Izmir - PDF by zzzmarcus


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Port of İzmir as seen from Konak Pier

Location of İzmir

Coordinates: 38°26′N 27°09′E / 38.433°N 27.15°E / 38.433; 27.15 Country Region Province Elevation Turkey İzmir 30 m (98 ft)

Population (2008)[1] 3.739.353 - Total 3,099.00/km2 (8,026.4/ - Density sq mi) Time zone - Summer (DST) Postal code Area code(s) Licence plate Website EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) 35xxx (0090)+ 232 35 www.izmir.bel.tr

Gaziemir, Güzelbahçe, Karşıyaka, Konak, Menemen, and Narlıdere,), each with its own distinct features and temperament. The total area of the nine districts is 855 km2 (330 sq mi) and together these districts constitute the area of the İzmir Metropolitan Municipality headed by the Mayor of İzmir. The total population of the metropolitan municipality was 2,649,582 by the end of 2007.[1] Of these, 2,606,294 were living in central Izmir, consisting of the nine district centres of the metropolitan municipality.[2] İzmir has almost 3,500 years of urban past, and possibly that much more of advanced human settlement. Its port, privatized in 2007 [3], is Turkey’s first port for exports in terms of the freight handled and its free zone, a Turkish-U.S. joint-venture established in 1990, is the leader among the twenty in Turkey. Its workforce, and particularly its rising class of young professionals, concentrated either in the city or in its immediate vicinity (such as in Manisa), and under either larger companies or SMEs, affirm their name in an increasingly wider global scale and intensity.[4] İzmir is widely regarded as one of the most progressive Turkish cities in terms of its values, lifestyle, dynamism and gender roles. It is a stronghold of the Republican People’s Party, although it lost a lot of ground to the ruling AKP party in the 2007 election.

İzmir, historically Smyrna, is Turkey’s third most populous city and the country’s largest port after Istanbul. It is located along the outlying waters of the Gulf of İzmir, by the Aegean Sea. It is the seat of İzmir Province, which has an area of 7350 km2. The city of İzmir is composed of ten metropolitan districts (Balçova, Bornova, Buca, Çiğli,

Cafés along the historic Pasaport Quay (1877) at the port of İzmir.


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The city hosts an international arts festival during June and July, and İzmir International Fair, one of the city’s many fair and exhibition events centered around but not limited to Kültürpark, is held in the beginning of September every year. İzmir is served by national and international flights through Adnan Menderes Airport and there is a modern rapid transit line running from the southwest to the northeast. İzmir hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1971 and the World University Games (Universiade) in 2005. It had a running bid submitted to the BIE to host the Universal Expo 2015, in March, 2008, that was lost to Milan. Modern İzmir also incorporates the nearby ancient cities of Ephesus, Pergamon, Sardis and Klazomenai, and centers of international tourism such as Kuşadası, Çeşme, Mordoğan and Foça. Despite its advantageous location and its heritage, İzmir has suffered until recently, as one author puts it, from "sketchy understanding" in the eyes of outsiders. When the Ottomans took over İzmir in the 15th century they did not inherit compelling historical memories, unlike the two other keys of the trade network, namely Istanbul and Aleppo. Its emergence as a major international port as of the 17th century was largely a result of the attraction it exercised over foreigners, and the city’s European orientation. [5] Very different people found İzmir attractive over the ages and the city has always been governed by fresh inspirations, including for the very location of its center, and is quick to adopt novelties and projects.

not established with certainty that this name refers to İzmir.[7] The region of İzmir was situated on the southern fringes of the "Yortan culture" in Anatolia’s prehistory, the knowledge of which is almost entirely drawn from its cemeteries [8], and in the second half of the 2nd millennium B.C., in the western end of the extension of the yet largely obscure Arzawa Kingdom, an offshoot and usually a dependency of the Hittites, who themselves spread their direct rule as far as the coast during their Great Kingdom. That the realm of the local Luwian ruler who legated the 13th century B.C. Kemalpaşa Karabel rock carving at a distance of only 50 km (31 mi) from İzmir was called Mira may also leave ground for association with the city’s name. [9] The newest rendering in Greek of the city’s name we know is the Aeolic Greek Μύρρα Mýrrha, corresponding to the later Ionian and Attic Σμύρνα (Smýrna) or Σμύρνη (Smýrnē), both presumably descendants of a Proto-Greek form *Smúrnā. Some would see in the city’s name a reference to the name of an Amazon called Smyrna who would have seduced Theseus, leading him to name the city in her honor [10]. Other link the name to Myrrha commifera shrub, a plant that produces the aromatic resin called myrrh and is indigenous to the Middle East and northeastern Africa. The Romans took this name over as Smyrna which is the name still used in English when referring to the city in preTurkish periods. The name İzmir (Ottoman Turkish: ‫ ريمزإ‬İzmir) is the modern Turkish version of the same name. In Greek it is Σμύρνη (Smýrni), ????? (Izmir) in Armenian, Smirne in Italian, Esmirna in Spanish, Smyrne in French, and Izmir (without the Turkish dotted İ) in Ladino. In English, the city was called Smyrna until the early twentieth century and has been called İzmir since. In written Turkish it is spelled with a dotted İ at the beginning. İzmir is nicknamed "Occidental İzmir" or "The Pearl of the Aegean".

