey of Lone Parent Families 1998)




Section 2: Employment

Please use consistent points in time for the figures in this section.>>1999

1.     What % of couple households with dependent children and headed by adults
       of working age have:
              No workers                       >>>> 1.7%
              One worker                       >>>> 46.7%
              Two workers                      >>>>37.9%
              Three workers or above           >>>>13.8%

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa 1999>

2.     What % of lone parent households with dependent children and headed by
       adults of working age have:
               No workers                        >>>>83.7%
               One worker
               Two workers
               Three workers or above

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa 1999>


**** Following section, data on children aged under 19 >> those on children under 18

3.     What % of lone parents whose youngest dependent children is aged under 18
       are:
             Employed                           >>>>83.7*% or 86.8**%
             Employed under 16 hours
             Employed 16-29 hours
             Employed 30+ hours?

<*Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa 1999>

**(1998: Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Survey of Lone Parent Families 1998)




                                           4
4.    What % of lone parents whose youngest child is under five years old are:
            Employed                            >>>>74.3%
            Employed under 16 hours
            Employed 16-29 hours
            Employed 30+ hours?

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa 1999>


5.    What % of lone mothers whose youngest dependent children is aged under
      18 are:
              Employed                        >>>>82.9%
              Employed under 16 hours
              Employed 16-29 hours
              Employed 30+ hours?

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa 1999>

6.    What % of lone mothers whose youngest child is under five years old are:
            Employed                           >>>>77.9%
            Employed under 16 hours
            Employed 16-29 hours
            Employed 30+ hours?


<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa 1999>
7.    What % of married/cohabiting mothers whose youngest dependent child is 18
      years or under are:
              Employed                         >>>>44.7%
              Employed under 16 hours
              Employed 16-29 hours
              Employed 30+ hours?

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa 1999>

8.    What % of married/cohabiting mothers whose youngest dependent child is 5
      years or under are:
             Employed                          >>>>26.8%
             Employed under 16 hours
             Employed 16-29 hours
             Employed 30+ hours?

<Ministry of Health and Welfare (2001) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa 1999>




                                        5
Section 3: Unemployment

For this section, please use the International Labour Office definition of
unemployment: The unemployed are those aged 16 or over without a paid job who
are available to work in the next two weeks, and who either had looked for work in
the last 4 weeks, or were waiting to start a job they had already obtained.

Please use consistent points in time for the figures in this section.

1.     What % of those aged over 16 are ILO unemployed?

2.     What % of females aged over 16 are ILO unemployed?

3.     What % of lone parents are ILO unemployed?

4.     What % of lone mothers are ILO unemployed?

5.     What % of married/cohabiting mothers are ILO unemployed?

>>>> Currently available Japanese official statistics uses own definition of the
unemployed: those without a paid work, who are available to work, and who
are actively looking for work (or waiting the result of that ) .

The unemployment rate by the definition above is 5.0 % (July 2001)
Male unemployment is 5.2 % and female is 4.7%.

No data is available in respect of family types and family structure.



Section 4: Education

1.     What is the statutory minimum school age?              >>>6

2.     What is the statutory school leaving age?              >>>15

3.     What % of children under 3 years old are in formal education/childcare?
             >>>> 27.3% (1999)

4.     What % of children age 3 - 5 are in formal education/childcare?
             >>>> 84.6% (1999)

               This data based on formal childcare system (Public nursery) and
               formal education system for pre-school age children (Kindergarten)


Calculated data from the following sources;

< Ministry of Education (2000) National School Survey 1999>
< Ministry of Health and Welfare (2000) Social Welfare Administration Report
1999>



                                            6
5.    What % of children between school leaving age and 18 are in full time
      education (do not include government supported or employer funded
      training)?    >>>95.9% (1999)


< Ministry of Education (2000) National School Survey 1999>




                                        7
PART B – CURRENT POLICIES THAT AFFECT FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN
AND HAVE BEEN IMPLEMENTED BY JULY 2001

Section 1: Earnings and Minimum Wage

1.    What are the assumed mean gross average earnings per month for
      all full time employees
      male full time employees
      female full time employees at July 2001?

             Male >> 367200 (per month) + 1217500 (bonus annually)
             Female >> 230700 (per month) + 685100 (bonus annually)

                                   At June 1999**

***The latest available Japanese data is that collected at June 2000 and
published April 2001. However these are provisional data and limited on
monthly salary. The data on bonus in 2000 is not available yet.