Names and etymology
“ İzmir is ” a princess with her most beautiful small hat. —Victor Hugo[6] The name of a locality called Ti-smurna is mentioned in some of the Level II tablets from the Assyrian colony in Kültepe (first half of the 2nd millennium B.C.), with the prefix ti- identifying a proper name, although it is

See also: Timeline of İzmir


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early Anatolian history and on a par with Troy. The presence of a vineyard of İzmir’s Wine and Beer Factory on this hill, also called Tepekule, prevented the urbanization of the site and facilitated the excavations that started in the 1960s by Ekrem Akurgal. However, in the 1200s BC, invasions from the Balkans destroyed Troy VII. Central and Western Anatolia fell back into a Dark Age that lasted until the emergence of the Phrygian civilization in the 8th century BC. The oldest house discovered in Bayraklı is dated to 925 and 900 BC. The walls of this well-preserved house (2.45 by 4 metres/8.0 by 13.1 feet), consisting of one small room typical of the Iron Age, were made of sun-dried bricks and the roof of the house was made of reeds. Around that time, people started to protect the city with thick ramparts made of sundried bricks. From then on Smyrna achieved an identity of city-state. About 1,000 lived inside the city walls, with others living in nearby villages, where fields, olive trees, vineyards, and the workshops of potters and stonecutters were located. People generally made their living through agriculture and fishing.

Ancient age
The city is one of the oldest settlements of the Mediterranean basin. The 2004 discovery of Yeşilova Höyük and the neighboring höyük of Yassıtepe, situated in the plain of Bornova, reset the starting date of the city’s past further back than was previously thought. The findings of the two seasons of excavations carried out in Yeşilova Höyük by a team of archaeologists from İzmir’s Ege University indicate three levels, two of which are prehistoric. Level 2 bears traces of early to mid-Chalcolithic, and the Level 3 of Neolithic settlements. These two levels would have been inhabited by the indigenous peoples of İzmir, very roughly, between 6500 to 4000 BC. With the seashore drawing away in time, the site was later used as a cemetery (several graves containing artifacts dating, roughly, from 3000 BC were found).[11]

Settlements of prehistory in and around İzmir, with those of the Bronze Age marked in blue, and the earlier ones in red. By 1500 BC the region fell under the influence of the Central Anatolian Hittite Empire. The Hittites possessed a script and several localities near İzmir were mentioned in their records. The first settlement to have commanded the Gulf as a whole is recorded, in a semi-legendary manner, to have been founded on top of Mount Yamanlar, to the northeast of the inner gulf. In connection with the silt brought by the streams which join the sea along the coastline, the settlement to form later the core of ""Old Smyrna" was founded on the slopes of the same mountain, on a hill (then a small peninsula connected to the mainland by a small isthmus) in the presentday quarter of Bayraklı. Bayraklı settlement is thought to have stretched back in time as far as the 3rd millennium BC. It rose up to become one of the most advanced cultures in

Nearby ancient site of Klazomenai in Urla is associated with some of the oldest known records of trade in olive oil


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Homer Homer, referred to as Melesigenes which means "Child of Meles Brook" is said to have been born in Smyrna. Combined with written evidence, it is generally admitted that Smyrna and Chios put forth the strongest arguments in claiming Homer and the main belief is that he was born in Ionia. A River Meles, still carrying the same name, is located within the city of İzmir, although association with the Homeric river is subject to controversy. [12], Old Smyrna The term "Old Smyrna" is used to describe the Greek city-state of the classical era located at the urban settlement in Tepekule, Bayraklı, to make a distinction with Smyrna re-built later on the slopes of Pagos (presentday Kadifekale). Greek settlement in Old Smyrna is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC onwards and the most ancient ruins preserved to our day date back to 725-700 BC. The most important sanctuary of Old Smyrna was the Temple of Athena, dates to 640-580 BC and restored somewhat today. Smyrna by this point was no longer a small town, but an urban center that took part in the Mediterranean trade. The city was settled at first by the Aeolians, but shortly thereafter seized by the Ionians and Smyrna was added to the twelve Ionian cities. As such, the city set out on its way to become one of the most prominent cultural and commercial centers of that period in the Mediterranean basin and reached its peak was between 650-545 BC. [13]


Agora of Smyrna

Agora of Smyrna Agora of Smyrna The oldest model of a many-roomed-type house of this period was found in Old Smyrna. Known to be the oldest house having so many rooms under its roof, this house was built in the second half of 7th century BC. The house has two floors and has five rooms with a courtyard. The houses before this type


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were composed of megarons standing adjacent to each other. Smyrna was built on the Hippodamian system in which streets run north-south and east-west and intersect at right angles. The houses all faced to the south. This city plan followed a pattern familiar in the Near East. The city plan in the Bayraklı höyük (mound) is the earliest example of this type in the Western Hemisphere. The most ancient paved streets of the Ionian civilization have been discovered in ancient Smyrna. Lydians and Persians The riches of the city impressed the Lydians and attracted them to Smyrna. The Lydian army conquered the city in about 610-600 BC and burned and destroyed parts of the city. Soon afterwards, another invasion, this time Persian, effectively ended Old Smyrna’s history as an urban center of note. The Persian Emperor, determined to punish the cities that refused to give him support in his campaign against the Lydians, attacked the coastal cities of the Aegean after having conquered Sardis, the capital of Lydia. As a result, old Smyrna was destroyed in 545 BC. Alexander the Great Alexander the Great re-founded the city around 340 BC. Alexander had defeated the Persians in several battles and finally the emperor Darius himself at Issus in 333 BC. The cities of the region witnessed a great resurgence in their population. Old Smyrna on a small hill by the sea was sufficient only for a few thousand people. Therefore, the slopes of Mount Pagos (Kadifekale) was chosen for the foundation of the new city, for which Alexander is credited. Romans In 133 BC, When Eumenes III, the last king of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamum, was about to die without an heir, he willed the kingdom of Lydia to Rome, and this included Smyrna. After it came under Roman rule, Smyrna enjoyed a golden period for the second time. Near the close of the first century AD, when Smyrna appeared as one of seven cities of Asia addressed in the Book of Revelation, Smyrna had a Christian congregation undergoing persecution from the city’s Jews (Revelation 2:9). In contrast to several of the other churches, Christ had nothing negative to say about this church. He did, however, predict that the persecution will continue and urged them, "Be faithful to the point of death, and I will give you the crown

of life" (Revelation 2:10). Persecution of Christians continued into the second century, as documented by the martyrdom of Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, in 155 AD. Due to the importance that the city achieved, the Roman emperors who came to Anatolia also visited Smyrna. Emperor Hadrian also visited Smyrna in his journey from 121 to 125. He ordered the construction of a silo near the docks. In 178 AD the city was devastated by an earthquake. Considered to be one of the most severe disasters that the city has faced in its history, the earthquake razed the town to the ground. The destruction was so great that the support of the Empire for rebuilding was necessary. Emperor Marcus Aurelius contributed greatly to the rebuilding activities and the city was re-founded again. The state agora as restored during this period. Various works of architecture are thought to have been built in the city during the Roman Empire period. The streets were completely paved with stones, and paved streets became preponderant in the city. After the Roman Empire’s division into two distinct entities, Smyrna became a territory of the Eastern Roman Empire. It preserved its status as a notable religious center in the early times of the Byzantine Empire. However, the city did decrease in size greatly during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Age, never returning to the Roman levels of prosperity.