2.    What are the assumed median gross average earnings per month for:
      all full time employees
      male full time employees
      female full time employees at July 2001 ?

3.    From what source have you derived the average earnings data from?

             The ministry of Health and Welfare (2000) The Chingin Kozo
             Kihon Tokei Chosa (the Earning Structure Survey on Financial
             year 1999)


4.    Does your country have a minimum wage? If so, what level is it set at? Does
      it vary by age/type of work/how the person is paid/ whether full time or part
      time etc.?

           Yes.
Minimum wages vary, set by main industries and locally.
           For example, daily minimum wage is 6188 yen for steel industry
           and 5569 yen for food industry.
           Average local minimum wages (average of 47 local authorities) is
           5256 yen (daily) and 659 yen (hourly). Japanese data for the
           matrix is based on the locally set one.


5.    When was this introduced?
            1959 ( the Minimum Wage Act)

6.    How is it uprated

             Local Committee on minimum wages, which set up in every 47
             counties, uprated annually, following the guideline by the Central
             Committee on minimum wages.



                                         8
Section 2: Income tax

1.      What are the income tax rates and thresholds?

                     Taxable income***               rate
               1000yen - 3299000 yen                 10%
               3300000 yen - 8999000 yen             20%
               9000000 yen - 17999000 yen            30%
               18000000 yen -                        40%

               *** Income tax applied on 'taxable income'

               Original earnings - Various exemption and other costs
                                    (Including social security contributions)
                             = taxable income.

               It is very important to note that these thresholds are not based
               on original earnings.

2.      Do any tax allowance or credits exist for lone parents and/ or couples with
        children? If so, what are they called and who qualifies?

3.      Does the allowance/amount credited vary by:
        income
        number of hours worked
        number of children
        age of child
        type of family
        other

Tax allowances (= Tax exemptions )

     1. Allowance for Spouse (for spouse who is economically inactive)
                                           >>>>380000 yen
     2.Special Allowance for Spouse (for spouse whose income is below certain
                                    level) >>>>up to 380000 yen

     3.Allowance for Dependant (for each dependant such as child )
              under 16 or over 23         380000 yen
              between 16 to 22            630000 yen

     4.Allowance for Lone parent and widow
              Lone father whose annual income is below 5,000,000 yen
                            >>>>270000 yen
              Lone mother whose income is below 500000 yen
                            >>>>350000 yen
              Other Lone mother
                            >>>>270000 yen

               *These amounts are exempted from original earnings before
               taxed as explained above.




                                           9
               **Full-time housewife qualifies 1 and 2 (2 is maximum 380000
               yen).
                 Spouse with part-time job qualifies 1 and 2 ( 2 's rate is reduced
               depends on earnings), if his/ her income is below certain level.

                 Dual income couple both on full-time job cannot qualify neither
               1 and 2.



4.     How is it paid to families and who is it paid to?

               >> no actual payment is made (= amount of tax payment is
               reduced)

               For example: One earner couple with two children
                     <Earnings>                              E

                      <Exemptions>
                      Allowance for Necessary Cost
                      Social security contribution
                      Other costs
                      Personal allowance                            380000
                      Spouse                                        380000
                      Special allowance for spouse                  380000
                      Dependant                                     380000
                      Dependant                                     380000

                      Taxable income = Earnings - Exemptions

                      Income Tax = Taxable income * income tax rate

It is depends on the type of tax allowances ( perhaps should be called as
tax exemptions).

Only one earner can qualify for family related tax allowances (children and
other dependant members). People can choose which one's tax should be
reduced.
And both can claim personal allowances.

As I explained in the mail the other day, Japanese tax allowances are
exempted from original earnings and then tax rates are applied. This means a
higher earner could get more benefit from this system.

Tax payment = (origianl earnings - tax allowances and other exemptions )
multp by tax rate ( ie 10 per cent, 20 per cent, 30 per cent ....) . For
example, a higher earner- whose income tax rate is 20 per cent- can save
tax payment twice as much as those on tax rate 10 per cent.

Therefore, in the case of dual earners family, they would claim tax
allowace from a higher earner, and this is usually ( but not always )
husbands' income.