Smyrna becomes İzmir
Çaka Bey and the Seljuk Turks Turks first captured Smyrna under the Seljuk commander Çaka Bey in 1076, along with Klazomenai, Foça and a number of Aegean Islands. Çaka Bey used İzmir as a base for naval raids. After his death in 1102, the city and the neighboring region was recaptured by the Byzantine Empire. Smyrna was then captured by the Knights of Rhodes when Constantinople was conquered by the Crusaders in 1204, but the Nicaean Empire would reclaim possession of the city soon afterwards, albeit by according vast concessions to Genoese allies who kept one of the city’s castles. The sons of Aydın Smyrna was recaptured by the Turks in early 14th century when, Umur Bey, the son of the founder of the Beylik of Aydın captured first the upper fort of Kadifekale, and then the


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The Ottomans


İzmir’s famous Kordon

View of the Kızlarağası Han (1744) caravanserai in the historic Kemeraltı bazaar zone of İzmir, with the Hisar Mosque (1592) seen in the background lower port castle of Ok Kalesi. As Çaka Bey had done two centuries before, Umur Bey used the city as a base for naval raids. In 1344, taking advantage of a distracted Aydınoğlu, the Genoese took back the lower castle. A sixty-year period of uneasy cohabitation between the two powers followed Umur Bey’s death. Tamerlane Smyrna was captured by the Ottomans for the first time in 1389 by Bayezid I, who led his armies toward the five Western Anatolian Turkish Beyliks in the winter of the same year he had ascended the throne. The Ottoman take-over took place virtually without conflict. However, in 1402, Tamerlane won the Battle of Ankara against the Ottomans and put a serious check on the fortunes of the Ottoman state for the two following decades. Tamerlane gave back the territories of most of the Anatolian Turkish Beyliks to their former ruling dynasties, and he came in person to İzmir to lodge the only battle of his career against a non-Muslim power, finally taking back the port castle from the Genoese.

The Port of Smyrna, from an 1883 encyclopedia In 1425, Murad II re-captured İzmir for the Ottomans for the second time and from the last bey of Aydın, İzmiroğlu Cüneyd Bey. During the campaign, the Ottomans were assisted by the forces of the Knights Hospitaller who pressed the Sultan for possession of the port castle. The sultan refused despite the resulting tensions between the two camps, and he gave the Templars the permission to build a castle in Petronium (Bodrum Castle) instead. The city was part of an Ottoman sanjak (province) inside the larger eyalet (region) of Aydın or Cezaiyr (i.e. the Aegean Islands). Two notable events for the city during the rest of the 15th century were a Venetian raid in 1475 and the arrival of Jews from Spain after 1492, who later made İzmir one of their principal centers in Ottoman lands. The Ottomans also allowed İzmir’s inner bay dominated by the port castle to silt up progressively (the location of present-day Kemeraltı bazaar zone) and the port castle ceased to be of use. International port city With the privileged trading conditions accorded to foreigners in 1620 (the infamous


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parts of the Ottoman Empire. In fact, a class of intermediaries, composed of Greeks and, some time later and to a lesser extent, by Armenians, as well as some among the generally poorer Jews, started to take hold. The attraction the city exercised for merchants and middlemen gradually changed the demographic structure of the city, its culture and its Ottoman character.

View of Pasaport Quay (1877) in the distance, as seen from Konak Pier (1890) at the port of Izmir

Konak Pier was designed by Gustave Eiffel in 1890 capitulations that were later to cause a serious threat and setback for the Ottoman state in its decline), İzmir set out on its way to become one of the foremost trade centers of the Empire. Foreign consulates moved in from Sakız (Chios) and were in the city (1619 for the French Consulate, 1621 for the British), serving as trade centers for their nations. Each consulate had its own quay and the ships under their flag would anchor there. The long campaign for the conquest of Crete (22 years between 1648-1669) also considerably enhanced İzmir’s position within the Ottoman realm since the city served as port of dispatch and supply for the troops. The city faced a 1676 plague, an earthquake in 1688 and a great fire in 1743, but continued to grow. In 1866 the British-built 130 km (81 mi) railway line to Aydın was opened (the first Ottoman Empire line). By that time, İzmir had a considerable segment of its population composed of French, English, Dutch and Italian merchants, adding to numerous immigrants coming from other

Darío Moreno, İzmir’s famous composer and singer, used to live near Asansör which was built in 1907 by Nesim Levi, a wealthy Jewish banker of that epoch In the late 19th century, the port was threatened by a build-up of silt in the gulf and an initiative was undertaken to move the Gediz River bed to its present-day northern course, instead of letting it flow into the gulf, in order to redirect the silt. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, the victors had, for a time, intended to carve up large parts of Anatolia under respective zones of influence and offered the western regions of Turkey to Greece with the Treaty of Sèvres. On 15 May 1919 the Greek Army occupied İzmir, but the Greek expedition towards central Anatolia


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have accused the Turks of a number of atrocities against the Greek and Armenian communities in İzmir, including the lynching of the Orthodox Metropolitan Chrysostomos following their recapture of the city on 9 September 1922 and the slaughter of as many as 100,000 Armenian and Greek Christians throughout the city [14]. A Turkish source on İzmir’s oral history concedes that in 1922, "hat-wearers were thrown into the sea, just like, back in 1919, fez-wearers were thrown" [15]. The lack of comprehensive and reliable sources from the period, combined with nationalist feelings running high on both sides, and mutual distrust between the conflicting parties, has led to each side accusing each other for decades of committing atrocities during the period. The city was, once again, gradually rebuilt after the proclamation of the Turkish Republic in 1923.

Gürel Residence and Hilton Hotel near the port of İzmir turned into a disaster for both that country and for the local Greeks of Turkey. The Turkish Army retook possession of İzmir on 9 September 1922, effectively ending the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) in the field. Part of the Greek population of the city was forced to seek refuge in the nearby Greek islands together with the departing Greek troops, while the rest left in the frame of the ensuing 1923 agreement for the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations, which was a part of the Lausanne Treaty. The war, and especially its events specific to İzmir, like the fire that broke out on 13 September 1922, one of the greatest disasters İzmir ever experienced, influence the psyches of the two nations to this day. For the Turks, on the one hand, the occupation was marked from its very first day by the "first bullet" fired on Greek detachments by the journalist Hasan Tahsin and the killing by bayonet coups of Colonel Fethi Bey and his unarmed soldiers in the historic casern of the city (Sarı Kışla — the Yellow Casern), for refusing to shout "Zito o Venizelos" (Long Live Venizelos). The Greeks, on the other hand,



Forum Bornova Shopping Center Population of İzmir Year 2007 2000 1990 Population 2,606,294 2,232,265 1,758,780


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1985 1970 1965 1960 1955 1950 1945 1940 1935 1927 1,489,817 554,000 442,000 371,000 286,000 231,000 200,000 184,000 171,000 154,000

the largest family-owned industrial conglomerates in the world.

Main sites

The period after the 1960s and the 1970s saw another blow to İzmir’s tissue - as serious as the 1922 fire for many inhabitants when local administrations tended to neglect İzmir’s traditional values and landmarks. Some administrators were not always in tune with the central government in Ankara and regularly fell short of subsidies, and the city absorbed huge immigration waves from Anatolian inland causing a population explosion. Today it is not surprising to see many inhabitants of İzmir (in line with natives of such other prominent Turkish cities as Istanbul, Bursa, Adana and Mersin) look back to a cozier and more manageable city, which came to an end in the last few decades, with nostalgia. The Floor Ownership Law of 1965 (Kat Mülkiyeti Kanunu), allowing and encouraging arrangements between house or land proprietors and building contractors in which each would share the benefits in rent of 8-floor apartment blocks built in the place of the former single house, proved especially disastrous for the urban landscape. The population of the city is predominantly Muslim, but secularism is very strong in this region of Turkey.[16] İzmir is also home to Turkey’s second largest Jewish community after Istanbul, still 2,500 strong.[17] The community is still concentrated in their traditional quarter of Karataş. The most famous figures the Jewish community of İzmir has produced are Sabbatai Zevi and Darío Moreno. The Levantines of İzmir, who are mostly of Genoese and to a lesser degree of French and Venetian descent, live mainly in the districts of Bornova and Buca. One of the most prominent present-day figures of the community is Caroline Giraud Koç, wife of industrialist Mustafa Koç. Koç Holding is one of

Izmir Clock Tower (1901) Standing on Mount Yamanlar, the tomb of Tantalus was explored by Charles Texier in 1835 and is an example of the historic traces in the region prior to its Hellenistic Age, along with those found in nearby Kemalpaşa and Mount Sipylus.

Oteller Street in the historic Basmane neighbourhood. The Agora of Smyrna is well preserved, and is arranged into the Agora Open Air


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Museum of İzmir, although important parts buried under modern buildings, waiting to be brought to daylight. Serious consideration is also being given to uncovering the ancient theatre of Smyrna where St. Polycarp was martyred, buried under an urban zone on the slopes of Kadifekale. It was distinguishable until the 19th century, as evident by the sketchings done at the time. On top of the same hill soars an ancient castle which is one of the landmarks of İzmir. One of the more pronounced elements of Izmir harbor is the Clock Tower, a beautiful marble tower that rests in the middle of the Konak district, standing 25 m (82 ft) in height. It was designed by the Levantine French architect Raymond Charles Père in 1901 for the commemoration of the 25th anniversary of the ascension of Abdülhamid II. The clock workings themselves were given as a gift to the then Ottoman Empire by Kaiser Wilhelm II. The tower features four fountains which are placed around the base in a circular pattern, and the columns are inspired by North African themes. The Kemeraltı bazaar zone set up by the Ottomans, combined with the Agora, rests near the slopes of Kadifekale. İzmir has had three castles historically- Kadifekale (Pagos), the portuary Ok Kalesi (Neon Kastron, St. Peter), and Sancakkale, which remained vital to İzmir’s security for centuries. Sancakkale is situated in the present-day İnciraltı quarter between Balçova and Narlıdere districts, on the southern shore of the Gulf of İzmir. It is at a key point where the strait allows entry into the innermost tip of the Gulf at its narrowest, and due to shallow waters through a large part of this strait, ships have sailed close to the castle. [18] There are nine synagogues in İzmir, concentrated either in the traditional Jewish quarter of Karataş or in Havra Sokak (Synagogue street) in Kemeraltı, and they all bear the signature of the 19th century when they were built or re-constructed in depth on the basis of former buildings. The İzmir Birds Paradise in Çiğli, a bird sanctuary near Karşıyaka, contains 205 species of birds. There are 63 species of domestic birds, 54 species of summer migratory birds, 43 species of winter migratory birds, 30 species of transit birds. 56 species of birds have been breeding in the Park. İzmir Bird’s Paradise which covers 80 square kilometres was registered as "The protected area

for water birds and for their breeding" by Ministry of Forestry in 1982. A large open air zoo was established in the same district of Çiğli in 2008 under the name Sasalı Park of Natural Life.