                                           10
Section 3: Employee social security contributions

1.    What are the National Insurance contribution (social security/health
      insurance) requirements?

              Social Insurance contributions vary depends on workers
              employment type ( ie whether he/ she work for private sector,
              public sector, or self-employment including small firms) .
              Japanese data is based on a case of medium size private
              company.


              Pension
                          >>17.35 % of monthly salary / 2 = 8.675 %
              Medical + Social Care Insurance
                          >> 9.1 % of monthly salary / 2 = 4.05 %
              Employment
                          >>0.6% of monthly salary

              Special contributions
                            >> 1 % from bonus and other extra payment




2.    Do Social Security contributions vary with the number or ages of children
      and/or family type? >>> No

3.    Do any exemptions or rebates exist? Is anybody in paid work credited?
>> Yes, for example in the case of leave to care for children



Section 4: Maternity/paternity and leave to care for children, including sick
children

Maternity leave:

1.     Does you country have statutory arrangements for maternity leave?
                    >>     Yes

2.    If yes, is their universal coverage? If no, give details of who is/is not eligible
      and how much the receive.
                        >>     Yes

3.     What is the maximum duration in weeks?
                     >>    6 weeks before a birth ( the date child is due)
                     >>    8 weeks after a birth

4.    Is maternity leave paid and is this for the full duration? If paid but not for the
      full duration, please stipulate how long payment is for.
                       >>      Yes

5.     Are lost earnings replaced in full?



                                             11
                        >>      60%

6.     Who is paying the maternity leave (state, employee, health insurance)?
                        >>      Health Insurance

7.     Are social insurance contributions maintained throughout maternity leave?
                      >>     Yes

8.     Is the mother‟s job guaranteed on her return to work?
                      >>     Yes

9.     Does the mother have the right to work part time hours on her return to work,
       even if she was previously working full time?
                        >>      See the section of leave to care for children

10.    If statutory maternity leave does not exist, is there any other maternity leave
       for which women may be eligible? If so, give details.

11.    If statutory maternity pay is not universal, is there any other maternity pay for
       women who do not qualify for Statutory maternity leave? If so, give details.

12.    Do any maternity grants exist? If so, give details.


Paternity leave:

13.    Does your country have statutory arrangements for paternity leave?
                    >>

14.    Is their universal coverage? If not, give details.
                       >>

15.    Is paternity leave paid?
                       >>

16.    If yes, is it paid to all fathers? If no, give details.
                         >>

17.    Is it paid for the full duration? If no, give details.
                        >>

18.    What is the level of payment?


19.    Is the father‟s job guaranteed on their return to work? Give details.
                        >>

Leave to care for children, including leave to care for sick children:

20.    Does your country provide statutory arrangements for leave to care for
       children?
                    >> YES – leave for care of children – both parents can take
                    leave. Temporary parental leave for sick children and
                    childcare is likely to be introduced from April 2002.



                                               12
21.    If yes, how many days/ weeks leave are given?

                       >> One year (until child’s first birthday)

22.    Is leave flexible – ie. can a person reduce the amount of working hours?

                       >> Two options: either taking ‘continuous leave’ or ‘flex /
                       short leave)

23.    If any, what is the limit of the age of the child?

                       >> up to child aged one year old

24.    What is the level of payment?

                       >>depended on negotiation with employer.
                       40% of wages are guaranteed from social insurance.
                       Also, social insurance contribution is exempted.

25.    Is the parent‟s job guaranteed on their return to work?

                       >> In many case, yes. In medium and large size
                       companies, over 80 % return to the same kind of job.


Section 5: Universal child benefits

               >>> No universal child benefits in Japan

1.    Does your country have universal child benefit? If yes, what is it called? Give
      details - does it vary by number of children, age of children and family type
      etc.?

2.     What are the age limits?

3.     Who is the benefit paid to – the mother or father?

4.     Is it contributory?

5.     Is it uprated? If so, how often and is this index linked?

6.     Is it taxed?


Section 6: Income related child benefits

1.    Does income related child benefit exist? If so, does it vary by number of
      children, age of children and family type?
              >> Yes, There is Child Benefit (Jido Teate) .
              It vary by number of children , and provided for pre-school
              children.