Forum 19th century İzmir Stock Bornova Shop- Basmane Train Exchange ping Center is Station Building inspired in concept by İzmir’s traditional architecture

Şirinyer podrom Buca

The famous Izmir Clock Tower at night on Konak Square

Gulf of İzmir as seen from Bostanlı, Karşıyaka

Typical resid- Konak S ential buildthe hear ings of the İzmir Karşıyaka neighbourhood

Konak Quay

İnciraltı Sea Museum

View from Konak Underpass

Enjoyin don with on İzmir phaeton

Streets of the historic Alsancak neighbourhood Streets of the historic Alsancak neighbourhood

Streets of the historic Alsancak neighbourhood

Streets of the historic Alsancak neighbourhood Streets of the historic Alsancak neighbourhood

Streets historic cak neighbo


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İzmir International Fair
İzmir prides itself with its busy schedule of trade fairs, exhibitions and congresses. İzmir International Fair (IEF), the oldest member from Turkey of International Union of Fairs is held every year in August-September in Kültürpark, which covers an area of 421,000 m² in the heart of the city with open-air theatres, Painting and Sculpture Museum, art centers, amusement park, zoo and parachute tower and other amenities. Aside from this main event, which acts as a central theme for many other secondary events, there are many others throughout the year. In 2007, for example, 35 national or international fairs and exhibitions were held in İzmir around the year and in relation to different areas of activity. These fairs have made great contributions to İzmir’s social and cultural life.

İzmir has a typical mediterranean climate. İzmir is characterized by long, hot and dry summers and mild to cool, rainy winters. The total precipitation for İzmir averages 706 mm (27.8 inches) per year; however, 77% of that falls during November through March. The rest of the precipitation falls during April through May and September through October. There is virtually no rainfall during the months of June, July and August. The average maximum temperatures during the winter months vary between 12 and 14 °C. Although it’s rare, snow can fall in İzmir in December, January and February staying for a period of hours rather than a whole day or more. The summer months — from May to October — usually brings average daytime temperatures of 30 °C or higher. On a number of occasions, temperatures as high as 46°C have been recorded in the city.

Cuisine of İzmir
Streets of the historic Alsancak neighbourhood İzmir’s cuisine has largely been affected by its multicultural history, hence the large variety of food originating from the Aegean, Streets of the Mediterranean and Anatolian regions. Anothhistoric Alsaner factor is the large area of land surroundcak ing the region which grows a rich selection of neighbourhood vegetables. Some of the common dishes found here are tarhana soup (made from dried yoghurt and tomatoes), İzmir köfte,


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keşkek (boiled wheat with meat), zerde (sweetened rice with saffron) and mücver (made from zucchini and eggs). Boyoz and lokma are Turkish pastries associated with İzmir, the first prepared for commercial purposes and the second to commemorate the deceased. Kumru is a special kind of sandwich which associated particularly in Çeşme and features cheese and tomato in its basics, with sucuk also added sometimes.[20] Historically, as a result of the influx of Greek refugees from İzmir (as well as from other parts of Asia Minor and Istanbul) to mainland Greece after 1922, the cuisine of İzmir has had an enormous impact on Greek cuisine, exporting many sophisticated spices and foods.

antique Ionian city situated near the town of Torbalı). This festival is the member of "European Festivals Association" since 2003. The İzmir European Jazz Festival is among the numerous events organized every year by İKSEV (The İzmir Foundation for Culture, Arts and Education) since 1994. The festival aims to bring together masters and lovers of jazz in the attempt to generate feelings of love, friendship and peace. International İzmir Short Film Festival is organized since 1999 and the member of European Coordination of Film Festivals. İzmir Metropolitan Municipality has built Ahmet Adnan Saygun Art Center in Güzelyalı over an area of 21.000 m2 in order to contribute to the city’s culture and art life. The acoustics of the center has been prepared by ARUP which is a world famous company in its own field.



Ahmet Adnan Saygun Art Center The İzmir International Festival beginning in mid-June and continuing to mid-July, has been organized since 1987. During the annual festival, many world-class performers such as soloists and virtuosi, orchestras, dance companies, rock and jazz groups including Ray Charles, Paco de Lucia, Joan Baez, Martha Graham Dance Company, Tanita Tikaram, Jethro Tull, Leningrad Philarmonic Orchestra, Chris De Burgh, Sting, Moscow State Philarmony Orchestra, Jan Garbarek, Red Army Chorus, Academy of St. Martin in the Field, Kodo, Chick Corea and Origin, New York City Ballet, Nigel Kennedy, Bryan Adams, James Brown, Elton John, Anathema, Kiri Te Kanawa, Mikhail Barishnikov and Josep Carreras have given recitals and performances at various venues in the city and surrounding areas, including the ancient theatres at Ephesus and Metropolis (an The mascot of Universiade 2005 in İzmir Notable football clubs in İzmir are: Altay SK, Altınordu, Göztepe A.Ş., İzmirspor and Karşıyaka SK. Currently there is no team from İzmir playing in the Turkish Super League, but the teams of İzmir were once among the greatest in Turkey. Göztepe A.Ş. played the semi finals of the UEFA Cup in the 1968-1969 season, and the quarter finals of the UEFA Cup Winners’ Cup in the 1969-1970 season; becoming the first ever Turkish football club to play a semi-final game in Europe. Altay SK and Göztepe A.Ş. have won the Turkish Cup twice for İzmir. Legendary 1960s football star Metin Oktay, a native of İzmir, played in İzmirspor, Galatasaray and Palermo. Despite the current lack of any İzmirbased team in the Turkish Super League, İzmir Atatürk Stadium regularly hosts many


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Super League and Turkish Cup derby matches, including those of Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, and Galatasaray. Karşıyaka SK’s very known basketball successes are Turkish championship title in 1987 and won the President Cup same year. Several important international sports events were held in İzmir: • 1971 - Mediterranean Games, • 7 - 22 August, 2005 - Summer Universiade, the International University Sports Games, • 2 - 7 September, 2005 - preliminary games of European Women’s Basketball Championship, • 4 - 9 July, 2006 - European Seniors Fencing Championship. • 14 - 23 July, 2006 - U20 European Basketball Championship for Men • 7 - 11 May, 2008 - 7th WTF World Junior Taekwondo Championships

university with campus in the metropolitan district of Balçova • Yaşar Üniversitesi (Yaşar University) Also founded in 2002 by Yaşar Holding, the initial building is located in central Alsancak, while the construction of a campus in the neighboring district of Seferihisar, outside the metropolitan zone, is under way. • University of İzmir - Founded in 2007 There are ongoing plans to set up a sixth, and perhaps also a seventh university in İzmir. The city is also home to well-rooted highschool establishments well-known across Turkey. İzmir is also home to the third U.S. Space Camp in the world, Space Camp Turkey.

İzmir is served by national and international flights through Adnan Menderes Airport and there is a modern rapid transit line running from the southwest to the northeast. The city is trying to attract investors through its strategic location and its relatively new and highly developed technological infrastructure in transportation, telecommunications and energy.[21]

The following universities are located in İzmir: • Ege University - Founded in 1955, Ege University is İzmir’s first university to start courses. The rectorate and the campus which englobes most of university’s institutions (62 in all, with 3141 academic staff and 42,693 students for 2006/2007) are situated in the metropolitan district of Bornova. • Dokuz Eylül University - Founded in 1982 principally by splitting off a number of institutions from Ege, Dokuz Eylül University today equals in size its sister university. The rectorate is in central Alsancak neighborhood, while the campus is located in the metropolitan district of Buca, with 61 depending institutions across İzmir or in districts, employing 3027 academic staff and uniting a student corpus of 43,851 for 2006/2007. • İzmir Institute of Technology - Founded in 1992, İzmir Institute of Technology is İzmir’s first institute of technology and the campus, which is Turkey’s biggest campus, is located in the nearby district of Urla. • İzmir University of Economics - Founded as a private sector initiative in 2002 by İzmir Chamber of Commerce, İzmir University of Economics is a specialized

Connection with other cities and countries

The new İzmir Adnan Menderes International Airport • : The city has an airport (Adnan Menderes Airport) well served with connections to Turkish and international destinations. Its new international terminal was opened in September 2006 and the airport is set on its way for becoming one of the busiest in Turkey. The city-airport shuttles are assured by buses operated by a private company (web page for İzmir) and along stops that follow two lines only, the first connecting Karşıyaka in the city’s


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
northern part to the airport and the second between Alsancak in the south and the airport. Trains remain a comparatively slow alternative, the subway that will reach the airport is under construction, while the taxis are not cheap and can cost up to fifty U.S. dollars depending on the distance. • : A recently-built large bus terminal (Otogar) in Altındağ suburb on the outkirts of the city has intercity buses to points all over Turkey. It is quite easy to reach the bus terminal since bus companies’ shuttle services to the terminal pick up customers from each of their branch offices scattered across the city at regular intervals. These shuttles are a free service encountered everywhere in Turkey. • : The city has rail service from historic terminals in downtown (such as the famous Alsancak Terminal (1858) which is the oldest train station in Turkey) to Ankara in the east and Aydın in the south. An express train to Bandırma, to reach the Sea of Marmara port city in four hours and to combine the journey with İDO’s HSC services from Bandırma to Istanbul is in service since February 2007.


İzmir Municipality’s urban ferry services in the Gulf of İzmir transporting excursion or holiday makers. These services are surprisingly cheap and it is not unusual to see natives or visitors taking a ferry ride simply as a pastime.

İzmir has a subway network (rapid transit over the surface in parts) that is constantly being extended with new stations being put in service. The network "İzmir Metrosu", consisting of one line, starts from Üçyol station in Hatay in the southern portion of the metropolitan area and runs towards northeast to end in Bornova. The line is 11.6 km (7.2 mi) long.

Transportation within the city
Co-ordinated transport was introduced to Izmir in about 1999, the first place in Turkey to apply the lessons of integration. A body known as UKOME gives strategic direction to the Metro, ESHOT bus division, ferry operations, utilities and road developments. Izmir has an integrated pre-pay ticket, the Kentkart (‘Citycard’). The card is valid on Metro (subway), buses, ferries and certain other municipal facilities.

Urban ferries
Taken over by İzmir Metropolitan Municipality since 2000 and operated within the structure of a private company (İzdeniz), İzmir’s urban ferry services for passengers and vehicles are very much a part of the life of the inhabitants of this city located along the deep end of a large gulf. 24 ferries shuttle between 8 quays (clockwise Bostanlı, Karşıyaka, Bayraklı, Alsancak, İzmir, Pasaport, İzmir, Konak, Göztepe and Üçkuyular). Special lines to points further out in the gulf are also put in service during summer,

İzmir Subway: Halkapınar Station The stations are: 1) Üçyol, 2) Konak, 3) Çankaya, 4) Basmane, 5) Hilal, 6) Halkapınar, 7) Stadyum, 8) Sanayi, 9) Bölge, 10) Bornova. An extension of the line between Üçyol and Üçkuyular, which aims to serve the southern portion of the city more efficiently, is currently under construction.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Basic fare on the Metro is TRL 1.25 but only TRL 0.95 if the Kentkart is used. About 12% of passengers pay cash and the rest use Kentkart, 35% at reduced rate and 53% at standard rate. The Metro carries about 30 million passengers/year and to the end of September 2005 160 million passengers had travelled since the opening in May 2000. A more ambitious venture that begun involves the construction of a new 80 km (50 mi) line between Aliağa district in the north, where a oil refinery and its port are located, to Menderes district in the south, to reach and serve Adnan Menderes Airport. This new line will have a connection to the existing line and it is planned to be finished in 2008 autumn. It will comprise 32 stations and the full ride between the two ends of the line will only take 86 minutes.