2.     How often is it paid?
              >> 3 times in a year ( 4 month's payment in each time)



                                            13
3.    Who is it paid to – mother or father?
             >> either (arrangement vary depends on local authorities , which
             includes direct payment at the office and bank transfer )

4.    Is it contributory?
               >> Not necessarily, but in the case of employee, a higher income
               limit can be applied in return for employer shares the cost of
               benefit provision.

5.    Is it taxed?
               >> No


      *** There is also Child Support Allowance for lone mother family (Jido
      Fuyo Teate)The amount vary depends on the number of children and
      income level. It is paid 3 times in a year ( 4month's payment in each
      time)



Section 7: Childcare provision

1.    What are the normal school hours?
            >>8:30 am to 4:00 pm

2.    Does the state guarantee childcare for children below the minimum school
      statutory school age?
              >> No

3.    Is priority given to lone parents?
               >> (Yes)

4.    What is the most prevalent full time form of formal childcare for children
      below minimum statutory school age, as used in the matrix? (Do not include
      nursery or reception classes in school or the equivalent).

             >> Public sectors nursery (including those run by Non-profit
             sector under the contract with local authority) but it is only
             available for children without care (ie both parents working )

5.    What proportion of children use the most prevalent full time form of formal
      childcare?
              >> It is depends on the age of children.
                      Early stage education (Kindergarten ) is also available for
                      children aged 3, 4 and 5 , and these are popular form for
                      single earners family and dual earners family with part-
                      time job.


6.    Are there any charges made for the type of full time formal childcare used in
      the matrix? If so, how much are they?

7.    Are there any income related reductions/subsidies? If so, what are they, who
      is eligible? Note: this excludes tax credits.



                                           14
               >> Charge scales are based on income, number of children, age
               of children, and time arrangement. Scales vary depends on local
               authorities and it is impossible to present average model. Usually
               charge scale widen from free of charge to 80000 yen per month.


8.     Are their any other benefit/subsidies?
              >> No

9.     Does a tax credit relief exist? If so, what is it, who is eligible, and how much is
       it for? Does it vary by number/ age of children, type of family etc.
                >> Not for childcare itself but the charge for childcare is income
                related and the rest of the cost covered by public fund based on
                general taxation.

10.    Can these financial subsidies be used to pay for childcare provided by
       relatives and or friends?

11.    What formal arrangements are there for out of school childcare provision for
       school aged children?

               >> No formal arrangement but ‘after school club’ is increasing
               and getting popular

12.    Are there charges for this?

              >> Yes
13.    Can these charges be reduced? If so, in what circumstances?

               >> depends on local authorities



Section 8: School costs and benefits

1.     Are meals provided?
             >> Usually provided for children in elementary school but not
             always the case for those in secondary school. It is depends on
             local authorities.


2.     Do meal subsidies exist? – give details
             >> Yes

3.     Are there any books or material charges? – give details
              >> Yes - charges vary depends on local authorities
 but usually parents pay for books, school trips, uniform, materials for science
class experiences and fee for Parent and Teachers Association(PTA).

4.        Do any allowances etc. exist for young people (16-18 year olds) who remain
in full time education after the school leaving age? If so, give details. Do not include
training allowances or apprenticeship schemes.
                >> No




                                           15
Section 9: Health costs

             Health costs are related to whole health insurance and medical
             provision system. It is essential to understand the most medical
             practitioners are private one in Japan and public medical
             insurance covers the cost of treatment. The costs vary depends
             on practitioner who decide the types of treatment, drugs, and
             materials. 'Points' are given to each treatment and activities ( 270
             pt for first visit, for example). In general, more drugs a doctor
             prescribes, more insurance points are given, then more rewards
             he earns from public health insurance. There have been
             criticisms that Japanese medical insurance system can be seen
             as 'milky cow' for private practitioner and it encourages
             unnecessary treatment and prescription.

             It is also very important to note that the charge is different
             depends on which types of public health insurance. (ie the
             charge for the same treatment can be different depends on
             workers status : public, private sectors, or self- employed ).
             Charges for children and dependant members are based on main
             earner's insurance scheme.




1.    Are there any hospital/ General practitioner (GP) dental/prescription charges
      for children in your country? If yes, give details

             >>Yes

2.    Are there any exemptions for children? If yes, give details

             >> Yes, children under 6 is exempted from charge for giving
             medicine directly by a practitioner on the visit.