• Levantine mansions of İzmir; 19th century Levantine houses in Bornova, Buca and Karşıyaka • Karataş; the traditional Jewish quarter in Konak • IAOIZ • İzmir International Fair • Yeşilova Höyük; the prehistoric settlement • Smyrna; the ancient city • River Meles; Homer’s native stream • İzmir Economic Congress • Occupation of İzmir • Great Fire of Smyrna • Timeline of İzmir; a chronology of some of the important events in İzmir’s history • Boyoz; a pastry very typical of İzmir • List of people from İzmir; famous inhabitants from various periods • List of museums in İzmir • List of parks in İzmir • List of hospitals in İzmir

All major districts are covered by a dense municipal bus network under the name ESHOT. The name is derived from the E elektrik (electricity); S su (water); H havagazı (gas); O otobüs (bus) and T troleybüs (trolleybus). Electricity, water and gas are now supplied by separate undertakings and the trolleybuses ceased in 1992. The bus company has inherited the original name. ESHOT operates about 1,500 buses with a staff of 2,700. It has five garages at Karatas, Gumruk, Basmahane, Yesilyurt and Konak. A privately owned company, Izulas, operates 400 buses from two garages, running services under contract for ESHOT. These scheduled services are supplemented by privately-owned minibus or dolmuş services.

Media and art mentioning İzmir
• The poem "The Turkish Captive" in the poetry volume Les Orientales by Victor Hugo (1828) [1] • The solo piano piece "In Smyrna" by Edward Elgar (1905); • The novel Eric Ambler (1939, 1994). Mask of Dimitrios ISBN 0792718216. Chivers. • The movie "You Can’t Win ’Em All" with Tony Curtis and Charles Bronson (1970); • The travel book John D. Tumpane (1981). Scotch and Holy Water ISBN 0960738207. St. Giles Pr. ; • The novel Dido Sotiriou (1962, 1991). Farewell Anatolia ISBN 9600404798. Kedros. ; • The novel E. Howard Hunt (2006). İzmir ISBN 1556114745. Donald I. Fine Books. • The novel Jeffrey Eugenides (2002). Middlesex ISBN 0374704309. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. • The novel/TV series "The Witches of Smyrna" by Mara Meimaridi (2004); • The novel Louis de Bernières (2005). Birds Without Wings (novel) ISBN 1400079322. Knopf Publishing Group.

See also
• The nine metropolitan districts of İzmir; namely, Balçova, Bornova, Buca, Çiğli, Gaziemir, Güzelbahçe, Karşıyaka, Konak and Narlıdere. • Alsancak; the business and luxury quarter in Konak • Kemeraltı; the historic bazaar zone in Konak • Kadifekale; the historic hilltop castle

Town twinning
The following is a list of Izmir’s sister cities.[22]:


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Europe Ancona, Italy, since 2005 • Astana, Kazakhstan, since 1994 • Milano, Italy, since 1990 • Astara, Azerbaijan, since 2007 • Baku, Azerbaijan, since 1985 • Bălţi, Moldova, since 1996 • • Asia Aleppo, Syria, since 1993 • Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, since 1991 Bombay, India, since 1997 • Bukhara, Uzbekistan, since 1992 • Da Nang, Vietnam, since 1998 • • • Americas • Córdoba, Argentina, • since 1995 • Havana, Cuba, • since 1995 • Long Beach, California,• USA, since 2004 • • Salvador, Brazil, since 1998 • Santo Domingo, • Dominican Republic, since 1998 • Tampa, • Florida, USA, since 1990 Egypt, since 1996 • Algiers, Algeria, since 1988 Casablanca, Morocco, since 1999


Shymkent, Kazakhstan, since 2004 Split, Croatia, since 1996


Thessaloniki, Greece, • Fes, since 2009 Morocco, Vlorë, since 1995 Albania, • Sousse, since 1994 Tunisia, since Wrocław, Poland, since 1999 2002







Hod HaSharon, [23] Israel since 2008 Bratislava, Yaroslavl, • JalalSlovakia, Russia, since Abad, since 2003 2007 Kyrgyzstan, Bremen, Žilina, since 1994 Germany, Slovakia, • Karachi, since 1993 since 1997 Pakistan, since 1985 • Viña Constanţa, • Mary, del Mar, Romania, Turkmenistan, Chile, since 1995 • Ekrem Akurgal (2002). Ancient since 1994 since 1996 Civilizations and Ruins of Turkey: From • Australia Prehistoric Times Until the End of the Gazimağosa, Samarkand, • Roman Empire ISBN 0710307764. Kegan Turkish Uzbekistan, Melbourne, Paul. Republic of since 1994 Australia,• George E. Bean. Aegean Turkey: An Northern • Surabaya, since 16 archaeological guide ISBN Cyprus Indonesia, July 1992 978-0510032005, 1967. Ernest Benn, (TRNC), since 1996 London. since 1997 • Tel Aviv, • Cecil John Cadoux (1938). Ancient Ganja, Israel, since Smyrna: A History of the City from the Azerbaijan, 1998 Earliest Times to 324 A.D.. Blackwell since 1994 Publishing. Tianjin, Mostar, • • Daniel Goffman. İzmir and the Levantine China, since Bosnia, world (1550-1650) ISBN 029-59-6932-6, 1990 since 1996 2000. University of Washington. • Tripoli, Naples, Libya, since Italy, since 1996 1992




Odense, Denmark, since 1991 Plzen, Czech Republic, since 1987

• Türkmenabat, Turkmenistan, since 1993 Africa • Alexandria,



[1] ^ Türkiye istatistik kurumu, İlçelere göre şehir ve köy nüfusları, Izmir Addressbased population survey 2007. Retrieved on 2009-01-22. [2] Türkiye istatistik kurumu, Belediye teşkilatı olan yerleşim yerlerinin nüfusları, Izmir Address-based