             >> Many local authorities have own measure to cover the charge
             for children under 3.



3.    Are there hospital/ GP/ dental/ prescription charges for adults? Give details.

4.                   >>Yes.
                     Private sectors employee>>20 % of treatment cost
                                          (80% covered by the insurance)
                     His/ her dependant (inc children)>> 30 % of treatment cost
                                          (70% covered by the insurance)


4.    Are there any exemptions for adults? If yes, give details

             >> Yes, in the case of the elderly living on low income



                                         16
Section 10: Housing costs, local taxes and housing subsidies

1.     Nationally, what is the % renting each type of tenure?

              >> It extremely vary depends on age group, family type, and
              where they live.

                                      Private
                             Own      rent       Occupational Public      Others
           All                   63.5       21.9          5.2         6.6          2.8
           All in urban area     48.9       31.4          6.8         9.4          3.5
           Aged 35-39
            in urban area.       38.8       37.9         11.1         9.2            3
           Lone Parent           56.5       23.1          0.9        16.9          2.5

                             <MHW (1999) Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa >



2.     Housing costs, local and state taxes may vary from one place to another –
       could you please specify the location in which the model families live?

              Matrix created on the basis of assumption that the model families
              live in large cities. Distinctions between large, small city and
              rural areas are usually applied in local tax and public assistance
              system. School costs are also based on the same assumption.
              For childcare cost, charge scale of Kyoto city (which is large city
              with population of 1.45 million ) is employed.


3.     Which tenure have you chosen for the matrix?
              Private rented flat (and the model family receiving extra wage for
              housing)


4.     Do indirect subsidies for bricks and mortar exist for the type of housing which
       couples with children and/ or lone parents are renting?

5.    Do direct subsidies exist for the type of rented housing which you have
chosen? – What are they called and what is the level of benefit?

6.     If so, who can claim it - do payments vary with income, work status, age,
       number and family type etc.?

7.     Is it contributory?
                >>>> An aspect of ‘housing allowances’ / subsidies exist in wage
                structures. The employer will provide financial support as a part
                of wage. In the case of support as a wage, the amount and
                system of ‘housing allowance’ vary depends on the company.
                Usually, the company provides some proportion of rent if the



                                          17
              employee lives in rented house. The financial support is also
              available for the employees who is living on own house and
              paying a mortgage.

              Also many employer (company) provide house/ flat itself. The
              employee living these type of housing will pay small amount of
              rent (smaller than ordinary rent in a market) to landlord ( ie
              employer ). Double renting ( ie a company rent a flats from
              landlord, then provide it to individual employee for smaller rent)
              is also very common.

              The system vary depends on company, some take into account
              of family size (or married / not).


8.    Is it taxable?

              >>>Yes, it is a part of wage

9.    How is it uprated?

              >>> Partly through negotiation between the employers and the
              union, and partly reflects economic situation of the company .

10.   Is it administered at national or local level?

              >>> administrated at employer’s level – it is a part of
              occupational welfare provision


11.   Does local taxation exist? If yes, what type of local taxation exists, what are
      the charges?
             >>> Yes. Two types of local tax - flat rate tax and income related
             tax – and the residents pay both unless they are on low income.
             Flat rate local tax vary depends on local authorities – the amount
             usually reflect the population of local authorities – metropolitan
             authorities uses higher rate. Income related local tax is very
             similar system as national income tax.


12.   What service charges are part of the local tax?

              >> No charge as a part of tax.
              But residents pay the local services /public utilities such as water.
              And some local authorities charge collecting litter /garbage.

13.   Is it possible to get a rebate on these taxes? If so, give details.

14.   Is the benefit administered nationally or at a local level?

15.   Are there any additional service charges. If yes, give details?




                                           18
Section 11: Child support

1.    Is child maintenance guaranteed?
                     >> No. Most divorce take place by mutual agreement, and
                     arrangement of maintenance is depends on negotiation
                     between the two parties.

2.    If yes, give details.

3.    Is child support disregarded for income related benefits?
                     >> No


Section 12: Social Assistance

1.    Does your country have some form of last resort „safety net‟ benefits for
      people without sufficient cash income from other sources?

              >> Yes

2.    What are the main social assistance and minimum schemes of which lone
      parents and couples with children are likely to be claimants?

              >> Public Assistance (Seikatsu Hogo system)

3.    Who is eligible to claim each of these benefits?

              >> Anybody who seeks public help

4.    Does this include additions for children – give details

              >>Yes

              >> Minimum living cost of each member of family are calculated
              on the basis of age.

              >> Also, extra addition is given on the basis of family size


              (example Father (age 30 ) Mother (age 27) child (age 3)
                     Category I (personal rate)
                             Father                             40410
                             Mother                            40410
                             Child                             27250
                     Category II (rate for household size)
                             Household of three                55900

                       Total ( = I + II )                     163970 Yen




4.    What % of lone parents receive these benefit(s)?




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5.   What % of lone mothers receive these benefit(s)?

            >> 12.3%

     ***It is important to note the Child Support Allowances (Jido Fuyo
     Teate) . This is cash benefit for the lone mother family and 71.9% of lone
     mother receiving this benefit.




6.   What % of cohabiting/married mothers receive the benefit(s)?

            >>1.5 % for all household type


7.   Are they nationally or locally regulated?
            >> Nationally regulated

8.   Are they nationally or locally administered?
            >> Locally administrated


9.   Does a work test operate for lone parents and cohabiting/married mothers
     with children? If so, what does this consist of – for example, does it depend
     on the age of the youngest child and, if so, what is this age?

            >> Depends on discretion of officer at benefit office. But a
            claimant on working age is usually asked to make the best effort
            to find a job




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PART C – SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN POLICIES AFFECTING FAMILIES AND
CHILDREN SINCE 1996

Could you please outline any significant changes in policies that have taken
place since 1996 for each section. Do report routine upratings or minor
changes.

Section 1: Earnings and Minimum Wage

Section 2: Income Tax

Section 3: Employee social security contributions

Social care insurance was introduced in 2000, to which the employees over 40 years
old have to pay contribution.

Section 4: Maternity/paternity and leave to care for children, including sick
children

Payment from social insurance during leave to care for children increased from 25 %
of wage to 40 % in 2001


Section 5: Universal child benefits

Section 6: Income related child benefits

      >>Increase the dependant allowance (exemption for children ) in income tax
      system in 1999 ( only for one year >> see below)
>>Extended the eligible age for child benefit from 3 to 6, in return for the reducing the
amount of the dependant allowance to pre-1999 level.

** There are some criticisms over inconsistent recent policies on child benefit /tax
allowance system.


Section 7: Childcare provision

Change in Child Welfare Law, stressing the consumer‟s choice, and change in
charge system (charge scale is simplified – less charge for higher income family and
more charge for the lower income groups)


Section 8: School costs and benefits

Section 9: Health costs

Section 10: Housing costs, local taxes and housing subsidies

Section 11: Child support

Section 12: Social Assistance
Annually uprated




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PART D – FUTURE PLANS

Could you please outline any significant changes in policies affecting families
with children that have already been announced but not implemented by July
2001.

Section 1: Earnings and Minimum Wage

Section 2: Income Tax

Section 3: Employee social security contributions

The government proposes the social security contribution should based on whole
annual earnings, rather than monthly regular earnings. Although currently small
proportion of contribution is required on bonus, it has been pointed out that if a
company pay more proportion as bonus and less as monthly regular wage, there
would be a differences in total amount of social security contribution even annual
total earnings(monthly regular wage+bonus) are the same.


Section 4: Maternity/paternity and leave to care for children, including sick
children

Section 5: Universal child benefits

Section 6: Income related child benefits

Section 7: Childcare provision

Long waiting list for public childcare has been an issue for last few years. The
government is proposing to cut the list by expanding provision. This is also a part of
policies to increase employment in social care sector.

After school club will be increased. The government set a target as 11500 clubs in
nation wide until 2004


Section 8: School costs and benefits

Section 9: Health costs

The government has proposed the reform of health insurance which reduce the
charge for children under 3. Currently the charge for children is 30% of medical cost
(although many local authorities covers some proportion of these 30 %) and the rest
(70%) is covered by public health insurances. The reform will change this proportion
to 20 % from 2004. If this change combined with local authorities own measure,
children under 3 will effectively take health care for free.

Section 10: Housing costs, local taxes and housing subsidies

Section 11: Child support

Section 12: Social Assistance




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