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


population survey 2007. Retrieved on [12] Six other cities claimed Homer as their 2009-01-22. countryman, these are: Salamis, Argos, [3] News Wire: "Hutchison Port Holdings Athens, Rhodes, Colophon and Chios. Consortium Wins Port of Izmir [13] According to Herodotus, the Ionian Concession". Asia Business News. seizure of the city from the Aeolians had 2007-05-03. occurred in the following manner: http://www.abnnewswire.net/press/en/ Colophonians fleeing internal strife 36374/Hutchison-Whampoa-Ltd.html within their Ionian city had taken refuge News Wire:. in Old Smyrna. But soon afterwards, [4] News article: "Microsoft acquires Devbiz these defectors had taken advantage of business solutions". WebProNews. an opportunity that had presented itself http://www.webpronews.com/topnews/ when native Aeolian Smyrniots had gone 2007/03/28/microsoft-acquires-devbizoutside the city ramparts for a festival in business-solutions News article:. See honor of Dionysos, and had taken also: List of companies acquired by possession of the city. They forced an Microsoft Corporation agreement upon the former inhabitants [5] Edhem Eldem, Daniel Goffman, David who saw themselves obliged to take all Morgan (1999). The Ottoman City their movable assets in the city and Between East and West: Aleppo, Izmir leave. and Istanbul ISBN 052164304X. [14] George Horton, The Blight of Asia (New Cambridge University Press. York: Bobs-Merrill, 1926; see chapter 14; [6] "Victor Hugo-"Le Captive", published in online version: http://www.hri.org/docs/ his book "Les Orientales" (1829)". Horton/hb-title.html); Marjorie H. http://www.izto.org.tr/IZTO/IN/ Dobkin, Smyrna 1922: The Destruction Pearl+of+Aegean/For+Pleasure/ of a City (London: Faber, 1972; reprint: alsancak.htm. Kent, OH: Kent State University, 1988). [7] Ekrem Akurgal (1983). Old Smyrna’s 1st [15] Leyla Neyzi (2004) (in Turkish). Ben Settlement Layer and the Artemis kimim? Oral history, identity and Sanctuary. Turkish Historical Society. subjectivity in Turkey ISBN 9750502698. [8] K. Lambrianides. Anatolian Studies, İletişim. Volume 42, 1992, pp. 75-78 "Preliminary [16] "Two faces of modern Turkey". BBC. survey and core sampling on the Aegean http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/ coast of Turkey". British Institute at 6906010.stm. Retrieved on 2008-10-03. Ankara. http://links.jstor.org/ [17] "Smyrniots in Israel (1/7)" (in Turkish). sici?sici=0066-1546(1992)42%3C75%3APSACSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2 Asır. The newspaper Yeni Anatolian Studies, Volume 42, 1992, pp. http://www.yeniasir.com.tr/a/dizi/israil/ 75-78. Retrieved on 2007-10-24. israil1.htm. Retrieved on 2007-02-21. [9] J.D.Hawkins. Anatolian Studies, Volume [18] Lord Byron’s notes on 8 March 1810 48, 1998, pp. 1-31 "Tarkasnawa King of during his travels into the region Mira". British Institute at Ankara. indicate: "Passed the low fort on the http://links.jstor.org/ right on a tongue of land – immense sici?sici=0066-1546(1998)48%3C1%3ATKOM’B%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G marble balls cannon mouths with Anatolian Studies, Volume 48, 1998, pp. appearing under the fort walls. Obliged 1-31. Retrieved on 2007-12-19. to go close to the Castle, on account of [10] Molly Miller (1971). The Thalassocracies shallows on the other side in [the] large ISBN 0873950623, 9780873950626. bay of Smyrna." State University of New York Press. . See [19] "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for also Life of Homer (Pseudo-Herodotus) İzmir, Turkey". Weatherbase. 2007. and Cadoux. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/ [11] Yeşilova Höyük Excavations web site weather.php3?s=81271&refer=&units=us=. "Yeşilova Höyük excavations". Retrieved on 2007-09-07. http://www.yesilova.ege.edu.tr Yeşilova [20] "Izmir Food: Boyoz and Kumru". Höyük Excavations web site. Retrieved Eatinizmir. 2007. on 2007-02-21. http://www.eatinizmir.com/trademarktastes-of-izmir-1. Retrieved on 2007-09-07.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[21] "Izmir News". http://www.rollsrein.de/ izmir.html. [22] "Sister cities of İzmir (1/7)" (in Turkish). http://www.izmir-yerelgundem21.org.tr/ kardes.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-16. [23] "Wrocław Official Website - Partnership Cities of Wrocław" (in English, German, French and Polish). http://www.wroclaw.pl/p/964/. Retrieved on 2008-10-23.

• Erol Özdayı. "İzmir by Night Photographs I" (in Turkish). http://erolozdayi.com/ index.php?option=com_zoom&Itemid=28&catid=2. Melih İnanlı. "İzmir by Night Photographs II" (in Turkish). İzmir Photographic Arts Society. http://www.melihinanli.com/ Galeriler/GeceIzmir/index.html. • İzmir blog in English by expats • Ahmet Kıvanç Kutluca, Semahat Özdemir (2006-12-17). "Landslide, Earthquake & Flood Hazard Risks of Izmir Metropolitan City, A Case: Altindag Landslide Areas". Proceedings of WASET (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology), Volume 17. http://www.waset.org/pwaset/ v17/v17-53.pdf.

External links and resources
• All about izmir

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%B0zmir" Categories: İzmir Province, Cities in Turkey, Aegean Region, İzmir, Coastal settlements, Coastal settlements in Turkey, Ancient Greek cities, Ancient Greek sites in Turkey, Roman sites in Turkey, People from İzmir, Aegean Sea port cities and towns in Turkey This page was last modified on 24 May 2009, at 18:46 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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